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  1. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid histology of brain tissues with sufficient diagnostic information has the great potential to aid neurosurgeons during operations. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique, with the intrinsic chemical resolutions to delineate brain tumors from normal tissues without the need of time-consuming tissue processing. Growing number of studies have shown SRS as a “virtual histology” tool for rapid diagnosis of various types of brain tumors. In this review, we focus on the basic principles and current developments of SRS microscopy, as well as its applications for brain tumor imaging.

  2. Rapid desensitization of adrenaline- and neuropeptide Y-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in HEL-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. Desensitization of Gs-coupled receptors, the beta 2-adrenoceptor for example, involves rapid and slower components but little is known regarding the existence of rapid desensitization of Gi-coupled receptors and its possible mechanisms. In HEL-cells stimulation of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors by

  3. Insulin rapidly stimulates L-arginine transport in human aortic endothelial cells via Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Christine F; Morrow, Valerie A; Jhakra, Neelam; Patil, Vrushali; Connell, John M C; Petrie, John R; Salt, Ian P

    2011-09-09

    Insulin stimulates endothelial NO synthesis, at least in part mediated by phosphorylation and activation of endothelial NO synthase at Ser1177 and Ser615 by Akt. We have previously demonstrated that insulin-stimulated NO synthesis is inhibited under high culture glucose conditions, without altering Ca(2+)-stimulated NO synthesis or insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS. This indicates that stimulation of endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation may be required, yet not sufficient, for insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. In the current study we investigated the role of supply of the eNOS substrate, L-arginine as a candidate parallel mechanism underlying insulin-stimulated NO synthesis in cultured human aortic endothelial cells. Insulin rapidly stimulated L-arginine transport, an effect abrogated by incubation with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase or infection with adenoviruses expressing a dominant negative mutant Akt. Furthermore, supplementation of endothelial cells with extracellular L-arginine enhanced insulin-stimulated NO synthesis, an effect reversed by co-incubation with the L-arginine transport inhibitor, L-lysine. Basal L-arginine transport was significantly increased under high glucose culture conditions, yet insulin-stimulated L-arginine transport remained unaltered. The increase in L-arginine transport elicited by high glucose was independent of the expression of the cationic amino acid transporters, hCAT1 and hCAT2 and not associated with any changes in the activity of ERK1/2, Akt or protein kinase C (PKC). We propose that rapid stimulation of L-arginine transport contributes to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis in human endothelial cells, yet attenuation of this is unlikely to underlie the inhibition of insulin-stimulated NO synthesis under high glucose conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin rapidly stimulates l-arginine transport in human aortic endothelial cells via Akt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Christine F.; Morrow, Valerie A.; Jhakra, Neelam; Patil, Vrushali; Connell, John M.C.; Petrie, John R.; Salt, Ian P.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin stimulates endothelial NO synthesis, at least in part mediated by phosphorylation and activation of endothelial NO synthase at Ser1177 and Ser615 by Akt. We have previously demonstrated that insulin-stimulated NO synthesis is inhibited under high culture glucose conditions, without altering Ca2+-stimulated NO synthesis or insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS. This indicates that stimulation of endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation may be required, yet not sufficient, for insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. In the current study we investigated the role of supply of the eNOS substrate, l-arginine as a candidate parallel mechanism underlying insulin-stimulated NO synthesis in cultured human aortic endothelial cells. Insulin rapidly stimulated l-arginine transport, an effect abrogated by incubation with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3′-kinase or infection with adenoviruses expressing a dominant negative mutant Akt. Furthermore, supplementation of endothelial cells with extracellular l-arginine enhanced insulin-stimulated NO synthesis, an effect reversed by co-incubation with the l-arginine transport inhibitor, l-lysine. Basal l-arginine transport was significantly increased under high glucose culture conditions, yet insulin-stimulated l-arginine transport remained unaltered. The increase in l-arginine transport elicited by high glucose was independent of the expression of the cationic amino acid transporters, hCAT1 and hCAT2 and not associated with any changes in the activity of ERK1/2, Akt or protein kinase C (PKC). We propose that rapid stimulation of L-arginine transport contributes to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis in human endothelial cells, yet attenuation of this is unlikely to underlie the inhibition of insulin-stimulated NO synthesis under high glucose conditions. PMID:21871446

  5. Rapid Identification of Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    conventional procedures for bacterial identification rely on organisms’ capacity or inability to ferment particular substrates. Detection of intracellular enzyme...USA 74:3850, 1977 15. Butter K-J, Eipel HE: Flow cytometric determinations of cellular substances in algae, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. Antonie van...flow microfluorcmetry. J Am Inst Chem Eng 24:570, 1978 17. Fazel-tdjIlessi J, Bailey JE: Analysis of fermentation processes using flow

  6. Cutaneous Recording and Stimulation of Muscles Using Organic Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Rezaei-Mazinani, Shahab; Lonjaret, Thomas; Martin, Alain; Ismailova, Esma

    2016-08-01

    Electronic textiles are an emerging field providing novel and non-intrusive solutions for healthcare. Conducting polymer-coated textiles enable a new generation of fully organic surface electrodes for electrophysiological evaluations. Textile electrodes are able to assess high quality muscular monitoring and to perform transcutaneous electrical stimulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rapid and transitory stimulation of 3-O-methylglucose transport by growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter-Su, C.; Rozsa, F.W.; Wang, Xueyan; Stubbart, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of hexose transport by growth hormone (GH) was investigated using isolated rat adipocytes. GH caused a rapid (<3 min) rise in rates of 3-O-methylglucose transport that reached a maximum of two to six times the basal rates in 10-30 min. The stimulation of transport was transitory, and rates of transport started to decline 15-30 min after GH was added. Transport stimulation required a period of preincubation; no stimulation was observed in freshly isolated cells. GH stimulated hexose transport between 100 and 5,000 ng/ml, with a 50% effective dose between 200 and 300 ng/ml. Depletion of cellular ATP by 2,4-dinitrophenol blocked the ability of GH to stimulate transport but not the decline of transport rates following stimulation by GH. In contrast, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, actinomycin D, had no effect on either the initial stimulation by GH or the initial subsequent decline of transport when added simultaneously or 15 min prior to GH. Actinomycin D did, however, cause a second rise in hexose transport at ∼120 min that was blocked by 2,4-dinitrophenol. These results suggest that changes in glucose transport contribute to the effects of GH on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. These changes are rapid, of substantial magnitude, and of a complex nature, suggesting that regulation of glucose transport by GH most likely involves multiple mechanisms

  8. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  9. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Harris, G.J.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process wastewaters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment procsses designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential.

  10. Zinc chloride rapidly stimulates efflux transporters in renal proximal tubules of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Alexander; Miller, David S; Fricker, Gert

    2017-11-01

    Multidrug resistance-related protein 2 (Mrp2) is an ATP-driven efflux pump at the luminal membrane in renal proximal tubules. It acts as detoxification mechanism by transporting xenobiotics and metabolic products into urine. The trace element zinc is essential for cellular growth, differentiation and survival. It modulates immune response and is used as dietary supplement. Here, we found that 0.1-10μM ZnCl 2 rapidly stimulated transport of the Mrp2 probe substrate Texas Red (TR) in isolated killifish renal proximal tubules, which provide an established model system to measure efflux transporter activity by using fluorescent probe substrates, confocal microscopy and image analysis. This stimulation was insensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), but it was quickly reversed by removing ZnCl 2 from the incubation medium. ZnCl 2 -induced transport stimulation was abolished by inhibitors and antagonists of the endothelin receptor type B (ET B )/nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Moreover, ZnCl 2 -induced effects were blocked by inhibition of PKCα using Gö6976 and PKCα inhibitor peptide C2-4. Both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin abolished ZnCl 2 -induced transport stimulation. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of ZnCl 2 were blocked by GSK650394, an inhibitor of the downstream target serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). ZnCl 2 also stimulated transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp). This is the first report about zinc affecting efflux transporter activity and demonstrates that ZnCl 2 triggers a suite of signaling events to evoke a rapid stimulation of ABC transporter-mediated efflux in killifish proximal tubules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  12. Dopaminergic stimulation enhances confidence and accuracy in seeing rapidly presented words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Skewes, Joshua; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2011-01-01

    dopamine release. We therefore hypothesize that the neurotransmitter dopamine may function as a regulator of subjective confidence of visual perception in the normal brain. Although much is known about the effect of stimulation by neurotransmitters on cognitive functions, their effect on subjective...... confidence of perception has never been recorded experimentally before. In a controlled study of 24 normal, healthy female university students with the dopamine agonist pergolide given orally, we show that dopaminergic activation increases confidence in seeing rapidly presented words. It also improves...

  13. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  14. THE EFFECTS OF NATURAL STIMULANTS ON THE HUMAN ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern lifestyle of today's man imposes the need to return to nature, which is the primordial and evolutionary related. Man's desire for an increase of leisure timespent in an environment that suits their biological characteristics, is in part genetically determined, while is strongly related to the existence of awareness of the importance of staying active in nature. It has long been known that physical activity in nature is one of the best ways to preserve and promote health. Through regular stimulation and guiding the natural environment one can produce positive changes in structure and function of the organism. The collective life of camping and outdoor activities significantly affect the formation of personality. It develops comradeship, solidarity,self-sacrifice. The constant activities and obligations arising from them accountable to their colleagues, result in forming solid personalities.

  15. EEG-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals rapid shifts in motor cortical excitability during the human sleep slow oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Schmidt, Marlit A

    2012-01-01

    Evoked cortical responses do not follow a rigid input-output function but are dynamically shaped by intrinsic neural properties at the time of stimulation. Recent research has emphasized the role of oscillatory activity in determining cortical excitability. Here we employed EEG-guided transcrania...... magnetic stimulation (TMS) during non-rapid eye movement sleep to examine whether the spontaneous...

  16. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  17. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  18. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  19. Rapid Modulation of Protein Expression in the Rat Hippocampus Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Fornix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondard, Elise; Chau, Hien N; Mann, Amandeep; Tierney, Travis S; Hamani, Clement; Kalia, Suneil K; Lozano, Andres M

    2015-01-01

    The forniceal area is currently being evaluated as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The molecular changes at downstream targets within the stimulated circuit are unknown. To analyze the modulation of hippocampal protein expression following 1 h of fornix DBS in the rat. Animals underwent bilateral forniceal DBS for 1 h and sacrificed at different time-points after the initiation of the stimulation (1 h, 2.5 h, 5 h, 25 h). Bilateral hippocampi were isolated for western blot analyses. Forniceal DBS led to a dramatic elevation of cFos post-stimulation, suggesting that forniceal DBS activates the hippocampus. There was also a significant increase in candidate proteins including several trophic factors, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) but not glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). There was in addition, increased expression of the synaptic markers growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), synaptophysin and α-synuclein. No changes were observed at the studied time-points in Alzheimer's-related proteins including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphorylated tau (ptau), or selected chaperone proteins (HSP40, HSP70 and CHIP). Forniceal DBS triggers hippocampal activity and rapidly modulate the expression of neurotrophic factors and markers of synaptic plasticity known to play key roles in memory processing. The clinical effects of DBS of the fornix may, in part, be mediated by producing changes in the expression of these proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition in humid tropical forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-09-01

    Humid tropical forests have the fastest rates of organic matter decomposition globally, which often coincide with fluctuating oxygen (O2 ) availability in surface soils. Microbial iron (Fe) reduction generates reduced iron [Fe(II)] under anaerobic conditions, which oxidizes to Fe(III) under subsequent aerobic conditions. We demonstrate that Fe (II) oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition via two mechanisms: (i) organic matter oxidation, likely driven by reactive oxygen species; and (ii) increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) availability, likely driven by acidification. Phenol oxidative activity increased linearly with Fe(II) concentrations (P soils sampled within and among five tropical forest sites. A similar pattern occurred in the absence of soil, suggesting an abiotic driver of this reaction. No phenol oxidative activity occurred in soils under anaerobic conditions, implying the importance of oxidants such as O2 or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in addition to Fe(II). Reactions between Fe(II) and H2 O2 generate hydroxyl radical, a strong nonselective oxidant of organic compounds. We found increasing consumption of H2 O2 as soil Fe(II) concentrations increased, suggesting that reactive oxygen species produced by Fe(II) oxidation explained variation in phenol oxidative activity among samples. Amending soils with Fe(II) at field concentrations stimulated short-term C mineralization by up to 270%, likely via a second mechanism. Oxidation of Fe(II) drove a decrease in pH and a monotonic increase in DOC; a decline of two pH units doubled DOC, likely stimulating microbial respiration. We obtained similar results by manipulating soil acidity independently of Fe(II), implying that Fe(II) oxidation affected C substrate availability via pH fluctuations, in addition to producing reactive oxygen species. Iron oxidation coupled to organic matter decomposition contributes to rapid rates of C cycling across humid tropical forests in spite of periodic O2 limitation

  1. Rapid auxin-induced stimulation of cell wall synthesis in pea internodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, U.; Briggs, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on growth and incorporation of myo-[2- 3 H(N)] inositol ([ 3 H]Ins) into noncellulosic polysacchharides in the cell walls of third internode sections from red light-grown pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) was investigated. Intact section were incubated on [ 3 H]Ins for 4 hr to permit uptake of the tracer and then IAA was added. Growth started after a lag phase of 15 min under these conditions. The sections were removed from the tracer and separated into epidermis and cortical cylinder (cortex plus vascular tissue). In the epidermis, IAA-induced stimulation of [ 3 H]Ins incorporation started after a lag of 15 min. The amount of incorporation was 15% higher after 30 min and 24% higher after 2 hr than in the control. In the cortical cylinder, IAA-induced stimulation of [ 3 H]Ins incorporation started only ≅ 1 hr after adding IAA. The ionophore monensin (20 μM) inhibited the IAA-induced growth by 95%. Under these conditions, the IAA-induced stimulation of [ 3 H]Ins incorporation and the IAA-induced increase in in vivo extensibility of the sections was almost completely inhibited, although oxygen uptake was unaffected. The authors suggest that wall synthesis (as represented by [ 3 H]Ins incorporation) and wall loosening (increase in in vivo extensibility) are related processes. The results support the hypothesis that IAA induces growth by rapid simulation of cell wall synthesis in the growth-limiting epidermal cell layer

  2. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  3. Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Philemon; Bailey, Aaron Z; Nelson, Aimee J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation (rPAS) involves repeat pairing of peripheral nerve stimulation and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses at a 5 Hz frequency. RPAS over primary motor cortex (M1) operates with spike-timing dependent plasticity such that increases in corticospinal excitability occur when the nerve and TMS pulse temporally coincide in cortex. The present study investigates the effects of rPAS over primary somatosensory cortex (SI) which has not been performed to date. In a series of experiments, rPAS was delivered over SI and M1 at varying timing intervals between the nerve and TMS pulse based on the latency of the N20 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) component within each participant (intervals for SI-rPAS: N20, N20-2.5 ms, N20 + 2.5 ms, intervals for M1-rPAS: N20, N20+5 ms). Changes in SI physiology were measured via SEPs (N20, P25, N20-P25) and SEP paired-pulse inhibition, and changes in M1 physiology were measured with motor evoked potentials and short-latency afferent inhibition. Measures were obtained before rPAS and at 5, 25 and 45 minutes following stimulation. Results indicate that paired-pulse inhibition and short-latency afferent inhibition were reduced only when the SI-rPAS nerve-TMS timing interval was set to N20-2.5 ms. SI-rPAS over SI also led to remote effects on motor physiology over a wider range of nerve-TMS intervals (N20-2.5 ms - N20+2.5 ms) during which motor evoked potentials were increased. M1-rPAS increased motor evoked potentials and reduced short-latency afferent inhibition as previously reported. These data provide evidence that, similar to M1, rPAS over SI is spike-timing dependent and is capable of exerting changes in SI and M1 physiology.

  4. Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Tsang

    Full Text Available Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation (rPAS involves repeat pairing of peripheral nerve stimulation and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses at a 5 Hz frequency. RPAS over primary motor cortex (M1 operates with spike-timing dependent plasticity such that increases in corticospinal excitability occur when the nerve and TMS pulse temporally coincide in cortex. The present study investigates the effects of rPAS over primary somatosensory cortex (SI which has not been performed to date. In a series of experiments, rPAS was delivered over SI and M1 at varying timing intervals between the nerve and TMS pulse based on the latency of the N20 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP component within each participant (intervals for SI-rPAS: N20, N20-2.5 ms, N20 + 2.5 ms, intervals for M1-rPAS: N20, N20+5 ms. Changes in SI physiology were measured via SEPs (N20, P25, N20-P25 and SEP paired-pulse inhibition, and changes in M1 physiology were measured with motor evoked potentials and short-latency afferent inhibition. Measures were obtained before rPAS and at 5, 25 and 45 minutes following stimulation. Results indicate that paired-pulse inhibition and short-latency afferent inhibition were reduced only when the SI-rPAS nerve-TMS timing interval was set to N20-2.5 ms. SI-rPAS over SI also led to remote effects on motor physiology over a wider range of nerve-TMS intervals (N20-2.5 ms - N20+2.5 ms during which motor evoked potentials were increased. M1-rPAS increased motor evoked potentials and reduced short-latency afferent inhibition as previously reported. These data provide evidence that, similar to M1, rPAS over SI is spike-timing dependent and is capable of exerting changes in SI and M1 physiology.

  5. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  6. Organizing company specialists for rapid and effective response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, G.M.; McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The staff needed for the support of cleanup operations can be large even for moderately sized spills. Marshallng sufficient and qualified people to respond on short notice at locations throughout the world can tax even the largest corporations. This paper describes how Chevron has prepared for this important aspect of spill response. Basically, Chevron has formed 13 separate teams covering specially areas such as safety, finance, public relations, and legal. Each team is organized and managed by people who regularly work within that function. Members of each team are regular employees of the various Chevron companies throughout the world. The incident command system and coordinated plans are the common threads which allow these groups to work together effectively. Drills and self-audits are used to keep the plans current and team members prepared. The organization and activities of the Safety, Fire and Health (SF ampersand H) Functional Team is described in detail as an illustrated example of the functional team approach. This team consists of about 50 professionals in related fields. To facilitate rapid mobilization worldwide, each member has been medically qualified and has a current passport and selected evaluations. The team plan outlines the responsibilities of each professional group, the call-out procedure and telephone lists, and information on pre-identified SF ampersand H contractors that can be called upon if additional resources are needed. The plan is flexible so that it can be used by one or two people to handle alI SF ampersand H functions at a small spill or by many persons within each specialty for larger incidents

  7. Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuller, Megan B; Kramer, Marc G; Cyle, Taylor K; Hill, Nick; Hancock, Dennis; Thompson, Aaron

    2015-04-30

    The loss of organic matter from agricultural lands constrains our ability to sustainably feed a growing population and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Addressing these challenges requires land use activities that accumulate soil carbon (C) while contributing to food production. In a region of extensive soil degradation in the southeastern United States, we evaluated soil C accumulation for 3 years across a 7-year chronosequence of three farms converted to management-intensive grazing. Here we show that these farms accumulated C at 8.0 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1), increasing cation exchange and water holding capacity by 95% and 34%, respectively. Thus, within a decade of management-intensive grazing practices soil C levels returned to those of native forest soils, and likely decreased fertilizer and irrigation demands. Emerging land uses, such as management-intensive grazing, may offer a rare win-win strategy combining profitable food production with rapid improvement of soil quality and short-term climate mitigation through soil C-accumulation.

  8. Quantitative analysis of lipid droplet fusion: inefficient steady state fusion but rapid stimulation by chemical fusogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Murphy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are dynamic cytoplasmic organelles containing neutral lipids and bounded by a phospholipid monolayer. Previous studies have suggested that LDs can undergo constitutive homotypic fusion, a process linked to the inhibitory effects of fatty acids on glucose transporter trafficking. Using strict quantitative criteria for LD fusion together with refined light microscopic methods and real-time analysis, we now show that LDs in diverse cell types show low constitutive fusogenic activity under normal growth conditions. To investigate the possible modulation of LD fusion, we screened for agents that can trigger fusion. A number of pharmacological agents caused homotypic fusion of lipid droplets in a variety of cell types. This provided a novel cell system to study rapid regulated fusion between homotypic phospholipid monolayers. LD fusion involved an initial step in which the two adjacent membranes became continuous (<10 s, followed by the slower merging (100 s of the neutral lipid cores to produce a single spherical LD. These fusion events were accompanied by changes to the LD surface organization. Measurements of LDs undergoing homotypic fusion showed that fused LDs maintained their initial volume, with a corresponding decrease in surface area suggesting rapid removal of membrane from the fused LD. This study provides estimates for the level of constitutive LD fusion in cells and questions the role of LD fusion in vivo. In addition, it highlights the extent of LD restructuring which occurs when homotypic LD fusion is triggered in a variety of cell types.

  9. Photoelectrical stimulation of neuronal cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S.; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor–electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer...

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compounds as a potential stimulator for organic contaminant degradation by soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, Emma; Rhodes, Angela H.; Owen, Susan M.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of monoterpenes on the degradation of 14 C-2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were investigated in soils collected from areas surrounding monoterpene and non-monoterpene-emitting vegetation. Indigenous microorganisms degraded 14 C-2,4-DCP to 14 CO 2 , after 1 d contact time. Degradation was enhanced by prior exposure of the soils to 2,4-DCP for 32 d, increasing extents of mineralisation up to 60%. Monoterpene amendments further enhanced 2,4-DCP degradation, but only following pre-exposure to both 2,4-DCP and monoterpene, with total 2,4-DCP mineralisation extents of up to 71%. Degradation was greatest at the higher monoterpene concentrations (≥1 μg kg -1 ). Total mineralisation extents were similar between concentrations, but higher than the control and the 0.1 μg kg -1 amendment, indicating that increases in monoterpene concentration has a diminishing enhancing effect. We suggest that monoterpenes can stimulate the biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by indigenous soil microorganisms and that monoterpene amendment in soils is an effective strategy for removing organic contaminants. - A amendment of soils with monoterpenes may induce organic contaminant degradation by indigenous soil microorganisms

  11. Rapid heterogeneous oxidation of organic coatings on submicron aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Browne, E. C.; Sugrue, R. A.; Kroll, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory studies have found that heterogeneous oxidation can affect the composition and loading of atmospheric organic aerosol particles over time scales of several days, but most studies have examined pure organic particles only. In this study, in order to probe the reactivity of organic species confined near the particle surface, the rates and products of the OH-initiated oxidation of pure squalane particles are compared to oxidation of thin coatings of squalane on ammonium sulfate particles. The squalane reaction rate constant shows a linear dependence on the organic surface area-to-volume ratio, with rate constants for coated particles up to 10 times larger than for pure particles. Changes in the carbon oxidation state and fraction of particulate carbon remaining show similar enhancements, implying that heterogeneous oxidation may exhibit a stronger effect on the loadings and properties of organic aerosol than previously estimated from laboratory studies.

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation regulates organ blood flow and apoptosis during controlled hypotension in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Zhang

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is commonly used in clinical practice for alleviating pains and physiological disorders. It has been reported that TENS could counteract the ischemic injury happened in some vital organs. To determine the protective effect of TENS on internal organs during CH in dogs, target hypotension was maintained for 60 min at 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP. The perfusion to the brain, liver, stomach, and kidney was recorded and apoptosis within these organs was observed. Results showed that when arriving at the target MAP, and during the maintaining stage for 10 min, perfusion to the stomach and liver in the CH+TENS group was much higher than in the CH group (P<0.05. Perfusion to the cerebral cortex greatly declined in both the controlled pressure groups when compared with the general anesthesia (GA group (P<0.05. After withdrawing CH, the hepatic blood flow in both the CH and CH+TENS groups, and the gastric and cerebral cortical blood flow in the CH+TENS group, were rapidly increased. By the end of MAP restoration, gastric blood flow in the CH group was still low. At 72 h after applying CH, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells in stomach and kidney tissue from the CH group were significantly increased compared with those in the GA group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in TUNEL-positive cells in the liver and hippocampus among the three groups. Our results demonstrated that CH with a 50% MAP level could cause lower perfusion to the liver, stomach, cerebral cortex, and kidney, with apoptosis subsequently occurring in the stomach and kidney. TENS combined GA is able to improve the blood flow to the liver, stomach, and reduce the apoptosis in the stomach and kidney.

  13. Stimulating and Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity and Innovation in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menara Simanjuntak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially in unfamiliar and unpredictable situations. Finally this paper takes a brief look at two tools to support knowledge management, professionalisms, creativity and innovations - one in the human domain and the other in the technology domain. We are also needs to boost its capacity for continuous professionalism, creativity and innovation for both technology, social, economic, and organization reasons. 

  14. Stimulating And Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity And Innovation In Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Menara Simanjuntak; Haryadi Sarjono

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially i...

  15. Immunomodulation stimulates the innervation of engineered tooth organ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Kökten

    Full Text Available The sensory innervation of the dental mesenchyme is essential for tooth function and protection. Sensory innervation of the dental pulp is mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia and is strictly regulated in time. Teeth can develop from cultured re-associations between dissociated dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells from Embryonic Day 14 mouse molars, after implantation under the skin of adult ICR mice. In these conditions however, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme did not occur spontaneously. In order to go further with this question, complementary experimental approaches were designed. Cultured cell re-associations were implanted together with trigeminal ganglia for one or two weeks. Although axonal growth was regularly observed extending from the trigeminal ganglia to all around the forming teeth, the presence of axons in the dental mesenchyme was detected in less than 2.5% of samples after two weeks, demonstrating a specific impairment of their entering the dental mesenchyme. In clinical context, immunosuppressive therapy using cyclosporin A was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues. Indeed, when cultured cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in cyclosporin A-treated ICR mice, nerve fibers were detected in the dental pulp, even reaching odontoblasts after one week. However, cyclosporin A shows multiple effects, including direct ones on nerve growth. To test whether there may be a direct functional relationship between immunomodulation and innervation, cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in immunocompromised Nude mice. In these conditions as well, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme was observed already after one week of implantation, but axons reached the odontoblast layer after two weeks only. This study demonstrated that immunodepression per se does stimulate the innervation of the dental mesenchyme.

  16. APPLICATION OF STEM CELLS AND PRECURSOR CELLS FOR STIMULATION OF ORGAN REVASCULARIZATION AND REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Eremeeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different angiogenic factors induced angiogenesis stimulation in ischemic tissues stays in the focus of scientific research for long time. The key role in ischemic angiogenesis belongs to endothelial precursor cells, plenty of which are reserved in bone marrow. Resident endothelial precursor cells are also found in some tissues and in circulation. These cells are involved in neoangiogenesis as well. Theoretically, injection of exogeneous endothelial precusor cells might contribute to restoration of circulation in the ischemic organ. Various types of cells have been approved for regeneration stimulation in a number of experimental protocols. A various degree of improvement of myocardial contractive function has been obtained as a universal result of these investigations, though the mechanisms underlying observed effect remain evasive. The paper focuses on advantages and drawbacks of embryonic, hematopoetic and mesenhimal stem cells application for angiogenesis stimulation and organs and tissues regeneration. 

  17. Nitric Acid and Benomyl Stimulate Rapid Height Growth of Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Kais; R.C. Hare; J.P. Barnett

    1984-01-01

    Rapid height growth of longleaf pine seedlings, important to production of uniform, even-aged stands, can be promoted by controlling brown-spot needle blight and weed competition, and by increasing soil fertility. Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted...

  18. A rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human plasma follicle-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of plasma levels of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has proved to be of value for the study of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis, greatly facilitating the diagnosis and management of problems relating to the menopause and infertility. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human FSH has been developed. This system is characterised by high precision, is economical, and is considerably faster to operate than conventional double antibody systems used in the hospital assay service. Reference values for plasma FSH in various endocrine states are recorded and discussed. (author)

  19. Rapid and transient stimulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by melatonin in normal and tumor leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radogna, Flavia; Paternoster, Laura; De Nicola, Milena; Cerella, Claudia; Ammendola, Sergio; Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio; Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria; Ghibelli, Lina

    2009-01-01

    Melatonin is a modified tryptophan with potent biological activity, exerted by stimulation of specific plasma membrane (MT1/MT2) receptors, by lower affinity intracellular enzymatic targets (quinone reductase, calmodulin), or through its strong anti-oxidant ability. Scattered studies also report a perplexing pro-oxidant activity, showing that melatonin is able to stimulate production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that on U937 human monocytes melatonin promotes intracellular ROS in a fast (< 1 min) and transient (up to 5-6 h) way. Melatonin equally elicits its pro-radical effect on a set of normal or tumor leukocytes; intriguingly, ROS production does not lead to oxidative stress, as shown by absence of protein carbonylation, maintenance of free thiols, preservation of viability and regular proliferation rate. ROS production is independent from MT1/MT2 receptor interaction, since a) requires micromolar (as opposed to nanomolar) doses of melatonin; b) is not contrasted by the specific MT1/MT2 antagonist luzindole; c) is not mimicked by a set of MT1/MT2 high affinity melatonin analogues. Instead, chlorpromazine, the calmodulin inhibitor shown to prevent melatonin-calmodulin interaction, also prevents melatonin pro-radical effect, suggesting that the low affinity binding to calmodulin (in the micromolar range) may promote ROS production.

  20. Dopaminergic stimulation enhances confidence and accuracy in seeing rapidly presented words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Skewes, Joshua; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2011-01-01

    Liberal acceptance, overconfidence, and increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been proposed to account for abnormal sensory experiences, for instance, hallucinations in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, increased sensory experience in Yoga Nidra meditation is linked to striata...... performance in a forced-choice word recognition task. These results demonstrate neurotransmitter regulation of subjective conscious experience of perception and provide evidence for a crucial role of dopamine....... confidence of perception has never been recorded experimentally before. In a controlled study of 24 normal, healthy female university students with the dopamine agonist pergolide given orally, we show that dopaminergic activation increases confidence in seeing rapidly presented words. It also improves...

  1. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the composition of candy (pollen and protein substitute were analysed. Three groups of ten bee colonies each were formed - the control, unfed group, pollen candy fed and protein substitute candy fed. In the period from 22/02/2016 and 04/04/2016 three control measurements were performed during which the number of bees, the number of brood cells and weight of the bee colonies were determined. The research has shown that supplemental feeding of the bee colony in late winter in order to encourage the rapid spring development is justified. Namely, at the final measurements in April, the results showed differences between groups. The treated colonies had higher net hive weight, a greater number of bees and statistically significantly more brood cells. The results of this study confirm that the technological measure of supplemental feeding in late winter should be performed on all commercial apiaries for the production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, queen bees and bee venom.

  2. Sensitivity evaluation in air and water caloric stimulation of the vestibular organs using videonystagmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałocha-Kaczka, Anna; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Miłoński, Jarosław; Olszewski, Jurek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare air and water caloric stimulation of the vestibular organs using videonystagmography (VNG). The study covered 18 women aged 21-63 and 11 men aged 21-74 years hospitalized at the ENT, without complaints for vertigo and/or balance disorders. The alternate binaural bithermal caloric test with cool 30°C and warm 44°C air or water irrigations (after 2h interval for the recordings) with the use of VNG was done. All parameters of air and water vestibular caloric stimulations, assessed in the VNG, differed significantly but were within the normal range. The research showed a statistically significant difference between canal paresis but only for the left ear at 30°C and 44°C. Absolute directional preponderance, relative directional preponderance, vestibular excitability, slow component velocity, frequency were different statistically for both ears at both temperatures. Our study showed that both air and water caloric stimulations were able to distinguish physiological and impaired vestibular function. The obtained results showed statistically higher response for water than air stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. A hydrogen fuel cell for rapid, enzyme-catalysed organic synthesis with continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Megarity, Clare F; Siritanaratkul, Bhavin; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2018-01-23

    A one-pot fuel cell for specific, enzyme-catalysed organic synthesis, with continuous monitoring of rate and reaction progress, combines an electrode catalysing rapid, reversible and diffusion-controlled interconversion of NADP + and NADPH with a Pt electrode catalysing 2H + /H 2 interconversion. This Communication demonstrates its performance and characteristics using the reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate as a test system.

  4. Rapid precipitation: an alternative to solvent casting for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Rajeev; Telling, Mark T F; Lopez, Carlos G; Krishnadasan, Siva H; Bannock, James H; Terry, Anne E; de Mello, John C; Cabral, João T; Nedoma, Alisyn J

    2015-04-27

    Rapid precipitation, immersion of a liquid formulation into a nonsolvent, is compared with drop casting for fabricating organic solar cells. Blends comprising poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and chlorobenzene were processed into bulk samples by using two distinct routes: rapid precipitation and drop casting. The resulting structure, phases, and crystallinity were analyzed by using small-angle neutron scattering, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and muon spin resonance. Rapid precipitation was found to induce a finely structured phase separation between PCBM and P3HT, with 65 wt % crystallinity in the P3HT phase. In contrast, solvent casting resulted in a mixed PCBM/P3HT phase with only 43 wt % P3HT crystallinity. The structural advantages conferred by rapid precipitation were shown to persist following intense thermal treatments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. ORGANIZATION AND PLANNING IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD: EVALUATION AND PROPOSAL OF A STIMULATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rubiales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurobiological disorder of a complex and heterogeneous origin characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity and / or impulsivity. Is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence, and one of the main reasons for consultation because of difficulties in school performance, behavior problems, difficulties of living at home and with peers, involvement in self-esteem and aggressiveness. The primary deficit is associated with executive dysfunction, among which is the organization and planning. The aim of this study was to compare the performance in organization and planning of children with and without a diagnosis of ADHD and submit a stimulation proposal according to their needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical sample comprised 16 children diagnosed with ADHD and the control sample of 32 children without a diagnosis, in both cases 8 to 14 years old and from the city of Mar del Plata (Argentina. The instruments used to evaluate the organization and planning has been the subtest Torres of Mexico Child Neuropsychological Battery (ENI, and cubes subtests Construction, Completion and Management Object Test Story Weschler Intelligence for children and adolescents. The proposed treatment includes 8 sessions of stimulation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD have greater difficulty in planning and organizational skills than the children of the control sample, from which it establishes a estimulation proposal, whose originality and advantage is accentuated in the ecological validity the process.

  6. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  7. Health Care Utilization Following Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy in Pediatric Epilepsy Patients From a Pediatric Accountable Care Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anup; Wang, Ling; Gedela, Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation has been a therapy for epilepsy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients 4 and older and shown efficacy and safety in younger pediatric patients. The authors performed a retrospective analysis utilizing Medicaid claims from an accountable care organization to measure the intervention of vagus nerve stimulation therapy in regard to unplanned health care utilization. Thirteen unique patients were included who had vagus nerve stimulation therapy who had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment in a managed Medicaid health plan. Comparison with 12 months of data before and after vagus nerve stimulation implantation was performed. Patients had statistically significant fewer unplanned inpatient visits per patient per enrollment month after vagus nerve stimulation implantation. Utilizing claims data, vagus nerve stimulation implantation demonstrates a reduction in unplanned hospitalizations.

  8. Structural Organization of the Corpus Callosum Predicts Attentional Shifts after Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Kennard, Christopher; Cazzoli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in healthy participants has been shown to trigger a significant rightward shift in the spatial allocation of visual attention, temporarily mimicking spatial deficits observed in neglect. In contrast, rTMS applied over the left PPC triggers a weaker or null attentional shift. However, large interindividual differences in responses to rTMS have been reported. Studies measuring changes in brain activation suggest that the effects of rTMS may depend on both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric interactions between cortical loci controlling visual attention. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structural organization of human white matter pathways subserving visual attention, as assessed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, could explain interindividual differences in the effects of rTMS. Most participants showed a rightward shift in the allocation of spatial attention after rTMS over the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but the size of this effect varied largely across participants. Conversely, rTMS over the left IPS resulted in strikingly opposed individual responses, with some participants responding with rightward and some with leftward attentional shifts. We demonstrate that microstructural and macrostructural variability within the corpus callosum, consistent with differential effects on cross-hemispheric interactions, predicts both the extent and the direction of the response to rTMS. Together, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may have a dual inhibitory and excitatory function in maintaining the interhemispheric dynamics that underlie the allocation of spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) controls allocation of attention across left versus right visual fields. Damage to this area results in neglect, characterized by a lack of spatial awareness of the side of space

  9. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and life. This is the first study to conduct proof-of-concept testing for a rapid compliance detection tool using freshly collected harbour water concomitantly with in situ ballast water; our results demonstrate that it is important to challenge potential compliance tools with water samples spanning a range of biotic and abiotic conditions.

  10. Rapid removal of organic micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbaiee, Alaaeddin; Smith, Brian J.; Xiao, Leilei; Ling, Yuhan; Helbling, Damian E.; Dichtel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    The global occurrence in water resources of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, has raised concerns about potential negative effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Activated carbons are the most widespread adsorbent materials used to remove organic pollutants from water but they have several deficiencies, including slow pollutant uptake (of the order of hours) and poor removal of many relatively hydrophilic micropollutants. Furthermore, regenerating spent activated carbon is energy intensive (requiring heating to 500-900 degrees Celsius) and does not fully restore performance. Insoluble polymers of β-cyclodextrin, an inexpensive, sustainably produced macrocycle of glucose, are likewise of interest for removing micropollutants from water by means of adsorption. β-cyclodextrin is known to encapsulate pollutants to form well-defined host-guest complexes, but until now cross-linked β-cyclodextrin polymers have had low surface areas and poor removal performance compared to conventional activated carbons. Here we crosslink β-cyclodextrin with rigid aromatic groups, providing a high-surface-area, mesoporous polymer of β-cyclodextrin. It rapidly sequesters a variety of organic micropollutants with adsorption rate constants 15 to 200 times greater than those of activated carbons and non-porous β-cyclodextrin adsorbent materials. In addition, the polymer can be regenerated several times using a mild washing procedure with no loss in performance. Finally, the polymer outperformed a leading activated carbon for the rapid removal of a complex mixture of organic micropollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations. These findings demonstrate the promise of porous cyclodextrin-based polymers for rapid, flow-through water treatment.

  11. Organic Photovoltaics and Bioelectrodes Providing Electrical Stimulation for PC12 Cell Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Liao, Yan-Hao; Chen, Huan-Lin; Chen, Peilin; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2016-04-13

    Current bioelectronic medicines for neurological therapies generally involve treatment with a bioelectronic system comprising a power supply unit and a bioelectrode device. Further integration of wireless and self-powered units is of practical importance for implantable bioelectronics. In this study, we developed biocompatible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) for serving as wireless electrical power supply units that can be operated under illumination with near-infrared (NIR) light, and organic bioelectronic interface (OBEI) electrode devices as neural stimulation electrodes. The OPV/OBEI integrated system is capable to provide electrical stimulation (ES) as a means of enhancing neuron-like PC12 cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth. For the OPV design, we prepared devices incorporating two photoactive material systems--β-carotene/N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (β-carotene/PTCDI-C8) and poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM)--that exhibited open circuit voltages of 0.11 and 0.49 V, respectively, under NIR light LED (NLED) illumination. Then, we connected OBEI devices with different electrode gaps, incorporating biocompatible poly(hydroxymethylated-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), to OPVs to precisely tailor the direct current electric field conditions during the culturing of PC12 cells. This NIR light-driven OPV/OBEI system could be engineered to provide tunable control over the electric field (from 220 to 980 mV mm(-1)) to promote 64% enhancement in the neurite length, direct the neurite orientation on chips, or both. The OPV/OBEI integrated systems under NIR illumination appear to function as effective power delivery platforms that should meet the requirements for wirelessly offering medical ES to a portion of the nervous system; they might also be a key technology for the development of next-generation implantable bioelectronics.

  12. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A. [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Bush, P.B. [Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1999-09-30

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS{sup 3}, has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS{sup 3} provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions.

  13. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  14. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J.; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F.; Keezer, Susan M.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser938 were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K·mg protein−1·min−1 and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser938 is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  15. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  16. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A; Evershed, Richard P; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P; Hirsch, Penny R; Goulding, Keith W T; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or 'extracellular polymeric substance' (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15 N labelled KNO 3 . We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15 N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15 N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15 N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15 N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification.

  17. Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in environmentally hazardous wastewaters using solid phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, K.J.; Stack, M.A. [Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Chemistry Department, Cork RTC, Bishopstown, Cork (Ireland)

    1997-08-01

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was applied to the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater discharges. Environmentally significant samples, typical of those subject to regulatory control, were examined and included discharges from pharmaceutical, petrochemical and municipal sewerage treatment plants. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following sampling using headspace or immersion SPME. Fused silica fibres, coated with either poly(dimethylsiloxane) or poly(acrylate), were examined to determine VOC which included chloroform, saturated carboxylic acids, alkylbenzenes, phenol, benzonitrile and benzofuran. Detection limits varied from 10 to 170 ng/ml and satisfactory relative standard deviations (%RSD < 10) were obtained. For most samples, headspace sampling was preferred to immersion. SPME was found to be a useful technique for the rapid screening of wastewaters for VOC. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid methods to estimate potential exposure to semivolatile organic compounds in the indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John C; Weschler, Charles J; Nazaroff, William W; Liu, Zhe; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2012-10-16

    A systematic and efficient strategy is needed to assess and manage potential risks to human health that arise from the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. Among available tools for rapid assessment of large numbers of chemicals, significant gaps are associated with the capability to evaluate exposures that occur indoors. For semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), exposure is strongly influenced by the types of products in which these SVOCs occur. We propose methods for obtaining screening-level estimates for two primary SVOC source classes: additives in products used indoors and ingredients in products sprayed or applied to interior surfaces. Accounting for product use, emission characteristics, and the properties of the SVOCs, we estimate exposure via inhalation of SVOCs in the gas-phase, inhalation of SVOCs sorbed to airborne particles, ingestion of SVOCs sorbed to dust, and dermal sorption of SVOCs from the air into the blood. We also evaluate how exposure to the general public will change if chemical substitutions are made. Further development of a comprehensive set of models including the other SVOC-containing products and the other SVOC exposure pathways, together with appropriate methods for estimating or measuring the key parameters (in particular, the gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material-phase concentration of the SVOC in the product, or y(0)), is needed. When combined with rapid toxicity estimates, screening-level exposure estimates can contribute to health-risk-based prioritization of a wide range of chemicals of concern.

  20. Rapid maturation of effector T cells in tumors, but not lymphoid organs, during tumor regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyse A Norian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the efficacy of adoptively transferred, tumor antigen specific T cells is a major goal of immunotherapy. Clearly, a more thorough understanding of the effector phase of T cell responses, within the tumor site itself, would be beneficial. To examine this issue, we adoptively transferred tumor antigen-specific effector T cells into tumor-bearing mice, then performed kinetic evaluations of their phenotype, function, and survival in tumors, draining lymph nodes (dLNs, and spleens during regression of murine fibrosarcomas. Effector function in tumors was quantitated through the use of a novel intratumoral cytolytic assay. This approach revealed dynamic changes in the phenotype, cytolytic capacity, and viability of tumor infiltrating effector T cells during the course of tumor regression. Over a period of days, T cells within tumors rapidly transitioned from a CD25(hi/CD27(hi to a CD25(low/CD27(low phenotype and displayed an increase in cytolytic capacity, indicative of effector maturation. Simultaneously, however, the viability of maturing T cells within tumors diminished. In contrast, transferred T cells trafficking through lymphoid organs were much more static, as they maintained a stable phenotype, robust cytolytic activity, and high viability. Therefore, there exists a marked phenotypic and functional divergence between tumor-infiltrating effector T cells and their counterparts in lymphoid organs. Our results indicate that the population of tumor-infiltrating T cells is unique in experiencing rapid effector maturation post-transfer, and suggest that strategies aimed at prolonging the survival of CD25(low/CD27(low full effectors, which displayed the highest levels of intratumoral cytolytic activity, should enhance the efficacy of T cell based tumor immunotherapies.

  1. Rapid fabrication of three-dimensional structures for dielectrophoretic sorting of lipid-containing organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Alisha R.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a microfluidic particle sorter consisting of three-dimensional, conducting microposts. Our sorter uses dielectrophoresis (DEP) to sort high- and low-lipid phenotypes of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Y. lipolytica is one of the many microorganisms being explored as a hydrocarbon source for biodiesel, Omega-3 additives, and other products derived from fatty acids. A rapid, non-destructive, lipid-based sorting tool would accelerate the commercialization of these products. Our device consists of an array of 105, 25 μm wide gold microposts that span the height of a 15 μm channel. This array generates an electric field in a microfluidic device that is uniform through the channel height, but has a custom-shaped non-uniformity in the horizontal directions. This is crucial in order to achieve continuous sorting using DEP, as it ensures all cells are exposed to the same conditions throughout the channel height. By using very low currents (100 μA), we are able to electroplate these post arrays in fewer than 15 min. This is an order of magnitude improvement over previous reports of electroplated microstructures. With an applied signal of 250 MHz, 2.6 V pp in our device, we separate a heterogeneous population with a purity of 97.8% in the low-lipid stream and 71.4% in the high-lipid stream. The high-lipid stream purity can be improved by adjusting the spacing of the array. This unique protocol for the rapid fabrication of 3D microstructures has enabled the creation of a non-invasive sorting tool for genetically engineered, lipid-producing organisms. The ability to screen organisms based on lipid content will alleviate one of the major bottlenecks in commercialization of microbial biofuels.

  2. A kinetic investigation of interacting, stimulated T cells identifies conditions for rapid functional enhancement, minimal phenotype differentiation, and improved adoptive cell transfer tumor eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available For adoptive cell transfer (ACT immunotherapy of tumor-reactive T cells, an effective therapeutic outcome depends upon cell dose, cell expansion in vivo through a minimally differentiated phenotype, long term persistence, and strong cytolytic effector function. An incomplete understanding of the biological coupling between T cell expansion, differentiation, and response to stimulation hinders the co-optimization of these factors. We report on a biophysical investigation of how the short-term kinetics of T cell functional activation, through molecular stimulation and cell-cell interactions, competes with phenotype differentiation. T cells receive molecular stimulation for a few minutes to a few hours in bulk culture. Following this priming period, the cells are then analyzed at the transcriptional level, or isolated as single cells, with continuing molecular stimulation, within microchambers for analysis via 11-plex secreted protein assays. We resolve a rapid feedback mechanism, promoted by T cell-T cell contact interactions, which strongly amplifies T cell functional performance while yielding only minimal phenotype differentiation. When tested in mouse models of ACT, optimally primed T cells lead to complete tumor eradication. A similar kinetic process is identified in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells collected from a patient with metastatic melanoma.

  3. Rapid accumulation of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in karst river sediments: Climatic and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, M. B.; Martin, J.; Smith, C. G.; Marot, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the role of sediment organic carbon (OC) and nutrients (N and P) in controlling ecological functions of rivers requires evaluation of their sources and accumulation rates. However, river systems, particularly in karst areas, have long been overlooked in models of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycling. Recent studies have shown that spring-fed rivers, with clear water and elevated primary productivity, could play an important role in regulating regional carbon cycles as well as the global carbon cycle by producing and burying large amount of OC. Here, we estimate sediment accretion through 210Pb to determine OC, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) accumulation rates over the last 150 years in spring-fed Silver River in north-central Florida. The excess 210Pb measured in sediment cores indicate high and constant sedimentation rates that range from 1.6 to 2.2 mm yr-1. Despite limited surface run-off sources to the river, rapid sediment deposition could reflect reworking of sediments as river meander bends migrate downstream. We estimate OC accumulation rates to be 170-238 g OC m-2 yr-1. These rates are similar to or greater than those found in mangrove forests, an environment that provides some of the fastest known organic carbon accumulations that average 163 g m-2 yr-1 globally. TN and TP accumulation rates (13-16 and 2-8 g OC m-2 yr-1, respectively) are also comparable with accumulation rates (around 15 and 2 g OC m-2 yr-1, respectively) estimated in some mangrove forests. OC and TN stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) reflect both allochthonous and autochthonous origin of organic matter. Organic matter was mostly allochthonous near the spring and was derived from surrounding terrestrial C3 plants as suggested by their relatively heavier δ13C and lighter δ15N values. In contrast, much of the organic matter was derived from autochthonous sources mid- and down-stream, including algal and planktonic contributions. High accumulation rates

  4. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Rolston

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system’s open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of electrode-headstage coupling using neodymium magnets.

  5. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of electrode-headstage coupling using neodymium magnets.

  6. Detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid using the Rapid Stat point-of-collection drug-testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Urban, R

    2010-04-01

    The Rapid Stat assay, a point-of-collection drug-testing device for detection of amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in oral fluid, was evaluated for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Rapid Stat tests (n = 134) were applied by police officers in routine traffic checks. Oral fluid and blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and methylenedioxyamphetamine. The comparison of GC-MS analysis of oral fluid with the Rapid Stat results for cannabis showed a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 87%, and a total confirmation rate of 87%. When compared with serum, the sensitivity of the cannabis assay decreased to 71%, the specificity to 60%, and the total confirmation rate to 66%. These findings were possibly caused by an incorrect reading of the THC test results. Comparison of the Rapid Stat amphetamine assay with GC-MS in oral fluid showed a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 97%, and a total confirmation rate of 97%. Compared with serum, a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 90%, and a total confirmation rate of 92% was found. The amphetamine assay must, therefore, be regarded as satisfactory.

  7. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Shin Nishitani

    Full Text Available A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7 expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  8. [The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P

    2016-10-06

    Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.

  9. Continental scale passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants using rapidly equilibrating thin films (POGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Nick J.; Prevedouros, Konstantinos; Harner, Tom; Sweetman, Andrew J.; Jones, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    A novel design of rapidly equilibrating passive air sampler was deployed at 38 sites across 19 European countries to investigate short-term spatial variability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Devices were sealed in airtight containers to eliminate the possibility of contamination during transit and couriered to recipients with deployment instructions. Exposure times of 7 days permitted the use of back trajectory analysis to further understand the factors responsible for influencing the large-scale spatial distribution of PCBs, PBDEs, PCNs, PAHs, lindane and HCB. Following sampler harvest, devices were sealed and returned for analysis. Comparison of sequestered levels showed that PAHs exhibited the greatest spatial variability (by a factor of 30) with higher levels often associated with greater population density. In contrast, HCB values were much more uniform, reflecting its well mixed distribution in the atmosphere. Spatial variation was strongly influenced by air mass origin, with lower levels being observed at most sites impacted by maritime air masses. - Polymer-coated glass (POG) slides are used as short-term air samplers in a survey of POPs in different European countries

  10. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  11. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  12. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  13. An unconventional rapid synthesis of high performance metal-organic framework membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Miral N; Gonzalez, Mariel A; McCarthy, Michael C; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2013-06-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive for gas separation membrane applications due to their microporous channels with tunable pore shape, size, and functionality. Conventional MOF membrane fabrication techniques, namely in situ and secondary growth, pose challenges for their wider commercial applications. These challenges include reproducility, scalability, and high manufacturing cost. Recognizing that the coordination chemistry of MOFs is fundamentally different from the covalent chemistry of zeolites, we developed a radically different strategy for MOF membrane synthesis. Using this new technique, we were able to produce continuous well-intergrown membranes of prototypical MOFs, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, in a relatively short period of time (tens of min). With a minimal consumption of precursors and a greatly simplified synthesis protocol, our new technique provides potential for a continuous, scalable, reproducible, and easily commercializable route for the rapid synthesis of MOF membranes. RTD-prepared MOF membranes show greatly improved gas separation performances as compared to those prepared by conventional solvothermal methods, indicating improved membrane microstructure.

  14. Differential stimulation of antioxidant defense in various organs of mice after whole body exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally considered that any dose of ionizing radiation is detrimental to the living organisms, however low the radiation dose may be. The much relied upon 'Linear-No-Threshold' (LNT) hypothesis dose not have any convincing experimental evidence regarding the damaging effects at very low-doses and low-dose rates. Generally, the deleterious biological effects have been inferred theoretically by extrapolating the known effects of high radiation dose to low-dose range. Recently, it has been reported that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low-dose range 0.01-0.50 Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in-vivo and in-vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as, cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions; stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find: (i) the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated; and (ii) to evaluate the degree to which these defense mechanisms remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animal to low-dose radiation

  15. Stimulation Induced Changes in Frog Neuromuscular Junctions: A Quantitative Ultrastructural Comparison of Rapid-Frozen and Chemically Fixed Nerve Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-06

    superior cervical ganglion, retrieval of uncoated membrane (" macropinocytosis ") occurs within 1-5 seconds following transmitter release, while...organ of Torpedo mamorata. Cell Tiss. Res. 224:685-688. Kadota, T. and Kadota, K. 1982. Membrane retrieval by macropinocytosis in presynaptic

  16. Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria by volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Andre G.; Magnone, Joshua; Yeomans, Walter; Powers, Edmund M.

    2002-02-01

    Developments in rapid detection technologies have made countless improvements over the years. However, because of the limited sample that these technologies can process in a single run, the chance of capturing and identifying a small amount of pathogens is difficult. The problem is further magnified by the natural random distribution of pathogens in foods. Methods to simplify pathogenic detection through the identification of bacteria specific VOC were studied. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were grown on selected agar medium to model protein, and carbohydrate based foods. Pathogenic and common spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas and Morexella) were screened for unique VOC production. Bacteria were grown on agar slants in closed vials. Headspace sampling was performed at intervals up to 24 hours using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) techniques followed by GC/MS analysis. Development of unique volatiles was followed to establish sensitivity of detection. E. coli produced VOC not found in either Trypticase Soy Yeast (TSY) agar blanks or spoilage organism samples were - indole, 1-decanol, and 2-nonanone. Salmonella specific VOC grown on TSY were 3-methyl-1-butanol, dimethyl sulfide, 2-undecanol, 2-pentadecanol and 1-octanol. Trials on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants indicated VOC specific for E. coli and Salmonella when compared to PDA blanks and Pseudomonas samples. However, these VOC peaks were similar for both pathogens. Morexella did not grow on PDA slants. Work will continue with model growth mediums at various temperatures, and mixed flora inoculums. As well as, VOC production based on the dynamics of bacterial growth.

  17. Rapid screening and quantification of major organic acids in citrus fruits and their bioactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Verma, Sarika; Rana, Shalika; Rana, Ajay

    2018-04-01

    Organic acids (OAs) are small non-volatile molecules with widespread usage in processed foods, feeds and instant beverages. The prime aim of this study was to explore major OAs in local citrus fruits ( Citrus limetta , Citrus aurantifolia , Citrus nobilis , Citrus karna , Citrus medica , Citrus ichangensis and Citrus aurantium ) and assessment of their bioactivities. A RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed using buffer free solvent system for rapid detection and quantification of major OAs from citrus fruits and derived products. Method validation studies showed good linear calibration curve (0.985-0.998) for all OAs. The values of %RSD ranged between 0.0001-1.129 and 0.142-1.941 for interday and intraday variability respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for different OAs were ranged between 1.5-12 and 5-40 µg mL -1 . The juice of above mentioned citrus fruit cultivars were assessed for OAs, total phenolics, free radical scavenging antioxidants and their antimicrobial potential against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The results showed variable contents of phenolics [0.28 ± 0.001-1.17 ± 0.014 mg (GAE) mL -1 ] and antioxidant compounds (1.26 ± 0.009-2.84 ± 0.006 mg of trolox equivalents mL -1 ) in all juice samples besides significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger strains. However, in case of antibacterial activity, only C. aurantifolia showed inhibitory effects against selected strains. It was found that citrus fruits have immense potential for their utilization as economic source of natural OAs and development of value added products, beverages and bio-preservatives.

  18. Prefrontal θ-Burst Stimulation Disrupts the Organizing Influence of Active Short-Term Retrieval on Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Bianca M; VanHaerents, Stephen A; Voss, Joel L; Bridge, Donna J

    2018-01-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to organize items in working memory and this organizational role may also influence long-term memory. To causally test this hypothesized role of DLPFC in long-term memory formation, we used θ-burst noninvasive stimulation (TBS) to modulate DLPFC involvement in a memory task that assessed the influence of active short-term retrieval on later memory. Human subjects viewed three objects on a grid and then either actively retrieved or passively restudied one object's location after a brief delay. Long-term memory for the other objects was assessed after a delay to evaluate the beneficial role of active short-term retrieval on subsequent memory for the entire set of object locations. We found that DLPFC TBS had no significant effects on short-term memory. In contrast, DLPFC TBS impaired long-term memory selectively in the active-retrieval condition but not in the passive-restudy condition. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized contribution of DLPFC to the organizational processes operative during active short-term retrieval that influence long-term memory, although other regions that were not stimulated could provide similar contributions. Notably, active-retrieval and passive-restudy conditions were intermixed, and therefore nonspecific influences of stimulation were well controlled. These results suggest that DLPFC is causally involved in organizing event information during active retrieval to support coherent long-term memory formation.

  19. Amendments with organic and industrial wastes stimulate soil formation in mine tailings as revealed by micromorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanuzzi, A.; Arocena, J.M.; van Mourik, J.M.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings are inhospitable to plants and soil organisms, because of low pH and poor soil organic matter contents. Vegetation establishment requires a soil system capable of supporting the nutrient and water requirements of plants and associated organisms. The objective of this study was to

  20. Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus induces non- topographically organized perturbation of reaching movements in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Hubert eCourjon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-known contribution to orienting behaviors, the superior colliculus (SC might also play a role in controlling visually-guided reaching movements. This view has been inferred from studies in monkeys showing that some tectal cells located in the deep layers are active prior to reaching movements; it was corroborated by functional imaging studies performed in humans. Likewise, our group has already demonstrated that, in cats, that SC electrical stimulation can modify the trajectory of goal-directed forelimb movements without necessarily affecting the gaze position. However, as in monkeys, we could not establish any congruence between the usual retinotopic SC map and direction of evoked forelimb movements, albeit only a small portion of the collicular map was investigated. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further ascertain the causal contribution of SC to reaching movement by exploring the whole collicular map. Our results confirmed that SC electrical stimulation deflected the trajectory of reaching movements, but this deviation was always directed downward and backward, irrespective of the location of the stimulation site. The lack of a complete map of reach directions in the SC and the absence of congruence between the direction of evoked forelimb movements and the collicular oculomotor map challenge the view that, in the cat, the SC causally contributes to coding forelimb movements. Interestingly, the very short latencies of the effect argue also against the interruption of reaching movements being driven by a disruption of the early visual processing. Our results rather suggest that the SC might contribute to the reach target selection process. Alternatively, SC stimulation might have triggered a postural adjustment anticipating an upcoming orienting reaction, leading to an interruption of the on-going reaching movement.

  1. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  2. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  3. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  4. Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile : a retrospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Baruteau, Julien; Delgado, Maria Bueno; Cano, Aline; Couce, Maria L; Del Toro, Mireia; Donati, Maria Alice; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Gil-Ortega, David; Gomez-de Quero, Pedro; Guffon, Nathalie; Hofstede, Floris C; Kalkan-Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Lama-More, Rosa; Martinez-Pardo Casanova, Mercedes; Molina, Agustin; Pichard, Samia; Papadia, Francesco; Rosello, Patricia; Plisson, Celine; Le Mouhaer, Jeannie; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in

  5. Efficient bioconversion of organic wastes to high optical activity of l-lactic acid stimulated by cathode in mixed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; Lai, Sizhou; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; You, Jiguang; Chen, Hong; Qian, Yajie; Gao, Pin; Liu, Zhenhong; Liu, Yanan

    2017-12-12

    Lactic acid is one of the emerging top biomass derived platform chemicals that can be fermented from organic wastes. This study evaluated the potential of Cathodic Electro-Fermentation (CEF) as a novel approach to enhance the yield of high optical activity (OA) of l-lactic acid from organic wastes using mixed microbial consortium. The fermentation process was stimulated through the cathode applied with -100 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which contributed to 4.73 times higher lactic acid productivity (0.6578 g L -1 h -1 ) compared to that in the open circuit control (0.1392 g L -1 h -1 ), and an improved OA of l-lactic acid was also observed (42.3% vs. 3.6% of the open circuit control). The study elucidated that the optimal voltage at -100 mV promoted the conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate by 77.9% compared to the Blank, which triggered the generation of l-lactic acid to occur rapidly even at low concentration of pyruvate. The significant variation of microbial community in family- and genus-level distributions were observed in CEF system. Furthermore, the open-circuit operation test demonstrated that the cathode providing in-situ electron supply was essential to achieve high efficient bioconversion of organic wastes to lactic acid. Our work highlights the feasibility of CEF to steer high value-added fermentation products deriving from organic wastes by the mixed microbial consortium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly efficient and two-photon excited stimulated Rayleigh-Bragg scattering in organic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S., E-mail: gshe@buffalo.edu; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States); Kannan, Ramamurthi; Tan, Loon-Seng [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RX, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7750 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The properties of backward stimulated Rayleigh-Bragg scattering (SRBS) in three highly two-photon active AF-chromophores solutions in tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been investigated using 816-nm and 8-ns pump laser beam. The nonlinear reflectivity R, spectral structure, temporal behavior, and phase-conjugation capability of the backward SRBS output have been measured, respectively. Under the same experimental condition, the pump threshold for SRBS in three solution samples can be significantly (∼one order of magnitude) lower than that for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the pure solvent (THF). With the optimized concentration value and at a moderate pump energy (∼1.5 mJ) level, the measured nonlinear reflectivity was R ≥ 35% for the 2 cm-long solution sample, while for the SBS from a pure solvent sample of the same length was R ≈ 4.7%. The peculiar features of very low pump threshold, no spectral shift, tolerant pump spectral linewidth requirement (≤1 cm{sup −1}), and phase-conjugation capability are favorable for those nonlinear photonics applications, such as highly efficiency phase-conjugation reflectors for high-brightness laser oscillator/amplifier systems, special imaging through turbid medium, self-adaptive remote optical sensing, as well as for optical rangefinder and lidar systems.

  7. Rapid Methods to Estimate Potential Exposure to Semivolatile Organic Compounds in the Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, John C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic and efficient strategy is needed to assess and manage potential risks to human health that arise from the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. Among available tools for rapid assessment of large numbers of chemicals, significant gaps are associated with the capability...... with appropriate methods for estimating or measuring the key parameters (in particular, the gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material-phase concentration of the SVOC in the product, or y0), is needed. When combined with rapid toxicity estimates, screening-level exposure estimates can contribute...

  8. Organ dose measurement using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detector (OSLD) during CT examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Alothmany, Nazeeh; Abdulrahman Kinsara, Abdulraheem

    2017-10-01

    This study provides detailed information regarding the imaging doses to patient radiosensitive organs from a kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using OSLD. The study reports discrepancies between the measured dose and the calculated dose from the ImPACT scan, as well as a comparison with the dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. OSLDs were inserted in several organs, including the brain, eyes, thyroid, lung, heart, spinal cord, breast, spleen, stomach, liver and ovaries, of the RANDO phantom. Standard clinical scanning protocols were used for each individual site, including the brain, thyroid, lung, breast, stomach, liver and ovaries. The measured absorbed doses were then compared with the simulated dose obtained from the ImPACT scan. Additionally, the equivalent doses for each organ were calculated and compared with the dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. Absorbed organ doses measured by OSLD in the RANDO phantom of up to 17 mGy depend on the organ scanned and the scanning protocols used. A maximum 9.82% difference was observed between the target organ dose measured by OSLD and the results from the ImPACT scan. The maximum equivalent organ dose measured during this experiment was equal to 99.899 times the equivalent dose from a chest X-ray radiography procedure. The discrepancies between the measured dose with the OSLD and the calculated dose from the ImPACT scan were within 10%. This report recommends the use of OSLD for measuring the absorbed organ dose during CT examination.

  9. Organic nitrogen-driven stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae correlates with abundance of ammonia oxidizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eBukovská

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass, while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples

  10. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Z Vielma

    Full Text Available S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2, SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC. In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14% and RyR2 (+146±77%, without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (-25-30% and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (-25-60%, RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (-60-75%. NOS-1 inhibition reduced (-25-40% the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (-85±7%. Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethylornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1 normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2 β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its inotropic effect.

  11. Human Schwann-like cells derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells rapidly de-differentiate in the absence of stimulating medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard J P; Lu, Li; Reid, Adam J

    2016-02-01

    Finding a viable cell-based therapy to address peripheral nerve injury holds promise for enhancing the currently suboptimal microsurgical approaches to peripheral nerve repair. Autologous nerve grafting is the current gold standard for surgical repair of nerve gaps; however, this causes donor nerve morbidity in the patient, and the results remain unsatisfactory. Transplanting autologous Schwann cells (SCs) results in similar morbidity, as well as limited cell numbers and restricted potential for expansion in vitro. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), 'differentiated' towards an SC-like phenotype in vitro (dASCs), have been presented as an alternative to SC therapies. The differentiation protocol stimulates ASCs to mimic the SC phenotype; however, the efficacy of dASCs in nerve repair is not yet convincing, and the practicality of the SC-like phenotype is unproven. Here, we examined the stability of dASCs by withdrawing differentiation medium for 72 h after the full 18-day differentiation protocol, and measuring changes in morphology, gene expression, and protein levels. Withdrawal of differentiation medium from dASCs resulted in a rapid reversion to stem cell-like characteristics. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in gene and protein expression of growth factors that were expressed at high levels following 'differentiation'. Therefore, we question the relevance of differentiation to an SC-like phenotype, as withdrawal of differentiation medium, a model of transplantation into an injured nerve, results in rapid reversion of the dASC phenotype to stem cell-like characteristics. Further investigation into the differentiation process and the response of dASCs to an injured environment must be undertaken prior to the use of dASCs in peripheral nerve repair therapies. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience

  12. Inflation threshold: A nonlinear trapping-induced threshold for the rapid onset of stimulated Raman scattering from a single laser speckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid onset, with increasing laser intensity, of levels of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) exceeding linear convective predictions, from single laser hot spots was predicted by simulations [Vu et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1745 (2002)], and has been observed [Montgomery et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2311 (2002)] in nonlinear regimes dominated by electron trapping. A theory for this inflation threshold is given here. The threshold is the result of competition between velocity diffusion and trapping, and is exceeded when the convectively amplified SRS Langmuir wave (LW) achieves an amplitude for which the coherent trapping velocity increment of electrons in the LW (the half-width of the trapping separatrix) exceeds the rms diffusion velocity (resulting from background plasma fluctuations), accumulated in one bounce time, for electrons with mean velocities near the phase velocity of the LW. The results of this theory, when the kinetic theory of the one-dimensional (1D) reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) simulation is used, are in good agreement with a series of 1D RPIC simulations. The theory is naturally generalized to three dimensions, and is compatible with macroscopic laser interaction codes such as pF3d [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. Comparison of the LW trapping-induced inflation threshold to the LW threshold for the Langmuir decay instability provides an estimate for the transition between nonlinear saturation regimes. In an independent hot spot model of many hot spots, statistics suggests that the inflation threshold intensity will control the rapid onset of strong BSRS in laser beams smoothed by random phase plates

  13. Neuregulin-1 Administration Protocols Sufficient for Stimulating Cardiac Regeneration in Young Mice Do Not Induce Somatic, Organ, or Neoplastic Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Ganapathy

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a strategy for stimulating heart regeneration by administration of recombinant neuregulin (rNRG1, a growth factor, in mice. rNRG1 stimulated proliferation of heart muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and was most effective when administration began during the neonatal period. Our results suggested the use of rNRG1 to treat pediatric patients with heart failure. However, administration in this age group may stimulate growth outside of the heart.NRG1 and ErbB receptor expression was determined by RT-PCR. rNRG1 concentrations in serum were quantified by ELISA. Mice that received protocols of recombinant neuregulin1-β1 administration (rNRG1, 100 ng/g body weight, daily subcutaneous injection for the first month of life, previously shown to induce cardiac regeneration, were examined at pre-determined intervals. Somatic growth was quantified by weighing. Organ growth was quantified by MRI and by weighing. Neoplastic growth was examined by MRI, visual inspection, and histopathological analyses. Phospho-ERK1/2 and S6 kinase were analyzed with Western blot and ELISA, respectively.Lung, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, and breast gland exhibited variable expression of the NRG1 receptors ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, and NRG1. Body weight and tibia length were not altered in mice receiving rNRG1. MRI showed that administration of rNRG1 did not alter the volume of the lungs, liver, kidneys, brain, or spinal cord. Administration of rNRG1 did not alter the weight of the lungs, spleen, liver, kidneys, or brain. MRI, visual inspection, and histopathological analyses showed no neoplastic growth. Follow-up for 6 months showed no alteration of somatic or organ growth. rNRG1 treatment increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2, but not phospho-S6 kinase.Administration protocols of rNRG1 for stimulating cardiac regeneration in mice during the first month of life did not induce unwanted growth effects. Further studies may be required to determine

  14. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, MAY 12 (2016), s. 711 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1665; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : soil heterogeneity * organic amendments * arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  15. Unanticipated rapid remission of refractory bulimia nervosa, during high-dose repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eDownar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A woman with severe, refractory bulimia nervosa underwent treatment for comorbid depression using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC using a novel technique. Unexpectedly, she showed a rapid, dramatic remission from bulimia nervosa. For 5 months pre-treatment, she had reported two 5-hour binge-purge episodes per day. After rTMS session 2 the episodes stopped entirely for 1 week; after session 10 there were no further recurrences. Depression scores improved more gradually to remission at session 10. Full remission from depression and binge-eating/purging episodes was sustained more than 2 months after treatment completion. In neuroimaging studies, the DMPFC is important in impulse control, and is underactive in bulimia nervosa. DMPFC-rTMS may have enhanced the patient’s ability to deploy previously acquired strategies to avoid binge-eating and purging via a reduction in her impulsivity. A larger sham-controlled trial of DMPFC-rTMS for binge-eating and purging behavior may be warranted.

  16. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  17. Rapid touch-stimulated movement in the androgynophore of Passiflora flowers (subgen. Decaloba; Sect. Xerogona): an adaptation to enhance cross-pollination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Livia C T; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2014-01-01

    Plant touch-sensitive organs have been described since Darwin's observations and are related to a quick response to environment stimuli. Sensitive flower organs have been associated to an increase in the chances of cross pollination but there are few studies regarding this topic. Here we describe for the first time the kinetic of the androgynophore movement of 4 Passiflora species (P. sanguinolenta, P. citrina, P. capsularis, and P. rubra). For that, we collected flowers and recorded the movement after mechano-stimulating the androgynophore. From the recordings, we described the movement regarding its response and sensibility to mechanical stimulus and calculated the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement. From our data we were able to propose a link to the pollination habit of these species. The movement of the androgynophore in these Passiflora is a noteworthy floral feature that might lead us to another astonishing example of a mechanism that evolved among angiosperms to assure sexual reproduction.

  18. Characterisation of terrestrial acidophilic archaeal ammonia oxidisers and their inhibition and stimulation by organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E; Ge, Chaorong; Ross, Jenna; Yao, Huaiying; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is performed by two distinct groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB). AOA outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many soils, at times by several orders of magnitude, but relatively little is known of their physiology due to the lack of cultivated isolates. Although a number of AOA have been cultivated from soil, Nitrososphaera viennensis was the sole terrestrial AOA in pure culture and requires pyruvate for growth in the laboratory. Here, we describe isolation in pure culture and characterisation of two acidophilic terrestrial AOA representing the Candidatus genus Nitrosotalea and their responses to organic acids. Interestingly, despite their close phylogenetic relatedness, the two Nitrosotalea strains exhibited differences in physiological features, including specific growth rate, temperature preference and to an extent, response to organic compounds. In contrast to N. viennensis, both Nitrosotalea isolates were inhibited by pyruvate but their growth yield increased in the presence of oxaloacetate. This study demonstrates physiological diversity within AOA species and between different AOA genera. Different preferences for organic compounds potentially influence the favoured localisation of ammonia oxidisers within the soil and the structure of ammonia-oxidising communities in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:24909965

  19. Exploring the link between auxin receptors, rapid cell elongation and organ tropisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Benjamin; Schenck, Daniel; Lüthen, Hartwig

    2010-05-01

    Auxin receptor F-box proteins of the TIR1/AFB family are known to regulate auxin-induced gene expression. We could demonstrate that rapid auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, the most classical auxin response, is only mildly affected in Arabidopsis plants in which most of the receptor genes have been knocked out, while gene expression is almost completely abolished. Here we test the same receptor mutant plants for their gravitropic and phototropic responsiveness, generally considered to base on auxin gradients across the hypocotyl.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe to rapidly detect, identify, and characterize micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Lamfarraj, Hasnae; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Pina, Patrick; Delavenne, Marc; Witthuhn, Fabienne; Allouch, Pierre; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Fast and exact identification of a great number of microorganisms is becoming a serious challenge. Differentiation and identification of microorganisms is today mainly achieved by the use of a variety of distinct techniques based on morphological, serological aspects and a set of biochemical test. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques can be complementary and useful methods in this field due to their rapidity, 'fingerprinting' capabilities, and the molecular information that they can provide. Using SERS at Ag colloids, we have conducted pilot studies to rapidly detect and identify bacterial clinical strains. Using a Raman microspectrometer equipped with a He/Ne laser, a first attempt to record SERS spectra was made on colloidal solutions. Spectra were of good quality but not very reproducible due to the movement of the microorganisms. Strains were then put in presence of Ag colloids and direct on-plate analysis was performed. Spectra were more reproducible, with diminished fluorescence, and reveal characteristic cellular-level information. Different growth conditions and colloid preparations have been tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli clinical strains, responsible for nosocomial infections, have been our first test samples. An attempt has also been made to record SERS data from gold colloids in view of future measurement in the near-IR. Spectroscopic data are compared with ATR-FTIR results.

  1. Rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in feces and organs of chickens using a microscopic slide flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, H; Wyers, M; Cabaret, J; Naciri, M

    2000-03-01

    A simple semiquantitative microscopic slide flotation (MSF) method using modified Sheather's sugar solution (MSSS) is presented for the rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in the feces and mucosal and/or organ scrapings of chickens. Oocyst shedding was evaluated by examination of the surface of coverslips, and the average quantitative score (0-5) recorded for 10 microscopic fields (magnification x250) is reported. The equivalence between these scores and the actual number of oocysts counted per gram of feces was assessed (rs = 0.89; P < 0.001). The applicability of this method was tested by comparison of the kinetics of oocyst shedding in feces of inoculated chickens with those reported by other authors working under similar conditions. In organs the MSF method was compared to histology. Fewer false-negative results were obtained using MSF versus the histology method. The MSF method was particularly more efficient in tracheae with low levels of infection and in the lungs, regardless of the level of infection. The MSF method was also very efficient in detecting oocysts in air sacs from chickens with aerosacculitis. It provides a specific and sufficiently sensitive, simple, rapid, reliable, and low-cost means of diagnosing C. baileyi in the feces and organs of chickens. This method can be used in the routine diagnosis of cryptosporidia in chickens, and it could be extended to other avian species and used in epidemiology studies to evaluate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in fowl.

  2. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) for rapid measurement of organic matter in compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirt, Amanda L; Weindorf, David C; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Li, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Commercial compost is the inherently variable organic product of a controlled decomposition process. In the USA, assessment of compost's physicochemical parameters presently relies on standard laboratory analyses set forth in Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost (TMECC). A rapid, field-portable means of assessing the organic matter (OM) content of compost products would be useful to help producers ensure optimal uniformity in their compost products. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) is a rapid, proximal-sensing technology proven effective at quantifying organic matter levels in soils. As such, VisNIR DRS was evaluated to assess its applicability to compost. Thirty-six compost samples representing a wide variety of source materials and moisture content were collected and scanned with VisNIR DRS under moist and oven-dry conditions. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR) were used to relate the VisNIR DRS spectra with laboratory-measured OM to build compost OM prediction models. Raw reflectance, and first- and second-derivatives of the reflectance spectra were considered. In general, PLS regression outperformed PCR and the oven-dried first-derivative PLS model produced an r(2) value of 0.82 along with a residual prediction deviation value of 1.72. As such, VisNIR DRS shows promise as a suitable technique for the analysis of compost OM content for dried samples.

  3. Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Synthetic Applications for Rapid Assembly of Nanomaterials and Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed as the Bunsen burner of the 21th Century, has emerged as valuable alternative in synthesis of organics, polymers, inorganics, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare cat...

  4. Large Stimulation of Recalcitrant Dissolved Organic Carbon Degradation by Increasing Ocean Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lønborg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 96% of organic carbon in the ocean is in the dissolved form, most of it with lifetimes of decades to millennia. Yet, we know very little about the temperature sensitivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC degradation in a warming ocean. Combining independent estimates from laboratory experiments, oceanographic cruises and a global ocean DOC cycling model, we assess the relationship between DOC decay constants and seawater temperatures. Our results show that the apparent activation energy of DOC decay (Ea increases by three-fold from the labile (lifetime of days and semi-labile (lifetime of months to the semi-refractory (lifetime of decades DOC pools, with only minor differences between the world's largest ocean basins. This translates into increasing temperature coefficients (Q10 from 1.7–1.8 to 4–8, showing that the generalized assumption of a constant Q10 of ~2 for biological rates is not universally applicable for the microbial degradation of DOC in the ocean. Therefore, rising ocean temperatures will preferentially impact the microbial degradation of the more recalcitrant and larger of the three studied pools. Assuming a uniform 1°C warming scenario throughout the ocean, our model predicts a global decrease of the DOC reservoir by 7 ± 1 Pg C. This represents a 15% reduction of the semi-labile + semi-refractory DOC pools.

  5. Changing organisms in rapidly changing anthropogenic landscapes: the significance of the 'Umwelt'-concept and functional habitat for animal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-02-01

    There is a growing recognition for the significance of evolutionary thinking in ecology and conservation biology. However, ecology and conservation studies often work with species-specific, fixed traits that ignore intraspecific variation. The way the habitat of a species is considered is an example of typological thinking biased by human perception. Structural habitat units (e.g., land cover types) as perceived by humans may not represent functional habitat units for other organisms. Human activity may also interfere with the environmental information used by organisms. Therefore, the Umwelt-concept from ethology needs to be integrated in the way we think about habitat and habitat selection. It states that different organisms live in different perceptual worlds dealing with specific subsamples of the environment as a result of their evolutionary and developmental history. The resource-based habitat concept is a functional habitat model based on resource distributions (consumables and conditions) and individual movements. This behavioural approach takes into account aspects that relate to the perceptual world of organisms. This approach may offer new opportunities for conservation and may help avoid failures with habitat restoration. Perceptual ability may be subject to adaptive change, but it may also constrain organisms from showing adaptive behaviours in rapidly changing environments.

  6. B cells in the appendix and other lymphoid organs of the rabbit: stimulation of DNA synthesis by anti-immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.E.; Ozer, H.; Waksman, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytes from rabbit lymphoid organs were cultured in the presence of class specific anti-immunoglobulin sera and of anti-allotype sera. Stimulation of tritiated thymidine uptake into DNA was taken to indicate the presence of the corresponding immunoglobulins on the cell surfaces. Thymus and bone marrow lymphocytes were unresponsive to all reagents tested. Popliteal lymph node contained cells responsive to anti-μ, anti-γ, and anti-α and therefore presumably bearing IgM, IgG, and IgA. Spleen had only IgM- and IgG-bearing cells, and the appendix contained cells with IgM and IgA receptors only. The lymph node, spleen, and appendix cells of rabbits depleted of B lymphocytes by irradiation (900 R) and injection of thymocytes were unresponsive to anti-immunoglobulin but were stimulated at almost normal levels by PHA and Con A. T cell-depleted animals (thymectomy, irradiation with three divided doses of 450 R and bone marrow shielding) had immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes but were unresponsive to the mitogens. However a moderate level of mitogen-responsiveness reappeared by 3 to 4 wk after irradiation. Cells of morphologically distinct regions of the appendix, separated manually, showed different responses corresponding to the inferred origins of these anatomic areas. The ''dome'' and ''corona'' contained functional IgM- and IgA-bearing cells. The ''TDA'' reacted well to PHA, Con A, and PWM, but was depleted of immunoglobulin-bearing cells. The ''follicle'' cells, which are almost all in active DNA synthesis or mitosis, were relatively unresponsive to either T or B cell stimuli. Anti-allotype serum stimulated the same populations which responded to class-specific heteroantisera but at a slightly lower level. It was inferred that gut-associated lymphoid tissues like the appendix may play a special role as an amplification site for B-cells destined to produce IgM and IgA elsewhere in the organism

  7. The MESERAN Method: Rapid Quantification of Non-Volatile Organic Residue (NVOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2002-06-13

    The precision analytical technique known as MESERAN Analysis permits quantitative measurement of the level of preexisting nonvolatile organic residue (NVOR) on a substrate from <1 nanogram (ng)/cm{sup 2} to > 100 micrograms ({micro}g)/cm{sup 2} in 2 minutes. MESERAN Analysis is also applicable to determining NVOR in solvents and solvent extracts. The MESERAN method is able to quantify organic contamination levels down to and below 1 ng by depositing as little as 10 microliters ({micro}L) of solvent containing a known amount of contamination on a clean substrate, allowing it to evaporate, and measuring the evaporated residue. The method will be described in detail and NVOR measurements determined from MESERAN data will be presented.

  8. Rapid and Efficient Redox Processes within 2D Covalent Organic Framework Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlase, Catherine R. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Silberstein, Katharine E. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Bisbey, Ryan P. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Abruña, Héctor D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States; Dichtel, William R. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, United States

    2015-02-17

    Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) are ideally suited for organizing redox-active subunits into periodic, permanently porous polymer networks of interest for pseudocapacitive energy storage. Here we describe a method for synthesizing crystalline, oriented thin films of a redox-active 2D COF on Au working electrodes. The thickness of the COF film was controlled by varying the initial monomer concentration. A large percentage (80–99%) of the anthraquinone groups are electrochemically accessible in films thinner than 200 nm, an order of magnitude improvement over the same COF prepared as a randomly oriented microcrystalline powder. As a result, electrodes functionalized with oriented COF films exhibit a 400% increase in capacitance scaled to electrode area as compared to those functionalized with the randomly oriented COF powder. These results demonstrate the promise of redox-active COFs for electrical energy storage and highlight the importance of controlling morphology for optimal performance.

  9. Rapid and Efficient Redox Processes within 2D Covalent Organic Framework Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlase, Catherine R.; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Bisbey, Ryan P.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Dichtel, William R.

    2015-03-24

    Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) are ideally suited for organizing redox-active subunits into periodic, permanently porous polymer networks of interest for pseudocapacitive energy storage. Here we describe a method for synthesizing crystalline, oriented thin films of a redox-active 2D COF on Au working electrodes. The thickness of the COF film was controlled by varying the initial monomer concentration. A large percentage (80–99%) of the anthraquinone groups are electrochemically accessible in films thinner than 200 nm, an order of magnitude improvement over the same COF prepared as a randomly oriented microcrystalline powder. As a result, electrodes functionalized with oriented COF films exhibit a 400% increase in capacitance scaled to electrode area as compared to those functionalized with the randomly oriented COF powder. These results demonstrate the promise of redox-active COFs for electrical energy storage and highlight the importance of controlling morphology for optimal performance.

  10. Rapid mineralization of biogenic volatile organic compounds in temperate and Arctic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Kramshøj, Magnus; Rinnan, Riikka

    2018-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by all life forms. Their release into the atmosphere is important with regards to a number of physical and chemical processes and great effort has been put into determining sources and sinks of these compounds in recent years. Soil microbes as a possible sink for BVOCs in the atmosphere has been suggested, however, experimental evidence for this sink is scarce despite its potentially high importance to both carbon cycling and atmospheri...

  11. Prevalence of organic and inorganic contaminants within a rapidly developing catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njumbe, E. S.; Curtis, C. D.; Cooke, D. A.; Polya, D. A.; Wogelius, R. A.; Hughes, C.

    2003-04-01

    Industrialization rates in many developing countries typically outpace investment in water supply, sewage treatment and other waste water facilities. This is futher compounded by the absence of stringent land-use and waste disposal policies. The consequence of this has been contamination of land, surface water, and groundwater in such areas. Efforts to control and remediate these types of systems will rely on a thorough understanding of contaminant levels and mobility. Reliable data, however, is usually not available. Therefore this study was designed to acquire baseline data from a representative developing urban area in tropical west Africa. 43 water and 20 sediment/soil samples from streams, hand-dug wells, springs and deep boreholes within the city and surrounding areas of Douala in Cameroon were characterised. Analyses were aimed at obtaining information on the type and quantity of organic and inorganic contaminants present, and linking them to specific point and non-point sources. Results from gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of total organic extracts (TOE) of water samples have revealed the presence of a wide range of organic compounds including phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phthalates, acids and aliphatic derivatives. Concentrations as high as 500 ng ml-1 were detected. These high levels of non-polar compounds measured in drinking water represent a clear health problem. Heavy metal concentrations in bulk alluvial sands and loamy soil have been determined by microwave assisted nitric acid digestion. Concentration ranges (in ppm of dry weight) for the important metals were: Cr, 3.2-84.2 ; Ni, 0.2-57.4 ; Zn, 2.1-92 ; Pb, 0.3-33 ; As, 0.081-9.4 ; Cu, 0.61-17.4 ; and Cd, 0-3.1. Point sources have been identified for several of the organic and inorganic compounds and this spatial information will be integrated with the chemical data to present an overview of

  12. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tobias Munz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective: By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: 14 boys (10-14 yrs diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.

  13. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production....... The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...

  14. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order t...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  15. [Research on rapid determination of organic matter concentration in aquaculture water based on ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Qu, Wen-Tai; Yang, Xiang-Long; Jia, Sheng-Yao; Wang, Chun-Long; Lu, Chen

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy was investigated for the rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) which was an indicator to measure the concentration of organic matter in aquaculture water. A total number of 135 collected turtle breeding water samples were scanned for UV/Vis spectrum, uninformative variable elimination (UVE) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were combined as a mixed variable selection method to perform characteristic wavelength selection from the full wavelength spectrum, 7 characteristic wavelengths were selected from full 201 UV/Vis spectral variables, which were just 3.48% number of the full range spectrum, and the calibration time and complexity of the modeling were greatly reduced. The predicted results which were obtained by using least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) calibration showed that the characteristic wavelengths achieved better results (0.89 for correlation coefficient (r), 15.46 mg x L(-1) for root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP)) than full wavelengths did (0.88 for r and 15.71 mg x L(-1) for RMSEP). The comprehensive results revealed that the UV/Vis characteristic wavelengths which were obtained by UVE-SPA variable selection method, combined with LS-SVM calibration could apply to the rapid and accurate determination of COD in aquaculture water. Moreover, this study laid the foundation for further implementation of online analysis of aquaculture water and rapid determination of other water quality parameters.

  16. Can electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones stimulate the vestibular organ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Sievert, Uwe; Eggert, Siegfried; Wild, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Pulsating electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitted by mobile phones is often incriminated for causing tissue alterations by caloric effects. In particular, the eye and the ear were regarded as possible "hot spots," with heating up to 1 degree C, in which EM radiation might have negative effects. If so, these temperature increments should be large enough to cause vestibular excitation. In this study, we attempted to verify this theory by clinical testing and in vitro experiments. In our laboratory, a simulated GSM signal (889.6 MHz/2.2 W) was applied to 1 ear at a time, while video nystagmography was performed. The experimental setup was similar to that used for caloric (hot and cold water) testing of the peripheral vestibular organ. Data were evaluated by a computer system. There were 13 volunteers (26 ears) included in our study. In an additional experiment, temperatures of human temporal bones were measured by thermography, while a continuous or pulsating EM field was applied. In no volunteer could EM radiation-induced nystagmus be recorded. This corresponds well to our findings that in the human temporal bone very weak caloric effects could only be found in the tissue layers next to the radiation source (antenna of the mobile phone), whereas deeper regions (horizontal semicircular canal) seemed unaffected (at least less than 0.1 degree C). These results do not support the theory that mobile phone-induced EM radiation may cause caloric negative effects in the human ear.

  17. Buckling Reduces eNOS Production and Stimulates Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Arteries in Organ Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Artery buckling alters the fluid shear stress and wall stress in the artery but its temporal effect on vascular wall remodeling is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the early effect of artery buckling on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and extracellular matrix remodeling. Bilateral porcine carotid arteries were maintained in an ex vivo organ culture system with and without buckling while under the same physiological pressure and flow rate for 3-7 days. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III and IV, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and eNOS were determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that MMP-2 expression level was significantly higher in buckled arteries than in the controls and higher at the inner curve than at the outer curve of buckled arteries, while collagen IV content showed an opposite trend, suggesting that artery buckling increased MMP-2 expression and collagen IV degradation in a site-specific fashion. However, no differences for MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III, and TIMP-2 were observed among the outer and inner curve sides of buckled arteries and straight controls. Additionally, eNOS expression was significantly decreased in buckled arteries. These results suggest that artery buckling triggers uneven wall remodeling that could lead to development of tortuous arteries.

  18. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices. PMID:26932767

  19. Preparation and performance study of MgFe2O4/metal-organic framework composite for rapid removal of organic dyes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huairu; Peng, Jun; Lv, Tingting; Sun, Chen; He, Hua

    2018-01-01

    In present study, a stable and magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) material was synthesized by simple solvothermal method as adsorbent to rapid removal of two organic dyes, the Rhodamine B (RB) and Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), in water samples. The prepared material showed great characteristics of large surface area (519.86 m2 g-1), excellent magnetic responsivity (35.00 emu g-1) and rapid removal (within 5 min). Maximum adsorption capacities of the magnetic material toward RB and Rh6G were up to 219.78 and 306.75 mg g-1, respectively. Adsorption kinetics suggested the adsorption process met the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The prepared material could be reused at least 10 times by washing with acetonitrile solution, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of these ten cycles removal efficiency was 4.8%. In conclusion, good chemical inertness, a mechanical/water stability and super-hydrophilicity feature made this MOF a promising adsorbent for targets removal from environmental water sample.

  20. Organic titanates: a model for activating rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaofan; Li, Guangshe; Li, Huixia; Lu, Yantong; Li, Liping

    2018-04-12

    The application of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is challenged by the lack of strategies in rapid room-temperature synthesis with controlled morphologies. Here, we report on an initial study of adopting organic titanates as a model activator that promotes rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled, highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

  1. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, T; Triolo, J M; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C

    2017-08-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production. The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting BMP. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSE P ) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH 4 /g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH 4 /g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version. The BMP prediction with NIRS was satisfactory and moderately successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  3. Soil hypoxia induced by an organic-material mulching technique stimulates the bamboo rhizome up-floating of Phyllostachys praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjie; Zhuang, Shunyao; Gui, Renyi

    2017-10-30

    Phyllostachys praecox bamboo stands significantly recede after 3 or 4 years using an organic-material mulching technique consecutively. We hypothesized that the bamboo recession is caused by the up-floating of underground rhizome stimulated by soil hypoxia through the mulching technique. This study aimed to validate this hypothesis by field investigation. Bamboo underground rhizome distribution in the soil profile of P. praecox subjected to various mulching times was investigated. Results showed that bamboo rhizome weights and lengths increased with increased mulching time. However, after 4 years of mulching, the number of fresh rhizomes decreased significantly, and more than 50% of rhizomes floated upward to the shallow soil layer (0-10 cm). Moreover, the 0-10 cm soil layer suffered severe acidification that severely impeded bamboo-rhizome growth. The soil hypoxia induced by the mulching technique must be responsible for the bamboo rhizome up-floating. We confirmed that bamboo rhizome up-floating was the critical factor that caused the bamboo growth to recede under the mulching technique. Therefore, managing this bamboo rhizome up-floating is the key to sustainable bamboo production. The effect of soil hypoxia in the absence of flooding or waterlogging on plant root growth also warrants further and extensive study.

  4. Rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms by in-house developed capillary electrophoresis chip and laser-induced fluorescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2004-03-01

    A microfabricated, inexpensive, reusable glass capillary electrophoresis chip and a laser-induced fluorescence system were developed in-house for the rapid DNA-based analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The 35S promoter sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus and the terminator of the nopaline synthase (NOS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens were both detected since they are present in most genetically modified organisms. The detection of genetically modified soybean in the presence of unaltered soybean was chosen as a model. Lectin, a plant-specific gene, was also detected for confirmation of the integrity of extracted DNA. The chip was composed of two glass plates, each 25 x 76 mm, thermally bonded together to form a closed structure. Photomasks with cross-topology were prepared rapidly by using polymeric material instead of chrome plates. The widths of the injection and separation channels were 30 and 70 microm, respectively, the effective separation length 4.5 cm. The glass slide was etched to a depth of 30 microm for both the injection and separation channel. The cost of the chip was less than 1 $ and required 2 days for photomask preparation and microfabrication. The separation and detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified NOS, 35S, and lectin sequences (180, 195, and 181 bp, respectively) was completed in less than 60 s. As low as 0.1% GMO content was detectable by the proposed system after 35 and 40 amplification cycles for 35S and NOS, respectively, using 25 ng of extracted DNA as starting material. This corresponds to only 20 genome copies of genetically modified soybean.

  5. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Rapid and simple purification of elastin-like polypeptides directly from whole cells and cell lysates by organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHeul, Ross; Sweet, Craig; Thompson, David H

    2018-03-26

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) are a well-known class of proteins that are being increasingly utilized in a variety of biomedical applications, due to their beneficial physicochemical properties. A unifying feature of ELP is their demonstration of a sequence tunable inverse transition temperature (Tt) that enables purification using a simple, straightforward process called inverse transition cycling (ITC). Despite the utility of ITC, the process is inherently limited to ELP with an experimentally accessible Tt. Since the underlying basis for the ELP Tt is related to its high overall hydrophobicity, we anticipated that ELP would be excellent candidates for purification by organic extraction. We report the first method for rapidly purifying ELP directly from whole E. coli cells or clarified lysates using pure organic solvents and solvent mixtures, followed by aqueous back extraction. Our results show that small ELP and a large ELP-fusion protein can be isolated in high yield from whole cells or cell lysates with greater than 95% purity in less than 30 min and with very low levels of LPS and DNA contamination.

  7. Rapid generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) through anaerobic acidification of livestock organic waste at low hydraulic residence time (HRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Nakkasunchi, Shalini; Begum, Sameena; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and F/M (Food to Microorganism) ratios for the rapid generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from livestock organic wastes (cattle manure (CM) and poultry litter (PL)) through an anaerobic acidification process at a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Experiments were organized using CM and PL in batch reactors (1L and 25L) with and with no pre-treatment of substrate at F/M ratios (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1). Among various existing pre-treatments methods, thermal-acidic (120°C; 1% H 2 SO 4 ) pre-treatment was found effective. The results revealed that 0.31 and 0.47kg VFA/(kg VS reduced) could be obtained from CM and PL respectively with no pre-treatment, whereas it improvised to 0.43 and 0.67kg VFA/(kg VS reduced) correspondingly due to pre-treatment. Aforesaid, better yield of VFA was obtained at F/M ratio of 1.0, pH-5.5 and hydraulic residence time of 4days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid prediction of particulate, humus and resistant fractions of soil organic carbon in reforested lands using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Dinesh B; Baldock, Jeff A; Read, Zoe J; Murphy, Simon C; Cunningham, Shaun C; Perring, Michael P; Herrmann, Tim; Lewis, Tom; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; England, Jacqueline R; Paul, Keryn I; Weston, Christopher J; Baker, Thomas G

    2017-05-15

    Reforestation of agricultural lands with mixed-species environmental plantings can effectively sequester C. While accurate and efficient methods for predicting soil organic C content and composition have recently been developed for soils under agricultural land uses, such methods under forested land uses are currently lacking. This study aimed to develop a method using infrared spectroscopy for accurately predicting total organic C (TOC) and its fractions (particulate, POC; humus, HOC; and resistant, ROC organic C) in soils under environmental plantings. Soils were collected from 117 paired agricultural-reforestation sites across Australia. TOC fractions were determined in a subset of 38 reforested soils using physical fractionation by automated wet-sieving and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mid- and near-infrared spectra (MNIRS, 6000-450 cm -1 ) were acquired from finely-ground soils from environmental plantings and agricultural land. Satisfactory prediction models based on MNIRS and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were developed for TOC and its fractions. Leave-one-out cross-validations of MNIRS-PLSR models indicated accurate predictions (R 2  > 0.90, negligible bias, ratio of performance to deviation > 3) and fraction-specific functional group contributions to beta coefficients in the models. TOC and its fractions were predicted using the cross-validated models and soil spectra for 3109 reforested and agricultural soils. The reliability of predictions determined using k-nearest neighbour score distance indicated that >80% of predictions were within the satisfactory inlier limit. The study demonstrated the utility of infrared spectroscopy (MNIRS-PLSR) to rapidly and economically determine TOC and its fractions and thereby accurately describe the effects of land use change such as reforestation on agricultural soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  10. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás M Kouyoumdzian

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP on organic cation transporters (OCTs expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T, ANP, dopamine (DA, D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  11. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabah Abdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest

  12. [INHIBITORS OF MAP-KINASE PATHWAY U0126 AND PD98059 DIFFERENTLY AFFECT ORGANIZATION OF TUBULIN CYTOSKELETON AFTER STIMULATION OF EGF RECEPTOR ENDOCYTOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobina, M V; Steblyanko, Yu Yu; Shklyaeva, M A; Kharchenko, V V; Salova, A V; Kornilova, E S

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis about the involvement of EGF-stimulated MAP-kinase ERK1/2 in the regulation of microtubule (MT) system, the influence of two widely used ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase HeLa cells during EGF receptor endocytosis has been investigated. We have found that addition of U0126 or PD98059 to not-stimulated with EGF ells for 30 min has no effect on radially organized MT system. However, in the case of U0126 addition before EGF endocytosis stimulation, the number of MT per cell decreased within 15 min after such stimulation and was followed by complete MT depolymerization by 60-90 min. Stimulation of EGF endocytosis in the presence of PD98059 resulted only in insignificant depolymerization of MT and it could be detected mainly from their minus-ends. At the same time, MT regions close to plasma membrane became stabilized, which was proved by increase in tubulin acetylation level. This situation was characteristic for all period of the experiment. It has been also found that the inhibitors affect endocytosis dynamics of EGF-receptor complexes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the stimulation of endocytosis in the presence of U0126 generated a greater number of endosomes compared to control cells, and their number did not change significantly during the experiment. All these endosomes were localized peripherally. Effect of PD98059 resulted in the formation of lower number of endosomes that in control, but they demonstrated very slow clusterization despite the presence of some intact MT. Both inhibitors decreased EGFR colocolization with early endosomal marker EEA1, which indicated a delay in endosome fusions and maturation. The inhibitors were also shown to affect differently phospho-ERK 1 and 2 forms: U0126 completely inhibited phospho-ERK1 and 2, white, in the presence of PD98059, the two ERK forms demonstrated sharp transient activation in 15 min after stimulation, but only

  13. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: an explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Balboa, C; Baselga-Cervera, B; García-Sanchez, A; Igual, J M; Lopez-Rodas, V; Costas, E

    2013-11-15

    Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These "lucky mutants" could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategic Management in Hybrid Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joldersma, F.; Winter, V.

    2002-01-01

    Many public service organizations have to deal with rapidly changing environments. Government offers less financial security than in the past and stimulates organizations to develop a market orientation. The focus of this article is explaining the shape of strategic management in public service

  15. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-07

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. High-Pressure Solvent Vapor Annealing with a Benign Solvent To Rapidly Enhance the Performance of Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Buyoung; Kim, Kangmin; Eom, Yoomin; Kim, Woochul

    2015-06-24

    A high-pressure solvent vapor annealing (HPSVA) treatment is suggested as an annealing process to rapidly achieve high-performance organic photovoltaics (OPVs); this process can be compatible with roll-to-roll processing methods and uses a benign solvent: acetone. Solvent vapor annealing can produce an advantageous vertical distribution in the active layer; however, conventional solvent vapor annealing is also time-consuming. To shorten the annealing time, high-pressure solvent vapor is exposed on the active layer of OPVs. Acetone is a nonsolvent for poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), but it can dissolve small amounts of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1,1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM). Acetone vapor molecules can penetrate into the active layer under high vapor pressure conditions to alter the morphology. HPSVA induces a PCBM-rich phase near the cathode and facilitates the transport of free charge carriers to the electrode. Although P3HT is not soluble in acetone, locally rearranged P3HT crystallites are generated. The performance of OPV films was enhanced after HPSVA; the film treated at 30 kPa for 10 s showed optimum performance. Additionally, this HPSVA method could be adapted for mass production because the temporary exposure of films to high-pressure acetone vapor in ambient conditions also improved performance.

  17. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  18. Controlling human corneal stromal stem cell contraction to mediate rapid cell and matrix organization of real architecture for 3-dimensional tissue equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhey, Dev; Phillips, James B; Daniels, Julie T; Kureshi, Alvena K

    2018-02-01

    The architecture of the human corneal stroma consists of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes. Their progenitor cells; corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) are located at the periphery, in the limbal stroma. A highly organized corneal ECM is critical for effective transmission of light but this structure may be compromised during injury or disease, resulting in loss of vision. Re-creating normal organization in engineered tissue equivalents for transplantation often involves lengthy culture times that are inappropriate for clinical use or utilisation of synthetic substrates that bring complications such as corneal melting. CSSC have great therapeutic potential owing to their ability to reorganize a disorganized matrix, restoring transparency in scarred corneas. We examined CSSC contractile behavior to assess whether this property could be exploited to rapidly generate cell and ECM organization in Real Architecture For 3D Tissues (RAFT) tissue equivalents (TE) for transplantation. Free-floating collagen gels were characterized to assess contractile behavior of CSSC and establish optimum cell density and culture times. To mediate cell and collagen organization, tethered collagen gels seeded with CSSC were cultured and subsequently stabilized with the RAFT process. We demonstrated rapid creation of biomimetic RAFT TE with tunable structural properties. These displayed three distinct regions of varying degrees of cellular and collagen organization. Interestingly, increased organization coincided with a dramatic loss of PAX6 expression in CSSC, indicating rapid differentiation into keratocytes. The organized RAFT TE system could be a useful bioengineering tool to rapidly create an organized ECM while simultaneously controlling cell phenotype. For the first time, we have demonstrated that human CSSC exhibit the phenomenon of cellular self-alignment in tethered collagen gels. We found this mediated rapid co-alignment of collagen fibrils

  19. Effects of mechanical stimulating treatment on self-organization phenomena of materials; Kikaiteki reiki shori. Zairyo no jiko soshikia gensho ni oyobosu sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-31

    The atoms and atom clusters around dislocation cores in crystals or surface layer deformed by mechanical energy are locally excited so as to give rise some chemical reactions and to self-organize their products into a kind of Spatial-Temporal Pattern Formation as a dissipative structure. A famous coupling phenomenon between mechanical and chemical process in solid materials must have been mechanical alloing. This report explains that various mechano-chemical treatments are powerfull method for entraining the solid system into non-equilibrium states and interesting phenomena stimulated by the mechanical self-catalysis reaction causing self-organization. (author)

  20. Fast GC-analysis of selected organic compounds at trace levels with the novel RAPID-MS/MS-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poell, S.

    2002-03-01

    The main topic of the present thesis was the development of rapid analytical procedures for the environmental analysis of a steel producing company, to speed up the sample throughput for the daily routine work. Additionally, high precision of analysis results was requested. This brought a certain effort concerning the validation of the results which was supported by the analysis of certified reference materials. Special interest was laid on the optimization of the trace analysis of dioxins and furans (PCDD/DF). An expansion of the established methods with powerful techniques like single ion storage and tandem-mass spectrometry resulted in an obvious improvement of the limits of quantitation and the reliability of analysis. Further advances could be achieved with the simplification of the clean-up procedure by the application of a new sampling technique which reduced the demand on sample preparation time as well. Analysis were also carried out with brominated Dioxins and Furans (PBrDD/DF). The next item focused on the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the implementation of five new representatives with a highly carcinogenic potential. In this case, the coupling of three detectors resulted in a robust and precise HPLC-method with a highly qualitative and quantitative analytical reliability. Furthermore, the aim was to promote the routine analysis of alkylated aromatics (BTEX) and halogenated volatile organic (VOC) compounds. By the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection a common analytical technique for both classes of substances could be found with an enhancement of sensitivity due to application of the single ion storage technique. The existing method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was improved by replacing the electron capture detector with mass spectrometry. Due to an optimization of the single ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry parameters the requested demands on low detection

  1. Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation of the median nerve and motor cortex can produce long-lasting changes in motor cortical excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Bagnato, Sergio; Morgante, Francesca; Sant'Angelo, Antonino; Girlanda, Paolo; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2006-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or repetitive electrical peripheral nerve stimulation (rENS) can induce changes in the excitability of the human motor cortex (M1) that is often short-lasting and variable, and occurs only after prolonged periods of stimulation. In 10 healthy volunteers, we used a new repetitive paired associative stimulation (rPAS) protocol to facilitate and prolong the effects of rENS and rTMS on cortical excitability. Sub-motor threshold 5 Hz rENS of the right median nerve was synchronized with submotor threshold 5 Hz rTMS of the left M1 at a constant interval for 2 min. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the peripheral stimulus and the transcranial stimulation was set at 10 ms (5 Hz rPAS10ms) or 25 ms (5 Hz rPAS25ms). TMS was given over the hot spot of the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle. Before and after rPAS, we measured the amplitude of the unconditioned motor evoked potential (MEP), intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF), short- and long-latency afferent inhibition (SAI and LAI) in the conditioned M1. The 5 Hz rPAS25ms protocol but not the 5 Hz rPAS10ms protocol caused a somatotopically specific increase in mean MEP amplitudes in the relaxed APB muscle. The 5 Hz rPAS25ms protocol also led to a loss of SAI, but there was no correlation between individual changes in SAI and corticospinal excitability. These after-effects were still present 6 h after 5 Hz rPAS25ms. There was no consistent effect on ICI, ICF and LAI. The 5 Hz rENS and 5 Hz rTMS protocols failed to induce any change in corticospinal excitability when given alone. These findings show that 2 min of 5 Hz rPAS25ms produce a long-lasting and somatotopically specific increase in corticospinal excitability, presumably by sensorimotor disinhibition.

  2. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  3. A technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a rapid method for apportioning the sources of atmospheric organic aerosol composition measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. Here, we specifically apply this new analysis method to data acquired on a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG system. Gas chromatograms are divided by retention time into evenly spaced bins, within which the mass spectra are summed. A previous chromatogram binning method was introduced for the purpose of chromatogram structure deconvolution (e.g., major compound classes (Zhang et al., 2014. Here we extend the method development for the specific purpose of determining aerosol samples' sources. Chromatogram bins are arranged into an input data matrix for positive matrix factorization (PMF, where the sample number is the row dimension and the mass-spectra-resolved eluting time intervals (bins are the column dimension. Then two-dimensional PMF can effectively do three-dimensional factorization on the three-dimensional TAG mass spectra data. The retention time shift of the chromatogram is corrected by applying the median values of the different peaks' shifts. Bin width affects chemical resolution but does not affect PMF retrieval of the sources' time variations for low-factor solutions. A bin width smaller than the maximum retention shift among all samples requires retention time shift correction. A six-factor PMF comparison among aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS, TAG binning, and conventional TAG compound integration methods shows that the TAG binning method performs similarly to the integration method. However, the new binning method incorporates the entirety of the data set and requires significantly less pre-processing of the data than conventional single compound identification and integration. In addition, while a fraction of the most oxygenated aerosol does not elute through an underivatized TAG analysis, the TAG binning method does have the ability to achieve molecular level

  4. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community‐based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E.; Yu, L.; Michels, A.; Gianani, R.; Pugliese, A.; Nierras, C.; Kaddis, J. S.; Schatz, D. A.; Bonifacio, E.; Atkinson, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)‐positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes‐specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma‐associated protein‐2 (IA‐2A) and zinc transporter‐8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb‐positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98‐100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64–82% (GADA), 60–64% (IA‐2A) and 62–68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow‐up studies (14 GADA+, two IA‐2A+, four multiple AAb‐positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes‐associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non‐diabetic, high‐risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. PMID:27029857

  5. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Beyond codes of ethics: an integrated framework for stimulating morally responsible behaviour in organizations (beloond met een ANBAR-award)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonald, Geal; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of ethics programmes by the building of a theoretical model for implementing an ethics programme and examining the application of this model to an actual implementation case study. Ethics programmes aim at stimulating ethical behaviour in the organisation and

  7. Modular Organization of the NusA- and NusG-Stimulated RNA Polymerase Pause Signal That Participates in the Bacillus subtilis trp Operon Attenuation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Smarajit; Yakhnin, Alexander V; Babitzke, Paul

    2017-07-15

    The Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by a transcription attenuation mechanism in which tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to the nascent transcript and blocks the formation of an antiterminator structure such that the formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator causes termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). In the absence of bound TRAP, the antiterminator forms and transcription continues into the trp genes. RNA polymerase pauses at positions U107 and U144 in the 5' UTR. The general transcription elongation factors NusA and NusG stimulate pausing at both positions. NusG-stimulated pausing at U144 requires sequence-specific contacts with a T tract in the nontemplate DNA (ntDNA) strand within the paused transcription bubble. Pausing at U144 participates in a trpE translation repression mechanism. Since U107 just precedes the critical overlap between the antiterminator and terminator structures, pausing at this position is thought to participate in attenuation. Here we carried out in vitro pausing and termination experiments to identify components of the U107 pause signal and to determine whether pausing affects the termination efficiency in the 5' UTR. We determined that the U107 and U144 pause signals are organized in a modular fashion containing distinct RNA hairpin, U-tract, and T-tract components. NusA-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the U-tract sequence, whereas NusG-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the T-tract sequence. We also determined that pausing at U107 results in increased TRAP-dependent termination in the 5' UTR, implying that NusA- and NusG-stimulated pausing participates in the trp operon attenuation mechanism by providing additional time for TRAP binding. IMPORTANCE The expression of several bacterial operons is controlled by regulated termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Transcription attenuation is defined as situations in which the binding of a regulatory

  8. Cord blood-derived macrophage-lineage cells rapidly stimulate osteoblastic maturation in mesenchymal stem cells in a glycoprotein-130 dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania J Fernandes

    Full Text Available In bone, depletion of osteoclasts reduces bone formation in vivo, as does osteal macrophage depletion. How osteoclasts and macrophages promote the action of bone forming osteoblasts is, however, unclear. Since recruitment and differentiation of multi-potential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC generates new active osteoblasts, we investigated whether human osteoclasts and macrophages (generated from cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitors induce osteoblastic maturation in adipose tissue-derived MSC. When treated with an osteogenic stimulus (ascorbate, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate these MSC form matrix-mineralising, alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblastic cells. Cord blood-derived progenitors were treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF to form immature proliferating macrophages, or with M-CSF plus receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL to form osteoclasts; culture medium was conditioned for 3 days by these cells to study their production of osteoblastic factors. Both osteoclast- and macrophage-conditioned medium (CM greatly enhanced MSC osteoblastic differentiation in both the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, evident by increased alkaline phosphatase levels within 4 days and increased mineralisation within 14 days. These CM effects were completely ablated by antibodies blocking gp130 or oncostatin M (OSM, and OSM was detectable in both CM. Recombinant OSM very potently stimulated osteoblastic maturation of these MSC and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 actions on MSC. To determine the influence of macrophage activation on this OSM-dependent activity, CM was collected from macrophage populations treated with M-CSF plus IL-4 (to induce alternative activation or with GM-CSF, IFNγ and LPS to cause classical activation. CM from IL-4 treated macrophages stimulated osteoblastic maturation in MSC, while CM from classically-activated macrophages did not. Thus, macrophage-lineage cells

  9. Rapid formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in rat parotid glands may both result indirectly from receptor-stimulated release of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, P T; Stephens, L; Downes, C P

    1986-01-01

    Addition of 1 mM-carbachol to [3H]inositol-labelled rat parotid slices stimulated rapid formation of [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, the accumulation of which reached a peak 20 s after stimulation, and then declined rapidly towards a new steady state. The initial rate of formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was slower than that for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The radioactivity in [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate fell quickly in carbachol-stimulated and then atropine...

  10. Effect of Embryo Thermal Stimulation on the Serum Levels of Immunoglobulins and Corticosterone, and Organ Histopathology of 1 day-old Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Flores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Embryo thermal stimulation has been studied as a means to promote epigenetic changes and to improve broiler health and performance. This study aimed at evaluating immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, and IgA titers, serum corticosterone levels, and organ integrity of day-old male Cobb(r and Ross(r broilers. Embryos were submitted to hot and cold stimuli (thermal stimulation on days 14-18 of incubation. The thermal manipulation treatments did not affect immunoglobulin titers of 1 day-old Cobb(r or Ross(r chicks, and caused severe bursal lesions (scores 3 and 4 in both strains. However, serum corticosterone levels of Cobb(r chicks were higher when embryos were submitted to hot stimulus (+1.39ºC compared with cold stimulus (+36 ºC. Serum corticosterone levels of Ross(r chicks were not affected by embryo temperature manipulation. The only effect of broiler breeder age was observed on IgM titers of Cobb(r chicks, which were higher in chicks from 33-wk-old breeders. Further studies are needed to detect the optimal period of embryo thermal stimulation.

  11. Stimulation of reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethane in anaerobic aquifer microcosms by addition of short-chain organic acids or alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.A.; Sewell, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Although the ecological and public health risk associated with tetrachloroethene (PCE) contamination may be the most severe when spills affect groundwater, little is known about the environmental conditions necessary to initiate and sustain dehalogenation activity in contaminated aquifers. This study was done with core material collected from a site impacted by both aviation gasoline and chloroethenes at a Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, Michigan. The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, and isopropanol did not

  12. Rapid, ultrasensitive detection of micro-organisms based on interferometry and lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ymeti, Aurel; Dudia, A.; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Nederkoom, Paul H.J.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S.; Halvorson, Craig S.; Southern, Sarka O.; Kumar, B.V.K. Vijaya; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2009-01-01

    Future viral outbreaks are a major threat to societal and economic development throughout the world. A rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use test for viral infections is essential to prevent and to control such viral pandemics. Furthermore, a compact, portable device is potentially very useful in remote

  13. The Achilles' Heel of "Ultrastable" Hyperthermophile Proteins: Submillimolar Concentrations of SDS Stimulate Rapid Conformational Change, Aggregation, and Amyloid Formation in Proteins Carrying Overall Positive Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Javed M; Sharma, Prerna; Arora, Kanika; Kishor, Nitin; Kaila, Pallavi; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2016-07-19

    Low concentrations (SDS) have been shown to induce the formation of amyloid fibers in more than 20 different mesophile-derived proteins in the cationic state. It is not known whether SDS has similar effects on hyperthermophile-derived proteins, which are otherwise thought to be "ultrastable" and inordinately resistant to structural perturbations at room temperature. Here, we show that low (SDS rapidly induce the formation of aggregates and amyloid fibers in five different ultrastable Pyrococcus furiosus proteins in the cationic state. We also show that amyloid formation is accompanied by the development of a characteristic, negative circular dichroism band at ∼230 nm. These effects are not seen if the proteins have a net negative charge or when higher concentrations of SDS are used (which induce helix formation instead). Our results appear to reveal a potential weakness or "Achilles' heel" in ultrastable proteins from hyperthermophiles. They also provide very strong support for the view that SDS initially interacts with proteins through electrostatic interactions, and not hydrophobic interactions, eliciting similar effects entirely regardless of protein molecular weight, or structural features such as quaternary structure or tertiary structural stability.

  14. Parameter and State Estimation of an Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes Model with Addition of Stimulating Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava Lubenova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New control inputs are introduced in the 5th order mass-balance non-linear model of the anaerobic digestion, which reflects the addition of stimulating substances (acetate and glucose. Laboratory experiments have been done with step-wise and pulse changes of these new inputs. On the basis of the step responses of the measured variables (biogas flow rate and acetate concentration in the bioreactor and iterative methodology, involving non-linear optimisation and simulations, the model coefficients have been estimated. The model validity has been proved by another set of experiments. The observation part is built on a two-step structure. One estimator and two observers are designed on the basis of this process model. Their stability has been proved and their performances have been investigated with experimental data and simulations.

  15. Assessment of individual organ doses in a realistic human phantom from neutron and gamma stimulated spectroscopy of the breast and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belley, Matthew D; Segars, William Paul; Kapadia, Anuj J

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the radiation dose to a patient is essential when considering the use of an ionizing diagnostic imaging test for clinical diagnosis and screening. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors estimated the three-dimensional organ-dose distribution from neutron and gamma irradiation of the male liver, female liver, and female breasts for neutron- and gamma-stimulated spectroscopic imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were developed using the Geant4 GATE application and a voxelized XCAT human phantom. A male and a female whole body XCAT phantom was voxelized into 256 × 256 × 600 voxels (3.125 × 3.125 × 3.125 mm(3)). A monoenergetic rectangular beam of 5.0 MeV neutrons or 7.0 MeV photons was made incident on a 2 cm thick slice of the phantom. The beam was rotated at eight different angles around the phantom ranging from 0° to 180°. Absorbed dose was calculated for each individual organ in the body and dose volume histograms were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each organ. The neutron irradiations of the liver showed the highest organ dose absorption in the liver, with appreciably lower doses in other proximal organs. The dose distribution within the irradiated slice exhibited substantial attenuation with increasing depth along the beam path, attenuating to ~15% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. The gamma irradiation of the liver imparted the highest organ dose to the stomach wall. The dose distribution from the gammas showed a region of dose buildup at the beam entrance, followed by a relatively uniform dose distribution to all of the deep tissue structures, attenuating to ~75% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. For the breast scans, both the neutron and gamma irradiation registered maximum organ doses in the breasts, with all other organs receiving less than 1% of the breast dose. Effective doses ranged from 0.22 to 0.37 mSv for the neutron scans and 41 to 66 mSv for the gamma scans. Neutron and gamma

  16. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  17. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  18. Snpdat: Easy and rapid annotation of results from de novo snp discovery projects for model and non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Anthony G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant genetic variant found in vertebrates and invertebrates. SNP discovery has become a highly automated, robust and relatively inexpensive process allowing the identification of many thousands of mutations for model and non-model organisms. Annotating large numbers of SNPs can be a difficult and complex process. Many tools available are optimised for use with organisms densely sampled for SNPs, such as humans. There are currently few tools available that are species non-specific or support non-model organism data. Results Here we present SNPdat, a high throughput analysis tool that can provide a comprehensive annotation of both novel and known SNPs for any organism with a draft sequence and annotation. Using a dataset of 4,566 SNPs identified in cattle using high-throughput DNA sequencing we demonstrate the annotations performed and the statistics that can be generated by SNPdat. Conclusions SNPdat provides users with a simple tool for annotation of genomes that are either not supported by other tools or have a small number of annotated SNPs available. SNPdat can also be used to analyse datasets from organisms which are densely sampled for SNPs. As a command line tool it can easily be incorporated into existing SNP discovery pipelines and fills a niche for analyses involving non-model organisms that are not supported by many available SNP annotation tools. SNPdat will be of great interest to scientists involved in SNP discovery and analysis projects, particularly those with limited bioinformatics experience.

  19. Rapid estimation of the organic sulphur content of kerogens, coals and asphaltenes by pyrolysis-gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1990-01-01

    A pyrolysis-gas Chromatographic (py-g.c.) method for estimation of the Sorg/C ratio in kerogens and other forms of sedimentary macromolecular organic matter is described. The method is based upon flash pyrolysis at 610 °C for 10s and areal integration of the FID peaks attributed to

  20. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit β-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 μg/ml) and cortisol (0.5 μg/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone

  1. A simple Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system for rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidative degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanan; Yang, Shaojie [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China); Zhou, Danna, E-mail: zdncug@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Feng [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organic pollutants occur. • Oxysulfur radicals generated in Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system oxidize the organic pollutants. • Acidic pH facilitates the reactions from both directions of reduction and oxidation. • Degradation potential of aromatic amines depends on the substituted groups. • Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system is promising for “waste control by waste”. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a heavy-metal contaminant, can be easily reduced to less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by sulfite ions (S(IV)). However, S(IV) has not drawn as much attention as the ferrous ion has. We report herein a novel Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system containing sulfite ions that rapidly and simultaneously reduces Cr(VI) and oxidize organic pollutants in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solutions. This Cr(VI)–S(IV)-O{sub 2} system contains the initiator Cr(VI), the reductant S(IV), and the oxidant O{sub 2}, which produce oxysulfur radicals (mainly SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and SO{sub 5}·{sup −}) and hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The Cr(VI)/S(IV) molar ratio, pH, and oxygen content play important roles in the entire reaction system. Acidic conditions (pH 3.0) facilitated degradation of organic compounds and reduction of Cr(VI) as well. In addition, experiments of rapid degradation of several kinds of organic pollutants such as azo dye (acid orange 7, AO7), aniline, phenol, bisphenol A etc were also conducted. Preliminary results show that the removal rates of the analogs of phenols or aromatic amines in this Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system have a relationship with the electronic parameters (Hammett constant, σ) of the substituted groups. Thus, the Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system, provides an excellent strategy of “waste control by waste” for removing multiple industrial contaminants.

  2. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiangwei [Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Xing, Zhuokan [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Fengmao, E-mail: liufengmao@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Zhang, Xu [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  3. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Xiangwei; Xing, Zhuokan; Liu, Fengmao; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L −1 . The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly

  4. Depleted dissolved organic carbon and distinct bacterial communities in the water column of a rapid-flushing coral reef ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig E; Alldredge, Alice L; McCliment, Elizabeth A; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Carlson, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystems bathed in unproductive, low-nutrient oceanic waters, where microbially dominated food webs are supported largely by bacterioplankton recycling of dissolved compounds. Despite evidence that benthic reef organisms efficiently scavenge particulate organic matter and inorganic nutrients from advected oceanic waters, our understanding of the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the interaction between reefs and the surrounding ocean remains limited. In this study, we present the results of a 4-year study conducted in a well-characterized coral reef ecosystem (Paopao Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia) where changes in bacterioplankton abundance and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were quantified and bacterial community structure variation was examined along spatial gradients of the reef:ocean interface. Our results illustrate that the reef is consistently depleted in concentrations of both DOC and bacterioplankton relative to offshore waters (averaging 79 μmol l−1 DOC and 5.5 × 108 cells l−1 offshore and 68 μmol l−1 DOC and 3.1 × 108 cells l−1 over the reef, respectively) across a 4-year time period. In addition, using a suite of culture-independent measures of bacterial community structure, we found consistent differentiation of reef bacterioplankton communities from those offshore or in a nearby embayment across all taxonomic levels. Reef habitats were enriched in Gamma-, Delta-, and Betaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Specific bacterial phylotypes, including members of the SAR11, SAR116, Flavobacteria, and Synechococcus clades, exhibited clear gradients in relative abundance among nearshore habitats. Our observations indicate that this reef system removes oceanic DOC and exerts selective pressures on bacterioplankton community structure on timescales approximating reef water residence times, observations which are notable both because

  5. Acute onset and rapid progression of multiple organ failure in a young adult with undiagnosed disseminated colonic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Perner, Anders; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2014-01-01

    , ascites and multiple vein thrombosis. The patient passed away shortly after admission due to treatment-resistant tumour lysis syndrome and multiple organ failure. Biopsy results revealed disseminated adenocarcinoma of the colon, with metastases to lymph nodes, liver, lungs and pleura. CRC in younger...... in a previously healthy 27-year-old man, presented to us with symptoms of increasing abdominal pain and distension. Extensive diagnostic investigation revealed hepatomegaly with multiple processes, signs of vasculitis, extensive liver necrosis, enlarged retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes, splenomegaly...

  6. Rapid identification of regulated organic chemical compounds in toys using ambient ionization and a miniature mass spectrometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Bai, Hua; Lv, Yueguang; Xi, Guangcheng; Li, Junfang; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Ren, Yue; Ouyang, Zheng; Ma, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Rapid, on-site analysis was achieved through significantly simplified operation procedures for a wide variety of toy samples (crayon, temporary tattoo sticker, finger paint, modeling clay, and bubble solution) using a miniature mass spectrometry system with ambient ionization capability. The labor-intensive analytical protocols involving sample workup and chemical separation, traditionally required for MS-based analysis, were replaced by direct sampling analysis using ambient ionization methods. A Mini β ion trap miniature mass spectrometer was coupled with versatile ambient ionization methods, e.g. paper spray, extraction spray and slug-flow microextraction nanoESI for direct identification of prohibited colorants, carcinogenic primary aromatic amines, allergenic fragrances, preservatives and plasticizers from raw toy samples. The use of paper substrates coated with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles allowed a great increase in sensitivity for paper spray. Limits of detection as low as 5μgkg -1 were obtained for target analytes. The methods being developed based on the integration of ambient ionization with miniature mass spectrometer represent alternatives to current in-lab MS analysis operation, and would enable fast, outside-the-lab screening of toy products to ensure children's safety and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal-organic framework UiO-66 for rapid dispersive solid phase extraction of neonicotinoid insecticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Jiang, Zejun; Wang, Shanshan; Hong, Sihui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Shao, Yong; She, Yongxin; Jin, Fen; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    UIO-66 crystals were explored for the first time to adsorb neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples. HPLC coupled with tandem MS was used for quantification and determination of neonicotinoid insecticides. UiO-66 crystals was successfully synthesized by a simple constant-temperature bath method. Synthesized UiO-66 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry (NAP), which demonstrated a uniform particle size, a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and high thermostability. The adsorbing results showed that UIO-66 crystals could be used as a promising adsorbents for rapid extraction of neonicotinoid insecticides and be reused at least 10 times. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) for the five insecticides were found to be 0.02-0.4 ng/mL and 0.05-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. This developed approach not only provided more simple and sensitive method, as well as possessing satisfactory recovery for neonicotinoid insecticides, but also for other traces in environmental samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Long-term stability of organic carbon-stimulated chromatereduction in contaminated soils, and its relation to manganese redoxstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton,Steve R.; Newville, Matthew; Rao, William

    2007-03-13

    In-situ reduction of toxic Cr(V1) to less hazardous Cr(II1)is becoming a popular strategy for remediating contaminated soils.However, the long term stability of reduced Cr remains to be understood,especially given the common presence of MnfIIIJV) oxides that reoxidizeCr(II1). This 4.6 year laboratory study tracked Cr and Mn redoxtransformations in soils contaminated with Cr(V1) which were then treatedwith different amounts of organic carbon (OC). Changes in Cr and Mnoxidation states within soils were directly and nondestructively measuredusing micro X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Chromatereduction was roughly lst-order, and the extent of reduction was enhancedwith higher OC additions. However, significant Cr(||1) reoxidationoccurred in soils exposed to the highest Cr(V1) concentrations (2,560 mgkg"'). Transient Cr(II1) reoxidation up to 420 mg kg1 was measured at 1.1years after OC treatment, followed by further reduction. Chromateconcentrations increased by 220 mg kgm1a t the end of the study (4.6years) in one soil. The causal role that Mn oxidation state had inreoxidizing Cr was supported by trends in Mn K-edge energies. Theseresults provide strong evidence for longterm dependence of soil Croxidation states on balances between OC availability and Mn redoxstatus.

  9. Study on preparation and effect of oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan on immune stimulation white patches in the internal organs disease on Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Pham Duy Hai

    2015-01-01

    Oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of β-glucan/H 2 O 2 and chitosan/H 2 O 2 solution. The efficiency of the degradation process was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) method. Results showed that the Mw decreased with increasing concentration of H 2 O 2 and doses. For oligoβ-glucan, Mw reduced from 56.7 kDa to 7.1 kDa when β-glucan 10%/H 2 O 2 1% solution was irradiated at 14 kGy. For oligochitosan, Mw reduced from 45.5 kDa to 5.0 kDa when chitosan 5%/H 2 O 2 0.5% solution was irradiated at 21 kGy. Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed with oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan in various concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg feed for 45 days and then was challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacteria to investigate immune stimulation effect against white patches in the internal organs disease. The results indicated that oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan exhibited good immune stimulation effect with optimum concentration of 100 mg/kg feed. Survival rate of Tra catfishes fed with oligochitosan and oligoβ-glucan is 47.62 ± 1.96% and 46.67 ± 2.58%, respectively. In addition, the mixture of oligochitosan 50 mg/kg + oligo?-glucan 50 mg/kg showed the highest survival rate (62.22 ± 1.96%). (author)

  10. Effect of Organic Growth Stimulants and Magnetic Water on Oil Harvest Index and Protein Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. at Different Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of organic growth stimulant and harvest time of soybean cultivar Williams on oil harvest index and protein yield, factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 15 treatment and three replications of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht in 2012-2013 year. The experiment Treatments were including Kadostim (50.00, Aminol forte (20.00, organic manure (cow,10 ton.ha-1, magnetic water (20 lit.m-2 plus the control (no spray and three harvest time 1. the first harvest when seed pods in main stem had 25-20% moisture, 2. the second harvest when in pods maturity (yellowing of more than 95% of pods and seeds per pod in the main stem had 15-14% moisture, 3. the third harvest when the main stem had less than 14% moisture. Results showed that significant differences exist between the spray application and harvest time in oil harvest index and protein yields. spray application with kadostim had the maximum oil harvest index (8.7% and biological yield (5933 kg.ha-1. Mean comparison of the interaction showed that spray application of kadostim at the second harvest produced highest grain yield (2853 kg.ha-1, oil yield (664 kg.ha-1 and protein yield (1019 kg.ha-1. The results of this experiment, it seems that Kadostim and organic manure spray application at the second harvest to help increase production, and a step towards reducing environmental pollution and sustainable agriculture is.

  11. Rapid and Facile Formation of P3HT Organogels via Spin Coating: Tuning Functional Properties of Organic Electronic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cameron S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Yin, Wen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Holt, Adam P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sangoro, Joshua R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sokolov, Alexei P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dadmun, Mark D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) is widely regarded as the benchmark polymer when studying the physics of conjugated polymers used in organic electronic devices. P3HT can self-assemble via stacking of its backbone, leading to an assembly and growth of P3HT fi brils into 3D percolating organogels. These structures are capable of bridging the electrodes, providing multiple pathways for charge transport throughout the active layer. Here, a novel set of conditions is identified and discussed for P3HT organogel network formation via spin coating by monitoring the spin-coating process from various solvents. The development of organogel formation is detected by in situ static light scattering, which measures both the thinning rate by refl ectance and structural development in the fi lm via off-specular scattering during fi lm formation. Optical microscopy and thermal annealing experiments provide ex situ confi rmation of organogel fabrication. The role of solution characteristics, including solvent boiling point, P3HT solubility, and initial P3HT solution concentration on organogel formation, is examined to correlate these parameters to the rate of film formation, organogel-onset concentration, and overall network size. The correlation of film properties to the fabrication parameters is also analyzed within the context of the hole mobility and density-of-states measured by impedance spectroscopy.

  12. Rapid EHR development and implementation using web and cloud-based architecture in a large home health and hospice organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charlotte A; Teenier, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Health care organizations have long been limited to a small number of major vendors in their selection of an electronic health record (EHR) system in the national and international marketplace. These major EHR vendors have in common base systems that are decades old, are built in antiquated programming languages, use outdated server architecture, and are based on inflexible data models [1,2]. The option to upgrade their technology to keep pace with the power of new web-based architecture, programming tools and cloud servers is not easily undertaken due to large client bases, development costs and risk [3]. This paper presents the decade-long efforts of a large national provider of home health and hospice care to select an EHR product, failing that to build their own and failing that initiative to go back into the market in 2012. The decade time delay had allowed new technologies and more nimble vendors to enter the market. Partnering with a new start-up company doing web and cloud based architecture for the home health and hospice market, made it possible to build, test and implement an operational and point of care system in 264 home health locations across 40 states and three time zones in the United States. This option of "starting over" with the new web and cloud technologies may be posing a next generation of new EHR vendors that retells the Blackberry replacement by iPhone story in healthcare.

  13. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2016-04-15

    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  14. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Marasco

    Full Text Available Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion. This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2, with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  15. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Paul D; Bourbeau, Dennis J; Shell, Courtney E; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Ina, Jason G

    2017-01-01

    Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion). This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2), with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric) and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  16. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-04

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-cytotoxic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds: An efficient bedding for rapid growth of bone-like apatite and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Baltrukiewicz, Marta; Sobota, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Brykner, Renata; Cwynar-Zajac, Lucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Dziegiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego, 61-781 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic macroporous hybrid scaffolds were investigated. The materials were prepared by combining 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) chemically modified by Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions via sol-gel route. In this study we have constructed a sugar-based cracks-free three-dimensional (3D) network with interconnected porous architecture within the range of 150-300 {mu}m and rough topography. The obtained results revealed that both topography and composition of prepared materials allow rapid growth of the bone-like apatite (HAp) layer on their surface after soaking in biological medium. Preliminary studies have shown that hybrids covered by HAp are non-cytotoxic and allow cell proliferation that make them a promising scaffolds in the field of bone regenerative medicine. The materials were mainly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived biomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D organic-inorganic hybrid composites for bone tissue engineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sugar-templated cracks-free macroporous scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/triethoxyvinylsilane blend doped with calcium and phosphate ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-cytotoxic bedding for fibroblasts proliferation.

  18. Rapid progressive seeding of a community acquired pathogen in an immune-competent host: end organ damage from head to bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Torres-Miranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA meningitis is a rare disease when not related to neurosurgery: there are only few reported cases in the literature to date. We describe a case that highlights not only meningeal but also diffuse and rapidly progressive systemic involvement with multi-organ failure. A 64-year-old male presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of acute worsening of his usual chronic lower back pain, progressive weakness in lower extremities and subjective fevers at home. Hospital course demonstrated MSSA bacteremia, of questionable source, that resulted in endocarditis affecting right and left heart in a patient with no history of intravenous drug use. The case was complicated by septic emboli to systemic circulation involving the kidneys, vertebral spine, lungs and brain with consequent meningitis and stroke, even when treated empirically with vancomycin and then switched to nafcillin as indicated. Even though MSSA infections are well known, there are very few case reports describing such an acute-simultaneous-manifestation of multi-end-organ failure, including meningitis and stroke. Our case, also presented with an uncommon manifestation of persistent infection dissemination despite adequate antibiotic treatment.

  19. Rapid Progressive Seeding of a Community Acquired Pathogen in an Immune-Competent Host: End Organ Damage from Head to Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Miranda, Daisy; Al-Saffar, Farah; Ibrahim, Saif; Diaz-Font, Stephanie

    2015-04-15

    Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) meningitis is a rare disease when not related to neurosurgery: there are only few reported cases in the literature to date. We describe a case that highlights not only meningeal but also diffuse and rapidly progressive systemic involvement with multi-organ failure. A 64-year-old male presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of acute worsening of his usual chronic lower back pain, progressive weakness in lower extremities and subjective fevers at home. Hospital course demonstrated MSSA bacteremia, of questionable source, that resulted in endocarditis affecting right and left heart in a patient with no history of intravenous drug use. The case was complicated by septic emboli to systemic circulation involving the kidneys, vertebral spine, lungs and brain with consequent meningitis and stroke, even when treated empirically with vancomycin and then switched to nafcillin as indicated. Even though MSSA infections are well known, there are very few case reports describing such an acute-simultaneous-manifestation of multi-end-organ failure, including meningitis and stroke. Our case, also presented with an uncommon manifestation of persistent infection dissemination despite adequate antibiotic treatment.

  20. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    ); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53...... receptor family member from insects....

  1. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  3. Bilateral saccadic eye movements and tactile stimulation, but not auditory stimulation, enhance memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M; Ras, Priscilla H; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A

    2013-02-01

    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres that is associated with the series of left-right eye movements is critical in causing the enhanced retrieval. This hypothesis predicts a beneficial effect on retrieval of alternating left-right stimulation not only of the visuomotor system, but also of the somatosensory system, both of which have a strict contralateral organization. In contrast, this hypothesis does not predict an effect, or a weaker effect, on retrieval of alternating left-right stimulation of the auditory system, which has a much less lateralized organization. Consistent with these predictions, we replicated the horizontal saccade-induced retrieval enhancement (Experiment 1) and showed that a similar retrieval enhancement occurs after alternating left-right tactile stimulation (Experiment 2). Furthermore, retrieval was not enhanced after alternating left-right auditory stimulation compared to simultaneous bilateral auditory stimulation (Experiment 3). We discuss the possibility that alternating bilateral activation of the left and right hemispheres exerts its effects on memory by increasing the functional connectivity between the two hemispheres. We also discuss the findings in the context of clinical practice, in which bilateral eye movements (EMDR) and auditory stimulation are used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  5. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  6. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH...... phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high...

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane-air partition ratios for semi-volatile organic compounds by GC-based measurement and COSMO-RS estimation: Rapid measurements and accurate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeme, Joseph O; Parnis, J Mark; Poole, Justen; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M

    2016-08-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shows promise for use as a passive air sampler (PAS) for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To use PDMS as a PAS, knowledge of its chemical-specific partitioning behaviour and time to equilibrium is needed. Here we report on the effectiveness of two approaches for estimating the partitioning properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), values of PDMS-to-air partition ratios or coefficients (KPDMS-Air), and time to equilibrium of a range of SVOCs. Measured values of KPDMS-Air, Exp' at 25 °C obtained using the gas chromatography retention method (GC-RT) were compared with estimates from a poly-parameter free energy relationship (pp-FLER) and a COSMO-RS oligomer-based model. Target SVOCs included novel flame retardants (NFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Significant positive relationships were found between log KPDMS-Air, Exp' and estimates made using the pp-FLER model (log KPDMS-Air, pp-LFER) and the COSMOtherm program (log KPDMS-Air, COSMOtherm). The discrepancy and bias between measured and predicted values were much higher for COSMO-RS than the pp-LFER model, indicating the anticipated better performance of the pp-LFER model than COSMO-RS. Calculations made using measured KPDMS-Air, Exp' values show that a PDMS PAS of 0.1 cm thickness will reach 25% of its equilibrium capacity in ∼1 day for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) to ∼ 500 years for tris (4-tert-butylphenyl) phosphate (TTBPP), which brackets the volatility range of all compounds tested. The results presented show the utility of GC-RT method for rapid and precise measurements of KPDMS-Air. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Rapidly Progressive Seeding of a Community Acquired Pathogen in an Immune-competent Host--End Organ Damage from Head to Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Miranda, Daisy; Al-Saffar, Farah; Ibrahim, Saif; Font-Diaz, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a 64-years-old male patient that presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of acute worsening of his usual chronic lower back pain, progressive weakness in lower extremities and subjective fevers at home. Spine CT failed to demonstrate any infectious foci but showed partially visualized lung cavitary lesion and renal pole abnormalities. Blood cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA). Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed no signs of infective endocarditis (IE). Later, the patient experienced an acute deterioration on clinical status and examination showed development of a new murmur. He also developed new hemiparesis with up-going babinski reflex. A head MRI showed multiple infarcts. MRI spine displayed osteomyelitis at T12-L1. Cerebro-spinal fluid was positive for meningitis. A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) was performed demonstrating new severe mitral and mild tricuspid regurgitations with a definitive 1.5 cm mobile vegetation on posterior mitral leaflet. We present is a very interesting case of a rapidly progressive MSSA infection. MSSA meningitis is a rare disease; there are only few reported cases in the literature to date. We describe a case of MSSA bacteremia, of questionable source, that resulted in MSSA endocarditis affecting right and left heart in a patient who did not have a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU) or immunosuppression. The case was complicated by septic emboli to systemic circulation involving the kidneys, vertebral spine (osteomyelitis), lungs and brain with consequent meningitis and stroke. Even when MSSA infections are well known, to our knowledge there are no previous case reports describing such an acute-simultaneous-manifestation of multi-end-organ failure, including meningitis and stroke. These latter are rarely reported, even individually.

  9. Polyethylene and methyl methacrylate particle-stimulated inflammatory tissue and macrophages up-regulate bone resorption in a murine neonatal calvaria in vitro organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiping; Wu, Bin; Mayton, Lois; Wooley, Paul H

    2002-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. This study examined the effect of inflammatory membranes stimulated with methyl methacrylate and polyethylene on bone resorption, using the murine air pouch model. The capacity of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages exposed to polymer particles to produce factors affecting bone metabolism was also studied. Neonatal calvaria bones were co-cultured with either pouch membranes or conditioned media from activated macrophages. Bone resorption was measured by the release of calcium from cultured bones, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in both bone sections and culture medium was also assayed. Results showed that inflammatory pouch membrane activated by methyl methacrylate and polyethylene enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Conditioned media from particles stimulated mouse macrophages also stimulated bone resorption, although this effect was weaker than resorption induced by inflammatory pouch membranes. The addition of the particles directly into the medium of cultured calvaria bones had little effect on bone resorption. Our observations indicate that both inflammatory tissue and macrophages provoked by particles can stimulate bone resorption in cultured mouse neonatal calvaria bones. This simple in vitro bone resorption system allows us to investigate the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanism of wear debris induced bone resorption and to screen potential therapeutic approaches for aseptic loosening.

  10. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  11. Somatotopic Organization and Temporal Characteristics of Cerebrocortical Excitation in Response to Nasal Mucosa Stimulation With and Without an Odor in the Rat: An Optical Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zama, Manabu; Hara, Yaeko; Fujita, Satoshi; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    Nasal mucosa has roles in warming and humidifying inspired air and is highly sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, the upper part of the nasal mucosa expresses olfactory receptors processing olfactory information. Although the somatosensory map of the face in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices is clearly documented, the map of the nasal mucosa and the effect of odors on their activities are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the cortical regions in S1 and their temporal features in response to somatosensory stimulation of the nasal mucosa using an optical imaging technique in urethane-anesthetized rats. An air puff application response to nasal mucosa first occurred in a part of contralateral S1 and subsequently, spread toward the rostrally and ventrally adjacent sites. Upper pharynx stimulation initially activated this rostrally expanded site and the excitatory propagation from the initially activated region toward ventral region likely represented S2. Signal intensity and activated area increased dependent on air pressure. Nasal tip stimulation initially excited S1 region caudally adjacent to that of nasal mucosa. Moreover, the amplitude of S1 excitation was similar between air puff stimulation with and without an odor, amyl acetate. In contrast to contralateral S1, air puff stimulation with the odor showed a faint optical signal increase in the ipsilateral piriform cortex. These results suggest that somatosensory information from the nasal mucosa and skin, and upper pharynx are processed in spatially continuous regions of S1, and interaction between somatosensory and olfactory systems is relatively small in contralateral S1. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stimulation of a Cd-binding protein, and inhibition of the vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, by zinc or cadmium in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.; Fullmer, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Embryonic chick duodenum maintained in organ culture responds to 1 α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 in the culture medium by de novo synthesis of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP). The addition of Cd 2+ (3-5 x 10 -5 M) or Zn 2+ (10 -5 -10 -4 M) to the medium inhibited CaBP, but stimulated biosynthesis of a Cd-binding protein (CdBP). CdBP in duodenal homogenate supernatants was assessed in two ways: first, by its 109 Cd-binding activity ( 109 CdBA) using a competitive ion exchange procedure; and, second, by the extent of [ 35 S]-cystine incorporation into a specific peak or band after gel filtration or analytical polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, respectively. Regardless of whether cadmium- or zinc-stimulated, the 35 S-labeled CdBP - the only protein significantly labeled under the conditions employed - migrated identically upon gel filtration and electrophoresis, and comigrated with purified chick liver Cd-metallothionein. Neither actinomycin D nor α-amanitin, in concentrations sufficient to severely inhibit CaBP, significantly reduced CdBP production. However, cycloheximide did inhibit either Cd 2+ - or Zn 2+ -stimulated CdBP by about 50% at an inhibitor concentration which abolished CaBP. The inhibitor studies, coupled with the observations of extensive incorporation of [ 35 S]cystine into CdBP, suggest that the metals stimulated biosynthesis by a mechanism operating at the translational level. The organ-cultured duodenum seems well suited for studies of the regulation of CdBP biosynthesis especially since it responds predictably to the steroid hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 , in the induction of another specific protein, CaBP, at the transcriptional level. The biosynthesis of CaBP thus may serve as a convenient control in studies of CdBP production under various experimental conditions

  13. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  14. Swi5-Sfr1 protein stimulates Rad51-mediated DNA strand exchange reaction through organization of DNA bases in the presynaptic filament.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H

    2013-12-03

    The Swi5-Sfr1 heterodimer protein stimulates the Rad51-promoted DNA strand exchange reaction, a crucial step in homologous recombination. To clarify how this accessory protein acts on the strand exchange reaction, we have analyzed how the structure of the primary reaction intermediate, the Rad51/single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) complex filament formed in the presence of ATP, is affected by Swi5-Sfr1. Using flow linear dichroism spectroscopy, we observe that the nucleobases of the ssDNA are more perpendicularly aligned to the filament axis in the presence of Swi5-Sfr1, whereas the bases are more randomly oriented in the absence of Swi5-Sfr1. When using a modified version of the natural protein where the N-terminal part of Sfr1 is deleted, which has no affinity for DNA but maintained ability to stimulate the strand exchange reaction, we still observe the improved perpendicular DNA base orientation. This indicates that Swi5-Sfr1 exerts its activating effect through interaction with the Rad51 filament mainly and not with the DNA. We propose that the role of a coplanar alignment of nucleobases induced by Swi5-Sfr1 in the presynaptic Rad51/ssDNA complex is to facilitate the critical matching with an invading double-stranded DNA, hence stimulating the strand exchange reaction.

  15. Human progenitor cells rapidly mobilized by AMD3100 repopulate NOD/SCID mice with increased frequency in comparison to cells from the same donor mobilized by granulocyte colony stimulating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, David A; Bonde, Jesper; Craft, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    AMD3100 inhibits the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4, and rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors for clinical transplantation. However, the repopulating function of human cells mobilized with AMD3100 has not been characterized in comparison to cells mobilized with granulocyte-colony stim......AMD3100 inhibits the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4, and rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors for clinical transplantation. However, the repopulating function of human cells mobilized with AMD3100 has not been characterized in comparison to cells mobilized with granulocyte...

  16. Identifying inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms using a rapid small-scale screening method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Edwin C.; Vaessen, Evelien; Weusthuis, Ruud A.; Eggink, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sugars obtained from pretreated lignocellulose are interesting as substrate for the production of lactic acid in fermentation processes. However, by-products formed during pretreatment of lignocellulose can inhibit microbial growth. In this study, a small-scale rapid screening method was used to

  17. Growing toward the Sun: How the Good-Food Movement Catapulted a Small New York City Third-Sector Organization into Rapid Growth, Success, and Many Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carole L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a New York City-based third-sector organization focused on what it calls "food justice." This study concentrates on how this organization, that I call Food Rights, has built a broad multi-sector network made up of a varied set of constituents and collaborators aiming to develop and promote an…

  18. Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP

  19. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and biogenic silica concentration in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....

  1. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Klein, Travis Jacob; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage tissues; the incorporation of CD enhanced tissue size and matrix content, but did not enhance chondrogenic gene expression.

  2. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  3. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Lilliendahl, K; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.

    1999-01-01

    The adaptive value of size changes in different organ and muscle groups was studied in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica) in relation to their migration. Birds were sampled on five occasions: at arrival in Iceland in May 1994, two times during subsequent refueling, at departure toward, and on

  4. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  5. Rapid bioremediation processes: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Shearon, M.S.; Archer, B.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation generally involves stimulating microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) to grow and in the process of growth, degrade hazardous waste. A variety of contaminant compounds can be readily biodegraded by both pure cultures of bacteria and by bacteria under field conditions. These compounds include petroleum and its distillates (gasoline, diesel fuel, etc.), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX and PAHS), PCBs (most congeners), chlorinated aeromatics (TCE and dichloroethane) and chlorinated aromatics (polychlorophenols and chlorobenzene). While the metabolic pathways for biodegradation are fairly distinct for each class of contaminants, the pathways generally converge on a central metabolite, acetyl-CoA, which can then be directly converted to CO 2 or microbial biomass. Organic compounds are most rapidly degraded aerobically. SafeSoil is a proprietary additive and biotreatment process. The additive contains inorganic nutrients (primarily N and P) and organic nutrients (simple sugars, protein and more complex cometabolites) which, upon addition to soil, stimulate natural microbial (primarily bacterial) populations to grow and degrade the contaminants of interest. Field applications of SafeSoil at Channel Gateway Development Project in Marina del Rey, California, validated that the SafeSoil treatment process effectively reduced TPH and BTEX concentrations for petroleum-contaminated soils to below action levels in as few as 4 days; the median curing time was 14 days. Longer chain hydrocarbons required more time, up to 36 days for TPH. Aerobic soil bacterial populations increased up to five-fold in response to treatment and returned to near pretreatment levels soon after the contaminant level was depleted. Volatilization of organics was measured and was found to be insignificant when compared to the total contaminant load indicating that the majority of the hydrocarbon contaminants were removed by biological means

  6. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of common genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu

    2015-03-01

    Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs.

  7. Stimulation of ICT/domotics in houses. The organization of 2 workshops. Final report; De bevordering van ICT/domotica in woningen. De organisatie van 2 workshops. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, J.C. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    The title project concerns the organization of two workshops on two concrete projects: (1) a building project for 43 dwellings for elderly people in Anna Paulowna, Netherlands, and (2) the building of a home for the elderly people (called Parkzicht) in Hippolytushoef, Netherlands. Preparatory activities for and the organization of the two workshops are described. The first workshop was held October 4th, 2002. The second workshop was planned for December 13th, 2002, but was cancelled. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de activiteiten die hebben plaatsgevonden rond 2 concreet te realiseren projecten in Noord-Holland. De activiteiten bestaan uit de voorbereidende activiteiten en de organisatie van twee workshops. Een van de projecten betreft de bouw van 43 woningen voor senioren in Anna Paulowna en het andere project betreft de bouw van het verzorgingstehuis Parkzicht in Hippolytushoef. De 'Anna Paulowna' workshop werd 4 oktober 2002 gehouden. De Hippolytushoef workshop was gepland op 13 december 2002 maar is niet doorgegaan.

  8. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  9. Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation delays fatigue of stimulated muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneski, Lana Z Popović; Malešević, Nebojša M; Savić, Andrej M; Keller, Thierry; Popović, Dejan B

    2013-12-01

    One important reason why functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not gained widespread clinical use is the limitation imposed by rapid muscle fatigue due to non-physiological activation of the stimulated muscles. We aimed to show that asynchronous low-pulse-rate (LPR) electrical stimulation applied by multipad surface electrodes greatly postpones the occurrence of muscle fatigue compared with conventional stimulation (high pulse rate, HPR). We compared the produced force vs. time of the forearm muscles responsible for finger flexion in 2 stimulation protocols, LPR (fL = 10 Hz) and HPR (fH = 40 Hz). Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation (sDLFAS) doubles the time interval before the onset of fatigue (104 ± 80%) compared with conventional synchronous stimulation. Combining the performance of multipad electrodes (increased selectivity and facilitated positioning) with sDLFAS (decreased fatigue) can improve many FES applications in both the lower and upper extremities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, G A; Lilliendahl, K

    1999-01-01

    The adaptive value of size changes in different organ and muscle groups was studied in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica) in relation to their migration. Birds were sampled on five occasions: at arrival in Iceland in May 1994, two times during subsequent refueling, at departure toward, and on return from, the high arctic breeding grounds. During their 24-d stopover in May, body mass increased from 144.3 to 214.5 g. Mass gains were lowest over the first week (0.85 g/d, only fat-free tissue deposited). Over the subsequent 10 d, average mass increased by 5.0 g/d (fat contributing 78%), and over the last week before takeoff, it increased by 2.0 g/d (fat contributing over 100% because of loss of lean components). There were no sex differences in body and fat mass gains. Over the first interval, lean masses of heart, stomach, and liver increased. During the middle 10 d, sizes of leg muscle, intestine, liver, and kidneys increased. Stomach mass decreased over the same interval. In the last interval before takeoff, the stomach atrophied further and the intestine, leg muscles, and liver became smaller too, but pectoral muscles and heart increased in size. Sizes of "exercise organs" such as pectoral muscle and heart were best correlated with body mass, whereas sizes of organs used during foraging (leg muscles) and nutrient extraction (intestine, liver) were best correlated with rate of mass gain. Kidneys changed little before takeoff, which suggests that they are needed as much during flight as during refueling.

  11. A rapid process of Yba2Cu3O7-δ thin film fabrication using trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition with polyethylene glycol additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Feng; Shi, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition (TFA-MOD) is a promising technique to fabricate YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting films. However, its slow pyrolysis process, which usually takes more than 10 h, constitutes a barrier for industrial production. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG...... and oxygenation processes, mass percentage and molecular weight of PEG additive, YBCO thin films with Jc of about 4.5 MA cm-2 (77 K, self-field) could be routinely fabricated using (20-30) wt% PEG(1000-2000) additive with a total treatment time of about 2 h including the 15 min pyrolysis process time. The effects...

  12. Poly(4-vinylphenol gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  13. Solubility and transport of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil - Evidence of a rapidly reacting dimeric Cr(III) organic matter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löv, Åsa; Sjöstedt, Carin; Larsbo, Mats; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Cornelis, Geert; Kleja, Dan B

    2017-12-01

    Chromium is a common soil contaminant and, although it has been studied widely, questions about its speciation and dissolutions kinetics remain unanswered. We combined information from an irrigation experiment performed with intact soil columns with data from batch experiments to evaluate solubility and mobilization mechanisms of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil (>65 years). Particulate and colloidal Cr(III) forms dominated transport in this soil, but their concentrations were independent of irrigation intensity (2-20 mm h -1 ). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicated that Cr(III) associated with colloids and particles, and with the solid phase, mainly existed as dimeric hydrolyzed Cr(III) bound to natural organic matter. Dissolution kinetics of this species were fast (≤1 day) at low pH (organic matter complex with a geochemical equilibrium model using only generic binding parameters, opening the way for use of geochemical models in risk assessments of Cr(III)-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Méthode rapide d’évaluation du contenu en composés phénoliques des organes d’un arbre forestier

    OpenAIRE

    Boizot, Nathalie; Charpentier, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    Parmi les méthodes de quantification des composés phénoliques, nous utilisons dans notre laboratoire préférentiellement un protocole utilisant le réactif de Folin-Ciocalteu. Il s'agit d'une méthode analytique biochimique nécessitant la prise d'échantillons, l'extraction des composés phénoliques à partir de ces échantillons puis d'une mesure spectrocolorimétrique des extraits. Nous l'avons adaptée pour traiter beaucoup d'échantillons et avec peu de matière végétale à extraire. Tous les organes...

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  16. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  17. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D

    2013-11-01

    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  18. A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop method combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for preconcentration and determination of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Behzadi, Mansoureh

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop method prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for preconcentration and determination of copper. In this technique, simultaneous complex formation and extraction was performed with rapid injection of a mixture containing ethanol, 1-undecanol, and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol into a water sample spiked with Cu(II). After centrifugation, the test tube was cooled in an ice bath, and solidified extract transferred into a conical vial. Finally, it was dissolved into ethanol and copper concentration was determined. Some effective parameters of extraction and complex formation, such as extraction and disperser solvent type and volume, pH, concentration of the chelating agent, salt effect, and extraction time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.50 ng/mL to 0.30 microg/mL, with an LOD of 0.16 ng/mL. The RSD for 10 replicate measurements of 50.0 ng/mL of copper was +/- 1.4%. Two certified reference materials were analyzed, and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values.

  19. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  20. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the ...

  1. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  2. Organic bioelectronics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, S; Melican, K; Nilsson, K P R; Richter-Dahlfors, A

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications. Experiments have shown that cells readily attach and proliferate on reduced but not oxidized organic bioelectronic materials. In another application, the active properties of organic bioelectronics were used to develop electronically triggered systems for drug release. After incorporating drugs by advanced loading strategies, small compound drugs were released upon electrochemical trigger, independent of charge. Another type of delivery device was used to achieve well-controlled, spatiotemporal delivery of cationic drugs. Via electrophoretic transport within a polymer, cations were delivered with single-cell precision. Finally, organic bioelectronic materials are commonly used as electrode coatings improving the electrical properties of recording and stimulation electrodes. Because such coatings drastically reduce the electrode impedance, smaller electrodes with improved signal-to-noise ratio can be fabricated. Thus, rapid technological advancement combined with the creation of tiny electronic devices reacting to changes in the tissue environment helps to promote the transition from standard pharmaceutical therapy to treatment based on 'electroceuticals'. Moreover, the widening repertoire of organic bioelectronics will expand the options for true biological interfaces, providing the basis for personalized bioelectronic medicine. © 2017 The

  3. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  4. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Hakan; Kaptan, Hülagu

    2017-06-15

    The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall. Electric signals from the generator are transmitted to the left vagus nerve through the connection cable. Control on the cerebral bioelectrical activity can be achieved by way of these signal sent from there in an effort for controlling the epileptic discharges. The rate of satisfactory and permanent treatment in epilepsy with monotherapy is around 50%. This rate will increase by one-quarters (25%) with polytherapy. However, there is a patient group roughly constituting one-thirds of this population, and this group remains unresponsive or refractory to all the therapies and combined regimes. The more the number of drugs used, the more chaos and side effects are observed. The anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) used will have side effects on both the brain and the systemic organs. Cerebral resection surgery can be required in some patients. The most commonly encountered epilepsy type is the partial one, and the possibility of benefiting from invasive procedures is limited in most patients of this type. Selective amygdala-hippocampus surgery is a rising value in complex partial seizures. Therefore, as epilepsy surgery can be performed in very limited numbers and rather developed centres, success can also be achieved in limited numbers of patients. The common ground for all the surgical procedures is the target of preservation of memory, learning, speaking, temper and executive functions as well as obtaining a good control on seizures. However, the action mechanism of VNS is still not exactly known. On the other hand

  5. Organic poultry farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, John E.; Horsted, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer inter-est in organic products while, at the same time, farmers are interested in converting to organic pro-duction methods – often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that the organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if the organic livestock production is to increase further. This is in particular important if the organic poultry p...

  6. Sulfinylated Azadecalins act as functional mimics of a pollen germination stimulant in Arabidopsis pistils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan; Wysocki, Ronald J; Somogyi, Arpad; Feinstein, Yelena; Franco, Jessica Y; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Levy, Clara; Smith, Steven; Simpson, Robert; Gang, David; Johnson, Mark A; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Polarized cell elongation is triggered by small molecule cues during development of diverse organisms. During plant reproduction, pollen interactions with the stigma result in the polar outgrowth of a pollen tube, which delivers sperm cells to the female gametophyte to effect double fertilization. In many plants, pistils stimulate pollen germination. However, in Arabidopsis, the effect of pistils on pollen germination and the pistil factors that stimulate pollen germination remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that stigma, style, and ovules in Arabidopsis pistils stimulate pollen germination. We isolated an Arabidopsis pistil extract fraction that stimulates Arabidopsis pollen germination, and employed ultrahigh resolution ESI FT-ICR and MS/MS techniques to accurately determine the mass (202.126 daltons) of a compound that is specifically present in this pistil extract fraction. Using the molecular formula (C10H19NOS) and tandem mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the m/z (mass to charge ratio) 202.126 ion, we postulated chemical structures, devised protocols, synthesized N-Methanesulfinyl 1- and 2-azadecalins that are close structural mimics of the m/z 202.126 ion, and showed that they are sufficient to stimulate Arabidopsis pollen germination in vitro (30 µM stimulated ~50% germination) and elicit accession-specific response. Although N-Methanesulfinyl 2-azadecalin stimulated pollen germination in three species of Lineage I of Brassicaceae, it did not induce a germination response in Sisymbrium irio (Lineage II of Brassicaceae) and tobacco, indicating that activity of the compound is not random. Our results show that Arabidopsis pistils promote germination by producing azadecalin-like molecules to ensure rapid fertilization by the appropriate pollen. PMID:21801250

  7. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  8. Testosterone Stimulates Duox1 Activity through GPRC6A in Skin Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Kim, Borim; Kim, Minsun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Bae, Il-Hong; Sung, Young Kwan; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone is an endocrine hormone with functions in reproductive organs, anabolic events, and skin homeostasis. We report here that GPRC6A serves as a sensor and mediator of the rapid action of testosterone in epidermal keratinocytes. The silencing of GPRC6A inhibited testosterone-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and H2O2 generation. These results indicated that a testosterone-GPRC6A complex is required for activation of Gq protein, IP3 generation, and [Ca2+]i mobilization, leading to Duox1 activation. H2O2 generation by testosterone stimulated the apoptosis of keratinocytes through the activation of caspase-3. The application of testosterone into three-dimensional skin equivalents increased the apoptosis of keratinocytes between the granular and stratified corneum layers. These results support an understanding of the molecular mechanism of testosterone-dependent apoptosis in which testosterone stimulates H2O2 generation through the activation of Duox1. PMID:25164816

  9. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Joshua [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Prescod, Lindsay [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Enright, Heather [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Felix, Sarah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osburn, Joanne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, Kris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  10. Optically stimulated luminesence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiujiang; Zhu Lei; Zhu Lei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Zhaoyang; Fan Yanwei; Ba Weizhen; Cong Xiuyun; Tang Xinqiang; Guo Qi; Lu Wu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the principle and makeup of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter is described, and a measurement for radiation is carried, some actual problem is discussed. The dosimeter has high sensitive and can be reseted in-flight by stimulated light. (authors)

  11. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  13. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G

    2007-01-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2, into canalicular membranes and stimulates organic anion secretion by protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Bilzer, M.; Chittattu, A.; Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Keppler, D.; Paumgartner, G.; Dombrowski, F.

    2001-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic effects by undefined mechanisms. Previous work suggested that UDCA stimulates biliary exocytosis via Ca(++)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the effect of taurine-conjugated UDCA (TUDCA) was studied in the experimental

  15. Does civic participation stimulate political activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, P.G.; Akkerman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Activists are the engines of social movements. What spurs their activism? This article scrutinizes the role of civic participation in stimulating political action. We examine how the type of voluntary organization, scope of involvement and intensity of activity relate to political activity. Contrary

  16. Stimulant-induced trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalian, Gareen; Citrome, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    A prior report described the presentation of cocaine-induced trichotillomania, which resolved with the cessation of cocaine use. Here the authors describe the case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania that resolved with the discontinuation of stimulants and initiation of olanzapine. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported adult case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania. The case is of a patient with a previous diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder whose symptoms of trichotillomania coincide with abuse of amphetamine and with the resolution of symptoms in the absence of amphetamine use. Given the increase in exposure of prescription amphetamines among adults, further study into the association between stimulants and adverse events such as trichotillomania is needed.

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do certain activities such as public speaking, singing or exercising, or when you're eating if ... of life. Research is still mixed on the benefits of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of ...

  18. Multipolar intrafascicular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Jan H.; Meier, J.H.; Rutten, Wim

    1992-01-01

    The suppressing effect of two intrafascicular anodes on the neural recruitment elicited by one intrafascicular cathode has been studied. Recruitment curves are calculated with a nerve stimulation model and are compared to experimental curves for the peroneal nerve of rat.

  19. Organ Shortage: Can We Decrease the Demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    The shortage of organs for transplant is a universal problem. The World Health Organization is urging every nation to seek self-sufficiency regarding their organ procurement program. Reaching self-sufficiency inevitably requires the provision of a well-developed deceased-donor organ procurement program. Most countries represented by the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation still rely on living-donor organ donations. Some of these countries have been relatively successful in promoting deceased-donor donation as well. In our region, deceased-donor organs are recovered exclusively from patients who have been declared brain dead. However, with improvements in preventive and therapeutic interventions, the pool of potential brain dead donors is rapidly shrinking. This should, therefore, stimulate our interest in developing a program for recovering organs after cardiac death. However, increasing the pool of donors, even to optimal levels, may still not be enough to meet the growing demand. More resources must be invested in reducing the demand for organs. This is especially true in our region, where primary care programs aimed at slowing or containing disease progression that may lead to organ failure are lacking. This problem is compounded by limited access to such programs and, for that matter, limited access to even the most basic primary care. Continued efforts to increase the supply of donor organs must be pursued. At the same time, we must work to more effectively treat the diseases that could lead to end-stage renal disease and the increased demand for donor organs. A comprehensive approach to the problem of donor organ shortages in countries in the Middle East also must consider the relatively limited financial resources that are available.

  20. Estradiol stimulation of inositolphospholipid metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T.

    1989-01-01

    Stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover has been proposed to constitute a signal-transducing mechanism in many cell types. To determine the inositolphospholipid turnover during stimulation by 17 beta-estradiol, the turnover kinetics of phospholipids was investigated in human endometrial fibroblasts. In cells incubated with [ 32 P] phosphate for 1 h, estradiol rapidly and persisitently (for at least 30 min) enhanced the rate of 32 P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA). On the other hand, after a lag time of 5 min, 32 P-labeling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) was also increased also. These sequential 32 P-labeling of PA and PI demonstrated that inositolphospholipid turnover was stimulated in fibroblasts exposed to estradiol. The rapid estrogen-stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover may not be through the mechanism associated with classical action of estrogen

  1. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  3. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Facial nerve stimulation as a future treatment for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K Borsody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the autonomic parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve system (hereafter simply "facial nerve" rapidly dilates the cerebral arteries and increases cerebral blood flow whether that stimulation is delivered at the facial nerve trunk or at distal points such as the sphenopalatine ganglion. Facial nerve stimulation thus could be used as an emergency treatment of conditions of brain ischemia such as ischemic stroke. A rich history of scientific research has examined this property of the facial nerve, and various means of activating the facial nerve can be employed including noninvasive means. Herein, we review the anatomical and physiological research behind facial nerve stimulation and the facial nerve stimulation devices that are in development for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  6. The fluorescence spectroscopy of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM): a tool to characterize rapid infiltration flows and vulnerability in karst systems. Application to the Lez hydrosystem (Hérault, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Batiot-Guilhe, C.; Seidel, J.; Bicalho, C. C.; Perrette, Y.; Jourde, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the fundamental role the DOM plays in the pollutant transport, this tracer is already used in different aquatic systems but very few studies concern karst systems. Water transit times and recharge period can be estimated using the fluorescence property of DOM. The aim of this study is to apply this approach in order to improve the karst aquifers functioning and to obtain essential information to preserve water resource. This method was applied to the Lez karst hydrosystem which belong to the MEDYCYSS observatory (Multi scalE observatory of flooD dYnamiCs and hYdrodynamicS in karSt). Its main outlet, the Lez spring, supplies drinking water to the city of Montpellier (France). Since March 2006, the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical parameters of the karstic spring have been monitored (turbidity, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, major and trace elements, Total Organic Carbon :TOC, DOM and bacteria). The DOM fluorescence was measured with a spectrofluorimeter using the Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM). Each EEM was generated with an excitation from 220 to 450 nm, detecting the emission spectra between 250 and 550 nm. The fluorescence spectra are characterized by 3 excitation-emission domains. Two correspond to humic compounds fluorophores (H1, H2) with a pedogenic origin (mature OM). The third region of fluorescence is related to protein-like compounds (P1) with a pedogenic (fresh OM) or an anthropogenic origin. The Fluorescence Intensity (FI) of these three domains increases with the spring discharge and is correlated with rapid infiltration flow markers (especially TOC and turbidity). So FI can be used as a tracer of infiltration flows in karst systems. Moreover, FI peaks emitted by P1 are also correlated to peaks of faecal coliforms. The survival time of these bacteria is lower than one week in a karst aquifer. Consequently, fluorophore P1 is a tracer of short transit time and anthropic contamination. FI emitted by H1 and H2 are related to the

  7. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... (PGE2) as well as their regulatory genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-. 2), in LPS-stimulated ... mediated NF-κB activity. Keywords: Myelophycus caespitosus, Nitric oxide, Prostaglandin E2, Nuclear factor-κB. ..... induced by hypoxia and endotoxin. J Immunol. 2000 ...

  8. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  10. Somatosensory Space Abridged: Rapid Change in Tactile Localization Using a Motion Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Taylor, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Organization of tactile input into somatotopic maps enables us to localize stimuli on the skin. Temporal relationships between stimuli are important in maintaining the maps and influence perceived locations of discrete stimuli. This points to the spatiotemporal stimulation sequences experienced as motion as a potential powerful organizing principle for spatial maps. We ask whether continuity of the motion determines perceived location of areas in the motion path using a novel tactile stimulus designed to ‘convince’ the brain that a patch of skin does not exist by rapidly skipping over it. Method Two brushes, fixed 9 cm apart, moved back and forth along the forearm (at 14.5 cm s−1), crossing a 10-cm long ‘occluder’, which prevented skin stimulation in the middle of the motion path. Crucially, only one brush contacted the skin at any one time, and the occluder was traversed almost instantaneously. Participants pointed with the other arm towards the felt location of the brush when it was briefly halted during repetitive motion, and also reported where they felt they had been brushed. Results Participants did not report the 10-cm gap in stimulation – the motion path was perceptually completed. Pointing results showed that brush path was ‘abridged’: locations immediately on either side of the occluder, as well as location at the ends of the brush path, were perceived to be >3 cm closer to each other than in the control condition (F(1,9) = 7.19; p = .025 and F(1,9) = 6.02, p = .037 respectively). This bias increased with prolonged stimulation. Conclusions An illusion of completion induced by our Abridging stimulus is accompanied by gross mislocalization, suggesting that motion determines perceived locations. The effect reveals the operation of Gestalt principles in touch and suggests the existence of dynamic maps that quickly adjust to the current input pattern. PMID:24603595

  11. Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo-tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2018-02-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.

  12. Applying Rapid Acquisition Policy Lessons for Defense Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    finds that DOD can incorporate innovation practices by dispersing organizations focused on new capabilities development across the agency to avoid...these efforts. Keywords: defense acquisition, defense procurement, rapid acquisition, de- fense innovation, program management, organizational culture ...Device De- feat Organization , JIEDDO, Rapid Equipping Force, REF Silicon Valley-style innovation is a hot topic in the Department of De-fense (DOD). For

  13. MOTIVATION AND STIMULATION SYSTEM OF THE PERSONNEL OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona Klymchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems of studying the system of motivation and stimulation of personnel at the industrial enterprises, which are important in today's conditions. The purpose of the study is a detailed analysis of system characteristics and motivation of personnel at the enterprises. It is proved that the enterprise's management must constantly deal with the improvement of the system of motivation and stimulation of personnel, that should be adapted to the new conditions for the market functioning. The author notes that the system of motivation and stimulation at the industrial enterprises is effectively connected with the problem of production activities at the enterprise and the final results of its operations increasing and the living standards of workers improving. In the article the basic functions (attracting qualified specialists, preservation groups of professionals within the required time limit, which must perform a system of motivation and stimulation of the personnel at the enterprise are determined. The main tasks that are necessary to ensure the desired level of labor activity of personnel are formed: determining a set of values that should form the basis of personnel motivation; needs formation of each employee, his interests and capabilities of pleasure; specification of the types of work that require the enterprise and that it is advisable to motivate; labour organization so as to convince the employee's ability to satisfy its interests; coordination of certain types of worker with a set of values and preferences; clarify the motives, interests and values when hiring an employee at the enterprise. In order, to form the control system of motivation and stimulation, the need for the following conditions are stressed: availability of complete and accurate information about equipment management; the need to have permanent representation on the status and dynamics of the motivational orientation of personnel

  14. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains...

  15. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  16. Local analysis with RAPIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.C.; Cliffe, K.A.

    1992-02-01

    Techniques for determining the topological dimension of a manifold and the eigenvalues of a linearized flow near a fixed point are described, together with their implementation in the program RAPIDS. (author)

  17. Implementation of HybridArc treatment technique in preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer: dose patterns in target lesions and organs at risk as compared to helical Tomotherapy and RapidArc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevaert, Thierry; Engels, Benedikt; Garibaldi, Cristina; Verellen, Dirk; Deconinck, Peter; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Tournel, Koen; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    HybridArc is a novel treatment technique blending aperture-enhanced optimized arcs with discrete IMRT-elements, allowing selection of arcs with a set of static IMRT-beams. This study compared this new technique to helical Tomotherapy, and RapidArc, in preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer. Twelve rectal cancer patients treated consecutively with Tomotherapy Hi-Art II system were simulated with HybridArc and RapidArc. Treatment plans were designed to deliver homogeneous dose of 46.0Gy to mesorectum and draining lymph nodes, with a simultaneous-integrated-boost to the primary tumor up to a total dose of 55.2Gy. Planning objectives were 95% of prescribed dose to 95% of PTVs, while minimizing the volume of small bowel receiving more than 15Gy (V15) and the mean bladder dose. Dose gradient towards simultaneous-integrated-boost (GI), calculated by dividing the volume receiving more then 52.4Gy (95% of PTV55.2Gy)to the volume of PTV55.2Gy, was kept below 1.5. Mean beam-on time and amount of MUs were also analyzed. PTV swere adequately covered by all plans. Significant advantage was found for Tomotherapy in sparing small bowel (V15 = 112.7cm 3 SD73.4cm 3 ) compared to RapidArc (133.4cm 3 SD75.3cm 3 ) and HybridArc (143.7cm 3 SD74.4cm 3 ) (p < 0.01). The mean bladder dose was better with RapidArc (20.6GySD2.2Gy) compared to HybridArc (24.2Gy SD4.3Gy) and Tomotherapy (23.0GySD4.7Gy) (p < 0.01). The mean beam-on time was significantly lower (p < 0.01) for HybridArc (2.7min SD0.8) and RapidArc (2.5min SD0.5) compared to Tomotherapy (11.0min SD0.7). The total amount of MUs was significantly (p < 0.01) lower for RapidArc (547SD44)compared to HybridArc (949 SD153). HybridArc is a feasible solution for preoperative RT with a simultaneous-integrated-boost in rectal cancer patients. It achieved similar PTV coverage with significant lower beam-on time, but less efficient in sparing small bowel and bladder compared to Tomotherapy and RapidArc. The added value of HybridArc is that

  18. The Mechanism of Financial Stimulation of Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Valeryevich Tarakanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of the Russian economy and creation of conditions for its economic growth demand activization of investment activity that is possible by means of its financial stimulation. Financial stimulation of investment activity defines the need of changes of the contents, the directions and ways of implementation of the financial relations between subjects of investment activity. Financial stimulation of investment activity is carried out via the mechanism in the context of which these financial relations are settled. For defining the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the authors consider the very concept of financial mechanism. The conclusion is drawn that all elements of the financial mechanism are the integrated unity, they are interdependent and interconnected, and the combination of types, forms, methods of the organization of the financial relations forms “a design of the financial mechanism”. The article specifies the maintenance of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity, and reveals its essence. The structure of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity is presented by the following elements: subjects of financial stimulation of investment activity, the purpose of attraction of investments by them, set of financial methods and tools, sources of means of achievement of goals, standard - legal and information support of financial stimulation of investment activity. It is proved that in the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the leading role is played by the state by means of forms of direct and indirect participation in attraction of investments, each of which is realized by means of specific methods and the corresponding tools. The widespread instrument of financial stimulation of investment activity is the investments which are carried out by the state institutes of development participating in the organization of the process of financial

  19. Rapid degradation of the complex organic molecules in Martian surface rocks due to exposure to cosmic rays. Implications to the search of 'extinct' life on Mars by MSL and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Floyd, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Until recently, long-term exposure to cosmic rays has not been recognized as a major environmental factor, which can alter and destroy organic molecules in the Martian surface rocks. Recent modeling studies (e.g. Pavlov et al., 2012) suggested that organic molecules with masses >100 amu would be degraded in less than 1 billion years in the top 5 cm of the Martian rocks. That poses a serious challenge to the search of ancient molecules in the shallow subsurface of Mars. However, Pavlov et al. calculated the fraction of the survived organic molecules using conservative radiolysis constants derived from the gamma irradiation experiments on pure dry amino acid mixtures (Kminek and Bada, 2006). In this study we conducted a series of gamma irradiations of amino acids and carboxylic acids mixed with silica powder. We report that the addition of silicates dramatically increased the rate of organic degradation under gamma radiation. Using the newly derived radiolysis constants for amino acids and carboxylic acids in mineral mixtures, we recalculated the rate of organic degradation in the Martian rocks as a function of rocks' depth, chemical composition and weathering rates. Our results suggest that isolated organic molecules (acids) are likely to be altered or fully degraded in the surface rocks on Mars by cosmic rays in less than 10 million years unless some additional protective mechanisms are in place. We will discuss possible strategies for the MSL's search of the elusive ancient organic molecules to overcome the adverse effects of cosmic rays in the surface Martian rocks. References. Pavlov et al., 2012 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, doi:10.1029/2012GL052166 Kminek, G., and J. Bada (2006), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 1-5, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.008.

  20. Strigolactones Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Activating Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10 −13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  1. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Besserer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants.

  2. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  3. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the

  4. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  5. Implementation of HybridArc treatment technique in preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer: dose patterns in target lesions and organs at risk as compared to helical Tomotherapy and RapidArc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevaert Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose HybridArc is a novel treatment technique blending aperture-enhanced optimized arcs with discrete IMRT-elements, allowing selection of arcs with a set of static IMRT-beams. This study compared this new technique to helical Tomotherapy, and RapidArc, in preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer. Material and methods Twelve rectal cancer patients treated consecutively with Tomotherapy Hi-Art II system were simulated with HybridArc and RapidArc. Treatment plans were designed to deliver homogeneous dose of 46.0Gy to mesorectum and draining lymph nodes, with a simultaneous-integrated-boost to the primary tumor up to a total dose of 55.2Gy. Planning objectives were 95% of prescribed dose to 95% of PTVs, while minimizing the volume of small bowel receiving more than 15Gy (V15 and the mean bladder dose. Dose gradient towards simultaneous-integrated-boost (GI, calculated by dividing the volume receiving more then 52.4Gy (95% of PTV55.2Gyto the volume of PTV55.2Gy, was kept below 1.5. Mean beam-on time and amount of MUs were also analyzed. Results PTV swere adequately covered by all plans. Significant advantage was found for Tomotherapy in sparing small bowel (V15 = 112.7cm3SD73.4cm3 compared to RapidArc (133.4cm3SD75.3cm3 and HybridArc (143.7cm3SD74.4cm3 (p  Conclusions HybridArc is a feasible solution for preoperative RT with a simultaneous-integrated-boost in rectal cancer patients. It achieved similar PTV coverage with significant lower beam-on time, but less efficient in sparing small bowel and bladder compared to Tomotherapy and RapidArc. The added value of HybridArc is that the treatment modality can be implemented on every LINAC equipped with Dynamic-Conform-Arc and IMRT treatment techniques, while maintaining the same QA-schemes.

  6. Effects of belimumab, a B lymphocyte stimulator-specific inhibitor, on disease activity across multiple organ domains in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: combined results from two phase III trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Susan; Sánchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Merrill, Joan T; Furie, Richard; Gladman, Dafna; Navarra, Sandra V; Ginzler, Ellen M; D'Cruz, David P; Doria, Andrea; Cooper, Simon; Zhong, Z John; Hough, Douglas; Freimuth, William; Petri, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of belimumab versus placebo, plus standard systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) therapy, on organ domain-specific SLE disease activity. Methods Data obtained after 52 weeks of treatment from two phase III trials (BLISS-52 and BLISS-76) comparing belimumab 1 and 10 mg/kg versus placebo, plus standard therapy, in 1684 autoantibody-positive patients were analysed post hoc for changes in British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) and Safety of Estrogens in Lupus National Assessment–Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA–SLEDAI) organ domain scores. Results At baseline, the domains involved in the majority of patients were musculoskeletal and mucocutaneous by both BILAG and SELENA–SLEDAI, and immunological by SELENA–SLEDAI. At 52 weeks, significantly more patients treated with belimumab versus placebo had improvement in BILAG musculoskeletal and mucocutaneous domains (1 and 10 mg/kg), and in SELENA–SLEDAI mucocutaneous (10 mg/kg), musculoskeletal (1 mg/kg) and immunological (1 and 10 mg/kg) domains. Improvement was also observed in other organ systems with a low prevalence (≤16%) at baseline, including the SELENA–SLEDAI vasculitis and central nervous system domains. Significantly fewer patients treated with belimumab versus placebo had worsening in the BILAG haematological domain (1 mg/kg) and in the SELENA–SLEDAI immunological (10 mg/kg), haematological (10 mg/kg) and renal (1 mg/kg) domains. Conclusions Belimumab treatment improved overall SLE disease activity in the most common musculoskeletal and mucocutaneous organ domains. Less worsening occurred in the haematological, immunological and renal domains. PMID:22550315

  7. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  8. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  9. Rapid Reversal of Complete Binocular Blindness With High-Dose Corticosteroids and Lumbar Drain in a Solid Organ Transplant Recipient With Cryptococcal Meningitis and Immune Reconstitution Syndrome: First Case Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Zoe; Mehta, Nihaal; Aung, Su Nandar; Migliori, Michael; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    Blindness is a rare, devastating, usually permanent complication of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We present the first case of complete vision loss in a solid organ transplant recipient with CM treated with placement of a lumbar drain who had a dramatic visual recovery that started after 3 doses of high-dose steroids.

  10. Conducting Polymers in Neural Stimulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, David D.; Cui, X. Tracy; Hines, Amy; Greenberg, Robert J.

    With advances in neural prostheses, the demand for high-resolution and site-specific stimulation is driving microelectrode research to develop electrodes that are much smaller in area and longer in lifetime. For such arrays, the choice of electrode material has become increasingly important. Currently, most neural stimulation devices use platinum, iridium oxide, or titanium nitride electrodes. Although those metal electrodes have low electrode impedance, high charge injection capability, and high corrosion resistance, the neural interface between solid metal and soft tissue has undesilable characteristics. Recently, several conducting polymers, also known as inherently conducting polymers (ICPs), have been explored as new electrode materials for neural interfaces. Polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANi), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers may offer the organic, improved bionic interface that is necessary to promote biocompatibility in neural stimulation applications. While conducting polymers hold much promise in biomedical applications, more research is needed to further understand the properties of these materials. Factors such as electrode impedance, polymer volume changes under electrical stimulation, charge injection capability, biocompatibility, and long-term stability are of significant importance and may pose as challenges in the future success of conducting polymers in biomedical applications.

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Bogard, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) for radiation dosimetry has become increasingly popular in recent years. The OSL method is based on luminescence emitted from semiconductor materials stimulated with specific wavelengths of light, after being exposed to ionizing radiation. The OSL intensity is a function of the radiation dose absorbed by the material. This work complements previous studies by the authors of the thermoluminescence (TL) response by SiO 2 commercial optical fiber exposed to ionizing radiation and provides preliminary results describing some of the material's OSL properties. Linear OSL response to beta radiation dose, along with a consistent shape of the photon emission curve with time, were observed using a green/blue OSL excitation laser. The reproducibility of OSL response after repeated irradiations and the change in intensity with time were also examined. The search and characterization of materials that exhibit this OSL response, in parallel with the continued development of OSL methodology and instrumentation, is an important scientific and commercial issue. (Author)

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  14. Role of Akt substrate of 160 kDa in insulin-stimulated and contraction-stimulated glucose transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2007-01-01

    160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. Available data from skeletal muscle support the concepts developed in adipocytes with regard to the role AS160 plays in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In vivo exercise, in vitro contractions, or in situ contractions can also stimulate AS......Insulin and exercise, the most important physiological stimuli to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle, trigger a redistribution of GLUT4 glucose transporter proteins from the cell interior to the cell surface, thereby increasing glucose transport capacity. The most distal insulin...... signaling protein that has been linked to GLUT4 translocation, Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), becomes phosphorylated in insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes; this is important for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Insulin also induces a rapid and dose-dependent increase in AS...

  15. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  16. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait......-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified...

  17. A coaxially heated membrane introduction mass spectrometry interface for the rapid and sensitive on-line measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants in air and water at parts-per-trillion levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J; Creba, A Skye; Ferguson, Robyn M; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Christopher G

    2006-01-01

    A coaxially heated membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) sampling interface is presented that demonstrates improved on-line performance for the direct measurement of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air and water samples at parts-per-trillion levels. The device is based on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) capillary hollow fibre membrane (HFM) in a pneumatically assisted "flow-over" configuration that is resistively heated on the membrane interior via a coaxial nichrome wire, establishing a thermal gradient counter to the analyte concentration gradient. This arrangement allows for continuous and/or pulsed heating modes, affording excellent sensitivity for the on-line measurement of SVOCs while retaining sensitivity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, the signal response time for SVOCs is reduced substantially over conventional "flow-over" MIMS interfaces. Separation and quantitation of analytes are achieved using quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: caojing981@126.com [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  19. Stimulated anoxic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons using Fe(III) ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of ground waters with water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, common components of petroleum pollution, often produces anoxic conditions under which microbial degradation of the aromatics is slow. Oxygen is often added to contaminated ground water to stimulate biodegradation, but this can be technically difficult and expensive. Insoluble Fe(III) oxides, which are generally abundant in shallow aquifers, are alternative potential oxidants, but are difficult for microorganisms to access. Here we report that adding organic ligands that bind to Fe(III) dramatically increases its bioavailability, and that in the presence of these ligands, rates of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anoxic aquifer sediments are comparable to those in oxic sediments. We find that even benzene, which is notoriously refractory in the absence of oxygen, can be rapidly degraded. Our results suggest that increasing the bioavailability of Fe(III) by adding suitable ligands provides a potential alternative to oxygen addition for the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated aquifers.Contamination of ground waters with water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, common components of petroleum pollution, often produces anoxic conditions under which microbial degradation of the aromatics is slow. Oxygen is often added to contaminated ground water to stimulate biodegradation, but this can be technically difficult and expensive. Insoluble Fe(III) oxides, which are generally abundant in shallow aquifers, are alternative potential oxidants, but are difficult for microorganisms to access. Here we report that adding organic ligands that bind to Fe(III) dramatically increases its bioavailability, and that in the presence of these ligands, rates of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anoxic aquifer sediments are comparable to those in oxic sediments. We find that even benzene, which is notoriously refractory in the absence of oxygen, can be rapidly degraded. Our results suggest that increasing

  20. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Rocha, S.M.; Legin, A.; Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  1. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [CESAM/Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rocha, S.M. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C. [Madeira Chemistry Center, University of Madeira, Funchal 9000-390 (Portugal)

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  2. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, A; Rocha, S M; Legin, A; Pereira, V; Marques, J C

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? ... Guide to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or ...

  4. Rapid interhemispheric switching during vocal production in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Z H Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To generate complex bilateral motor patterns such as those underlying birdsong, neural activity must be highly coordinated across the two cerebral hemispheres. However, it remains largely elusive how this coordination is achieved given that interhemispheric communication between song-control areas in the avian cerebrum is restricted to projections received from bilaterally connecting areas in the mid- and hindbrain. By electrically stimulating cerebral premotor areas in zebra finches, we find that behavioral effectiveness of stimulation rapidly switches between hemispheres. In time intervals in which stimulation in one hemisphere tends to distort songs, stimulation in the other hemisphere is mostly ineffective, revealing an idiosyncratic form of motor dominance that bounces back and forth between hemispheres like a virtual ping-pong ball. The intervals of lateralized effectiveness are broadly distributed and are unrelated to simple spectral and temporal song features. Such interhemispheric switching could be an important dynamical aspect of neural coordination that may have evolved from simpler pattern generator circuits.

  5. Distributed stimulation increases force elicited with functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmire, Alie J.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Doane, Cynthia J.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source. Approach. We compared the maximum isometric forces that could be evoked in the anterior deltoid of anesthetized monkeys using one or two intramuscular electrodes. We also evaluated whether temporally interleaved stimulation between two electrodes might reduce fatigue during prolonged activity compared to synchronized stimulation through two electrodes. Main results. We found that dual electrode stimulation consistently produced greater force (~50% greater on average) than maximal stimulation with single electrodes. No differences, however, were found in the fatigue responses using interleaved versus synchronized stimulation. Significance. It seems reasonable to consider using multi-electrode stimulation to augment the force-generating capacity of muscles and thereby increase the utility of FES systems.

  6. Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a select group of refractory epilepsy patients. Future investigations into the mechanism underlying ′response′ to brain stimulation are desired.

  7. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  8. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  9. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  10. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  11. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  12. Motor stimulation with interferential currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Domenico, G G; Strauss, G R

    1985-01-01

    The stimulation of motor nerves to produce muscle contraction in normally innervated muscles is a long established part of orthodox physiotherapy. Recently however, a revival of interest in the area has occurred, particularly in the U.S.A. Recent research has indicated that such stimulation can improve muscle strength, reduce muscle spasm and modulate spasticity, in addition to the more usual re-educative role of electrical stimulation. The concept of functional electrical stimulation (F.E.S.) seems destined to become an integral part of many programmes for the neurologically handicapped patient. This paper describes the technique of motor stimulation using interferential currents. The stimulating parameters and electrode placement are considered, along with a detailed explanation of the pre-modulated system of electrode arrangement. Copyright © 1985 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  13. Stimulation of aerobic degradation of bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop by oxygen addition to aquifer sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, S.; Hybel, A.-M.; Bjerg, P.L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate aerobic degradation potential for the herbicides bentazone, mecoprop and dichlorprop, anaerobic groundwater samples from two monitoring and three drinking water wells near a drinking water abstraction field in Nybølle, Denmark, were screened for their degradation potential for the herbicides. In the presence of oxygen 14 C-labelled bentazone and mecoprop were removed significantly from the two monitoring wells' groundwater samples. Oxygen was added to microcosms in order to investigate whether different oxygen concentrations stimulate the biodegradation of the three herbicides in microcosms using groundwater and sandy aquifer materials. To maintain a certain oxygen concentration this level was measured from the outside of the bottles with a fibre oxygen meter using oxygen-sensitive luminescent sensor foil mounted inside the microcosm, to which supplementary oxygen was added. The highest oxygen concentrations (corresponding to 4–11 mg L −1 ) stimulated degradation (a 14–27% increase for mecoprop, 3–9% for dichlorprop and 15–20% for bentazone) over an experimental period of 200 days. Oxygen was required to biodegrade the herbicides, since no degradation was observed under anaerobic conditions. This is the first time bentazone degradation has been observed in aquifer material at low oxygen concentrations (2 mg L −1 ). The sediment had substantial oxygen consumption (0.92–1.45 O 2 g -1 dw over 200 days) and oxygen was depleted rapidly in most incubations soon after its addition, which might be due to the oxidation of organic matter and other reduced species such as Fe 2+ , S 2− and Mn in sediment before the biodegradation of herbicides takes place. This study suggests that oxygen enhancement around a drinking water abstraction field could stimulate the bioremediation of diffuse source contamination. - Highlights: • Addition of different oxygen concentrations stimulated degradation of herbicides in anaerobic aquifer sediment

  14. Blood Pressure Responses to Endovascular Stimulation: A Potential Therapy for Autonomic Disorders With Vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksuk, Niyada; Killu, Ammar M; Yogeswaran, Vidhushei; Desimone, Christopher V; Suddendorf, Scott H; Ladewig, Dorothy J; Powers, Joanne M; Weber, Sarah; Madhavan, Malini; Cha, Yong-Mei; Kapa, Suraj; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that sympathetic ganglia stimulation via the renal vein rapidly increases blood pressure. This study further investigated the optimal target sites and effective energy levels for stimulation of the renal vasculatures and nearby sympathetic ganglia for rapid increase in blood pressure. The pre-study protocol for endovascular stimulations included 2 minutes of stimulation (1-150 V and 10 pulses per second) and at least 2 minutes of rest during poststimulation. If blood pressure and/or heart rate were changed during the stimulation, time to return to baseline was allowed prior to the next stimulation. In 11 acute canine studies, we performed 85 renal artery, 30 renal vein, and 8 hepatic vasculature stimulations. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) rapidly increased during stimulation of renal artery (95 ± 18 mmHg vs. 103 ± 15 mmHg; P vein (90 ± 16 mmHg vs. 102 ± 20 mmHg; P = 0.001), and hepatic vasculatures (74 ± 8 mmHg vs. 82 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.04). Predictors of a significant increase in MAP were energy >10 V focused on the left renal artery, bilateral renal arteries, and bilateral renal veins (especially the mid segment). Overall, heart rate was unchanged, but muscle fasciculation was observed in 22.0% with an output >10 V (range 15-150 V). Analysis after excluding the stimulations that resulted in fasciculation yielded similar results to the main findings. Stimulation of intra-abdominal vasculatures promptly increased the MAP and thus may be a potential treatment option for hypotension in autonomic disorders. Predictors of optimal stimulation include energy delivery and the site of stimulation (for the renal vasculatures), which informs the design of subsequent research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Flora rapid reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Васильевич Туганаев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flora rapid reaction forces ­– there are explerents that have high productivity and weak competitiveness. Their innately functional allocation is to plant disturbed acres as soon as possible preventing by that biosphere homeostasis disturbance. Disturbed acres were used to take place in geological history. Nowadays they take especially big areas. Considering a historical line of Dactylis glomerata L. authors suggest to separate out an especial group of anthropochores which they call medieophytes

  17. Microsensors for rapid estimation of the degree of contamination due to organic matter in waste waters; Microsensores para la estimacion rapida del grado de contaminacion por materia organica de las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Holguin, J.; Fernandez Sanchez, C.; Jimenez Jorquera, C.

    2008-07-01

    The chemical oxygen demand, COD, is an indicative of the contamination grade by organic matter in wastewater effluents. Its measurement is usually performed with conventional instrumentation and techniques which are time-consuming and requires highly pollutant and dangerous reagents. electrochemical oxygen demand, EOD, is proposed as an alternative parameter to COD. This works reports on a chemical microsensor as an attractive option to get this parameter, thanks to its high speed of response, robustness, feasibility and low-cost of production. The microsensor developed, modified with a conductive composite, has been characterized and used to estimate the EOD of wastewater samples coming from a production line of parenteral food and from a wine making process. (Author) 34 refs.

  18. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial...... composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes. DESIGN: Unstimulated (n=20) and stimulated (n=20) saliva samples were collected from 20...

  19. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  20. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  1. In vivo impedance spectroscopy of deep brain stimulation electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempka, Scott F.; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Johnson, Matthew D.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a powerful clinical technology, but a systematic characterization of the electrical interactions between the electrode and the brain is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the in vivo changes in the DBS electrode impedance that occur after implantation and during clinically relevant stimulation. Clinical DBS devices typically apply high-frequency voltage-controlled stimulation, and as a result, the injected current is directly regulated by the impedance of the electrode-tissue interface. We monitored the impedance of scaled-down clinical DBS electrodes implanted in the thalamus and subthalamic nucleus of a rhesus macaque using electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements ranging from 0.5 Hz to 10 kHz. To further characterize our measurements, equivalent circuit models of the electrode-tissue interface were used to quantify the role of various interface components in producing the observed electrode impedance. Following implantation, the DBS electrode impedance increased and a semicircular arc was observed in the high-frequency range of the EIS measurements, commonly referred to as the tissue component of the impedance. Clinically relevant stimulation produced a rapid decrease in electrode impedance with extensive changes in the tissue component. These post-operative and stimulation-induced changes in impedance could play an important role in the observed functional effects of voltage-controlled DBS and should be considered during clinical stimulation parameter selection and chronic animal research studies.

  2. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  3. Comparison of cortical responses to the activation of retina by visual stimulation and transcorneal electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengcheng; Li, Heng; Lu, Zhuofan; Su, Xiaofan; Ma, Zengguang; Chen, Jianpin; Li, Liming; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu

    2018-02-21

    Electrical stimulation has been widely used in many ophthalmic diseases to modulate neuronal activities or restore partial visual function. Due to the different processing pathways and mechanisms, responses to visual and electrical stimulation in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas might be different. This differences would shed some light on the properties of cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation. This study's goal was to directly compare the cortical responses evoked by visual and electrical stimulation and investigate the cortical processing of visual information and extrinsic electrical signal. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) was used to probe the cortical hemodynamic responses in 11 cats. Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) through an ERG-jet contact lens electrode was used to activate visual cortices. Full-field and peripheral drifting gratings were used as the visual stimuli. The response latency evoked by TES was shorter than that responding to visual stimulation (VS). Cortical responses evoked by VS were retinotopically organized, which was consistent with previous studies. On the other hand, the cortical region activated by TES was preferentially located in the secondary visual cortex (Area 18), while the primary visual cortex (Area 17) was activated by a higher current intensity. Compared with the full-field VS, the cortical response in Area 18 to TES with a current intensity above 1.2 mA was significantly stronger. According to our results, we provided some evidence that the cortical processing of TES was influenced by the distribution of the electrical field in the retina and the activating threshold of different retinal ganglion cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of mechanical stimulation on human dermal fibroblasts derived from different body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruixia; Wang, Zhiguo; Xu, Quanchen; Liu, Su; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is highly associated with pathogenesis of human hypertrophic scar. Although much work has focused on the influence of mechanical stress on fibroblast populations from various tissues and organs in the human body, their effects on cultured dermal fibroblasts by the area of the body have not been as well studied. In this study, cultures of skin fibroblasts from two different body sites were subjected to cyclic mechanical stimulation with a 10% stretching amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively, and thereafter harvested for experimental assays. Fibroblasts from scapular upper back skin, subjected to mechanical loads for 36 and 48 hours, respectively, were observed to proliferate at a higher rate and reach confluent more rapidly during in vitro culturing, had higher expression levels of mRNA and protein production of integrin β1, p130Cas and TGF β1 versus those from medial side of upper arm. These data indicate that skin fibroblasts, with regard to originated body sites studied in the experiments, display a diversity of mechanotransduction properties and biochemical reactions in response to applied mechanical stress, which contributes to the increased susceptibility to hypertrophic scars formation at certain areas of human body characterized by higher skin and muscle tension.

  5. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  9. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  10. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  11. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  12. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  13. Novel applications of deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Tejas; Tierney, Travis S.; Hamani, Clement

    2012-01-01

    The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in treating medically refractory symptoms of some movement disorders has inspired further investigation into a wide variety of other treatment-resistant conditions. These range from disorders of gait, mood, and memory to problems as diverse as obesity, consciousness, and addiction. We review the emerging indications, rationale, and outcomes for some of the most promising new applications of DBS in the treatment of postural instability associated with Parkinson's disease, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, obesity, substance abuse, epilepsy, Alzheimer′s-type dementia, and traumatic brain injury. These studies reveal some of the excitement in a field at the edge of a rapidly expanding frontier. Much work still remains to be done on basic mechanism of DBS, optimal target and patient selection, and long-term durability of this technology in treating new indications. PMID:22826807

  14. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  15. Employees' Stimulation for the Perception of Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tаtiana V. Peregudova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the approach to the encouragement of employees of the organization to the perception of innovative activity products. At the core of this process there is an estimation of their activity regarding contribution to this process by group examination with point scoring of each employee on the selected criteria.The principles of formation and distribution of the bonus fund, which it is proposed to establish on the basis of proportion of the sum of average scores which the employee received in total, are given. 20% of employees with the low rates are not paid the bonus.Such approach to the stimulation of innovation implementation in the organization will create a positive institutional environment and reduce implementation time.

  16. Building people-oriented organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWithin organizations, work and the way work is organized is rapidly changing. Driven by increasing globalization, the virtualization brought on by the internet and the need for constant innovation is increasing the pace of work and our interconnectedness. Within organizations, work and

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  20. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  2. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  3. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate report on a 100 TeV synchrotron/collider based on the nuclotron-type cryomagnetic system, measurements of the n vector p vector total cross section differences for pure helicity states at 1.20, 2.50 and 3.66 GeV, polarization transfer in the 12 C(d vector, p vector)X reaction for deuteron momenta between 5.8 and 9.0 GeV/c, observation of Σ c 0 charmed baryon in the experiment EXCHARM, absorbed dose in scintillators of zero degree calorimeter at irradiation by Pb nuclei with 157.7 GeV/nucleon energy, track finding with neural networks in ALICE ITS and influence of shell effects on production cross section of neutron-deficient uranium iisotopes with N ≅ 126. 33 figs., 8 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  7. Advances in rapid prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  8. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  9. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  10. LABOR MOTIVATION AND STIMULATION AS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Tregoubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Main organizational behavior management methods are material incentives, wages, rewards, participation in profits. Motivation andstimulation concepts are specified, components of the mechanism of forming the system of personnel stimulus and motives are discussed along with organization personnel motivation and stimulation forms and methods.

  11. Solar ultraviolet photodegradation of DOC may stimulate freshwater food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Morris, D.P.; Williamson, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The UV component in solar radiation increased the availability of DOC for bacterial growth, and led to an increase in bacterial and bacterivore abundance in laboratory plankton cultures. UV radiation may thus stimulate ecosystem productivity by increasing dissolved organic carbon lability and

  12. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  13. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  14. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  15. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulation test is usually performed to identify if hGH (human growth hormone) is deficient. The test is ... amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The test measures the ability of the ...

  16. Acute Exercise Stimulates Carnitine Biosynthesis and OCTN2 Expression in Mouse Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L. Broderick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain FAs (FA into the mitochondria for energy production. During acute exercise, the increased demand for FAs results in a state of free carnitine deficiency in plasma. The role of kidney in carnitine homeostasis after exercise is not known. Methods: Swiss Webster mice were sacrificed immediately after a 1-hour moderate intensity treadmill run, and at 4-hours and 8-hours into recovery. Non-exercising mice served as controls. Plasma was analyzed for carnitine using acetyltransferase and [14C] acetyl-CoA. Kidney was removed for gene and protein expression of butyrobetaine hydroxylase (γ-BBH, organic cation transporter (OCTN2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation activated by FAs. Results: Acute exercise caused a decrease in plasma free carnitine levels. Rapid return of free carnitine to control levels during recovery was associated with increased γ-BBH expression. Both mRNA and protein levels of OCTN2 were detected in kidney after exercise and during recovery, suggesting renal transport mechanisms were stimulated. These changes were accompanied with a reciprocal increase in PPARα protein expression. Conclusions: Our results show that the decrease in free carnitine after exercise rapidly activates carnitine biosynthesis and renal transport mechanism in kidney to establish carnitine homeostasis.

  17. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  18. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  19. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  20. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...

  1. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ...

  3. Evaluating developmental motor plasticity with paired afferent stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damji, Omar; Keess, Jamie; Kirton, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Brain plasticity mechanisms are probably different in children but remain poorly understood. Paired afferent stimulation (PAS) combines peripheral sensory stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex to induce rapid, reversible, topographically specific increases in primary motor cortex excitability suggestive of long-term potentiation in adults. Our aim was to determine frequency, characteristics, age effects, and reproducibility of PAS in school-age children. Typically developing right-handed children (6-18y) were recruited. Median nerve stimulation was delivered 25ms before suprathreshold primary motor cortex stimulation (0.2Hz, 7.5min). Primary outcome was changed in the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at five time points after PAS (0, 15, 30, 45, 75min) expressed as area under the curve. Reproducibility was evaluated. Secondary outcomes included stimulus response curves and safety/tolerability. Of 28 children (20 males, mean age 12y), 64% demonstrated PAS effects (11 definite, seven probable). PAS effects were sustained across all time points to 75min (p=0.004). Stimulus response curve scores increased after PAS (n=9, p=0.02). PAS effect and age were not correlated. PAS was highly reproducible (p=0.925, r=0.283). Tolerability was favorable without adverse events. PAS effects are present and reproducible in children. Pediatric PAS paradigms appear safe and tolerable. PAS may provide insight into endogenous developmental plasticity, informing future studies in children with cerebral palsy and other motor disorders. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Uncovering the mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gang; Yu Chao; Lin Ling; Lu, Stephen C-Y [Inspiring Technical Laboratory, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-01-01

    Deep brain stimulators, often called 'pacemakers for the brain', are implantable devices which continuously deliver impulse stimulation to specific targeted nuclei of deep brain structure, namely deep brain stimulation (DBS). To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most effective clinical technique for the treatment of several medically refractory movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). In addition, new clinical applications of DBS for other neurologic and psychiatric disorders (e.g., epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder) have been put forward. Although DBS has been effective in the treatment of movement disorders and is rapidly being explored for the treatment of other neurologic disorders, the scientific understanding of its mechanisms of action remains unclear and continues to be debated in the scientific community. Optimization of DBS technology for present and future therapeutic applications will depend on identification of the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. The goal of this review is to address our present knowledge of the effects of high-frequency stimulation within the central nervous system and comment on the functional implications of this knowledge for uncovering the mechanism(s) of DBS.

  5. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) modulates flow experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Wolters, Gina; Peifer, Corinna

    2018-01-01

    Flow has been defined as a pleasant psychological state that people experience when completely absorbed in an activity. Previous correlative evidence showed that the vagal tone (as indexed by heart rate variability) is a reliable marker of flow. So far, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in flow. To explore this we used transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that increases activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and norepinephrine release. A sham/placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over within-subject design was employed to infer a causal relation between the stimulated vagus nerve and flow as measured using the Flow Short-Scale in 32 healthy young volunteers. In both sessions, while being stimulated, participants had to rate their flow experience after having performed a task for 30 min. Active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, decreased flow (as indexed by absorption scores). The results can be explained by the network reset theory, which assumes that high-phasic LC activity promotes a global reset of attention over exploitation of the current focus of attention, allowing rapid behavioral adaptation and resulting in decreased absorption scores. Furthermore, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the vagus nerve and noradrenergic system are causally involved in flow.

  6. Uncovering the mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Yu Chao; Lin Ling; Lu, Stephen C-Y

    2005-01-01

    Deep brain stimulators, often called 'pacemakers for the brain', are implantable devices which continuously deliver impulse stimulation to specific targeted nuclei of deep brain structure, namely deep brain stimulation (DBS). To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most effective clinical technique for the treatment of several medically refractory movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). In addition, new clinical applications of DBS for other neurologic and psychiatric disorders (e.g., epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder) have been put forward. Although DBS has been effective in the treatment of movement disorders and is rapidly being explored for the treatment of other neurologic disorders, the scientific understanding of its mechanisms of action remains unclear and continues to be debated in the scientific community. Optimization of DBS technology for present and future therapeutic applications will depend on identification of the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. The goal of this review is to address our present knowledge of the effects of high-frequency stimulation within the central nervous system and comment on the functional implications of this knowledge for uncovering the mechanism(s) of DBS

  7. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  8. A twin study of the neuropsychological consequences of stimulant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Eisen, Seth A; Xian, Hong; Chantarujikapong, Sunanta; Seidman, Larry J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies document neuropsychological deficits associated with stimulant abuse, but findings are inconsistent. We identified 50 twin pairs in which only 1 member had heavy stimulant abuse (cocaine and/or amphetamines) ending at least 1 year before the evaluation. The co-twin control research design controls for familial vulnerability and makes it easier to identify neuropsychological deficits that are consequences of stimulant abuse. Subjects were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery organized into the following 5 functions: attention, executive functioning, motor skills, intelligence, and memory. Multivariate tests showed that abusers performed significantly worse than nonabusers on functions of attention and motor skills. Within each of these functions, univariate tests showed that abusers performed significantly worse on certain tests of motor skills and attention. In contrast, abusers performed significantly better on one test of attention measuring visual vigilance. Within the abuser group, higher levels of stimulant use were largely uncorrelated with neuropsychological test scores, although a few significant correlations indicated better functioning with more stimulant use. With ideal controls, this study demonstrates that deficits in attention and motor skills persist after 1 year of abstinence from stimulant use and raises hypotheses regarding relative strengths on a vigilance task among abusers.

  9. Ovarian stimulation, endometrium and implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Beigi Boroujeni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Paper article, the collection of the studies related to the effect of ovarian stimulation on endometrium of uterus and implantation have been investigated. History: Monash group used ovarian stimulation method for the first time in infertility treatment and also, they could increase the pregnancy rate using this method. However, the percentage of successful embryonic implantation has been decreased by this method due to imbalance of hormones and the effect of these hormonal changes on endometrium. Materials and Methods: Studies done by researchers have shown that ovarian stimulation causes undesirable changes in endometrium which in turn such alterations lead to inadequate attachment of embryo to endometrium and finally decrease the percentage of embryonic implantation. Conclusion: Based on several researches and the importance of using the ovarian stimulation method in treatment of infertility, also due to undesirable effects that ovarian stimulation has on endometrium during embryonic implantation it is inevitable that more investigations should be done for improvement of treatment methods in infertility clinics.

  10. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  11. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  12. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array‐based multiplex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, B.; Frans, I.; Heusdens, C.

    2011-01-01

    Fish diseases can be caused by a variety of diverse organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa, and pose a universal threat to the ornamental fish industry and aquaculture. The lack of rapid, accurate and reliable means by which fish pathogens can be detected and identified has been...... one of the main limitations in fish pathogen diagnosis and fish disease management and has consequently stimulated the search for alternative diagnostic techniques. Here, we describe a method based on multiplex and broad‐range PCR amplification combined with DNA array hybridization...... for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV‐1, CyHV‐2 and CyHV‐3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were...

  13. Astroparticle physics gets organized!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Astroparticle physics is a rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. But unlike particle physics it has no permanent organizations like CERN to plan for the long-term future. But this is starting to change, and CERN may be able to help.

  14. The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

    2002-08-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

  15. Neuromodulation via Interferential Electrical Stimulation as a Novel Therapy in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Judith S; Gibson, Peter R; Burgell, Rebecca E

    2018-01-01

    The concept of therapeutic percutaneous neuromodulation has, until recently, been limited by the ability to penetrate deeply enough to stimulate internal organs. By utilizing 2 medium frequency, slightly out of phase electrical currents passing diagonally through the abdomen, a third, low frequency current is created at the point of bisection. This interferential current appears to stimulate nerve fibers in the target organs and may have a therapeutic action. The aim of the study is to review...

  16. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jennifer J.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used for the treatment of movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia and, to a lesser extent, certain treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder. Rather than a single unifying mechanism, DBS likely acts via several, nonexclusive mechanisms including local and network-wide electrical and neurochemical effects of stimulation, modulation of oscillatory activity, synaptic plasticity, and, potentially, neuroprotection and neurogenesis. These different mechanisms vary in importance depending on the condition being treated and the target being stimulated. Here we review each of these in turn and illustrate how an understanding of these mechanisms is inspiring next-generation approaches to DBS. PMID:26510756

  17. Prolonged bed rest impairs rapid CPI-17 phosphorylation and contraction in rat mesenteric resistance arteries to cause orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Kitazawa, Kazuyo

    2017-12-01

    Prolonged bed rest (PBR) causes orthostatic hypotension (OH). Rapid constriction of splanchnic resistance arteries in response to a sudden increase in sympathetic tone contributes to the recovery of orthostatic arterial pressure upon standing. However, the molecular mechanism of PBR-induced dysfunction in arterial constriction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that CPI-17, a regulatory protein for myosin phosphatase, mediates α 1A -adrenergic receptor-induced rapid contraction of small mesenteric arteries. Here, we tested whether PBR associated with OH affects the α 1 -adrenergic receptor-induced CPI-17 signaling pathway in mesenteric arteries using rats treated by head-down tail-suspension hindlimb unloading (HDU), an experimental OH model. In normal anesthetized rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP) rapidly reduced upon 90° head-up tilt from supine position and then immediately recovered without change in heart rate, suggesting a rapid arterial constriction. On the other hand, after a 4-week HDU treatment, the fast orthostatic MAP recovery failed for 1 min. Alpha1A subtype-specific antagonist suppressed the orthostatic MAP recovery with a small decrease in basal blood pressure, whereas non-specific α 1 -antagonist prazosin strongly reduced both basal MAP and orthostatic recovery. The HDU treatment resulted in 68% reduction in contraction in parallel with 83% reduction in CPI-17 phosphorylation in denuded mesenteric arteries 10 s after α 1 -agonist stimulation. The treatment with either Ca 2+ -release channel opener or PKC inhibitor mimicked the deficiency in HDU arteries. These results suggest that an impairment of the rapid PKC/CPI-17 signaling pathway downstream of α 1A -adrenoceptors in peripheral arterial constriction, as an end organ of orthostatic blood pressure reflex, is associated with OH in prolonged bed rest patients.

  18. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine-615 contributes to nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart A; Kohlhaas, Christine F; Boyd, Alasdair R; Yalla, Krishna C; Walsh, Kenneth; Connell, John M C; Salt, Ian P

    2010-01-27

    Insulin stimulates endothelial NO (nitric oxide) synthesis via PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt-mediated phosphorylation and activation of eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) at Ser-1177. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 may be required, yet is not sufficient for insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. We therefore investigated the role of phosphorylation of eNOS at alternative sites to Ser-1177 as candidate parallel mechanisms contributing to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. Stimulation of human aortic endothelial cells with insulin rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of both Ser-615 and Ser-1177 on eNOS, whereas phosphorylation of Ser-114, Thr-495 and Ser-633 was unaffected. Insulin-stimulated Ser-615 phosphorylation was abrogated by incubation with the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin, infection with adenoviruses expressing a dominant-negative mutant PKB/Akt or pre-incubation with TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), but was unaffected by high culture glucose concentrations. Mutation of Ser-615 to alanine reduced insulin-stimulated NO synthesis, whereas mutation of Ser-615 to aspartic acid increased NO production by NOS in which Ser-1177 had been mutated to an aspartic acid residue. We propose that the rapid PKB-mediated stimulation of phosphorylation of Ser-615 contributes to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis.

  19. Comparison of mild stimulation and conventional stimulation in ART outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Oskouian, Homa; Rahmani, Elham

    2010-04-01

    To provide a treatment for particular condition that is the most effective treatment with the least risk and cost for the patient we compared the efficacy of using clomiphene 100 mg + delayed low dose gonadotropin + flexible GnRH antagonist administration for ovarian stimulation protocol and GnRH agonist + gonadotropin for stimulation protocol in IVF outcome. Clinical outcome of 243 women with regularly menstruation who were candidate for IVF. They had undergone stimulation with GnRH agonist and gonadotropin (group A) or clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin and GnRH antagonist (group B). Main outcome was ongoing pregnancy. There were no significant difference in mean age, cause of infertility, basal FSH, BMI, duration of infertility, endometrial thickness on the day HCG administration in two groups. The number of recovered oocytes, obtained embryos, transferred embryos, peak of estradiol on the day HCG administration and OHSS were significantly higher in group A. Significantly more patients in control group had embryos for cryopreservation. There were no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate between two groups. Clomiphene + delayed low dose gonadotropin + flexible GnRH - antagonist stimulation is an acceptable alternative protocol for IVF in patients with regularly menstruation.

  20. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters used for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen

    in rapid sand filters was not associated with methane oxidation. Based on the present investigations and literature, it was suggested that phenoxy acid degradation in rapid sand filters is due to primary metabolism, and that degradation might be stimulated by enriching naturally occurring specific...... degraders in the sand filters upon exposure to phenoxy acid contaminated groundwater. A suite of evidence showed that the herbicide bentazone was co-metabolically transformed to hydroxy-bentazone by the methanotrophic enrichment culture. Subsequently, it was investigated whether bentazone degradation...... a sequential reactor system, where methanotrophs are grown in the aeration tanks and transported to the rapid sand filters where they can perform co-metabolic pesticide biodegradation. It was suggested that bentazone removal can be stimulated at waterworks, by stimulating growth of methanotrophs. Overall...

  1. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  2. Thermally stimulated properties of amber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoelectrets yielded thermally stimulated currents but radioelectrets could not be produced even following exposures of 16000 R of ionising radiation. It is concluded that the thermally stimulated currents are due to the depolarisation of dipoles, with activation energy of 1.4 +- 0.1 eV, rather than to discharge of trapped charge carriers. Amber exhibits thermal luminescence following exposure to light of lambda < 500 nm but not to ionising radiation after exposures up to 5500 R, indicating localised impurity/trap/recombination complexes in the specimen surface, with a trap depth of 1.5 +- 0.1 eV. (author)

  3. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  4. Hydrocortisone Stimulation of RNA Synthesis in Induction of Hepatic Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, Francis T.; Wicks, Wesley D.; Greenman, David L.

    1965-10-01

    Increased synthesis of hepatic enzymes due to hydrocortisone is preceded by an increase in the rate of synthesis of nuclear RNA. Pulse-labeled RNA from liver nuclei was fractionated by a differential thermal phenol procedures, and the labeled RNA of each fraction was characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation and base composition analysis. Hormone treatment increases the rate of synthesis of three types of RNA: (1) the nuclear precursor to ribosomal RNA, (2) a rapid turnover component with base composition similar to the tissue DNA, and (3) transfer RNA. Much of the total isotope incorporation into transfer RNA can be traced to turnover of the terminal adenylate residue, but this type of labeling is insensitive to the hormone. The steroid also stimulates isotope incorporation into tissue precursor pools. The effect is abolished by actinomycin and thus is secondary to the hormonal stimulation of RNA synthesis. Growth hormone stimulates RNA synthesis in both intact and adrenalectomized rats, but induces the rapid turnover enzymes (tyrosine transaminase and tryptophan pyrrolase) only in the presence of functional adrenals. It therefore seems that glucocorticoids initiate both a generalized increase in synthesis of RNA and a selective induction of specific enzymes.

  5. Rapid Decolorization of Cobalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah H. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was carried out in aqueous solution of different types of catalysts including ZnO, TiO2 (Degussa P25, TiO2 (Hombikat UV100, TiO2 (Millennium PC105, and TiO2 (Koronose 2073 by using UVA source of irradiation. The effect of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, cobalamin concentration, type of catalyst, pH of aqueous solution, light intensity, addition of H2O2, flow rate of O2, type of current gas, and temperature on photocatalytic oxidation was investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was well described by pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of photodecolorization of cobalamin was also studied in the range 278–298 K. The activation energy was calculated according to Arrhenius plot and was found equal to  kJ·mol−1 for ZnO and  kJ·mol−1 for TiO2 (Degussa P25. The results of the total organic carbon (TOC analysis indicate that the rate of decolorization of dye was faster than the total mineralization. Decolorization and mineralization of cobalamin in the absence of light and/or catalyst were performed to demonstrate that the presence of light and catalyst is essential for the decolorization of this cobalamin. The results show that the activity of different types of catalysts used in this study was of the sequence: ZnO > TiO2 (Degussa P25 > TiO2 (Hombikat UV100 > TiO2 (Millennium PC105 > TiO2 (Koronose 2073.

  6. Optimizing performance by stimulating conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, E.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  7. Stimulated emission during axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternov, I.M.; Khalilov, V.R.; Kholomai, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical analysis shows that it would be possible to achieve stimulated emission in an axisymmetric focusing electric field by a mechanism based on the nonuniform spacing of levels in the electron energy spectrum and on recoil effects during the emission and absorption of photons by the electrons

  8. Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  10. Thermally stimulated luminescence and photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-13

    Jan 13, 2012 ... Peltier cooled photo-multiplier tube as detector (Jain et al. 2008). The acquisition and analysis of the data were carried out by F-900 software supplied by Edinburgh Analytical. Instruments, UK. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) glow curves were recorded using home-built unit between. 300 and ...

  11. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  12. Breast Cancer Stimulation of Osteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    number seen in osteoporosis . M- increase osteoclast activity. Paracrine stimulation of osteo-clas aciviy my bea pi ay mchansm y wich CSF also promotes the...effects on gies, including periodontitis and orthopedic implant loos- kidney and bone metabolism. Paracrine actions of ening. Antibody blockade of

  13. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  14. Photoluminescence, thermally stimulated luminescence and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an important role in the development of thermolumine- scent dosimeters (Vohra et al 1980; Shinde et al 1996) and offer a very fertile area for further studies to eluci- date the thermally stimulated reactions resulting in lumine- scence. Actinide doped alkaline-earth sulphates are of spe- cial interest due to an array of defect ...

  15. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  16. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro

    2015-01-01

    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid enlargement of subdural haematoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of subdural haematoma (SDH having atypical features (headache, vomiting, drowsiness but normal haematological and metabolic parameters and no localising neurological signs is reported. The SDH rapidly enlarged and liquefied in five days as evident on computerised tomographic (CT scan and operative findings. Rapid improvement was observed following this. Abnormally excessive fibrinolytic activity in the SDH is a possible cause.

  18. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  19. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  20. Rapid Cellular Identification by Dynamic Electromechanical Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Reukov, Vladimir V [ORNL; Vertegel, Alexey [ORNL; Thompson, Gary L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is ubiquitous in living systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid identification of cellular organisms using difference in electromechanical activity in a broad frequency range. Principal component analysis of the dynamic electromechanical response spectra bundled with neural network based recognition provides a robust identification algorithm based on their electromechanical signature, and allows unambiguous differentiation of model Micrococcus Lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas Fluorescens system. This methodology provides a universal pathway for biological identification obviating the need for well-defined analytical models of Scanning Probe Microscopy response.

  1. Investigation of in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation on Ti using direct current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 μA, was used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell–material interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 μA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 μA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell–material interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. - Highlights: ► D.C. stimulation was used to enhance in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation. ► Cells cultured on Ti were stimulated by using a custom made electrical stimulator. ► Optimization was performed by using a varying range of direct currents ∼ 5 to 25 μA. ► 25 μA stimulation was found most beneficial for promotion of cell adhesion/growth.

  2. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  3. Rapid stimulus-evoked astrocyte Ca2+ elevations and hemodynamic responses in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Barbara Lykke; Brazhe, Alexey; Jessen, Sanne Barsballe

    2013-01-01

    +) elevations with rapid onset and short duration in a large proportion of cortical astrocytes in the adult mouse somatosensory cortex. Our improved detection of the fast Ca(2+) signals is due to a signal-enhancing analysis of the Ca(2+) activity. The rapid stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) increases identified...

  4. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total

  5. Modern acupuncture-like stimulation methods: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture therapy has been proved to be effective for diverse diseases, symptoms, and conditions in numerous clinical trials. The growing popularity of acupuncture therapy has triggered the development of modern acupuncture-like stimulation devices (ASDs, which are equivalent or superior to manual acupuncture with respect to safety, decreased risk of infection, and facilitation of clinical trials. Here, we aim to summarize the research on modern ASDs, with a focus on featured devices undergoing active research and their effectiveness and target symptoms, along with annual publication rates. We searched the popular electronic databases Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, and analyzed English-language studies on humans. Thereby, a total of 728 studies were identified, of which 195 studies met our inclusion criteria. Electrical stimulators were found to be the earliest and most widely studied devices (133 articles, followed by laser (44 articles, magnetic (16 articles, and ultrasound (2 articles stimulators. A total of 114 studies used randomized controlled trials, and 109 studies reported therapeutic benefits. The majority of the studies (32% focused on analgesia and pain-relief effects, followed by effects on brain activity (16%. All types of the reviewed ASDs were associated with increasing annual publication trends; specifically, the annual growth in publications regarding noninvasive stimulation methods was more rapid than that regarding invasive methods. Based on this observation, we anticipate that the noninvasive or minimally invasive ASDs will become more popular in acupuncture therapy.

  6. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone selectively stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Nguyen-Thi, Kim T; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tiede, Stephan; Plate, Christian; Bodó, Eniko; Knuever, Jana; Funk, Wolfgang; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    In amphibians, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates skin melanophores by inducing secretion of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. However, it is unknown whether this tripeptide neurohormone exerts any direct effects on pigment cells, namely, on human melanocytes, under physiological conditions. Therefore, we have investigated whether TRH stimulates pigment production in organ-cultured human hair follicles (HFs), the epithelium of which expresses both TRH and its receptor, and/or in full-thickness human skin in situ. TRH stimulated melanin synthesis, tyrosinase transcription and activity, melanosome formation, melanocyte dendricity, gp100 immunoreactivity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression in human HFs in a pituitary gland-independent manner. TRH also stimulated proliferation, gp100 expression, tyrosinase activity, and dendricity of isolated human HF melanocytes. However, intraepidermal melanogenesis was unaffected. As TRH upregulated the intrafollicular production of "pituitary" neurohormones (proopiomelanocortin transcription and ACTH immunoreactivity) and as agouti-signaling protein counteracted TRH-induced HF pigmentation, these pigmentary TRH effects may be mediated in part by locally generated melanocortins and/or by MC-1 signaling. Our study introduces TRH as a novel, potent, selective, and evolutionarily highly conserved neuroendocrine factor controlling human pigmentation in situ. This physiologically relevant and melanocyte sub-population-specific neuroendocrine control of human pigmentation deserves clinical exploration, e.g., for preventing or reversing hair graying.

  7. An intermediate animal model of spinal cord stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guiho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCI result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self- catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session.

  8. Colloquium : Electronic transport in single-crystal organic transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gershenson, M.E.; Podzorov, V.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Small-molecule organic semiconductors, together with polymers, form the basis for the emerging field of organic electronics. Despite the rapid technological progress in this area, our understanding of fundamental electronic properties of these materials remains limited. Recently developed organic

  9. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Ana Belen Alvarez; Lucas, Michaela; Dilley, Rodney J; McLenachan, Samuel; Chen, Fred Kuanfu; Requena, Jordi; Sal, Marti Farrera; Lucas, Andrew; Alvarez, Inaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores; Edel, Michael J

    2014-04-04

    Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids), bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye), cardiac muscle tissue (heart), primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth), and functional liver buds (liver). Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1) such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2) whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  10. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Alvarez Palomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids, bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye, cardiac muscle tissue (heart, primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth, and functional liver buds (liver. Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1 such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2 whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  11. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  12. Fascinating Organic Molecules from Nature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 7. Fascinating Organic Molecules from Nature - Sweet Stimulants of the Olfactory Nerves - Muscone, Civetone and Related Compounds. N R Krishnaswamy C N Sundaresan. Series Article Volume 18 Issue 7 July 2013 pp 673-683 ...

  13. Spinal Cord Stimulation: The Clinical Application of New Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Hegarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neuromodulation for pain relief is among the fastest-growing areas of medicine, involving many diverse specialties and impacting on hundreds of thousands of patients with numerous disorders worldwide. As the evidence of efficacy improves, the interest in spinal cord stimulation (SCS will increase because it is minimally invasive, safe, and a reversible treatment modality with limited side effect profile. While the mechanism of action evades complete understanding, the technological improvements have been considerable and current neuromodulation developments have been coupled with the rapid growth of the neuromodulation device industry resulting in the development of the next-generation neuromodulation systems. The development, the newest technicaliti and the future for the clinical application of spinal cord stimulation (SCS are reviewed here.

  14. Thalamic Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Lehn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT was first described in 1977. It is characterized by rapid tremor of 13–18 Hz and can be recorded in the lower limbs and trunk muscles. OT remains difficult to treat, although some success has been reported with deep brain stimulation (DBS.Case Report: We report a 68-year-old male with OT who did not improve significantly after bilateral thalamic stimulation.Discussion: Although some patients were described who improved after DBS surgery, more information is needed about the effect of these treatment modalities on OT, ideally in the form of randomized trial data. 

  15. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Yi Lu; Wanzhen Chen; Zhen Wu; Haiqing Zou; Ludovic Krundel; Guanglin Li

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel ele...

  16. Low-Intensity Transcranial Current Stimulation in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Nelson, Brent G; Frohlich, Flavio; Lim, Kelvin O; Widge, Alik S; Carpenter, Linda L

    2017-07-01

    Neurostimulation is rapidly emerging as an important treatment modality for psychiatric disorders. One of the fastest-growing and least-regulated approaches to noninvasive therapeutic stimulation involves the application of weak electrical currents. Widespread enthusiasm for low-intensity transcranial electrical current stimulation (tCS) is reflected by the recent surge in direct-to-consumer device marketing, do-it-yourself enthusiasm, and an escalating number of clinical trials. In the wake of this rapid growth, clinicians may lack sufficient information about tCS to inform their clinical practices. Interpretation of tCS clinical trial data is aided by familiarity with basic neurophysiological principles, potential mechanisms of action of tCS, and the complicated regulatory history governing tCS devices. A growing literature includes randomized controlled trials of tCS for major depression, schizophrenia, cognitive disorders, and substance use disorders. The relative ease of use and abundant access to tCS may represent a broad-reaching and important advance for future mental health care. Evidence supports application of one type of tCS, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for major depression. However, tDCS devices do not have regulatory approval for treating medical disorders, evidence is largely inconclusive for other therapeutic areas, and their use is associated with some physical and psychiatric risks. One unexpected finding to arise from this review is that the use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation devices-the only category of tCS devices cleared for use in psychiatric disorders-is supported by low-quality evidence.

  17. "Slinky" coils for neuromagnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, K P; Simpson, R K

    1996-04-01

    Future advances in neuromagnetic stimulation depend significantly on the design of coils with improved focality. Although in the absence of internal current sources, no true focusing of magnetically induced currents is possible, improvements in the focality of current concentrations passing through an area of biologic tissue are achievable through variations of the shape, orientation and size of neuromagnetic stimulating coils. The "butterfly" and the "4-leaf" coils are two examples of planar designs which achieve improved focality through centralization of the maximum coil current and peripheral distribution of the return currents. We introduce the "slinky" coil design as a 3-dimensional generalization of the principle of peripheral distribution of return currents and demonstrate its advantages over planar designs.

  18. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  19. Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission

    OpenAIRE

    Klar, Thomas A.; Jakobs, Stefan; Dyba, Marcus; Egner, Alexander; Hell, Stefan W.

    2000-01-01

    The diffraction barrier responsible for a finite focal spot size and limited resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy has been fundamentally broken. This is accomplished by quenching excited organic molecules at the rim of the focal spot through stimulated emission. Along the optic axis, the spot size was reduced by up to 6 times beyond the diffraction barrier. The simultaneous 2-fold improvement in the radial direction rendered a nearly spherical fluorescence spot with a diameter of 9...

  20. The effect of music and multimodal stimulation on responses of premature infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, J M

    1998-01-01

    To assess the benefits of lullaby singing and multimodal stimulation on premature infants in neonatal intensive care, 40 infants in a Level III Newborn Intermediate Care Unit were divided into control (n = 20) and experimental (n = 20) groups by pair matching on the basis of gender, birthweight, gestational age at birth and severity of medical complications. Participants met these project criteria: (a) corrected gestational age > 32 weeks; (b) age since birth > 10 days; and (c) weight > 1700 g. All participants had been referred for developmental stimulation by the medical staff. Experimental infants received reciprocal, multimodal (ATVV) stimulation paired with line singing of Brahms' Lullaby. Stimulation was provided for 15-30 minutes, one or two times per week from referral to discharge. Dependent variables were (a) days to discharge, (b) weight gain/day, and (c) experimental infants' tolerance for stimulation. Results showed that music and multimodal stimulation significantly benefited females' days to discharge and increased weight gain/day for both males and females. Both male and female infants' tolerance for stimulation showed marked and steady increase across the stimulation intervals with females' tolerance increasing more rapidly than males.

  1. Investigation of In Vitro Bone Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Ti Using Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell-materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model.

  2. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes. Design: Unstimulated (n=20 and stimulated (n=20 saliva samples were collected from 20 orally and systemically healthy, non-smoking participants. Salivary bacterial profiles were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS, and statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparison, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and correspondence analysis. Results: From a total of 40 saliva samples, 496 probe targets were identified with a mean number of targets per sample of 203 (range: 146–303, and a mean number of probe targets of 206 and 200 in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples, respectively (p=0.62. Based on all statistical methods used for this study, the microbial profiles of unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same person were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: Analysis of bacterial salivary profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same individual showed comparable results. Thus, the results verify that stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate of unstimulated saliva for microbiome-related studies.

  3. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  4. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding ef...

  5. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel

    2008-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a reversible surgical procedure that involves stereotactic implantation of electrodes into the targeted brain regions, with a subcutaneously placed pulse generator powering the electrodes via one or two leads. The mechanism of action can be explained by the stimulation-induced modulation of impaired network activity. So far, the main use of DBS has been for neurological conditions, such as essential tremor, motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and chronic pain. In psychiatry, case series and open studies indicate treatment efficacy of DBS in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, and refractory major depression. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed the effects of DBS on the brain regions implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a well-tolerated method with relatively few serious side effects. Additional well-designed and appropriately powered controlled clinical trials are needed to conclusively establish the efficacy and safety of DBS and to identify the patient population(s) who may benefit most. Ongoing research with stimulation techniques may also significantly contribute to our understanding of major neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato

  7. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  8. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  9. Artificial Walking Technologies to Improve Gait in Cerebral Palsy: Multichannel Neuromuscular Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Butler, Erin E

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP. NMES may also be applied to specific lumbar-sacral sensory roots to reduce spasticity. Development of tablet computer-based multichannel NMES can leverage lightweight, wearable wireless stimulators, advanced control design, and surface electrodes to activate lower-limb muscles. Musculoskeletal models have been used to characterize muscle contributions to unimpaired gait and identify high muscle demands, which can help guide multichannel NMES-assisted gait protocols. In addition, patient-specific NMES-assisted gait protocols based on 3D gait analysis can facilitate the appropriate activation of lower-limb muscles to achieve a more functional gait: stance-phase hip and knee extension and swing-phase sequence of hip and knee flexion followed by rapid knee extension. NMES-assisted gait treatment can be conducted as either clinic-based or home-based programs. Rigorous testing of multichannel NMES-assisted gait training protocols will determine optimal treatment dosage for future clinical trials. Evidence-based outcome evaluation using 3D kinematics or temporal-spatial gait parameters will help determine immediate neuroprosthetic effects and longer term neurotherapeutic effects of step-initiated, multichannel NMES-assisted gait in children with spastic CP. Multichannel NMES is a promising assistive technology to help children with spastic CP achieve a more upright, functional gait. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and

  10. Quantifying utricular stimulation during natural behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Angela R. V.; Davis, Julian; Grant, Wally; Blob, Richard W.; Peterson, Ellengene; Neiman, Alexander B.; Rowe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural stimuli in neurophysiological studies has led to significant insights into the encoding strategies used by sensory neurons. To investigate these encoding strategies in vestibular receptors and neurons, we have developed a method for calculating the stimuli delivered to a vestibular organ, the utricle, during natural (unrestrained) behaviors, using the turtle as our experimental preparation. High-speed digital video sequences are used to calculate the dynamic gravito-inertial (GI) vector acting on the head during behavior. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans are used to determine the orientation of the otoconial layer (OL) of the utricle within the head, and the calculated GI vectors are then rotated into the plane of the OL. Thus, the method allows us to quantify the spatio-temporal structure of stimuli to the OL during natural behaviors. In the future, these waveforms can be used as stimuli in neurophysiological experiments to understand how natural signals are encoded by vestibular receptors and neurons. We provide one example of the method which shows that turtle feeding behaviors can stimulate the utricle at frequencies higher than those typically used in vestibular studies. This method can be adapted to other species, to other vestibular end organs, and to other methods of quantifying head movements. PMID:22753360

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  13. Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on balance in Parkinson's disease: A static posturographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa-Fages, Beatriz; Alonso-Frech, Fernando; Grandas, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    The effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on balance in Parkinson's disease remains unclear. To evaluate the effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on balance in Parkinson's disease using posturography. 16 patients (9 women) who underwent subthalamic deep brain stimulation [mean age 59.6 years (46-70); mean disease duration 15.6 years (7-25); mean duration of subthalamic stimulation 32.1 months (3.0-69.6)] and 13 healthy age-matched controls were evaluated using a static posturography analysis. Patients were assessed under four conditions: 1) off medication/off stimulation; 2) off medication/on stimulation; 3) on medication/off stimulation and 4) on medication/on stimulation in ten experimental paradigms, some reproducing common situations of daily living. The displacement of the centre of pressure was analyzed using 14 posturographic parameters. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare patients with controls. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare patients under different clinical conditions. Patients off medication/off stimulation showed larger and more rapid displacements of the centre of pressure than controls in most paradigms (pstimulation alone reduced the lateral excursion and anterior-posterior velocity of the centre of pressure in quite stance paradigms (pstimulation combined with antiparkinsonian medication did not induce statistically significant changes in posturagraphic measures in any experimental paradigm. Although subthalamic stimulation alone may induce some positive effect on balance, subthalamic stimulation in addition to antiparkinsonian medication, which is the usual treatment in clinical practice, did not modify balance as assessed by static posturography in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  15. JPSS CGS Tools For Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process NPOESS Preparatory Project, Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Under NPOESS, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization was responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. For JPSS, that responsibility has transferred to NOAA's Center for Satellite Applications & Research (STAR). As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent JPSS and DWSS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and

  16. The integration of stimulation and knowledge systems: a semiotic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a time of rapid change of technological possibilities and of internationalization, organizations need to experiment with these new possibilities, and to understand their potential for change and improvement. This potential for change and improvement can only be revealed by organizational

  17. Prokaryotic responses to ammonium and organic carbon reveal alternative CO2 fixation pathways and importance of alkaline phosphatase in the mesopelagic North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baltar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To decipher the response of mesopelagic prokaryotic communities to input of nutrients, we tracked changes in prokaryotic abundance, extracellular enzymatic activities, heterotrophic production, dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC fixation, community composition (16S rRNA sequencing and community gene expression (metatranscriptomics in 3 microcosm experiments with water from the mesopelagic North Atlantic. Responses in 3 different treatments amended with thiosulfate, ammonium or organic matter (i.e. pyruvate plus acetate were compared to unamended controls. The strongest stimulation was found in the organic matter enrichments, where all measured rates increased >10-fold. Strikingly, in the organic matter treatment, the dark DIC fixation rates —assumed to be related to autotrophic metabolisms— were equally stimulated as all the other heterotrophic-related parameters. This increase in DIC fixation rates was paralleled by an up-regulation of genes involved in DIC assimilation via anaplerotic pathways. Alkaline phosphatase was the metabolic rate most strongly stimulated and its activity seemed to be related to cross-activation by nonpartner histidine kinases, and/or the activation of genes involved in the regulation of elemental balance during catabolic processes. These findings suggest that episodic events such as strong sedimentation of organic matter into the mesopelagic might trigger rapid increases of originally rare members of the prokaryotic community, enhancing heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon uptake rates, ultimately affecting carbon cycling. Our experiments highlight a number of fairly unstudied microbial processes of potential importance in mesopelagic waters that require future attention.

  18. Prokaryotic Responses to Ammonium and Organic Carbon Reveal Alternative CO2 Fixation Pathways and Importance of Alkaline Phosphatase in the Mesopelagic North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Palovaara, Joakim; Lekunberri, Itziar; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-01-01

    To decipher the response of mesopelagic prokaryotic communities to input of nutrients, we tracked changes in prokaryotic abundance, extracellular enzymatic activities, heterotrophic production, dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation, community composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and community gene expression (metatranscriptomics) in 3 microcosm experiments with water from the mesopelagic North Atlantic. Responses in 3 different treatments amended with thiosulfate, ammonium or organic matter (i.e., pyruvate plus acetate) were compared to unamended controls. The strongest stimulation was found in the organic matter enrichments, where all measured rates increased >10-fold. Strikingly, in the organic matter treatment, the dark DIC fixation rates—assumed to be related to autotrophic metabolisms—were equally stimulated as all the other heterotrophic-related parameters. This increase in DIC fixation rates was paralleled by an up-regulation of genes involved in DIC assimilation via anaplerotic pathways. Alkaline phosphatase was the metabolic rate most strongly stimulated and its activity seemed to be related to cross-activation by nonpartner histidine kinases, and/or the activation of genes involved in the regulation of elemental balance during catabolic processes. These findings suggest that episodic events such as strong sedimentation of organic matter into the mesopelagic might trigger rapid increases of originally rare members of the prokaryotic community, enhancing heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon uptake rates, ultimately affecting carbon cycling. Our experiments highlight a number of fairly unstudied microbial processes of potential importance in mesopelagic waters that require future attention. PMID:27818655

  19. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with cortisol changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Pelle P.; Figee, Martijn; Endert, Erik; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Fliers, Eric; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Since DBS may induce rapid symptomatic changes and the pathophysiology of OCD has been linked to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we set out

  20. Deep brain stimulation of the accumbens increases dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Addy; Klompmakers, Andre A.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is effective in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the rapid and effective changes of DBS. One of the hypotheses is that

  1. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  2. Fast periodic stimulation (FPS) : a highly effective approach in fMRI brain mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    Defining the neural basis of perceptual categorization in a rapidly changing natural environment with low-temporal resolution methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is challenging. Here, we present a novel fast periodic stimulation (FPS)-fMRI approach to define face-selective

  3. Temporal profile of improvement of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Mewes, Klaus; DeLong, Mahlon R; Gross, Robert E; Triche, Shirley D; Jinnah, H A; Boulis, Nicholas; Willie, Jon T; Freeman, Alan; Alexander, Garrett E; Aia, Pratibha; Butefisch, Cathrine M; Esper, Christine D; Factor, Stewart A

    2015-02-01

    Several case reports and small series have indicated that tardive dystonia is responsive to globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. Whether different subtypes or distributions of tardive dystonia are associated with different outcomes remains unknown. We assessed the outcomes and temporal profile of improvement of eight tardive dystonia patients who underwent globus pallidus deep brain stimulation over the past six years through record review. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, it was not blinded or placebo controlled. Consistent with previous studies, deep brain stimulation improved the overall the Burke-Fahn-Marsden motor scores by 85.1 ± 13.5%. The distributions with best responses in descending order were upper face, lower face, larynx/pharynx, limbs, trunk, and neck. Patients with prominent cervical dystonia demonstrated improvement in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale but improvements took several months. In four patients the effects of deep brain stimulation on improvement in Burke Fahn Marsden score was rapid, while in four cases there was partial rapid response of neck and trunk dystonia followed by was gradual resolution of residual symptoms over 48 months. Our retrospective analysis shows excellent resolution of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. We found instantaneous response, except with neck and trunk dystonia where partial recovery was followed by further resolution at slower rate. Such outcome is encouraging for using deep brain stimulation in treatment of tardive dystonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... two main groups: 1. Control – incubated without any auditory stimulation and. 2. Sitar music stimulated – incubated with slow and fast sitar music. Therefore, the experimental paradigm as described by. Jain et al. (2004) for the sound stimulation was followed. Briefly, first sounds of low to mid frequencies, i.e. ...

  5. Modeling and Field Results from Seismic Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.; Pride, S.; Lo, W.; Daley, T.; Nakagawa, Seiji; Sposito, Garrison; Roberts, P.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the effect of seismic stimulation employing Maxwell-Boltzmann theory shows that the important component of stimulation is mechanical rather than fluid pressure effects. Modeling using Biot theory (two phases) shows that the pressure effects diffuse too quickly to be of practical significance. Field data from actual stimulation will be shown to compare to theory

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  7. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...

  8. Renal hemosiderosis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with primary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Sultan; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Temiz, Gokhan; Akay, Olga Meltem; Soydan, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to the accumulation of iron in many organs including the liver, spleen and heart and results in injury and dysfunction of these organs. On the other hand, iron accumulation and functional impairment in kidney is extremely rare. We report a 61-year-old male patient with hereditary hemochromatosis, in whom the renal function was deteriorated rapidly. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomeruli and hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelial cells.

  9. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour. © The

  10. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  11. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  12. Rapid Prototyping Modules for Remote Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the concept and implementation for an integration of microcontroller and FPGA based Rapid Prototyping modules into a Remote Lab system. This implementation enables a Web-based access to electro-mechanical models. A student uploads a source file implementation to the Remote Lab server in order to test an implementation directly within a hardware environment. The Remote Lab server offers the interfaces to integrate specific project and hardware plug-ins. These plug-ins access a hardware specific software environment to automatically compile and program the resulting firmware. To stimulate this design, the Remote Lab server exchanges digital signals via a serial interface. To allow the student to compare architectures of different designs using the same hardware model, a specific controller (using the Remote Lab interface can be selected. For this, an IP-based multiplexer provides the control connection between the respective controller and the hardware model. In our contribution we would like to give examples of such a complex design task and how the students can use different tools during several design steps.

  13. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dilda

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  14. Rapid procoagulant phosphatidylserine exposure relies on high cytosolic calcium rather than on mitochondrial depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachiche, Amal; Kerbiriou-Nabias, Danièle; Garcin, Isabelle; Letellier, Thierry; Dachary-Prigent, Jeanne

    2009-11-01

    Relationships between intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) and apoptotic events, such as mitochondrial depolarization (DeltaPsim loss) and Bcl-2 and Bad phosphorylation, were analyzed in platelets and Jurkat cells in relation to rapid procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Platelets were stimulated with A23187, thapsigargin (TG) and thrombin plus convulxin (Thr/Cvx), and Jurkat cells with ionomycin, in the presence or absence of cyclosporin A (CsA), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor. DeltaPsim loss occurred when platelets were stimulated in Ca(2+) medium in conditions exposing PS, but also in EGTA medium. CsA inhibited PS exposure, [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, and DeltaPsim loss in platelets stimulated with TG and Thr/Cvx, but had no inhibitory effect on A23187 stimulation. CsA reduced TG-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and, consequently, external Ca(2+) influx. In ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, rapid PS exposure was evidenced but not DeltaPsim loss, and CsA did not inhibit the process. The status of phosphorylated Bad and Bcl-2 in both cell types remained unchanged on stimulation. Whether DeltaPsim loss occurs or not, PS exposure is triggered by a high [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase. Data further demonstrate that CsA prevents membrane scrambling by inhibiting the high [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, independently of its effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

  15. The first demonstration of room temperature stimulated emission from metal halides -its evidence in CsPbBr3 films

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 貴之; 高橋, 一彰; 斎藤, 忠昭; 近藤, 新一

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence from CsPbBr3 films prepared by crystallization from the amorphous phase is measured under N2 laser excitation. Stimulated emission due to free exaction-free exaction inelastic collision occurs not only at cryogenic temperature but also elevated temperatures. The intensity of the stimulated emission more rapidly increases with pumping intensity at room temperature than at 77K. The temperature dependence of the stimulated emission measured under 1100kW cm-2 pumping shows th...

  16. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  17. Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a new focus on the rapid detection of food–borne pathogens, employing food production chains as a starting point instead of a specific method or various detection technologies. This reference is organized by production chains or contamination scenarios, and offers a unique...

  18. Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Zachariah A. [Polymer Science & Engineering Department; Conte Center for Polymer Research; University of Massachusetts; Amherst, USA; Liu, Feng [Polymer Science & Engineering Department; Conte Center for Polymer Research; University of Massachusetts; Amherst, USA; Russell, Thomas P. [Polymer Science & Engineering Department; Conte Center for Polymer Research; University of Massachusetts; Amherst, USA; Emrick, Todd [Polymer Science & Engineering Department; Conte Center for Polymer Research; University of Massachusetts; Amherst, USA

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) were utilized for the rapid air-stable Suzuki polymerization of polar zwitterionic thiophene monomers, precluding the need for volatile organic solvents, phosphine ligands and phase transfer catalysts typically used in conjugated polymer synthesis.

  19. The rapid recognition of Lancefield group B haemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, R J

    1974-11-01

    When grown overnight on Columbia agar in an atmosphere of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, haemolytic strains of Lancefield group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) produce orange or brown pigmented colonies. This production of pigmented colonies can be used for the rapid presumptive identification of these organisms as belonging to group B without the need for grouping by serological methods.

  20. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  1. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high......We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...... precision and long-term stability. The system can be continuously used over several days. By facilitating a full camera including optics in the loop, the stimulator enables the more realistic simulation of flight maneuvers based on navigation cameras than pure computer simulations or camera stimulations...

  2. Effects of prenatal visual stimulation on growth and heart rate in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J; Birchard, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal visual stimulation on bobwhite quail embryos' growth and heart rate. No differences in growth rate were found between embryos exposed to visual stimulation during the late prenatal period and control embryos. Embryos exposed to visual stimulation throughout incubation maintained lower heart rates in response to visual stimulation than did naïve embryos. In a subsequent experiment, naïve embryos that underwent an egg-opening procedure exhibited heart rates that were lower than embryos measured in intact eggshells. Embryos in opened eggs maintained lower heart rates than comparison embryos across time; however, a less invasive egg-opening procedure led to a quicker heart rate recovery than did a more invasive egg-opening procedure. These findings indicate that prenatal heart rate responses may be mediated by multiple features of the organism's developmental context, including intensity and duration of sensory stimulation. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Chemical Deposition Method for the Decoration of Palladium Particles on Carbon Nanofibers with Rapid Conductivity Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoik Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Palladium (Pd metal is well-known for hydrogen sensing material due to its high sensitivity and selectivity toward hydrogen, and is able to detect hydrogen at near room temperature. In this work, palladium-doped carbon nanofibers (Pd/CNFs were successfully produced in a facile manner via electrospinning. Well-organized and uniformly distributed Pd was observed in microscopic images of the resultant nanofibers. Hydrogen causes an increment in the volume of Pd due to the ability of hydrogen atoms to occupy the octahedral interstitial positions within its face centered cubic lattice structure, resulting in the resistance transition of Pd/CNFs. The resistance variation was around 400%, and it responded rapidly within 1 min, even in 5% hydrogen atmosphere conditions at room temperature. This fibrous hybrid material platform will open a new and practical route and stimulate further researches on the development of hydrogen sensing materials with rapid response, even to low concentrations of hydrogen in an atmosphere.

  4. Methodical Aspects of Creativity Stimulation for the Purposes of Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a pressing problem of creativity stimulation for the purposes of innovation development. Creativity stimulation is analyzed as an element of an organic system and can be accepted as recourse development having a big influence on all elements of organic systems for creativity development that covers recourses, processing, results and consumption. The article analyzes relation between the level of employee’s creativity and an environment provided for creativity development in an enterprise. The classification of the methods stimulating creativity is present based on the analysis of 12 wildly used methods and is oriented toward innovation development. Proposals for how to use the methods of creativity stimulation for the purposes of innovation developments are presented.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Stimulating action of continuous γ-irradiation with low dose-rates on the growth and development of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Nikitina, A.N.; Yurov, S.S.; Primak, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous γ-irradiation (1.6 - 4.1 rad/hr) of Aspergillus niger cultured in a mineral medium has been shown to stimulate markedly the growth of the culture and the production of organic acids. Optimum conditions for the stimulating effect have been found

  6. Nanoporous ionic organic networks: from synthesis to materials applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-11-21

    The past decade has witnessed rapid progress in the synthesis of nanoporous organic networks or polymer frameworks for various potential applications. Generally speaking, functionalization of porous networks to add extra properties and enhance materials performance could be achieved either during the pore formation (thus a concurrent approach) or by post-synthetic modification (a sequential approach). Nanoporous organic networks which include ion pairs bound in a covalent manner are of special importance and possess extreme application profiles. Within these nanoporous ionic organic networks (NIONs), here with a pore size in the range from sub-1 nm to 100 nm, we observe a synergistic coupling of the electrostatic interaction of charges, the nanoconfinement within pores and the addressable functional units in soft matter resulting in a wide variety of functions and applications, above all catalysis, energy storage and conversion, as well as environment-related operations. This review aims to highlight the recent progress in this area, and seeks to raise original perspectives that will stimulate future advancements at both the fundamental and applied level.

  7. The effectiveness of an interconnected use of recovery and stimulating efficiency in microcycle with large loads of special focus (after the example of rowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradov V.E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of recovery and stimulations means using is shown by working capacity increase and optimization of organism reactive possibilities. Optimization of physiological properties displayed by sensitivity ventilatory response to СО2-Н+ stimulus, speed of deployment of the reaction of О2 consumption and limits the reaction of pulmonary ventilation and taking into account the phases of recovery. There is evidence that the direction of increase of reactive properties of the body (autonomic neurodynamics by subsidiary means (massage effect, special exercises and other means enhances the ability to more fully mobilize the functionality of athletes, that is, the ability to rapidly, adequately, fully and consistently respond to the training loads.

  8. Characteristics of centrifugal rapid contractor, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmoto, Harumi; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tadaya

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the radiation damage of solvents in solvent extraction process for spent fuel reprocessing, the development of rapid contactor is desirable. In the previous paper, the characteristics of centrifugal contactor on hydrodynamic performance and extraction performance had been made clear by using nitric acid on uranylnitrate-nitric acid aqueous solutions and 30 vol.% TBP-n-dodecane. In the present paper, experimental results of uranyl nitrate re-extraction from loaded 30 vol.% TBP-n-dodecane organic solvent are reported. Experiments of re-extraction were carried out, using the same centrifugal contactor as that used for extraction runs. The bowl of the contactor is 2000 mm diameter, and composed of eight counter current contacting stages stacked up. The experimental results and discussion leads to the following conclusions. (1) The suitable ratio of aqueous flow rate to organic flow rate for re-extraction seems to be in the range between 1.5 and 2.0, and stage efficiency reached 90%. (2) As for rotor speed, the quantity of uranium remaining in organic phase decreased with rising rotor speed, and the effect of rotor speed on re-extraction characteristics is in contrast with the extraction. (3) As for total flow rate, the unrecoverable uranium quantity by re-extraction is constant under the experimental condition, from 50 to 75 l/hr. (4) The position of hypothetical interface is estimated to be 70 mm from the bowl center for almost all experimental conditions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Can China afford rapid aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; S?nchez-Barricarte, Jes?s J.

    2016-01-01

    China?s rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people?s health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for Chin...

  10. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  11. Arachidonic acid metabolism in silica-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englen, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in adherent bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) incubated with silica was investigated. BAM were pre-labelled with 3 H-AA, and lipid metabolites released into the culture medium were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was simultaneously assayed to provide an indication of cell injury. Increasing doses of silica selectively stimulated the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of AA metabolism, while cyclooxygenase metabolite output was suppressed. LDH release increased in a linear, dose-dependent fashion over the range of silica doses used. Moreover, within 15 min following addition of a high silica dose, a shift to the production of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites occurred, accompanied by a reduction in cyclooxygenase products. This rapid alteration in AA metabolism preceded cell injury. To examine the relationship between cytotoxicity and AA metabolite release by BAM exposed to silicas with different cytotoxic and fibrogenic activities, BAM were exposed to different doses of DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silicas, and carbonyl iron beads. The median effective dose (ED 50 ) of each particulate to stimulate the release of AA metabolites and LDH was calculated. The ED 50 values for DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silica showed that the relative cytotoxicities of the different silicas for BAM corresponded to the relative potencies of the silicas to elicit 5-lipoxygenase metabolites from BAM. These results indicate that the cytotoxic, and presumed fibrogenic potential, of a silica is correlated with the potency to stimulate the release of leukotrienes from AM

  12. Deep brain stimulation in Huntington's disease: assessment of potential targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayur; Deogaonkar, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that has very few effective therapeutic interventions. Since the disease has a defined neural circuitry abnormality, neuromodulation could be an option. Case reports, original research, and animal model studies were selected from the databases of Medline and PubMed. All related studies published up to July 2014 were included in this review. The following search terms were used: "Deep brain stimulation," "DBS," "thalamotomy," "pallidal stimulation," and "Huntington's Disease," "HD," "chorea," or "hyperkinetic movement disorders." This review examines potential nodes in the HD circuitry that could be modulated using deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. With rapid evolution of imaging and ability to reach difficult targets in the brain with refined DBS technology, some phenotypes of HD could potentially be treated with DBS in the near future. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate the efficacy of neuromodulation and to determine the most optimal target for HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia, E-mail: ulkuyuce@hotmail.co [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Meric, Niyazi, E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Atakol, Orhan, E-mail: atakol@science.ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Yasar, Fusun, E-mail: ab121310@adalet.gov.t [Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara Branch, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  14. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia; Meric, Niyazi; Atakol, Orhan; Yasar, Fusun

    2010-01-01

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  15. A Rapid Global Effects Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Effects Capability within allied countries such as Great Britain and Australia. Other sites recommended for basing included the Ascension Islands in...commercial sectors.23 Figure 2 – Artist depictions of Rapid Global Effects Capability platforms.24 Booster Space Truck...Orbiter) Cargo Bay Booster Space Truck (Orbiter) Cargo Bay Major Gabe S. Arrington 26-1740 10 Figure 3 – Artist depiction of

  16. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  17. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  18. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  19. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  20. Identification of key factors in Accelerated Low Water Corrosion through experimental simulation of tidal conditions: influence of stimulated indigenous microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Gueuné, H.; Malard, E.; Sánchez-Amaya, J.M.; Sjögren, L.; Abbas, B.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion

  1. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic dev...... production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.......Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic...... principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock...

  2. La réponse à la stimulation des clones d\\'une même classe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ceux à métabolisme lent s\\'expriment fortement, à la différence des clones à métabolisme rapide qui réagissent faiblement à cette même stimulation. Toutefois, il peut arriver que des clones d\\'une même classe métabolique se comportent différemment suite à la stimulation à l\\'Ethephon. La présente étude a pour objet ...

  3. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  4. Contrast bolus technique with rapid CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Kuehne, D.; Rohr, W.; Heller, M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-three patients complying with the clinical criteria for brain death were studied by contrast-enhanced CT. In all but one, the great intracranial vessels escaped visualization; accordingly, angiography demonstrated cerebral circulatory arrest. In the remaining case, faint enhancement of the circle of Willis corresponded to angiographic demonstration of the proximal segments of cerebral arteris. Neither in normal brain nor in dead brain did slow CT scanning disclose any postcontrast increase in parenchymal attenuation. An improved technique is proposed to demonstrate the transit of the contrast bolus by rapid CT with image splitting. If cerebral blood flow is preserved, the grey and white matter will enhance significantly following administration of contrast medium. Vice versa, the absence of enhancement confirms brain death, even in instances in which the great cerebral vessels are obscured by hemorrhage or other extensive lesions. Two additional cases of brain death were evaluated by rapid CT scanning. As to brain death, the technique obviates the need for angiography or radionuclide angiography, usually applied in prospective organ donors, because its informative content is superior to that of either method. The CT technique described affords a reliable and safe diagnosis of brain death, and can be interpreted easily. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles

  6. Socioeconomic evaluation of vagus stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the health costs and social outcomes in terms of education, employment and income level after insertion of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This is a case-control study using Danish health care and socioeconomic register data....... The analysis of the effect involved a comparison of the health care costs, occupation and income status of VNS-treated epilepsy patients with those of a control group of epilepsy patients who had a VNS implanted during the 12 months before the index date (pre-period) and during the two years after the index...... implantation. VNS implantation was not associated with changes in occupational status (including employment and income). In fact, the number of people on disability pension increased during the period. CONCLUSIONS: VNS implantation in people with epilepsy is associated with reduced health care use...

  7. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Birgitta Johansson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, or various kinds of music therapy. Several studies have shown positive effects been reported but to give general recommendation more studies are needed. Patient heterogeneity and the interactions of age, gender, genes and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation.

  8. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  9. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  10. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  11. Fatty acid metabolites in rapidly proliferating breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T O'Flaherty

    Full Text Available Breast cancers that over-express a lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase are associated with poor survival possibly because they overproduce metabolites that alter the cancer's malignant behaviors. However, these metabolites and behaviors have not been identified. We here identify which metabolites among those that stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro are associated with rapidly proliferating breast cancer.We used selective ion monitoring-mass spectrometry to quantify in the cancer and normal breast tissue of 27 patients metabolites that stimulate (15-, 12-, 5-hydroxy-, and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoate, 13-hydroxy-octadecaenoate [HODE] or inhibit (prostaglandin [PG]E2 and D2 breast cancer cell proliferation. We then related their levels to each cancer's proliferation rate as defined by its Mib1 score.13-HODE was the only metabolite strongly, significantly, and positively associated with Mib1 scores. It was similarly associated with aggressive grade and a key component of grade, mitosis, and also trended to be associated with lymph node metastasis. PGE2 and PGD2 trended to be negatively associated with these markers. No other metabolite in cancer and no metabolite in normal tissue had this profile of associations.Our data fit a model wherein the overproduction of 13-HODE by 15-lipoxygenase-1 shortens breast cancer survival by stimulating its cells to proliferate and possibly metastasize; no other oxygenase-metabolite pathway, including cyclooxygenase-PGE2/D2 pathways, uses this specific mechanism to shorten survival.

  12. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  13. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  14. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  15. Method to Reduce Muscle Fatigue During Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Major Knee and Ankle Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Nguyen, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tomoyo; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A critical limitation with transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a rehabilitative approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions. We have developed a method called spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) to reduce muscle fatigue by distributing the center of electrical field over a wide area within a single stimulation site, using an array of surface electrodes. To extend the previous findings and to prove feasibility of the method by exploring the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population, as well as in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through 4 active electrodes applied to the knee extensors and flexors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. Isometric ankle torque was measured during fatiguing stimulations using SDSS and conventional single active electrode stimulation lasting 2 minutes. We demonstrated greater fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS compared with the conventional protocol, as revealed by larger values of fatigue index and/or torque peak mean in all muscles except knee flexors of able-bodied individuals, and in all muscles tested in individuals with SCI. Our study has revealed improvements in fatigue tolerance during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation using SDSS, a stimulation strategy that alternates activation of subcompartments of muscles. The SDSS protocol can provide greater stimulation times with less decrement in mechanical output compared with the conventional protocol. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  17. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription stimulants? dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine ® ) dextroamphetamine/amphetamine combination product (Adderall ® ) methylphenidate (Ritalin ® , Concerta ® ). Popular slang terms for prescription ...

  18. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  19. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  20. Rapid Testing of Fresh Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Subsequent determination of the water content of the alcohol extract was possible using the Karl Fischer tltration. The use of such a technique...method Is specified in ASTM C 70 - 772 tor the rapid determination of the surface moisture in fine aggregate. Attempts have also been made to... moisture content, cement type, and length of mixing time on the water content determination ; and the effect of aggregate type and aggregate grading

  1. Vestibular implantation and longitudinal electrical stimulation of the semicircular canal afferents in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse; Phillips, Christopher M.; Nowack, Amy L.; Golub, Justin S.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal-specific two-dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2 s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0–400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated, producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear. PMID:25652917

  2. The Learning Organization: Concept and Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rigsby, Mike

    1997-01-01

    .... Only the so-called learning organizations, those that are able to continually transform themselves to better collect, manage, and use knowledge, will be able to thrive and prosper during these times of rapid change...

  3. Cognitive stimulation in healthy older adults: a cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities compared to a conventional cognitive stimulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Élisabeth; Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group. The different measures have been evaluated before and after the training program. Results show that the cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities is as effective on memory span, updating and memory self-perception as the program using conventional cognitive stimulation, and more effective on self-esteem than the conventional program. There is no difference between the two stimulated groups and the control group on speed of processing. Neither of the two cognitive stimulation programs provides a benefit over shifting and inhibition. These results indicate that it seems to be possible to enhance working memory and to observe far transfer benefits over self-perception (self-esteem and memory self-perception) when using leisure activities as a tool for cognitive stimulation.

  4. Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, David S.; Ferreira, Jainne M.; Antoine, Shannon O.; D’amour, James A.; Ninan, Ipe; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K.; Hartner, Diana T.; Guarini, Carlo B.; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F.; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S.; Mahajan, Shahana S.; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C.; Carr, Kenneth D.; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological, biochemical and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 days) induced a stable (>24 hr) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 hr) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7-day protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a non-caloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multi-step GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose. PMID:23554493

  5. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...

  6. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G

    1985-09-01

    In anesthetized dogs with chronically implanted cortical electrodes somatic sensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were produced by electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation of the tibial nerve at the calcaneus or of the short flexor muscles of the hind paw caused SEPs having characteristics following activation of rapidly conducting afferents from muscle spindles. Stimulation of the glabrous skin of the central pad resulted in SEPs arriving after a more protracted latency evidently related to activation of afferents from Merkel cells, Krause and Pacinian corpuscles known to be located at these sites. Stimulation of the hairy skin from the dorsal surface of the hindpaw produced a further type of SEP presumably resulting from activation of afferents from receptors of tylotrich hair follicles. Vitamin B6-induced neuropathy involves the selective degeneration of the largest neurons in the spinal ganglia and of associated long peripheral and central neurites performing rapid impulse transmission. In the course of vitamin B6 neuropathy the relatively slow impulse transmission following stimulation of the central pad was more severely impaired than the faster one after activation of afferents from muscle spindles or receptors from hair follicles. This allows us to conclude that in the dog afferents from the glabrous skin of the central pad conduct centrally via the dorsal columns, susceptible to vitamin B6 intoxication, while muscle and hair receptor afferents ascend in the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinocervical tract, respectively, which are vitamin B6 resistant.

  7. Organ Works in Brazil Today (1990-2005): Why Organ?

    OpenAIRE

    Any Raquel de Carvalho; Bruno Maschini Alcalde; Bruno Milheire Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The cultural and historical relationship of the pipe organ with the Church and sacred music brings about an undeniableaesthetical and stylistic archetype that still permeates the output for this instrument even in the twenty-first century. The purpose of this work is to elucidate the reasons that stimulate a contemporary Brazilian composer to write music for the organ. The methodology includes: (1) interviews with nine composers, (2) analysis of the collected data, (3) analysis of the musical...

  8. Molecular and Cellular Toxicology of Nanomaterials with Related to Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Niti; Sharma, Rupam

    2018-01-01

    The increasing application of nanomaterials both in commercial and industrial products has led their accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem. The rapid development and large scale production of nanomaterials in the last few decades have stimulated concerns regarding their potential environmental health risks on aquatic biota. Inorganic nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and associated material characteristics resulted in toxicity of these nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Understanding their novel properties at nanoscale has established to be a significant aspect of their toxicity. Unique properties such as size, surface area, surface coating, surface charge, aggregation of particles and dissolution may affect cellular uptake, molecular response, in vivo reactivity and delivery across tissues of living organism. Already lot of research in the past three or four decades within the nano-ecotoxicology field had been carried out. However, there is not any standard technique yet to assess toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) on different biological systems such as reproductive, respiratory, nervous, gastrointestinal systems, and development stages of aquatic organisms. Specific toxicological techniques and quantification of nanoparticles are vital to establish regulations to control their impact on the aquatic organism and their release in the aquatic environment. The main aim of this chapter is to critically evaluate the current literature on the toxicity of nanomaterials on aquatic organism.

  9. Rapid internalization of the insulin receptor in rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, J.M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) in rat hepatoma cells (Fao). The cells were surface-iodinated at 4 0 C, stimulated with insulin at 37 0 C, and then cooled rapidly, trypsinized at 4 0 C and solubilized. The IR was immunoprecipitated with a specific antibody, and internalization of the IR was assessed by the appearance of trypsin-resistant bands on SDS-PAGE. Insulin induced the internalization of surface receptors with a t 1/2 of 9-10 mins; cells not exposed to insulin internalized less than 20% of the IR during 1 h at 37 0 C. Further experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of trypsin-resistant IR paralleled a loss of receptor from the cell surface. Insulin-stimulated cells were chilled and iodinated at 4 0 C, followed by solubilization, immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE; alternatively, insulin-stimulated cells were chilled, surface-bound ligand removed by washing the cells at pH 4.2, and specific [ 125 I]insulin binding measured at 4 0 C. Both techniques confirmed the disappearance of IR from the cell surface at rates comparable to the insulin-stimulated internalization described above. The total amount of phosphotyrosine-containing IR, as assessed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, remained constant during this time interval, suggesting that active kinase is translocated into the cell. In summary, the authors data indicate that insulin binding increases the rate of IR internalization of Fao cells. This relocation may facilitate the interaction of the activated tyrosine kinase in the IR with intracellular substrates, thus transmitting the insulin signal to metabolic pathways

  10. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiu

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior. In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS. Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification.

  11. Novel Stimulation Paradigms with Temporally-Varying Parameters to Reduce Synchronous Activity at the Onset of High Frequency Stimulation in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has shown wide applications for treating various disorders in the central nervous system by using high frequency stimulation (HFS sequences of electrical pulses. However, upon the onset of HFS sequences, the narrow pulses could induce synchronous firing of action potentials among large populations of neurons and cause a transient phase of “onset response” that is different from the subsequent steady state. To investigate the transient onset phase, the antidromically-evoked population spikes (APS were used as an electrophysiological marker to evaluate the synchronous neuronal reactions to axonal HFS in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. New stimulation paradigms with time-varying intensity and frequency were developed to suppress the “onset responses”. Results show that HFS paradigms with ramp-up intensity at the onset phase could suppress large APS potentials. In addition, an intensity ramp with a slower ramp-up rate or with a higher pulse frequency had greater suppression on APS amplitudes. Therefore, to reach a desired pulse intensity rapidly, a stimulation paradigm combining elevated frequency and ramp-up intensity was used to shorten the transition phase of initial HFS without evoking large APS potentials. The results of the study provide important clues for certain transient side effects of DBS and for development of new adaptive stimulation paradigms.

  12. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  13. Current density in radiation stimulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelbakker, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Eliashberg's theory of stimulated superconductivity is reviewed and discussed within the BCS-Mattis formalism for impure superconductors. Stimulation by microwaves as well as by acoustical fields is considered. Eliashberg's results are completed by obtaining the nonequilibrium current response to an applied transverse vector potential. The resulting expression may be used to obtain the critical current of small specimens. (Auth.)

  14. Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  15. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...... in feldspar. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  17. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  18. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  19. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neuro- Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze extract (TKE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Methods: To evaluate the effects of TKE, LPS-stimulated BV microglia were used and the expression and production of ...

  20. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...