WorldWideScience

Sample records for stimulated intrauterine insemination

  1. Predictive factors for pregnancy outcome following controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildrim, G.; Turkgeldi, L.S.; Koroglu, N.; Mervetalmac, A.

    2017-01-01

    To establish predictive factors for positive pregnancy outcome in cases of controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital and comprised subjects having undergone ovulation induction cycles and intrauterine insemination between June 2010 and June 2015. Data was analysed in terms of various parameters affecting clinical pregnancy rates. SPSS 23 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 475 patients having undergone a total of 923 cycles. Pregnancy was established in 133(28%) patients. Univariate analysis of biological/clinical variables revealed the presence of secondary infertility, high endometrial thickness, antral follicle number, post wash total motile sperm count and midluteal progesterone levels following intrauterine insemination to be associated with positive pregnancy outcomes (p<0.05 each). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to establish factors that affected the pregnancy rate. The aetiology and type of infertility and high midluteal progesterone levels following intrauterine insemination were found to be statistically significant predictors of pregnancy (p<0.05 each). Conclusion: The best chance of pregnancy was found in cases with anovulatory infertility, a history of prior pregnancy, and high midluteal progesterone levels following treatment with gonadotrophins and intrauterine insemination. (author)

  2. Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2017-12-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. IUI may be performed with or without ovarian stimulation. Controlled ovarian stimulation, particularly with low-dose gonadotropins, with IUI offers significant benefit in terms of pregnancy outcomes compared with natural cycle or timed intercourse, while reducing associated COH complications such as multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Important prognostic indicators of success with IUI include age of patient, duration of infertility, stimulation protocol, infertility etiology, number of cycles, timing of insemination, number of preovulatory follicles on the day of hCG, processed total motile sperm > 10 million, and insemination count > 1 × 106 with > 4% normal spermatozoa. Alternative insemination techniques, such as Fallopian tube sperm perfusion, intracervical insemination, and intratubal insemination, provide no additional benefit compared to IUI. A complete couple workup that includes patient history, physical examination, and clinical and laboratory investigations is mandatory to justify the choice in favor of IUI and guide alternative patient management, while individualizing the treatment protocol according to the patient characteristics with a strict cancelation policy to limit multi-follicular development may help optimize IUI

  3. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the ferti...

  4. Can anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Boutas, Ioannis; Creatsa, Maria; Vlahos, Nicos; Gregoriou, Odysseas; Creatsas, George; Hassiakos, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    To assess whether the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) are related to outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients treated with gonadotropins. A total of 195 patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) (50-150 IU/d). All patients were submitted upto three cycles of IUI. Primary outcome was the ability of AMH levels to predict clinical pregnancy at first attempt and the cumulative clinical pregnancy probability of upto three IUI cycles. Secondary outcomes were the relation of AMH, LH, FSH, BMI, age, parity and basic estradiol levels with each other and the outcome of IUI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in predicting clinical pregnancy for AMH at first attempt was 0.53 and for cumulative clinical pregnancy was 0.76. AMH levels were positively correlated with clinical pregnancy rate at first attempt and with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate, but negatively correlated with patient's age and FSH levels. Patient's FSH, LH levels were negatively correlated with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate. AMH levels seem to have a positive correlation and patient's age and LH levels had a negative correlation with the outcome of IUI and COS with gonadotropins. AMH concentration was significantly higher and LH was significantly lower in patients with a clinical pregnancy after three cycles of IUI treatment compared with those who did not achieve pregnancy.

  5. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Wadhwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB on intrauterine insemination (IUI outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the fertility treatment and IUI, which was done in next cycle (n = 86. Group B: EB was taken before D6 of the menstrual cycle, and fertility treatment and IUI was done in the same cycle (n = 90. Group C: (control group no EB in previous 3 cycle (n = 75. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate was 19.77%, 31.11%, and 9.3% for Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. The results show a highly significant value for the paired t-test of intervention Group B and control Group C of the cases (P = 0.000957. CPR was maximum afterfirst cycle of ovulation induction and IUI following EB scratch in both Groups A and in Group B (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial biopsy done in early follicular phase in the same cycle of stimulation with IUI gives better CPR as compared with EB done in the luteal phase of the previous cycle.

  6. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. Prospective randomized control study. Tertiary care center. A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the fertility treatment and IUI, which was done in next cycle (n = 86). Group B: EB was taken before D6 of the menstrual cycle, and fertility treatment and IUI was done in the same cycle (n = 90). Group C: (control group) no EB in previous 3 cycle (n = 75). Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Clinical pregnancy rate was 19.77%, 31.11%, and 9.3% for Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. The results show a highly significant value for the paired t-test of intervention Group B and control Group C of the cases (P = 0.000957). CPR was maximum after first cycle of ovulation induction and IUI following EB scratch in both Groups A and in Group B (P Endometrial biopsy done in early follicular phase in the same cycle of stimulation with IUI gives better CPR as compared with EB done in the luteal phase of the previous cycle.

  7. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  8. THE USE OF GnRH ANTAGONISTS IN OVARIAN STIMULATION FOR INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Işıkoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first paper entitled intrauterine insemination (IUI was published in 1962. By time, several methods involving the technique and the ovulation induction schedules have evolved in order to improve the success rates. Although gonadotrophin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRHa is a crucial part of assisted reproductive treatments now, concerns also arouse regarding the need for the use of it in IUI cycles. These drugs may be considered in IUI programs basically in order to prevent premature LH surges and related cycle cancellations. Although administration of a GnRH antagonist almost completely abolishes premature luteinization, it does not substantially improve the pregnancy rate. The decision of using GnRH antagonists in IUI cycles should be based primarily on the local cost/benefit analysis of individual centers. It will be prudent to limit the involvement of the antagonists in ovulation induction protocols to: patients who frequently exhibit premature LH discharges and therefore either fail to complete treatment or result in unsuccessful outcome; initiated cycles intented for IUI but converted to ART; if it is not possible for logistic reasons (weekend to perform the insemination or for medical centers in which a gynecologist on call is not available and in order to decrease clinical task burden resulting from strict cycle monitoring such as serial transvaginal sonography and/or frequent urine tests.

  9. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist use in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertunc, Devrim; Tok, Ekrem C; Savas, Aysun; Ozturk, Ilay; Dilek, Saffet

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effects of ganirelix on controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (COS/IUI) cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. An academic clinical research center. Women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility undergoing COS/IUI. Recombinant FSH therapy was started on day 3. In women assigned to the control group (n = 47), treatment was continued up to the day of hCG administration. In patients assigned to receive GnRH antagonist (n = 42), ganirelix was added when the leading follicle was > or =14 mm. Pregnancy rates, serum E(2), P, and LH levels, and follicle numbers at hCG day, prevalence of premature luteinization, and cost of stimulation. Serum E(2), P, and LH levels were significantly lower in the ganirelix group. Although premature luteinization and cycle cancellation was encountered less in the ganirelix group, the pregnancy rates per cycle were similar (15.4% vs. 10.7%). Patients would pay 6,153 dollars more for each pregnancy when using ganirelix. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulted in more monofollicular development, less premature luteinization, and less cycle cancellation in IUI cycles of patients with PCOS; however, the cost of stimulation increased without an improvement in pregnancy rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    quite simple intrauterine insemination technique which may be performed in developing countries, without the need of sophisticated ... Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), are quite ... were administered only once by intramuscular injection ...

  12. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  13. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for a rational use of the procedure so that couples do not waste time and money on ineffective therapy if it is not indicated. Objective: ... of intrauterine insemination procedures at a fertility center in Ondo, ... significant reduction in the side effects associated with the .... HMG alone or in combination with other drugs for ovarian.

  14. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  15. A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of in vitro fertilization strategies and stimulated intrauterine insemination in a Canadian health economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Taimur; Baibergenova, Akerke

    2008-05-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) with single embryo transfer (SET) has been proposed as a means of reducing multiple pregnancies associated with infertility treatment. All existing cost-effectiveness studies of IVF-SET have compared it with IVF with multiple embryo transfer but not with intrauterine insemination with gonadotropin stimulation (sIUI). We conducted a systematic review of studies of cost-effectiveness of IVF-SET versus IVF with double embryo transfer (DET). Further, we developed a health economy model that compared three strategies: (1) IVF-SET, (2) IVF-DET, and (3) sIUI. The decision analysis considered three cycles for each treatment option. IVF treatment was assumed to be a combination of cycles with transfer of fresh and frozen-thawed embryos. Probabilities used to populate the model were taken from published randomized clinical trials and observational studies. Cost estimates were based on average costs of associated procedures in Canada. The results of published studies on the cost-effectiveness of IVF-SET versus IVF-DET were not consistent. In our analysis, IVF-DET proved to be the most cost-effective strategy at $35,144/live birth, followed by sIUI at $66,960/live birth, and IVF-SET at $109,358/live birth. The results were sensitive both to the cost of IVF cycles and to the probability of live birth. This economic analysis showed that IVF-DET was the most cost-effective strategy of the options, and IVF-SET was the least cost-effective. The results in this model were insensitive to various probability inputs and to the costs associated with sIUI and IVF procedures.

  16. Outcomes after intrauterine insemination are independent of provider type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H.; Batsis, Maria; Hacker, Michele R.; Souter, Irene; Petrozza, John C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) varies based on the type of health care provider performing the procedure. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study set at an infertility clinic at an academic institution. The patients who comprised this study were 1575 women who underwent 3475 IUI cycles from late 2003 through early 2012. Cycles were stratified into 3 groups according to the type of provider who performed the procedure: attending physician, fellow physician, or registered nurse (RN). The primary outcome was live birth. Additional outcomes of interest included positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. Repeated measures log binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes and to evaluate the effect of potential confounders. All tests were 2-sided, and P values < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 3475 IUI cycles, 2030 (58.4%) were gonadotropin stimulated, 929 (26.7%) were clomiphene citrate stimulated, and 516 (14.9%) were natural. The incidences of clinical pregnancy and live birth among all cycles were 11.8% and 8.8%, respectively. After adjusting for female age, male partner age, and cycle type, the incidence of live birth was similar for RNs compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58–1.1) and fellow physicians compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.2). Similar results were seen for positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in live birth following IUI cycles in which the procedure was performed by a fellow physician or RN compared with an attending physician. PMID:24881820

  17. Maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, P; Tzouma, C; Creatsa, M; Boutas, I; Hassiakos, D

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of hCG. A 36-year-old woman after successful intrauterine insemination and triplet pregnancy, developed hyperthyroidism with resistance to medical treatment. All signs of hyperthyroidism resolved and the results of thyroid function tests returned to normal without any medication after embryo meiosis. De novo maternal hyperthyroidism may develop during pregnancy as a result of pathological stimulation of the thyroid gland from the high levels of hCG hormone that can be seen in multiple pregnancies. The risk of hyperthyroidism is related to the number of fetuses. Reversibility of symptomatology can be seen after fetal reduction of multiple pregnancies.

  18. Comparison of pregnancy rates between patients with and without local endometrial scratching before intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, G C; Yapca, O E; Borekci, B

    2017-11-01

    To determine the implantation success of local endometrial injury in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination following ovulation induction with gonadotropins as an infertility treatment. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, ovulation induction was performed with gonadotropins in 80 patients following intrauterine insemination. In 40 patients, local endometrial injury (scratch) was performed in the midluteal phase of the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation with a Novak curette to the posterior side of the endometrial cavity. Fifteen pregnancies (37.5%) and 11 clinical pregnancies (27.5%) occurred in the intervention group, whereas eight pregnancies (20%) and five clinical pregnancies (12.5%) occurred in the control group. Although the pregnancy rates and clinical pregnancy rates were increased in the intervention group, no statistically significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups (pregnancy rates: P=0.084; clinical pregnancy rates: P=0.094). Performing local endometrial injury (scratch) in the cycle preceding ovulation induction in patients with a diagnosis of infertility and indication for intrauterine insemination increased the pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates. This increase was not, however, statistically significant. More randomized, controlled, prospective studies with larger patient numbers are required before the use of iatrogenic induction of local endometrial injury can be recommended in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Endometrial Injury May Increase the Pregnancy Rate in Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: An Interventional Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Abdelmaabud, Karim H; Laban, Mohamed; Hassanin, Alaa S; Tharwat, Ahmed A; Aly, Tarek R; Elbohoty, Ahmed E; Elsayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Mohammed E; Sabaa, Haitham M; Abdelrazik, Azza A; Abdelhady, Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of endometrial injury using Pipelle catheter in the follicular phase (cycle day 5, 6, or 7) of the stimulation cycle on pregnancy rates in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in the Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from July 1, 2013 to August 31, 2015. Three hundred sixty women, 20 to 35 years of age, with patent fallopian tubes, mild male factor infertility, or unexplained infertility were recruited. Participants were allocated randomly into 2 groups: experimental arm and control arm. Women in the experimental arm underwent endometrial biopsy using a Pipelle catheter on day 5, 6, or 7 of the stimulation cycle combined with intrauterine insemination. Women in the control group underwent intrauterine insemination with no endometrial biopsy done. The primary outcomes were the clinical and chemical pregnancy rates. Data of 344 participants were statistically analyzed. The chemical pregnancy rate was 23.66% in the experimental arm and 10.85% in the control arm (P = .002). The clinical pregnancy rate was 18.93% in the experimental arm and 7.42% in the control arm (P = .003). Endometrial injury using a Pipelle catheter in the stimulation cycle may improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Intra-uterine insemination: pregnancy rate in relation to number, size of pre-ovulatory follicles and day of insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaswamy, J; Smedley, Mamin; Carter, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the pregnancy rate in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in relation to pre-ovulatory follicular number, size and day of insemination. A retrospective analysis of 216 completed IUI cycles was used in an attempt to identify significant variables predictive of treatment success. Couples with unexplained infertility and male factor infertility underwent IUI with or without ovarian stimulation. The mean number of IUI cycles per patient was 4.1, the overall pregnancy rate was 27.3% per patient, and the pregnancy rate per cycle was 6.9%. The pregnancy rate was 4.4% when one follicle was produced, whereas with more than two follicles, the rate increased to 21.2%. Hormonal stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin/follicle stimulating hormone yielded a significant higher pregnancy rate compared to IUI in natural cycles (10.3% versus 3.3%). Although not statistically significant, the pregnancy rate decreased with advancing age of woman. The results suggest that IUI is a useful method of assisted conception in unexplained infertility and higher pregnancy rates can be achieved with good patient selection and ovarian stimulation.

  1. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  2. A survey of four years intrauterine insemination at Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseini M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine insemination (IUI has been practiced since the late 1800's primarily for idiopathic infertility, and in men with deficient semen parameters. The procedure is done by placing washed sperm in uterus a few hours before ovulation. The records of 427 couples receiving IUI for treatment of infertility at Shariati hospital in 1370-74 were reviewed retrospectively. These patients had IUI in 574 cycles. Eighty patients became pregnant and delivery rate was 14% per cycle. Pregnancy rate is impressive when ovulation induction is combined with insemination timed just before ovulation. The success rate in Shariati hospital is comparable to other infertility centers in the world and cost of a cycle of IUI with HMG superovulation is approximately one third the cost of IVF-ET or GIFT cycle and avoids invasive oocyte retrieval and extracorporeal fertilization. So we suggest that women with refractory infertility without anatomic distortion of pelvis can have at least 3-6 cycles of IUI before IVF or GIFT.

  3. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.; Kos, S.; Beijer, C.; Brinkman, J.W.; Horst, F.A. van der; Hoven, L. van den; Kieslinger, D.C.; Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, N.J.; Wolthuis, A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. SETTING: University

  4. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  5. High-response intrauterine insemination cycles converted to low-cost in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletebi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatma AletebiAssisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University, Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is a trend to cancel intrauterine insemination (IUI in women with a high response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF in high-response IUI cycles in comparison with conventional IVF.Methods and materials: A total of 46 women were included in the study. Group A (study group included 23 women with hyper-response to IUI cycles who were converted to IVF. They received oral letrozole 2.5 mg twice daily from days 3–7 of the menstrual cycle, along with 75 International Units (IU of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on days 3 and 8. Group B (control group underwent conventional IVF, and received downregulation with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist followed by stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone 150–300 IU/day. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin, followed by IVF and embryo transfer. The primary outcome measure analyzed was pregnancy rates in both groups.Results: The study group received a significantly lower (P = 0.001 total dose of follicle-stimulating hormone and had significantly (P = 0.002 decreased levels of terminal estradiol. Although the pregnancy rate (30.43% in the study group versus 39.13% in the conventional group per stimulated cycle was higher in the conventional IVF group, the miscarriage rate (study group 4.34% versus conventional group 13.04% was also higher, and hence the take-home baby rate (study group 26.08% versus conventional group 30.43% was more or less similar in both the groups.Conclusion: IVF can be offered to women having a high response to IUI cycles with good pregnancy rates and at low cost compared with use of a conventional protocol, and therefore can be considered more patient-friendly in selected cases.Keywords: low

  6. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion for non-tubal infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a common treatment for couples with subfertility that does not involve the fallopian tubes. It is used to bring the sperm close to the released oocyte. Another method of introducing sperm is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). Fallopian tube sperm

  7. Effects of piroxicam administration on pregnancy outcome in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, A; Mahboubi, M; Parsanezhad, M E; Alborzi, S; Younesi, M; Madadi, G

    2016-01-01

    Uterus contractibility is considered a powerful prognostic factor in predicting the embryo transfer outcome. Moreover, uterine contractions are known to be stimulated by prostaglandins which are produced by cyclooxygenase from arachidonic acid. As such, suppressing the inflammatory response and contractions using anti-inflammatory and relaxant agents is expected to result in increased success rate of embryo transfer and artificial insemination. To investigate the effect of piroxicam administration on the success rate in intrauterine insemination (IU) cycles in patients presenting with unexplained infertility. This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 260 women with unexplained infertility undergoing IUI cycles. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either piroxicam ten mg/day on days 4-6 after IUI or placebo (control group). The main outcome measures were number of IUI cycles, pregnancy, abortion, and multiple pregnancy rates. The pregnancy rate was found to be 25 (19.2%) and 16 (12.3%) in piroxicam and control groups, respectively (p = 0.039). Five patients (3.8%) in piroxicam group experienced twin pregnancy whereas only three patients (2.3%) in control group had twin pregnancy (p = 0.361). The pregnancy rate per cycle was also significantly higher in those who received piroxicam as compared to controls (11.16 vs. 6.66; p = 0.021). Administration of piroxicam after IUI is associated with decreased number of cycles, as well as increased pregnancy rate and pregnancy rate per cycle in IUI cycles. However, piroxicam did not have any effect on abortion, multiple pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates.

  8. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  9. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case–control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasoun...

  10. N-acetyl cysteine in ovulation induction of PCOS women underwent intrauterine insemination: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Behrouzi Lak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was proposed as an adjuvant to clomiphene citratefor ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS without clomiphene citrate resistance. Objective: To evaluate the effect of NAC on pregnancy rate in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 97 PCOS women aged 18-38 years were enrolled in two groups, randomly. For the case group (n=49, NAC (1.2 gr+ clomiphene citrate (100 mg + letrozole (5mg were prescribed Daily from the third day of menstruation cycle for five days. The control group (n=48 had the same drug regimen without NAC. In order to follicular development, GONALF was injected on days of 7-11 menstrual cycles in all participants. When the follicle size was 18mm or more, HCG (10000 IU was injected intramuscular and the intrauterine insemination was performed after 34-36 hr. Results: There were not significant differences between study groups regarding mean endometrial thickness (p=0.14, mean number of mature follicles (p=0.20 and the pregnancy rate (p=0.09. Conclusion: NAC is ineffective in inducing or augmenting ovulation in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination and cannot be recommended as an adjuvant to CC in such patients.

  11. Use of industrial wireless endoscope in intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez EF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an industrial wireless endoscope on the pregnancy rate of Hampshire Down sheep with intrauterine insemination. The work was carried out in a farm of the community Sullkataca Baja of the municipality of Laja, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The conditioning of an endoscopy equipment (Wifi Endoscope®, Teslong which had a portable and multifunctional Wi-Fi camera with fiber optic 8.5mm diameter, LED light and real-time video transmission at 720P. Also, 2 metal trocars (used in cattle were adapted to facilitate the entrance of the endoscopy and the insemination pipette. The estrus synchronization was performed in 10 nulliparas and 10 multiparas by means of intravaginal sponges with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Progespon®, Lab. Syntex Argentina for 14 days. A dose of 500 IU of eCG (Sergon®, Lab. Bioveta Czech Republic is applied to the removal of the sponges. At 52.31 ± 0.31 hours post removal of the sponges, artificial insemination fixed time (FTAI was performed with frozen semen in straws of 0.25cc with 40 million spermatozoa. During insemination, the values of 80% and 100% of uterine horn turgor were determined for the group of pluriparas and nulliparas respectively. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 50 days post insemination using ultrasound transrectal (EMP 820 vet plus®, Emperor China. Gestation rates were 60% for lambs and 70% for ewes (P≥0.05. In conclusion, the industrial wireless endoscope is an economical, versatile equipment and can be used efficiently to perform intrauterine IATF with frozen semen in sheep.

  12. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Louise; Kos, Snjezana; Beijer, Cornelis; Brinkman, Jacoline W; van der Horst, Frans A L; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kieslinger, Dorit C; van Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, Netty J; Wolthuis, Albert; Hendriks, Jan C M; Wetzels, Alex M M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. University hospital. A total of 1,166 couples visiting the fertility laboratory for their first IUI episode, including 4,251 IUI cycles. None. Sperm morphology, total progressively motile sperm count (TPMSC), and number of inseminated progressively motile spermatozoa (NIPMS); odds ratios (ORs) of the sperm parameters after the first IUI cycle and the first finished IUI episode; discriminatory accuracy of the multivariable model. None of the sperm parameters was of predictive value for pregnancy after the first IUI cycle. In the first finished IUI episode, a positive relationship was found for ≤4% of morphologically normal spermatozoa (OR 1.39) and a moderate NIPMS (5-10 million; OR 1.73). Low NIPMS showed a negative relation (≤1 million; OR 0.42). The TPMSC had no predictive value. The multivariable model (i.e., sperm morphology, NIPMS, female age, male age, and the number of cycles in the episode) had a moderate discriminatory accuracy (area under the curve 0.73). Intrauterine insemination is especially relevant for couples with moderate male factor infertility (sperm morphology ≤4%, NIPMS 5-10 million). In the multivariable model, however, the predictive power of these sperm parameters is rather low. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  14. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  15. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2010-01-01

    cycle before intrauterine insemination. Mean age of the patients was 33 years. Serum AMH significantly correlated to age (r=-0.38), antral follicle count (AFC) (r=0.68), ovarian volume (r=0.40), FSH (r=-0.31), (P2-3 mature follicles or dose reduction). There was a significant trend over response groups...

  16. Surgical intrauterine insemination with cat semen cryopreserved with Orvus ES paste or sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tatsuji; Matsubara, Yuka; Toyonaga, Mari; Oba, Hiromichi; Hori, Tatsuya

    2011-02-01

    The mean post-thaw sperm motilities of feline frozen semen prepared with 1% OEP or 3 g/ml SLS as a cryoprotective agent, in addition to 7% glycerin, were 35.0 ± 2.4 and 37.0 ± 2.5%, respectively, showing no significant difference. On unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) using these semen samples at a sperm number of 40 × 10(6), the conception rate was 70.0% (7/10) in the OEP group and 30% (3/10) in the SLS group, showing that the rate was higher in the OEP group, but the difference was not significant. It was suggested that sperm in frozen semen showing the above qualities were transferred to the contralateral uterine horn on UIUI.

  17. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8% patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8% had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3% miscarried and 10(12.7% had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8% pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1% had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3% miscarried and 20(19.8% resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05. There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959.

  18. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST® System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Peivandi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH with intrauterine insemination (IUI is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP. This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG. Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45 to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45 to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results: The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%, whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05. Conclusion: FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility.

  19. The impact of semen processing on sperm parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter-Ligeti, Jacob; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of semen processing on computer analyzed semen parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination (IUI). Over a two-year period, a total of 981 couples undergoing 2231 IUI cycles were evaluated and the freshly collected non-donor semen was analyzed before and after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). DGC led to significant increases in sperm concentration by 66±74 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), percentage of motile sperm by 24±22% (P=0.0001), concentration motile by 27±58 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), and forward sperm progression by 18±14 µ/s (P=0.0001). In 95% of cases, there was a decrease in the total motile sperm count (TMSC), with an average decrease of 50±124% compared to pre-processed samples (P=0.0001). Importantly, the decrease in TMSC did not negatively affect pregnancy rates (P=0.45). This study proves that DGC leads to significant increases in most sperm parameters, with the exception of TMSC. Remarkably, the decrease in TMSC did not affect the pregnancy rate. This should reassure clinicians when the TMSC is negatively affected by processing.

  20. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case-control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasound and laparoscopic intervention. The amount and color of the peritoneal fluid were determined during laparoscopy. The mean amount of peritoneal fluid with pelvic endometriosis that was detected using transvaginal ultrasound was ~ 15.1 mL. Women whose cycles contained more peritoneal fluid had significantly lower pregnancy rates (17.2% and 31.3%, respectively). The total clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups with reddish and yellowish peritoneal fluid who had pelvic endometriosis. Pelvic endometriosis and peritoneal fluid, detected through vaginal ultrasound, have negative effects on the pregnancy outcome of IUI treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The effect of endometrial scratch injury on pregnancy outcome in women with previous intrauterine insemination failure: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Tehraninejad, Ensieh Shahrokh; Haghiri, Mansooreh; Masomi, Masoumeh; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Arabipoor, Arezoo

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial scratch injury (ESI) has been recently proposed to enhance the implantation rate in assisted reproductive technology cycles. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ESI on pregnancy rate in women with intrauterine insemination (IUI) failure. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in Imam-Khomeini Hospital and Royan Institute, Tehran, during a 12-month period from January 2013 to January 2014. After assessment, 169 patients who had IUI failure twice or more (no chemical or clinical pregnancy) with normal uterine anatomy and hysterosalpingography, were enrolled. They were randomly assigned into two groups. In the experimental group, all patients underwent ESI at day 8 or 9 of stimulation phase in the present IUI cycle, whereas no intervention was performed on the control group. IUI outcome was then compared between the two groups. A total of 150 patients completed the IUI cycle during the study. The chemical pregnancy rate was 10.7% and 2.7% in the experimental and control groups, respectively, without significant difference (P = 0.09). Also no significant differences were detected in terms of clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates between the two groups (P > 0.05). No significant beneficial effect of ESI on fertility outcome in patients with repeated IUI failure was detected when it was carried out on day 8 or 9 of the same IUI stimulation cycle. Also, however, no negative impact secondary to ESI was observed. Therefore, confirmation or refutation of this hypothesis requires further studies with a larger sample size. IRCT201507271141N19. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl Hans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8 had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8. In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8 showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  4. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating. PMID:18053237

  5. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2alpha metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-12-05

    The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace x Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  6. Comparing the effect of office hysteroscopy with endometrial scratch versus office hysteroscopy on intrauterine insemination outcome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khayat, Waleed; Elsadek, Mostafa; Saber, Waleed

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the role of endometrial injury in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation for intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle on the clinical pregnancy rate. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial which included three hundred and thirty two infertile women with an indication for IUI. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group (group A) (n=166) subjects underwent office hysteroscopy with endometrial injury using grasping forceps with teeth, while the control group (group B) (n=166) subjects underwent office hysteroscopy alone without endometrial injury. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. There were no significant differences in baseline or clinical characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate [13.8% (23/166) versus 12% (20/166); RR 1.15 (95% CI 0.66-2.01), p=0.62]. The abortion rate [4.3% (1/23) versus 15% (3/20); RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.03-2.57), p=0.27], the multiple pregnancy rate [13% (3/23) versus 15% (3/20); RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.20-3.83), p=0.85] and the live birth rate [13.6% (22/166) versus 10.4% (17/166); RR 1.28 (95% CI 0.71-2.32), p=0.42]. There is no evidence of significant difference on the clinical pregnancy rate when endometrial scratching during hysteroscopy is compared to only hysteroscopy in women undergoing IUI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive value of semen parameters and age of the couple in pregnancy outcome after Intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Sabbaghian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI is one the most common methods in infertility treatment, but its efficiency in infertile couples with male factor is controversial. This study is a retrospective study about correlation between semen parameters and male and female age with successful rate of IUI in patients attending to Royan Institute.Methods: A total of 998 consecutive couples in a period of 6 months undergoing IUI were included. They were classified into two groups: couples with successful and unsuccessful pregnancy. Main outcome was clinical pregnancy. Data about male and female ages and semen analysis including concentration, total sperm motility, class A motility, class B motility, class A+B motility and normal morphology was extracted from patients’ records. Semen samples were collected by masturbation or coitus after 2 to 7 days of abstinence. Their female partners were reported to have no chronic medi-cal conditions and have normal menstrual cycles.Results: One hundred and fifty seven of total 998 cycles (15.7% achieved pregnancy. The average of female age in successful and unsuccessful group was 28.95±4.19 and 30.00±4.56 years, respectively. Mean of male age was 33.97±4.85 years in successful group and 34.44±4.62 years in unsuccessful group. In successful and unsuccessful groups, average of sperm concentration was 53.62±38.45 and 46.26±26.59 (million sperm/ml, normal morphology of sperm was 8.98±4.31 (% and 8.68±4.81 (%, sperm total motility was 47.24±18.92 (% and 43.70±20.22 (% and total motile sperm count was 80.10±63.61 million and 78.57±68.22 million, respectively.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in mean of females’ age and males’ age between successful and unsuccessful groups (P<0.05. In addition, there was no significant difference in semen parameters including concentration, total sperm motility, class A motility, class B motility, class A+B motility and normal morphology between two

  8. Efficacy of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME in predicting pregnancy after intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Ana L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME was developed merely as a selection criterion, its application as a method for classifying sperm morphology may represent an improvement in the evaluation of semen quality. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of normal sperm morphology using MSOME with regard to clinical pregnancy (CP after intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods A total of 156 IUI cycles that were performed in 111 couples were prospectively analysed. Each subject received 75 IU of recombinant FSH every second day from the third day of the cycle. Beginning on the 10th day of the cycle, follicular development was monitored by vaginal ultrasound. When one or two follicles measuring at least 17 mm were observed, recombinant hCG was administered, and IUI was performed 12-14 h and 36-40 h after hCG treatment. Prior to the IUI procedure, sperm samples were analysed by MSOME at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope that was equipped with DIC/Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. A minimum of 200 motile spermatozoa per semen sample were evaluated, and the percentage of normal spermatozoa in each sample was determined. Results Pregnancy occurred in 34 IUI cycles (CP rate per cycle: 21.8%, per patient: 30.6%. Based on the MSOME criteria, a significantly higher percentage of normal spermatozoa was found in the group of men in which the IUI cycles resulted in pregnancy (2.6+/-3.1% compared to the group that did not achieve pregnancy (1.2+/-1.7%; P = 0.019. Logistic regression showed that the percentage of normal cells in the MSOME was a determining factor for the likelihood of clinical pregnancy (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.51; P = 0.003. The ROC curve revealed an area under the curve of 0.63 and an optimum cut-off point of 2% of normal sperm morphology. At this cut-off threshold, using the percentage of normal sperm morphology by MSOME to predict pregnancy

  9. Conception rate and litter size in multiparous sows after intrauterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 10(9) sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus.

  10. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS OF INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION- A CASE COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyasree Jayasimhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND IUI is one of the simple techniques of assisted reproductive technique for treating infertility by artificial insemination. It has the advantage of positioning good quality sperm with increased count prepared by special semen washing technique into the uterine cavity, so that factors like decreased sperm count, poor sperm motility, impenetrable or absent cervical mucus or antisperm antibodies can be overcome. Sperm preparation method includes wash and swim-up technique using Percoll gradient. IUI is done by simple method and does not require the elaborate setup, investment and personnel like the other procedures of ART. The aims and objectives- 1. Factors associated with effectiveness of IUI among couples with primary infertility. 2. Factors studied include- Age of female partner, duration of infertility, menstrual regularity, menstrual flow, ovarian stimulation protocol, timing of IUI, endometrial thickness, number of cycles of IUI, luteal support, semen analysis findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case comparative study conducted in a tertiary hospital during three year period in which the forty women who conceived were considered as “study group” and another forty non-conceived women selected at random were taken as “control group.” RESULTS Factors like age of female showed statistical significance- when the age of female increased from 20-24 years to 30 years and above, the rate of conception reduced from 50% to 9%. Other factors like menstrual regularity, menstrual flow timing of IUI and number of cycles of IUI yielded no significant association with conception rates. Regarding the mode of ovarian induction, 90% of conceived group was given controlled superovulation using clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins and 39% had ovulation triggered by HCG, which were statistically significant. In the conceived group, the mean endometrial thickness was 9.3 mm contrary to 7.8 mm in the non-conceived group. Minimum duration of

  12. Factors affecting the fertility of ewes after intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed semen during the non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yutaka; Kohno, Hirohide; Okabe, Kentaro; Katsuki, Sara; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Togari, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    In this study, two successive field trials were conducted during the non-breeding season to investigate various factors affecting on fertility of Suffolk ewes after intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed semen. In the first year (Experiment 1), three sperm numbers per insemination dose (0.25, 0.5 and 1 million sperm) and five sheep farms were used, and in the second year (Experiment 2), parity, age, body weight, body condition score (BCS) and postpartum days were investigated to compare pregnancy and lambing rates. High pregnancy and lambing rates (70.6 and 70.6%, respectively) were obtained with 0.25 million sperm per dose. There were no significant differences in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the five farms, but there was a tendency for one farm to have higher pregnancy (75.8%, P=0.065) and lambing (72.7%, P=0.077) rates than those (46.7-53.3% and 45.2-53.3% for the pregnancy and lambing rates, respectively) of the other farms. In Experiment 2, ewe age significantly affected both the pregnancy and lambing rates. Nulliparous ewes had a higher lambing rate (72.0%) than that (44.2%) of multiparous ewes, but a significant difference was not revealed. Regardless of body weight, BCS tended to be an important factor influencing on fertility of ewes. Body weight and the postpartum days did not affect the fertility of ewes. It was concluded from these results that the fertility of Suffolk ewes after intrauterine insemination with frozen semen was significantly influenced by sperm number per dose and ewe age. Nulliparous ewes at less than three years of age and with a BCS of more than 3.0 are expected to have higher fertility than other ewes.

  13. Performance of the postwash total motile sperm count as a predictor of pregnancy at the time of intrauterine insemination: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Janne-Meije; Repping, Sjoerd; van Voorhis, Bradley J.; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance and clinical value of the postwash total motile sperm count (postwash TMC) as a test to predict intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome. Design: Meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. Setting: Tertiary fertility center. Patient(s): Patients undergoing IUI.

  14. Guideline adherence is worth the effort: a cost-effectiveness analysis in intrauterine insemination care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, E C; Nelen, W L D M; Adang, E M; Grol, R P T M; Hermens, R P M G; Kremer, J A M

    2013-02-01

    Is optimal adherence to guideline recommendations in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations? Optimal guideline adherence in IUI care has substantial economic benefits when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. Fertility guidelines are tools to help health-care professionals, and patients make better decisions about clinically effective, safe and cost-effective care. Up to now, there has been limited published evidence about the association between guideline adherence and cost-effectiveness in fertility care. In a retrospective cohort study involving medical record analysis and a patient survey (n = 415), interviews with staff members (n = 13) and a review of hospitals' financial department reports and literature, data were obtained about patient characteristics, process aspects and clinical outcomes of IUI care and resources consumed. In the cost-effectiveness analyses, restricted to four relevant guideline recommendations, the ongoing pregnancy rate per couple (effectiveness), the average medical and non-medical costs of IUI care, possible additional IVF treatment, pregnancy, delivery and period from birth up to 6 weeks after birth for both mother and offspring per couple (costs) and the incremental net monetary benefits were calculated to investigate if optimal guideline adherence is cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. Seven hundred and sixty five of 1100 randomly selected infertile couples from the databases of the fertility laboratories of 10 Dutch hospitals, including 1 large university hospital providing tertiary care and 9 public hospitals providing secondary care, were willing to participate, but 350 couples were excluded because of ovulatory disorders or the use of donated spermatozoa (n = 184), still ongoing IUI treatment (n = 143) or no access to their medical records (n = 23). As

  15. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment s...

  16. The effect of intrauterine cephapirin treatment after insemination on conception rate in repeat breeder dairy cows subjected to the progesterone-based Ovsynch protocol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜMEN, Ahmet; MECİTOĞLU, Gülnaz YILMAZBAŞ; KESKİN, Abdulkadir; KARAKAYA, Ebru; ALKAN, Ali; TAŞDEMİR, Umut; OKUT, Hayrettin

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical endometritis contributes to repeat breeder syndrome in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of intrauterine cephapirin benzathine administration after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the conception rate (CR) in repeat breeder dairy cows. To determine the antibiotic effects, all cows (n = 335) that had more than 3 services with no clinical abnormalities of the reproductive tract received the same combined synchronisation protocol: an ear implant containing progestagen...

  17. Endometrial scratch injury before intrauterine insemination: is it time to re-evaluate its value? Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Saccone, Gabriele; Gizzo, Salvatore; Vitale, Salvatore Giovannni; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Litta, Pietro Salvatore; Saccardi, Carlo; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio

    2018-01-01

    To assess the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on the outcomes of intrauterine insemination (IUI) stimulated cycles. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Infertile women undergoing one or more IUI stimulated cycles. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searching electronic databases. We included RCTs comparing ESI (i.e., intervention group) during the course of IUI stimulated cycle (C-ESI) or during the menstrual cycle preceding IUI treatment (P-ESI) with controls (no endometrial scratch). The summary measures were reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence-interval (CI). Clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate. Eight trials were included in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 1,871 IUI cycles. Endometrial scratch injury was associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate (OR 2.27) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.04) in comparison with the controls. No higher risk of multiple pregnancy (OR 1.09), miscarriage (OR 0.80), or ectopic pregnancy (OR 0.82) was observed in patients receiving ESI. Subgroup analysis based on ESI timing showed higher clinical pregnancy rate (OR 2.57) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.27) in patients receiving C-ESI and no advantage in patients receiving P-ESI. Available data suggest that ESI performed once, preferably during the follicular phase of the same cycle of IUI with flexible aspiration catheters, may improve clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates in IUI cycles. Endometrial scratch injury does not appear to increase the risk of multiple pregnancy, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [First line management without IVF of infertility related to endometriosis: Result of medical therapy? Results of ovarian superovulation? Results of intrauterine insemination? CNGOF-HAS Endometriosis Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, J; Santulli, P; Mathieu-d'Argent, E; Decanter, C; Chauffour, C; Poncelet, P

    2018-03-01

    Using the structured methodology of French guidelines (HAS-CNGOF), the aim of this chapter was to formulate good practice points (GPP), in relation to optimal non-ART management of endometriosis related to infertility, based on the best available evidence in the literature. This guideline was produced by a group of experts in the field including a thorough systematic search of the literature (from January 1980 to March 2017). Were included only women with endometriosis related to infertility. For each recommendation, a grade (A-D, where A is the highest quality) was assigned based on the strength of the supporting evidence. Management of endometriosis related to infertility should be multidisciplinary and take account into the pain, the global evaluation of infertile couple and the different phenotypes of endometriotic lesions (good practice point). Hormonal treatment for suppression of ovarian function should not prescribe to improve fertility (grade A). After laproscopy for endometriosis related to infertility, the Endometriosis Fertility Index should be used to counsel patients regarding duration of conventional treatments before undergoing ART (grade C). After laparoscopy surgery for infertile women with AFS/ASRM stage I/II endometriosis or superficial peritoneal endometriosis, controlled ovarian stimulation with or without intrauterine insemination could be used to enhance non-ART pregnancy rate (grade C). Gonadotrophins should be the first line therapy for the stimulation (grade B). The number of cycles before referring ART should not exceed up to 6 cycles (good practice point). No recommendation can be performed for non-ART management of deep infiltrating endometriosis or endometrioma, as suitable evidence is lacking. Non-ART management is a possible option for the management of endometriosis related to infertility. Endometriosis Fertilty Index could be a useful tool for subsequent postoperative fertility management. Controlled ovarian stimulation can be

  19. Retrospective study of factors affecting intrauterine insemination pregnancy outcome: The impact of male habits and working environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheswari Govindarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is aimed at determining the prognostic factors influencing successful pregnancy following intrauterine insemination (IUI. Settings and design: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 2123 cycles undergone by 871 couples during the period of 5 years (2011–2015 were retrospectively studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Each of the factors was compared with pregnancy outcome (PO using statistical analysis with a confidence interval of 95% in SPSS software version 19. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis method were used to determine the significance of each factor with the PO. Results: Among the various factors included in our study population, male habits (P = 0.004, male occupational environment (P = 0.025, male age (P = 0.002, and female age (P = 0.001 were found to significantly influence the PO following IUI. Conclusion: Our results indicate that avoiding smoking and alcohol consuming prior and during the IUI treatment along with working in low-heat-generating environment might lead to better success following the treatment.

  20. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of intra-uterine insemination versus in vitro fertilisation in patients with idiopathic or mild male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeiny, Hossam; Garrett, Claire; Toledo, Manuela; Stern, Kate; McBain, John; Baker, Hugh William Gordon

    2014-04-01

    The cause of infertility is unexplained or poorly explained in 30-40% of couples undergoing standard investigations, and treatment ranges from expectant management to IUI and IVF. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical pregnancy rates and costs of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in women where the same ovarian stimulation led to the development of two or three mature follicles. A randomised controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of IUI and IVF in a tertiary fertility centre (ISRCTN28780587). Primary outcome measures were fetal heart positive pregnancy rate and cost per live birth. The selection criteria were age: females 18-42 years and males 18-60 years, infertility for one year or more, no IVF or IUI for 12 months prior to the trial, and no coital, tubal or ovulatory disorders, oligospermia, untreated endometriosis or contraindication for multiple pregnancy. All women (n = 102) had the same dose FSH stimulation protocol. Those who developed two or three preovulatory follicles were randomised 3:1 to IUI (n = 33) or IVF (n = 10). IUI or IVF was performed 36 h after hCG administration with single or double embryo transfer on day two. Clinical pregnancy rates (40% vs 12%, P = 0.04) and live birth rate (40% vs 6%, P = 0.01) were higher for IVF than IUI. The cost per live birth was AU$8735 for IVF compared with $42,487 for IUI. This study provides evidence that IVF is more successful and cost-effective than IUI using the same doses of FSH. Further confirmatory studies are required. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Kolb

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  3. Pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist during intrauterine insemination cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, A; Saccone, G; Noventa, M; Borini, A; Coccia, M E; Nardelli, G B; Saccardi, C; Bifulco, G; Litta, P S; Andrisani, A

    2018-06-03

    Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the usefulness of pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists during intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, with conflicting results. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs was to evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH antagonist administration as an intervention to improve the success of IUI cycles. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Sciencedirect) and clinical registers were searched from their inception until October 2017. Randomised controlled trials of infertile women undergoing one or more IUI stimulated cycles with GnRH antagonists compared with a control group. The primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate (OPR/LBR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Pooled results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) or mean differences with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through sensitivity and subgroups analysis. The body of evidence was rated using GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's tests. Fifteen RCTs were included (3253 IUI cycles, 2345 participants). No differences in OPR/LBR (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.57, P = 0.44) and CPR (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.69, P = 0.08) were found. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses did not provide statistical changes in pooled results. The body of evidence was rated as low (GRADE 2/4). No publication bias was detected. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve OPR/LBR and CPR in women undergoing IUI cycles. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve the success of IUI cycles. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination cycles: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Elvan Koyun; Doğan, Omer Erbil; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gülekli, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. The retrospective study included a total of 156 cycles (141 couples) and was performed in our center over a 24-month period. The semen parameters were recorded for each man and each insemination. The semen samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. Post-wash TPMSC values were divided into four groups; Group 1: 10×10(6). Post-wash inseminated semen volume was divided into three groups; Group 1: 0.3 mL; Group 2: 0.4 mL; Group 3: 0.5 mL. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes was evaluated. The pregnancy rates per cycle and per couple were 27.56% and 30.49%, respectively. There was not a significant relationship between the inseminated semen volume and pregnancy rate (p>0.05). However, a significant linear-by-linear association was documented between the TPMSC and pregnancy rate (p=0.042). Our findings suggest that the post-wash inseminated semen volume should be between 0.3-0.5 mL. An average post-wash total motile sperm count of 10×10(6) may be a useful threshold value for IUI success, but more studies are needed to determine a cut-off value for TPMSC.

  5. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  6. Nova pipeta para inseminação intra-uterina em suínos New pipette for intrauterine insemination in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Diehl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de 423 fêmeas suínas de ordem de parto 1 a 9 submetidas à inseminação intra-uterina (IAU, com um novo modelo de pipeta (T1 cuja extremidade não é fixada na cérvix ou uma pipeta de IAU modelo Verona® e que permite a fixação da sua extremidade em espiral na cérvix (T2. Para comparar as duas pipetas, foi considerado o grau de dificuldade para realização das inseminações, o tempo necessário para realizá-las, a presença de sangramento após a inseminação, a presença de refluxo no momento da inseminação, as taxas de retorno ao estro (TR, de prenhez (TPR e de parto ajustada (TPA, além do número de leitões nascidos (NT. As fêmeas de ambos os grupos foram inseminadas com doses de 1 bilhão de espermatozóides, em intervalos de 24 horas. A passagem do cateter de IAU através da cérvix foi possível em 95,9% das fêmeas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em pelo menos uma das inseminações, foi observado sangue no cateter, após a realização da IAU, em 20,6% das fêmeas do T1 e 15,2% das fêmeas do T2 (P=0,14. O tempo médio necessário para realizar a inseminação foi de 2,1 minutos para o T1 e 2,3 minutos para o T2 (P=0,26. O percentual de fêmeas com refluxo de sêmen no momento da inseminação foi maior (P=0,01 no T1 (8,4% em comparação ao T2 (2,9%. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas variáveis TR (8,0 e 4,8%, TPR (93,4 e 96,2% e NT (12,4 e 12,7 leitões entre T1 e T2, respectivamente. A TPA do T1 (90,6% apresentou tendência (P=0,07 de ser inferior à do T2 (95,1%. No T1, as fêmeas primíparas apresentaram maior TR e menor TPA em comparação às pluríparas (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the reproductive performance of 423 sows of 1 to 9 farrowings inseminated with two different intrauterine artificial insemination (IAU pipettes. The first group (T1 was formed by sows inseminated with a new pipette whose extremity was not fixed in the

  7. Effect of semen extenders on frozen-thawed boar sperm characteristics and distribution in the female genital tract after deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Hikono, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Chie; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We compared the effects of extenders of frozen-thawed semen on post-thaw sperm characteristics and the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the female genital tract after fixed-timed deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) in sows. Frozen semen samples were thawed and diluted in either modified Modena solution (mMS) or porcine fertilization medium (PFM) containing theophylline, adenosine and cysteine. Sperm quality, assessed in vitro based on motility using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer and the integrity of the plasma and acrosomal membranes using flow cytometry, was evaluated at 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6h after thawing. Progressive motility and the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged acrosomal membranes in PFM were significantly better than in mMS throughout the 6h. Sows with estrus synchronized using prostaglandin F2 alpha, equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were inseminated once with mMS- or PFM-diluted 5 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa by DIUI at 34 h after the hCG injection. At 4h after DIUI, reproductive tracts were recovered from 30 sows. There were significantly fewer polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and more spermatozoa outside PMNs in the uterine horn after PFM treatment than with mMS. When 22 sows were administered DIUI with 10 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa at 36 h after hCG, the pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between the mMS- (36%) and PFM- (64%) treated groups. Thus, PFM enhanced progressive sperm motility but increased sperm membrane damage compared with mMS; it also suppressed the migration of PMNs into the uterine lumen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Local endometrial scratching under ultrasound-guidance after failed intrauterine insemination and cycle outcome: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badeea S. Soliman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interaction between the embryo and endometrium plus endometrial receptivity is considered as two strong issues affecting the implantation outcome. Purpose: To investigate the effect of local endometrial scratching on pregnancy rate after failed previous intra uterine insemination. Study design: A prospective, randomized, control trial. Setting: At Cytogenetic and Endoscopy Unit, Zagazig University Hospital. Patients and methods: A total of 226 women either with unexplained or with mild male factor infertility were divided randomly into approximately two groups: in study group, 114 women and in control group, 112 women. For both groups, folliculometry was started at cycle day 7 additionally and at the same setting; endometrial scratching was done only for the study group. Outcome results: Biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the endometrial scratching group compared to the control group [27/106 (25.5% vs. 15/106 (14.1% p = 0.03 and 24/106 (22.6% vs. 12/106 (11.3%; p = 0.02] respectively. Also, ongoing pregnancy rate was statistically significantly different between both groups [22/106 (20.7% vs. 11/106 (10.4%; p = 0.03]. Conclusion: Endometrial scratching is useful in increasing pregnancy rates after failed previous intra uterine insemination trials when it is performed in the mid proliferative phase.

  9. The effect of problem-solving skill training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Marziyeh Ghasemi; Kordi, Masoume; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amirian, Maliheh; Eskandarnia, Elnaze

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Using fertility treatment will cause high levels of anxiety and depression. The study was carried out with the objective of determining the effect of problem-solving skills (PSS) training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: this randomized clinical trial was carried out on 72 women referring to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. Individuals were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. PSS were taught in three sessions in the intervention group, and the control group received usual care. The success rate of therapy and the mean of anxiety and depression on the day of IUI operation were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory in both groups. t-test, Mann–Whitney, paired t-test, Wilcoxon, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: on the day of IUI operation, the mean score of state anxiety in the control group(5 0. 11 ± 8.51) and PSS (68.12 ± 11.49) was significant (P effect of problem-solving on reducing anxiety and depression, it is suggested that infertility center of this intervention should be used. PMID:29296608

  10. Effect of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase on Intrauterine Insemination, Contribution to Inflammations, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status; A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnazari, Lida; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Keshvarzi, Farahnaz; Ferdowsi, Farivar; Goodarzi, Massoud; Rahimi, Zohreh; Baniamerian, Hossin; Tavilani, Haidar; Vaisi-Raygani, Hadis; Vaisi-Raygani, Hessam; Pourmotabbed, Tayehbeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress affects women fertility and influences on the sperm quality by alterating activities of cholinesterases, a molecular marker of stress-related infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and phenotypes in patients with unexplained infertility (idiopathic). It’s possible association with inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and other oxidative stress markers, i.e. before and after intra uterine insemination (IUI). Methods: In this study, blood samples of 60 patients with unexplained infertility were collected the day before and 24 hr after IUI (between 8 AM and 9 AM after the overnight fasting) and activities of BuChE, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GpX) and serum levels of thiol proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Statistical significance was assumed at poxidative stress and inflammation and reduction in fertility rates by IUI. PMID:27478769

  11. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordewijk, Esmee M.; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F.; van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC.

  12. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewijk, Esmée M; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F; Van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-24

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin co-treatment during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins with respect to rates of live birth and multiple pregnancy in women with PCOS. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAH) on 8 June 2016, and the reference lists of included and other relevant studies. We searched ongoing trials registries in the World Health Organization (WHO) portal and on clinicaltrials.gov on 4 September 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on comparison of clinical outcomes in women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction with gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins alone or gonadotrophins plus placebo. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Primary review outcomes were live birth rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate, miscarriage rate, cycle cancellation rate and adverse effects. We included five RCTs (with 264 women) comparing gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins. The gonadotrophin used was recombinant FSH in four studies and highly purified FSH in one study. Evidence was of low quality: The main limitations were serious risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods and blinding of participants and

  13. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  14. Poor response cycles: when should we cancel? Comparison of outcome between egg collection, intrauterine insemination conversion, and follow-up cycles after abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicopoullos, James D M; Abdalla, Hossam

    2011-01-01

    To determine optimal management with one or two mature follicles after stimulation. Retrospective analysis. Lister fertility clinic. A total of 1,350 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (7.3% of total) during 1998-2009 were found to have one or two mature follicles. Group 1 (n = 807) comprised those who proceeded to vaginal egg collection (VEC) (59.8%; outcome per egg collection), group 2 (n=248) those who converted to IUI (18.4%; outcome per insemination) and group 3 (n=259) those who abandoned the current cycle (21.9%; outcome per abandoned cycle in first subsequent cycle). Live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and biochemical pregnancy rate. Biochemical pregnancy rates of 13.1%, 4.9%, and 9.7%, clinical pregnancy rates of 8.1%, 3.6%, and 7.2%, and ongoing pregnancy rates of 6.8%, 2.0%, and 5.5% were achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All pregnancy outcomes were significantly higher after VEC (group 1) than for those converted to IUI (group 2), and all pregnancy outcomes were higher with borderline significance in group 3 vs. group 2. There was no significant difference in outcome between groups 1 and 3. Our data suggest that for such poor responders, proceeding to VEC may represent their best chance of successful outcome. Conversion to IUI offers the poorest outcome, and despite the potential for improvements in cycle protocol, abandoning and a further attempt does not improve outcome (using abandoned cycle as the denominator). Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  16. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S; Ferraretti, A P; Kupka, M S; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G

    2009-06-01

    Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074), ICSI (203 329), frozen embryo replacement (79 140), oocyte donation (ED, 11 475), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (5846) and in vitro maturation (247). Overall, this represents a 13.6% increase since 2004, partly due to inclusion of 28 417 cycles from Turkey. European data on intrauterine insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 26.9% and 30.3%, respectively. For ICSI, the corresponding rates were 28.5% and 30.9%. After IUI-H, the clinical pregnancy rate was 12.6% per insemination in women IVF and ICSI, the distribution of transfer of one, two, three and four or more embryos was 20.0%, 56.1%, 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively. Huge differences exist between countries. The distribution of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries after IVF and ICSI was 78.2%, 21.0% and 0.8%, respectively. This gives a total multiple delivery rate of 21.8% compared with 22.7% in 2004 and 23.1% in 2003. In women <40 years of age, IUI-H was associated with a twin and triplet pregnancy rate of 11.0% and 1.1%, respectively. Compared with earlier years, there was an increase in the reported number of ART cycles in Europe. Although fewer embryos were transferred per treatment, there was a marginal increase in pregnancy rates and a reduction in multiple deliveries.

  17. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Gojani, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah

    2018-04-01

    The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) and problem-solving skills training (PSS) on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treatment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. On the 10 th th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42) and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05) and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7) (P<0.001), but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghasemi gojani, , ,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI and problem-solving skills training (PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treat- ment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. Results On the 10th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42 and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05 and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7 (P<0.001, but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. Conclusion According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1.

  19. Inseminação artificial intra-uterina em leitoas com sêmen criopreservado com dimetilacetamida e glicerol Intrauterine artificial insemination of gilts using cryopreserved boar semen with dimetilacetamide and glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bianchi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso da dimetilacetamida (DMA e de glicerol na criopreservação de sêmen suíno sobre as taxas de concepção e fertilização in vivo, utilizando o método de inseminação artificial pós-cervical. Foram sincronizadas 60 leitoas pré-púberes e inseminadas com o uso de sêmen congelado com glicerol 3% (30 fêmeas e DMA 5% (30 fêmeas. O método de inseminação utilizado foi o pós-cervical, com concentração de 1 x 10(9 espermatozóides vivos por dose. Após 36 a 40h da inseminação, as fêmeas foram abatidas, sendo realizada a contagem de corpos hemorrágicos (CH nos ovários. Foi realizada a lavagem dos ovidutos das fêmeas, verificando o número de estruturas recuperadas (oócitos e embriões, calculando-se as taxas de concepção e fertilização. A média de CH nas fêmeas do grupo glicerol 3% não diferiu (P>0,05 daquelas do grupo DMA 5% (10,4 x 10,2, respectivamente. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas taxas de recuperação de estruturas entre os grupos glicerol 3% (68,9% e DMA 5% (66,9%. Os resultados obtidos nos grupos glicerol 3% e DMA 5% para as taxas de concepção (73,3 x 76,6% e fertilização (48,6 x 59,4% não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. Conclui-se que não há diferenças nas taxas de concepção e fertilização in vivo utilizando-se sêmen congelado com o uso de dimetilacetamida ou de glicerol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA and glycerol in boar semen cryopreservation on the conception and fertility rates.Sixty pre-pubertal gilts were synchronized and inseminated with semen including either glycerol 3% or DMA 5% as cryoprotectants (n=30 for both groups. Artificial insemination was conducted with the intrauterine method using doses with 1 x 10(9 viable spermatozoa. The gilts were slaughtered 36-40h after the insemination and the hemorrhagic bodies (CH in the ovaries were counted. The oviducts were washed, so oocytes and embryos could

  20. Effect of Gonadotropin Types and Indications on Homologous Intrauterine Insemination Success: A Study from 1251 Cycles and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Cabry-Goubet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the IUI success factors relative to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS and infertility type, this retrospective cohort study included 1251 couples undergoing homologous IUI. Results. We achieved 13% clinical pregnancies and 11% live births. COS and infertility type do not have significant effect on IUI clinical outcomes with unstable intervention of various couples’ parameters, including the female age, the IUI attempt rank, and the sperm quality. Conclusion. Further, the COS used seemed a weak predictor for IUI success; therefore, the indications need more discussion, especially in unexplained infertility cases involving various factors. Indeed, the fourth IUI attempt, the female age over 40 years, and the total motile sperm count <5 × 106 were critical in decreasing the positive clinical outcomes of IUI. Those parameter cut-offs necessitate a larger analysis to give infertile couples more chances through IUI before carrying out other ART techniques.

  1. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of intrauterine autoplasma application on mare fertility

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBOVÁ, Hana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intrauterine plasma infusion on conceiving rate in selected group of mares during the breeding seasons 2008 and 2009. The fresh sperm insemination was followed by the infusion of self-plasma and subsequently the successivity of the insemination was compared with the control group of mares. Next, there were observed following factors which could influence the effectiveness of conceiving: age of the mares, number of insemination doses, s...

  3. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. METHODS: From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074...... insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. RESULTS: In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical...... pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 26.9% and 30.3%, respectively. For ICSI, the corresponding rates were 28.5% and 30.9%. After IUI-H, the clinical pregnancy rate was 12.6% per insemination in women IVF and ICSI, the distribution of transfer of one, two, three and four or more...

  4. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  5. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  6. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  7. Highlights on artificial insemination (AI technology in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Khalifa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a the current status of swine AI in the world, (b significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in-vitro sperm storage, (d the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.

  8. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied.

  9. A suspicious reason for Raynaud's phenomenon: Intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Adem I; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Aksoy, Eray; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Çağlı, Kerim

    2015-06-01

    Primary Raynaud's phenomenon may be insistent in patients under medical therapy, and intrauterine devices may be an unnoticed reason in these patients. Fluctuations in female sex hormone status were reported to be associated with the emergence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms. The use of intrauterine devices was not reported to be associated with Raynaud's phenomenon previously. Intrauterine device may stimulate vascular hyperactivity regarding hormonal or unknown mechanisms that result in Raynaud's phenomenon. We present a postmenopausal patient who complained of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and had recovery after the removal of her copper intrauterine device. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Use of frozen-thawed semen in equine artificial insemination programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of equine frozen semen has variable results. Pregnancy rates per cycle may be between 10 to 70%. Although an inseminating dose of 280 a 320 millones progressive motile sperm (PMS has been recommended, under experimental conditions it is posible to obtain acceptable results with doses of 50 to 100 millones PMS. Deep intrauterine insemination is prefered when using frozen thawed semen, which consists in depositing the dose at the tip of the horn, ipsiltateral to ovulation. Young mares usually have better uterine condition and that increase their chance of become pregnant. It is important to make a correct follicular monitoring, in order to determine the right time to induce ovulation. Ovulation may be induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG or deslorelin. It posible to perform a fixed time insemination or to choose an ultrasound follicular following protocol, inseminating within 6 h of ovulation. This option offers the best prenancy rates. Our laboratory manages a protocol which includes ultrasound monitoring every 6 hours, beginning 24 hous after induction of ovulation; this protocol had a first insemination pregnancy rate of 73%. If we consider that one of the main disadvantages of frozen-thawed semen is decreased fertility, these results are encouraging, since they are similar to those obtained with fresh or cooled semen, so it may represent an advantage when having stored semen of stallions that are dead, or have been sold or even castrated.

  11. Pregnancy outcome of home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR with intravaginal insemination (IVI by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s: Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s: Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage.

  12. Pregnancy Outcome of Home Intravaginal Insemination in Couples with Unconsummated Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaberi; Singla, Bhavana

    2017-01-01

    Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR) with intravaginal insemination (IVI) by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s): Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s): Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage. PMID:29430157

  13. Comparison of pregnancy rates in pre-treatment male infertility and low total motile sperm count at insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng Wei; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine insemination (IUI), total motile sperm count (TMSC) is an important predictor of pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of a poor TMSC on the day of IUI in a patient with prior normal semen analysis (SA) is unclear. We performed this study to determine if these patients perform as poorly as those who had male factor infertility diagnosed prior to commencing treatment. 147 males with two abnormal SA based on the 2010 World Health Organization criteria underwent 356 IUI with controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH). Their pregnancy rates were compared to 120 males who had abnormal TMSC at the time of 265 IUI with COH, in a retrospective university-based study. The two groups were comparable in female age (p = 0.11), duration of infertility (p = 0.17), previous pregnancies (p = 0.13), female basal serum FSH level (p = 0.54) and number of mature follicles on the day of ovulation trigger (p = 0.27). Despite better semen parameters on the day of IUI in the pre-treatment male factor infertility group (TMSC mean ± SD: 61 ± 30 million vs. 3.5 ± 2 million, p male factor infertility. More studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  14. Intrauterin graviditet efter Cavatermbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh-Amiri, Ali; Kjaergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A case of intrauterine pregnancy occurring after successful balloon thermal endometrial ablation is described. Although rare, pregnancy after endometrial ablation is possible, and use of a supplemental contraceptive method should be planned. In case of pregnancy after endometrial ablation...

  15. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  16. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  17. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  18. Estrategies to improve fertility in cattle: artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruselli PS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is currently the major biotechnique used worldwide to disseminate superior genetics and to improve reproductive efficiency in bovine herds. Conversely, reports from different parts of the world indicate low pregnancy rates in cattle submitted to AI, due to both mistakes in heat detection or a high incidence of anestrous. In dairy cattle, the use of AI following visual detection of estrus is relatively easier to be used because their routine of management is intense (milking two to three times a day, allowing a frequent contact with cows for estrus observation. However, for beef cattle, the implementation of AI programs based on estrus detection is harder to be used because of several management conditions. Beef cows are frequently raised extensively, with great walking distances between their pasture to the corral where the AI is performed, the number of employers designated for cattle management is reduced and they have several activities besides reproduction. Because of the necessity of at least two periods of estrus observation per day and the conduction of cattle to the corral around 12 h following estrus detection to be inseminated, the AI is somehow unfeasible in beef farms. The development of timed AI (TAI enabled insemination of cows in commercial scale, because it allows the programmed AI of large number of cows in the same day without the need for estrus detection. Besides, the use of TAI in early postpartum dairy and beef females reduces the interval partum-conception and, consequently the interval between parturitions, which has a dramatic effect on farm economic return. For beef cattle, TAI also brings the advantages of concentrating around half of the conceptions at the first days of the breeding season and stimulating cyclicity and a synchronous estrus return in cows that did not become pregnant at TAI. Thus, the calving season is also concentrate in the best periods of the year to generate offspring

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  20. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed during the first 7 days of your menstrual period, you should start using your new form of birth control 7 days before your intrauterine system is removed.Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  1. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  2. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  3. Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarli Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Results Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls. Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100 at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. Conclusions PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection.

  4. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  5. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  6. Economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination of a cowhhhh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Most dairy farmers are not certain whether immediate insemination or delaying the insemination is the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus. A model was developed for determining, based on herd and cow characteristics, the economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination. The model

  7. Donor insemination: eugenic and feminist implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, F A

    2001-09-01

    One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction.

  8. Influence of cornual insemination on conception in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Becker, W C; Davidge, S T; Hillers, J K; Reeves, J J

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conception to artificial insemination (AI) services in dairy cattle when semen was deposited into the uterine body or into both uterine horns (cornual insemination). Nine herdsman inseminators (HI) in four commercial dairy herds in Washington constituted the experimental units. Herds ranged in size from 393 cows to 964 cows. The duration of the experiment was 12 mo in three herds and 18 mo in the fourth herd. At the beginning of the experiment all inseminators were trained to deposit semen in the body of the uterus. Inseminators were instructed to use this method for 6 mo. Following employment of body deposition, the same inseminators were retrained to deposit one-half of the semen into the right uterine horn and one-half into the left uterine horn. Cornual inseminations were performed for 6 mo. A total of 4,178 services constituted the data set. Milk samples were collected from cows on the day of insemination and later were assayed for progesterone (P4). There was variation (P less than .01) in conception associated with month of insemination and insemination method (P less than .001). The monthly variation was not associated with season of the year. Least squares means for conception when semen was deposited in the uterine body was 44.7%, compared with 64.6% when cornual insemination was employed. The insemination treatment X inseminator interaction was not significant. Results suggest that cornual insemination provides an alternative to deposition of semen in the uterine body.

  9. Antiepileptic drugs and intrauterine death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio

    2015-01-01

    ) after prenatal AED exposure. Using EURAP data, we prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to the 6 most common AED monotherapies and to polytherapy. Intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth combined) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Of 7,055 pregnancies exposed to monotherapy...... with lamotrigine (n = 1,910), carbamazepine (n = 1,713), valproic acid (n = 1,171), levetiracetam (n = 324), oxcarbazepine (n = 262), or phenobarbital (n = 260), and to polytherapy (n = 1,415), 632 ended in intrauterine deaths (592 spontaneous abortions and 40 stillbirths). Rates of intrauterine death were similar...... that the risk was greater with polytherapy vs monotherapy (risk ratio [RR] 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.66), parental history of MCMs (RR 1.92; 1.20-3.07), maternal age (RR 1.06; 1.04-1.07), and number of previous intrauterine deaths (RR 1.09; 1.00-1.19). The risk was greater with early enrollment and decreased...

  10. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Nina La Cour; Lossl, K.; Bogstad, Jeanette Wulff

    2008-01-01

    , total Doppler score of the ovarian stromal blood flow, baseline FSH and oestradiol. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for the statistical analysis. Appropriate ovarian response was defined as two to three mature follicles. Body weight (P = 0.001) and the number of antral follicles (P = 0.......004) were the strongest independent predictive factors of the number of mature follicles. In conclusion, body weight and antral follicle count may be used to achieve appropriate ovarian response for IUI in ovulatory patients. Based on this, a simple rFSH dosage nomogram was developed for individual ovarian...

  11. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris

    2014-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA). RESULT(S): Children born after IUI-H had higher risks of PTB, LBW, and SGA vs. SC singletons (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.5; 1.4; 95% CI, 1.......2-1.7; and 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6), respectively. Compared with IVF, risk of SGA was similar, but risks of PTB and LBW were lower (aOR 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8; and 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). Compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, no differences were found. For children born after IUI with donor semen, results...

  12. Predictors of pregnancy and live birth after insemination in couples with unexplained or male-factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R; Factor-Litvak, Pamela; Carson, Sandra A; Guzick, David S; Santoro, Nanette; Diamond, Michael P; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2012-04-01

    To identify risk factors for pregnancy outcomes in couples treated with intracervical or intrauterine insemination, with or without superovulation for unexplained or male-factor infertility. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized superovulation and intrauterine insemination trial. Academic medical centers. Treatment continued for four cycles unless pregnancy was achieved. Out of 932 couples randomized to four treatment groups, 664 couples who had completed the lifestyle questionnaires were assessed for occurrence of pregnancy and live birth. Pregnancy and live birth. The pregnancy and live birth rates were significantly higher in couples in which the female partners reported that they had consumed coffee or tea in the past or drank alcoholic beverages in the past (past users) compared with those who had never consumed coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages. Past users also had significantly higher pregnancy and live birth rates than those currently consuming coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages. Demographic, occupational exposure, and other lifestyle factors were not significant. Couples in which the female partners drank coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages in the past had higher pregnancy and live birth rates compared with never or current users. When discontinuing these habits, they might have made other lifestyle changes to improve the pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  14. Estrous cycle characterisation and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Yoshioka, M; Jensen, E; O'Brien, J K; Katsumata, E; Gili, C; McBain, J F; Sweeney, J; Monfort, S L

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were: (i) to determine the excretory dynamics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog (altrenogest) on reproductive hormone excretion; (iii) to correlate follicular growth and ovulation (as determined by transabdominal ultrasound) to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; (iv) examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and (v) to develop an intrauterine insemination technique. Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous cycles (2 consecutive cycles) and nine post altrenogest cycles in ten females, estrous cycles were found to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal phase, respectively. Peak estrogen conjugates (EC; 5.4+/-3.8 ng/mg creatinine (Cr)) occurred 8 h prior to the LH surge (70.9+/-115.7 ng/mg Cr). The time of ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, occurred 32.1+/-8.9 h and 24.3+/-7.0 h after the onset of the LH surge and LH peak, respectively. Mean preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference were 2.1+/-0.5 cm and 6.5+/-1.5 cm, respectively. Of the 27 estrous synchronisation attempts, 13 resulted in an ovulatory cycle, with ovulation occurring 21 days post-altrenogest treatment. Intrauterine (4 of 5) and intracornual (1 of 3) inseminations conducted across eight estrous cycles resulted in five pregnancies (63%), one pregnancy resulted from the use of liquid stored semen, whereas four were achieved using cryopreserved semen. These data provide new information on female bottlenose dolphin reproductive physiology, and demonstrate that the combination of endocrine monitoring and serial ultrasonography contributed to successful AI

  15. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  16. Hysteroscopic Management Of Intrauterin Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Dikmen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of preoperative and postoperative outcomes of patients that were performed hysterescopic intrauterine adhesiolysis. Material and method: We reviewed 24 patients that underwent hysterescopy with the complaints of amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, recurrent pregnancy loss between 2004-2008. The most complaints of patients were infertilty amenorrhea. Results: Adhesions occurs mainly as a result of trauma to the gravid uterine cavity in 14 patients. When classifying patients with their intrauterine adhesions, Grade 3 was the most frequently seen. Adhesiolisis was performed with hysteresopic scissors in all patients. In postoperative period following synechiolysis, 10 patients were treated with estrogen and progestogen, 11 of them used intrauterine device with estrogen and progestogen therapy, foley catheter was used in 3 patients. Hysterescopy was performed in 5 patients for second time because of adhesion suspicions. The re-adhesiolysis performed to 3 patients because of determined to mild adhesion. Conclusion: After hysterescopic adhesiolysis, all patients with the complaint of amenorrhea had regular menstruation. Pregnancy after treatment occured in 4 patients but live birth rate was 75%.

  17. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  18. Predictors of Pregnancy and Live Birth in Couples with Unexplained or Male-factor Infertility after Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Factor-Litvak, Pamela; Carson, Sandra A.; Guzick, David S.; Santoro, Nanette; Diamond, Michael P.; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for pregnancy outcomes in couples treated with intracervical or intrauterine insemination, with or without superovulation for unexplained or male-factor infertility. The treatment continued for four cycles unless pregnancy was achieved. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized superovulation and intrauterine insemination trial. Setting Academic medical centers. Intervention(s) None. Patients Out of 932 couples randomized to four treatment groups, 664 couples who had completed the lifestyle questionnaires were assessed for occurrence of pregnancy and live birth. Main outcome measure(s) pregnancy and live birth. Results The pregnancy and live birth rates were significantly higher in couples in which the female partners reported that they had consumed coffee or tea in the past or drank alcoholic beverages in the past (past users) when compared to those who had never consumed coffee or tea (4.0, 1.6–10.2 for pregnancy; 3.1, 1.2–8.1 for live birth) or alcoholic beverages (1.9, 1.1–3.3 for pregnancy; 2.1, 1.2–3.7 for live birth) (data are adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). Past users also had significantly higher pregnancy and live birth rates than those who were currently consuming coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages. Demographic, occupational exposures and other lifestyle factors were not significant. Conclusion(s) Couples in which the female partners drank coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages in the past had higher pregnancy and live birth rates when compared to never or current users. When discontinuing these habits, they might have made other lifestyle changes to improve the pregnancy outcome. PMID:22270557

  19. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Salma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs. All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA.

  20. Successful Intrauterine Pregnancy following salpingostomy; Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by salpingostomy, after which she had spontaneous abortion of the associated intrauterine pregnancy. Result: Initial marital disharmony, followed by an uneventful intrauterine pregnancy carried to term with caesarean delivery of a live female baby. Conclusion: In well-selected cases, conservative tubal surgeries should be ...

  1. Strategies in intrauterine growth restriction at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Kim Esther

    2012-01-01

    To establish consensus and to collect evidence on the best management policy in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, the DIGITAT-trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term) was designed. The aim of the DIGITAT study was to compare the effect of induction of

  2. Effectiveness of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin in dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, N; Bouchard, E; DesCôteaux, L; Lefebvre, R C

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of cephapirin intrauterine treatment preceding a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharges (PVDs). Holstein dairy cows (n = 1247) from 18 herds were enrolled in a controlled randomized clinical trial. At 34 days in milk (DIM; ±7 days), cows had a genital examination (transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy, and uterine bacteriology). They were randomly assigned to either the control group (CONT, no treatment) or the treatment group (CEPH) consisting of 1 intrauterine infusion of 500-mg cephapirin benzathine (RCL) (Metricure, Merck Animal Health, Montreal, Canada) regardless of the uterine health status. All cows were systematically enrolled in a presynch-ovsynch protocol for the first insemination. A second genital examination was made 2 weeks later. Cows that received any systemic or local antibiotics 10 days prior sampling to the end of the synchronization protocol were excluded from the study. Reproductive data of cows were collected for at least 300 DIM, entered in a databank, and validated (health record management software, DSAHR). Pregnancy diagnosis was done by transrectal palpation at the routinely scheduled veterinarian visits. On the basis of the highest sum of sensibility and specificity for pregnancy status at 120 DIM, the optimal cutoff for vaginal discharge score was determined as the presence of cloudy discharge with or without purulent material (PVD+, score 2). With a prevalence of 21.6% at 34 DIM, PVD+ was detrimental to the first-service conception rate (FSCR; PVD+: 26 ± 5%; PVD-: 40 ± 3%; P = 0.02). The negative effect of PVD+ was indicated by a hazard ratio of 0.72 (chi-square = 8.58; P < 0.01; 95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.91). Treatment with cephapirin was associated with a significant improvement of the FSCR in PVD+ cows (PVD+ CEPH: 36 ± 5%, PVD+ CONT: 23 ± 5%; P < 0.05), although it did not produce a

  3. IVF with planned single-embryo transfer versus IUI with ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained subfertility: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rumste, Minouche M E; Custers, Inge M; van Wely, Madelon; Koks, Carolien A; van Weering, Hans G I; Beckers, Nicole G M; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Hompes, Peter G A; Mochtar, Monique H; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-03-01

    Couples with unexplained subfertility are often treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) with ovarian stimulation, which carries the risk of multiple pregnancies. An explorative randomized controlled trial was performed comparing one cycle of IVF with elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis for natural conception, to assess the economic burden of the treatment modalities. The main outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rates and costs. This study randomly assigned 58 couples to IVF-eSET and 58 couples to IUI-ovarian stimulation. The ongoing pregnancy rates were 24% in with IVF-eSET versus 21% with IUI-ovarian stimulation, with two and three multiple pregnancies, respectively. The mean cost per included couple was significantly different: €2781 with IVF-eSET and €1876 with IUI-ovarian stimulation (Pcosts per ongoing pregnancy were €2456 for IVF-eSET. In couples with unexplained subfertility, one cycle of IVF-eSET cost an additional €900 per couple compared with three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation, for no increase in ongoing pregnancy rates or decrease in multiple pregnancies. When IVF-eSET results in higher ongoing pregnancy rates, IVF would be the preferred treatment. Couples that have been trying to conceive unsuccessfully are often treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) and medication to improve egg production (ovarian stimulation). This treatment carries the risk of multiple pregnancies like twins. We performed an explorative study among those couples that had a poor prognosis for natural conception. One cycle of IVF with transfer of one selected embryo (elective single-embryo transfer, eSET) was compared with three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of both treatments. The Main outcome measures were number of good pregnancies above 12weeks and costs. We randomly assigned 58

  4. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  6. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  7. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3-5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion to treat different reproductive disorders.

  8. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  9. Factors Important to the Efficiency of Artificial Insemination in Single-Ovulating and Superovulated Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    To identify factors important to the efficiency of artificial insemination in cattle, four studies were conducted. In the first study, the addition of cream to the inseminate was used in an attempt to increase accessory sperm number. On d 6 after insemination, 60 embryos were evaluated. The addition of cream to the inseminate had no effect on accessory sperm number. In the second study, cryopreserved semen of a marked bull (spermatozoa exhibiting a semi-flattened anterior head) was matched wi...

  10. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  11. Comparison of genital microbial isolates between intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:In the past, the use of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), in particular, Dalkon Shield was found to be associated with ... of these residing in Asia. .... to air dry, labeled and transferred to the laboratory for Gram staining.

  12. Artificial insemination practice in Nigeria – review of the dangers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented cattle artificial insemination (AI) in Nigeria dated back to 1949. Other recorded cattle artificial insemination in the country could be traced to when the Federal Government of Nigeria under the auspices of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, established Artificial Insemination Unit at the National Animal ...

  13. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  14. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States

  15. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

  17. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J

    1985-05-01

    Among the advantages of IUDs are the device's high continuation rate, the lack of systemic side effects, and the absence of a need for continual motivation to practice contraception. The effectiveness of plastic IUDs is directly proportional to their surface area, but the degree of excessive bleeding experienced is inversely related to device size. Thus, devices represent a compromise between large size for effectiveness and small size for acceptability. The optimum time to fit an IUD is during the 1st hald of the menstrual cycle. Absolute contraindications to IUD use include the presence of active pelvic inflammatory disease, undiagnosed irregular bleeding, a history of ectopic pregnancy or tubal surgery, and a distorted uteine cavity. Failure rates associated with IUD use range from 2-3% in the 1st year and then decrease. Since the main mechanism of action appears to be production of a sterile inflammatory reaction in the uterine cavity, the IUD prevents intrauterine pregnancy more effectively than ectopic pregnancy. Nonetheless, there is little evidence to suggest that IUD use actually increases the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Resumption of fertility after IUD removal is not delayed. There is not need to change inert plastic IUDs in women who remain symptom free. The copper devices should be changed every 3-4 years. A search is under way for antifertility agents that can be incorporated into the device to reduce side effects. In general, the IUD is most suitable for older, parous women.

  18. Development and evaluation of deep intra-uterine artificial insemination using cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Montano, G A; Steinman, K J; Smolensky, P; Sweeney, J; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2013-06-01

    Since its development in bottlenose dolphins, widespread application of AI with sex-selected, frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa has been limited by the significant expense of the sorting process. Reducing the total number of progressively motile sperm (PMS) required for an AI would reduce the sorting cost. As such, this research compared the efficacy of small-dose deep uterine AI with sexed FT spermatozoa (SEXED-SMALL; ~50×10(6)PMS, n=20), to a moderate dose deposited mid-horn (SEXED-STD, ~200×10(6)PMS; n=20), and a large dose of FT non-sexed spermatozoa deposited in the uterine body (NONSEXED-LARGE, 660×10(6)PMS, n=9). Ten of the 11 calves resulting from use of sexed spermatozoa were of the predetermined sex. Similar rates of conception (NONSEXED-LARGE: 78%, SEXED-STD: 60%, SEXED-SMALL: 57%) and total pregnancy loss (TPL: NONSEXED-LARGE: 28.6%; SEXED-STD: 41.0%; SEXED-SMALL: 63.6%) were observed across groups, but early pregnancy loss (EPL,

  19. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species.

  20. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  1. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application. User manual. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Podesta, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA-Asia) is a computer application to store and analyze information from AI Services (farms, females, inseminated, semen, estrus characteristics, inseminator and pregnancy diagnosis data). The need for such an application arose during a consultancy undertaken by the author for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) under the framework of its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) which is implementing a project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency' (RAS/5/035). The detailed specifications for the application were determined through a Task Force Meeting of National Consultants from five RCA Member States, organized by the IAEA and held in Sri Lanka in April 2001. The application has been developed in MS Access 2000 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.0. However, it can run as a stand-alone application through its own executable files. It is based on screen forms for data entry or editing of information and command buttons. The structure of the data, the design of the application and VBA codes cannot be seen and cannot be modified by users. However, the designated administrator of AIDA-Asia in each country can customize it

  2. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H

    1991-01-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week...

  4. Intrauterine infection/inflammation during pregnancy and offspring brain damages: Possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golan Hava

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine infection is considered as one of the major maternal insults during pregnancy. Intrauterine infection during pregnancy could lead to brain damage of the developmental fetus and offspring. Effects on the fetal, newborn, and adult central nervous system (CNS may include signs of neurological problems, developmental abnormalities and delays, and intellectual deficits. However, the mechanisms or pathophysiology that leads to permanent brain damage during development are complex and not fully understood. This damage may affect morphogenic and behavioral phenotypes of the developed offspring, and that mice brain damage could be mediated through a final common pathway, which includes over-stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptor, over-production of vascularization/angiogenesis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors and apoptotic-inducing factors.

  5. Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical artery - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Umbilical cord thrombosis is related to greater fetal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is usually associated with umbilical cord abnormalities that lead to mechanical compression with consequent vascular ectasia. Its correct diagnosis and clinical management remains a challenge that has not yet been resolved. CASE REPORT: This study reports a case of umbilical artery thrombosis that occurred in the second half of a pregnancy. The umbilical cord was long, thin and overly twisted and the fetus presented severe intrauterine growth restriction. The clinical and histopathological findings from this case are described. CONCLUSIONS: This case report emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing and clinically managing abnormalities of intrauterine life with a high chance of perinatal complications.

  6. Effect of time of artificial insemination on embryo sex ratio in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h

  7. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  8. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  9. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  10. Intrauterine application of flavonoids in puerperal dairy cows: reproductive tract involution and fertility at high-altitude environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of postpartum intrauterine administration of flavonoids in order to hasten reproductive tract involution and to shorten the parturition-to-conception interval in dairy cows. A total of 40 Holstein cows (2nd-3rd lactation; BC: 3-3.5 were divided randomly into 4 groups [1 control group (T1 and 3 treatment groups (T2, T3 and T4]. Treatments consisted of one single intrauterine administration on day 10 postpartum of 90 mg (T2, 180 mg (T3 and 360 mg (T4 of ultrapure flavonoids (20 ml. Ultrasonographic measurements of different reproductive tract anatomical structures were scored from cervix (length, width and thickness, uterus (diameter and thickness and ovaries (length and width during the postpartum period (day 10, 15 and 21 postpartum. As fertility parameters rate of return to estrus, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval were scored as well. Pregnancy status was performed using ultrasonography (day 35 post-insemination. There were multiple differences (p 0.05 in ovarian dimensions from T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups during the postpartum period after ultrasonographic analysis at day 10, 15 and 21. Return to estrus index, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval differed between T1 and T2-T3-T4 groups (p 0.05. In conclusion, intrauterine application of flavonoids enhanced the cervical and uterine involution. Finally, although no significant differences among treatments, theintrauterine application of flavonoids improved the return to estrus index, pregnancy rate and calving-to-conception interval compared with non-treated dairy cows.

  11. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  12. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  13. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  14. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  15. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  16. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  17. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  18. Feeling the ovaries prior to insemination. Clinical implications for improving the fertility of the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2011-07-01

    During the periovulatory period in dairy cattle, the largest ovarian follicle can be felt by palpation per rectum as a firm/soft follicle (young preovulatory follicle), a very soft follicle separating it from the remainder of the ovary (mature preovulatory follicle), or an evacuated follicle (follicle associated with ovulation). Because any one of these three follicle types may be present at the time of artificial insemination, the objective of this study was to identify possible differences between the effects of a firm/soft, very soft, or evacuated ovarian follicle on fertility. Out of a study sample of 2365 inseminations, very soft, firm/soft, and evacuated follicles were recorded in 1689 (71%), 593 (25%), and 83 (3.5%) inseminations, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated no significant effects of largest follicle type, vaginal discharge, season, days in milk, parity, synchronized or natural estrus, and semen-providing bull on the pregnancy rate. The only variable included in the final logistic regression model was the interaction season-follicle type. This interaction determined that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased significantly by factors of 0.86 or 0.82 in cows with a firm/soft follicle inseminated during the cool or warm period, respectively, and by a factor of 0.09 in cows with evacuated follicles inseminated during the warm period, using as reference cows with a very soft follicle inseminated during the cool period (yielding the highest pregnancy rate). As an overall conclusion, the state of the periovulatory follicle at insemination was clearly related to fertility and masked the effects of factors commonly affecting fertility such as parity, days in milk at AI and inseminating bull. More importantly they suggest that by including ovarian follicle checks in artificial insemination routines, the success of this procedure could be improved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  20. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  1. Intrauterine fetal death and risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Dobbin, Joanna; McCallion, Oliver; Eskild, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Vaginal delivery is recommended after intrauterine fetal death. However, little is known about the risk of shoulder dystocia in these deliveries. We studied whether intrauterine fetal death increases the risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery. In this population-based register study using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, we included all singleton pregnancies with vaginal delivery of offspring in cephalic presentation in Norway during the period 1967-2012 (n = 2 266 118). Risk of shoulder dystocia was estimated as absolute risk (%) and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Adjustment was made for offspring birthweight (in grams). We performed sub-analyses within categories of birthweight (dystocia occurred in 1.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 0.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia occurred in 14.6% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 2.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia occurred in 57.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and 9.6% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia at delivery, and the absolute risk of shoulder dystocia was particularly high if offspring birthweight was high and the mother had diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine. Contraceptive Device. Abdullahi Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi Ogunleye. INTRODUCTION. Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are acceptable means of contraception world over.[1-4] There have been reports of its migration to other adjourning sites ...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentr...

  4. Is IVF-served two different ways-more cost-effective than IUI with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bensdorp, A. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Koks, C.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P.; Broekmans, F. J.; Verhoeve, H. R.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D. A.; van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W. M.; Groen, H.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the cost-effectiveness of in vitro fertilization(IVF) with conventional ovarian stimulation, single embryotransfer (SET) and subsequent cryocycles or IVF in a modified natural cycle (MNC) compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

  5. Is IVF-served two different ways-more cost-effective than IUI with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bensdorp, A. J.; Bossuyt, P. M M; Koks, C.; Oosterhuis, G. J E; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P.; Broekmans, F. J.; Verhoeve, H. R.; De Bruin, J. P.; Van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D A; Van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W M; Groen, H.; Eijkemans, M. J C; Van Der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W J; Van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the cost-effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with conventional ovarian stimulation, single embryo transfer (SET) and subsequent cryocycles or IVF in a modified natural cycle (MNC) compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

  6. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: III. Comparing fixed-time artificial insemination to split-time artificial insemination with delayed administration of GnRH in postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows following split-time (STAI) or fixed-time (FTAI) artificial insemination. Estrus was synchronized for 671 cows at seven locations following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg prostaglandin F 2α [PG] at CIDR removal on d 7). Cows were assigned to treatments that were balanced across locations based on age, body condition score, and days postpartum at the time treatments were initiated. All cows in treatment 1 (n = 333; FTAI) were inseminated at 66 h after PG and GnRH was administered concurrent with insemination regardless of estrus expression. For cows in treatment 2 (n = 338; STAI), inseminations were performed at 66 or 90 h after PG, and estrous status was recorded at these times. Cows in the STAI treatment that exhibited estrus by 66 h were inseminated at that time and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 h until 90 h after PG for cows that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 h. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 h only to cows failing to exhibit estrus. Estrus expression that occurred during the 24 h delay period among cows assigned to the STAI treatment increased the total proportion of cows that expressed estrus prior to insemination (1 = 60%; 2 = 86%; P cows inseminated at 66 h that exhibited estrus did not differ between treatments (1 = 58%; 2 = 58%; P = 0.93); however, pregnancy rates among non-estrous cows at 66 h were improved (1 = 35%; 2 = 51%; P = 0.01) among cows assigned to the STAI treatment when insemination was postponed by 24 h. Consequently, total AI pregnancy rate tended to be higher for cows that received STAI (1 = 49%; 2 = 56%; P = 0.06). In summary, following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, total estrous response increased and pregnancy rates resulting from AI

  7. Intrauterine hypoxia: clinical consequences and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson LP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Loren P Thompson,1 Sarah Crimmins,1 Bhanu P Telugu,2 Shifa Turan1 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Abstract: Intrauterine hypoxia is a significant clinical challenge in obstetrics that affects both the pregnant mother and fetus. Intrauterine hypoxia can occur in pregnant women living at high altitude and/or with cardiovascular disease. In addition, placental hypoxia can be generated by altered placental development and spiral artery remodeling leading to placental insufficiency and dysfunction. Both conditions can impact normal maternal cardiovascular homeostasis leading to preeclampsia and/or impair transfer of O2/nutrient supply resulting in fetal growth restriction. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying altered placental vessel remodeling, maternal and fetal consequences, patient management, and potential future therapies for improving these conditions. Keywords: fetal growth restriction, oxidative stress, extravillous trophoblast invasion, Doppler ultrasound, pulsatility index, preeclampsia 

  8. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mellado; Laura Maricela Lara; Francisco Gerardo Veliz; María Ángeles de Santiago; Leonel Avendaño-Reyes; Cesar Meza-Herrera; José Eduardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services), raised under intense heat (mea...

  9. A retrospective study of artificial insemination of 251 mares using chilled and fixed time frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, C A M; Ravenhill, P J; Hepburn, R J; Shepherd, C H

    2008-09-01

    Historically, artificial insemination (AI) using frozen semen has been perceived to have poorer success rates and be more labour intensive than using chilled semen. A retrospective study was therefore conducted to compare the conception rate achieved by AI between chilled and frozen semen, using fixed time insemination protocols over 2 breeding seasons. Artificial insemination using chilled semen produces a higher conception rate than that achieved with frozen semen. Mares (n = 251) were inseminated with either chilled (n = 112) or frozen (n = 139) semen in the 2006 and 2007 northern hemisphere breeding season. Per rectum ultrasonography of the mare's reproductive tract determined the timing of insemination, and deslorelin acetate was used to induce ovulation. Chilled semen insemination was performed using a single preovulatory dose delivered into the uterine body. Frozen semen was administered as 2 doses (pre- and post ovulation) using a deep uterine insemination technique. Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically at 15 days post insemination. Conception rates were compared using a Chi-squared test. Insemination with frozen semen produced a significantly (P = 0.022) higher seasonal conception rate (82.0%) than that achieved with chilled semen (69.6%). Insemination with frozen semen can achieve conception rates equal to those with chilled semen, enabling the mare owner a greater selection of stallions.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuation of copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Hofler, Lisa G; Modest, Anna M; Harvey, Lara F B; Wu, Lily H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-07-01

    Studies conflict on whether the duration of use of the copper intrauterine device is longer than that of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and whether women who continue using intrauterine devices differ from those who discontinue. We sought to assess continuation rates and performance of levonorgestrel intrauterine devices compared with copper intrauterine devices over a 5-year period. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1164 individuals who underwent intrauterine device placement at an urban academic medical center. The analysis focused on a comparison of continuation rates between those using levonorgestrel intrauterine device and copper intrauterine device, factors associated with discontinuation, and intrauterine device performance. We assessed the differences in continuation at discrete time points, pregnancy, and expulsion rates using χ 2 tests and calculated hazard ratios using a multivariable Cox model. Of 1164 women who underwent contraceptive intrauterine device insertion, 956 had follow-up data available. At 2 years, 64.9% of levonorgestrel intrauterine device users continued their device, compared with 57.7% of copper intrauterine device users (P = .11). At 4 years, continuation rates were 45.1% for levonorgestrel intrauterine device and 32.6% for copper intrauterine device (P 4 years was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.93) and >5 years was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) after adjusting for race, age, parity, and education. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely to experience expulsion (10.2% copper intrauterine device vs 4.9% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P < .01) over the study period and to become pregnant in the first year of use (1.6% copper intrauterine device vs 0.1% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P < .01). We found a difference in continuation rates between levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine device users at 4 years but not at 5 years. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely

  12. Intrauterine temperature during intrapartum amnioinfusion: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, T M; Schaecher, C; Sadovsky, Y; Gross, G

    2012-07-01

    To determine the influence of routine intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) on intrauterine temperature. Prospective observational study. Maternity unit, Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA. Forty women with singleton gestations and an indication for intrapartum intrauterine pressure catheter placement. Using a temperature probe, we digitally recorded intrauterine temperature every 10 minutes during labour. Amnioinfusion was administered according to a standard protocol using saline equilibrated to the ambient temperature. Mean intrauterine temperature during labour. Participants were monitored for a mean of 280 minutes (range 20-820). A total of 164 intrauterine temperature readings in the AI cohort were compared with 797 control measurements. When compared with controls, we observed a lower intrauterine temperature in the AI cohort (36.4 versus 37.4°C, P<0.01). More measurements in the AI cohort were recorded in the presence of intrapartum fever (40% versus 30%). A subgroup analysis of measurements recorded in afebrile parturients revealed an even greater effect of AI (1.5°C decrease, 37.3 versus 35.8°C, P<0.01). Routine intrapartum AI using saline equilibrated to a mean ambient temperature of 25.0°C reduces intrauterine temperature and may thereby affect fetal core temperature. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  13. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population.

  15. Investigation of knowledge level about intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Dagdeviren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate a level of knowledge about intrauterine device between females who were examined in our gynecology department. Metods: The study was conducted at Gynecology and Obstetric Department of Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital between August 2012-November 2012. The study were included 189 patients who accepted to participate. For collecting data; a form of questionnaire was used which has gived information about the intrauterine device (IUD and status of socio-demographic characteristics of the patients. The questionnaire were administered by the researchers in a separate room as a face-to-face interviews. SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA program was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the women in the study was 31.1 ± 9.9. 44.7% of women were not using any modern contraceptive method. IUD utilization rate was 3.2%. 1.6% of women had never heard IUD, %76.1 women heard copper IUD. 42% of respondents gave the wrong answer to IUD inserted into ovaries. Conclusion: The IUD which is a cheap, does not require patient compliance, and has high efficacy. In this study, we were not found a statisfically significant difference for answers to questions in patients with different socio-demographic characteristics. The main result of the study was; among all parcipitians ,even health care workers there was an important disability about level of knowledge for IUD. It is great importance the whole society, including health professionals must train about family planning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 440-445

  16. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  17. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  18. Intrauterine programming mechanism for hypercholesterolemia in prenatal caffeine-exposed female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Luo, Hanwen W; Hu, Wen; Hu, Shuwei W; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Guihua H; Zhang, Li; Yu, Hong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin B; Wang, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Clinical and animal studies have indicated that hypercholesterolemia and its associated diseases have intrauterine developmental origins. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) led to fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids (GCs) and increased serum total cholesterol levels in adult rat offspring. This study further confirms the intrauterine programming of PCE-induced hypercholesterolemia in female adult rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD)9 to 20. Female rat offspring were euthanized at GD20 and postnatal wk 12; several adult rat offspring were additionally subjected to ice-water swimming stimulation to induce chronic stress prior to death. The effects of GCs on cholesterol metabolism and epigenetic regulation were verified using the L02 cell line. The results showed that PCE induced hypercholesterolemia in adult offspring, which manifested as significantly higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as higher ratios of LDL-C/HDL cholesterol. We further found that the cholesterol levels were increased in fetal livers but were decreased in fetal blood, accompanied by increased maternal blood cholesterol levels and reduced placental cholesterol transport. Furthermore, analysis of PCE offspring in the uterus and in a postnatal basal/chronic stress state and the results of in vitro experiments showed that hepatic cholesterol metabolism underwent GC-dependent changes and was associated with cholesterol synthase via abnormalities in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) histone acetylation. We concluded that, to compensate for intrauterine placentally derived decreases in fetal blood cholesterol levels, high intrauterine GC levels activated fetal hepatic CCAAT enhancer binding protein α signaling and down-regulated Sirtuin1 expression, which mediated the high levels of histone acetylation ( via H3K9

  19. [Associated factors in newborns with intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Chagoyán, Oscar C; Vega-Franco, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk factors implicated in the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) of neonates born in a social security institution. Case controls design study in 376 neonates: 188 with IUGR (weight RCIU in the population.

  20. profile of intrauterine contraceptive device acceptors at the university

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Conclusion: The acceptors of intrauterine contraceptive devices in our center were ... Conclusion: Les accepteurs de la contraception de substances médicamentenses dans notre centre .... sterilization due to cultural reasons is very low,13 the.

  1. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception with subsequent intestinal atresia in a newborn. Viet H. Le, Paul A. Perry, Allyson L. Hale, Robert L. Gates, John C. Chandler ...

  2. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased autophagy in placentas of intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ho Hung

    Full Text Available Unexplained intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR may be a consequence of placental insufficiency; however, its etiology is not fully understood. We surmised that defective placentation in IUGR dysregulates cellular bioenergic homeostasis, leading to increased autophagy in the villous trophoblast. The aims of this work were (1 to compare the differences in autophagy, p53 expression, and apoptosis between placentas of women with normal or IUGR pregnancies; (2 to study the effects of hypoxia and the role of p53 in regulating trophoblast autophagy; and (3 to investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in hypoxic trophoblasts.Compared with normal pregnant women, women with IUGR had higher placental levels of autophagy-related proteins LC3B-II, beclin-1, and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM, with increased p53 and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30. Furthermore, cytotrophoblasts cultured under hypoxia (2% oxygen in the presence or absence of nutlin-3 (a p53 activity stimulator had higher levels of LC3B-II, DRAM, and M30 proteins and increased Bax mRNA expression compared with controls cultured under standard conditions. In contrast, administration of pifithrin-α (a p53 activity inhibitor during hypoxia resulted in protein levels that were similar to those of the control groups. Moreover, cytotrophoblasts transfected with LC3B, beclin-1, or DRAM siRNA had higher levels of M30 compared with the controls under hypoxia. However, transfection with Bcl-2 or Bax siRNA did not cause any significant change in the levels of LC3B-II in hypoxic cytotrophoblasts.Together, these results suggest that there is a crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in IUGR and that p53 plays a pivotal and complex role in regulating trophoblast cell turnover in response to hypoxic stress.

  4. Biostimulation and reproductive performance of artificially inseminated rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. EL-Azzazi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulation is a non-hormonal and practical technique that has not yet been widely utilised when applied immediately before insemination to improve reproductive efficiency in livestock species. This study was conducted to determine the influence of short-term male biostimulation on behavioural and reproductive performance of inseminated rabbit does. A total of 142 female New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Females were either exposed to male odour (Odour group or an adult aproned male (Male group, while the remaining does that were neither exposed to the male odour nor the adult male are considered the control group. All females were inseminated after the 2 h exposure session. Conception rates were determined by abdominal palpation 12 d after insemination. The results showed that conception rate of the male odour group (79.59% was greater than that of male presence group (76.09% and that of the control group (68.09%. Moreover, biostimulated does showed significant behavioural activities during the 2 h exposure session compared to the control group. Although no significant differences were recognised, litter size at birth and at weaning was slightly increased in biostimulated compared to control females. Nor were there any significant difference in serum oestradiol concentrations between treated groups. Conclusively, short-term 2 h biostimulation of rabbit does resulted in the appearance of various behavioural responses followed by differences in conception rates between groups after routine artificial insemination.

  5. Review: Neuroinflammation in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixey, Julie A; Chand, Kirat K; Colditz, Paul B; Bjorkman, S Tracey

    2017-06-01

    Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses. Few studies have focused on how growth restriction interferes with normal brain development in the IUGR neonate but recent studies in growth restricted animal models demonstrate increased neuroinflammation. This review describes the role of neuroinflammation in the progression of brain injury in growth restricted neonates. Identifying the mediators responsible for alterations in brain development in the IUGR infant is key to prevention and treatment of brain injury in these infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Krishna, Rao; Vishnu Bhat, B

    2017-07-10

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pregnancy specific disease characterized by decreased growth rate of fetus than the normal growth potential at particular gestational age. In the current scenario it is a leading cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the last decade exhilarating experimental studies from several laboratories have provided fascinating proof for comprehension of molecular basis of IUGR. Atypical expression of enzymes governed by TGFβ causes the placental apoptosis and altered expression of TGFβ due to hyper alimentation causes impairment of lung function. Crosstalk of cAMP with protein kinases plays a prominent role in the regulation of cortisol levels. Increasing levels of NOD1 proteins leads to development of IUGR by increasing the levels of inflammatory mediators. Increase in leptin synthesis in placental trophoblast cells is associated with IUGR. In this review, we emphasize on the regulatory mechanisms of IUGR and its associated diseases. They may help improve the in-utero fetal growth and provide a better therapeutic intervention for prevention and treatment of IUGR.

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  8. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  9. Effects of intrauterine contraception on the vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, Christine M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Wahl, Heather N; Sack, Daniel E; Young, Vincent B; Bell, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    There have been conflicting reports of altered vaginal microbiota and infection susceptibility associated with contraception use. The objectives of this study were to determine if intrauterine contraception altered the vaginal microbiota and to compare the effects of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microbiota. DNA was isolated from the vaginal swab samples of 76 women using Cu-IUD (n=36) or LNG-IUS (n=40) collected prior to insertion of intrauterine contraception (baseline) and at 6 months. A third swab from approximately 12 months following insertion was available for 69 (Cu-IUD, n=33; LNG-IUS, n=36) of these women. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene was amplified from the vaginal swab DNA and sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and analyzed using the software package mothur to compare the structure and dynamics of the vaginal bacterial communities. The vaginal microbiota from individuals in this study clustered into 3 major vaginal bacterial community types: one dominated by Lactobacillus iners, one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and one community type that was not dominated by a single Lactobacillus species. Changes in the vaginal bacterial community composition were not associated with the use of Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS. Additionally, we did not observe a clear difference in vaginal microbiota stability with Cu-IUD versus LNG-IUS use. Although the vaginal microbiota can be highly dynamic, alterations in the community associated with the use of intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) were not detected over 12 months. We found no evidence that intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) altered the vaginal microbiota composition. Therefore, the use of intrauterine contraception is unlikely to shift the composition of the vaginal microbiota such that infection susceptibility is altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  11. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  12. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  13. XY sperm separation and use in artificial insemination and other ARTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran, David G

    2007-01-01

    Many tens of thousands of calves resulting from artificial insemination (AI) have been born worldwide after XY sperm separation and commercial production is underway in several countries. Accuracy of sex selection is some 90% and can be achieved both in research facilities and at AI studs in rural locations. Most facilities sort X- sperm which have also be utilised for superovulation and embryo transfer projects and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as well as AI. Sort rates of some 15 x 10(6) sperm/h are currently achievable and are used for low dose insemination, generally at 2 x 10(6) frozen sperm per dose, at a minimum of 35% post thaw motility. Pregnancy rates are some 70% to 80% of normal "high" dose unsexed inseminates. Good herd management is essential for high pregnancy rates with sexed sperm. In addition to cattle, offspring of predetermined sex have been born in the human, sheep, pig, horse, rabbit, elk, buffalo, cat and dolphin. Each species has its own challenge with regard to sperm handling and insemination procedure. In pigs, horses and sheep, the available dose of sexed sperm is very considerably lower than that which is used for conventional AI and special approaches have been devised for each species. In the pig a flexible catheter has been used to deliver a small dose of semen as close to the site of ovulation as possible. In the horse, hysteroscopic insemination at the utero tubal junction has resulted in fertilisation and, in the sheep, laparoscopic insemination into the uterus is the standard procedure for both sexed and unsexed sperm. Further advances in the efficiency of sorting together with improvements in sperm handling should result in acceptable pregnancy rates in these species.

  14. THE IMPACT OF HEPARIN IMPLEMENTER (GAG IN THE RABBIT INSEMINATION DOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of implementer heparin in insemination dose in rabbits selected on reproductive parameters.The experiment was monitored reproductive parameters (conceptual relationship, the number of live-born pups per litter, the number of dead-born pups per litter, the number of live-born pups per inseminated does 156 does in the experimental group and 165 does in the control group. We used the ejaculate of synthetic broiler rabbit population with concentration of sperm 25-50 mil. / 0.5 ml / 1 ID. Heparin was added at a dose - 0.06 ml = 10 mg per 0.5 ml semen / 1 ID. Assessing selected reproductive parameters in does inseminated with insemination dose with the addition of heparin, we observed a higher conceptual proportion of 14.12 % in the experimental group compared to the control group. These differences did not show a statistically significant difference (χ 2 3.56-. The number of live-born pups per litter was 8.69 ± 4.10 pc in the experimental group and 8.41 ± 3.62 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of dead-born pups was recorded 0.74 pc in the experimental group and 0.76 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of live-born pups per litter per inseminated does we have seen improvement in favor of experimental group by 1.39 pc. This parameter was within each of experiments ranged from 0.91 to 1.66 pc live-born pups to inseminated does.

  15. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  16. Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service-sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic fertility evaluation based on conventional (nonsexed) inseminations from parities 1 through 5, was implemented by USDA in August 2008. Using insemination data from 2005 through 2009, the SCR procedure was applied separately for nulliparous heifer inse...

  17. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John

    2013-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an obstetrical complication, which by definition would screen in 10% of fetuses in the general population. The challenge is to identify the subset of pregnancies affected with pathological growth restriction in order to allow intervention that would decrease morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this guideline is to provide summary statements and recommendations and to establish a framework for screening, diagnosis, and management of pregnancies affected with IUGR. Affected pregnancies are compared with pregnancies in which the fetus is at an appropriate weight for its gestational age. History, physical examination, and laboratory investigations including biochemical markers and ultrasound characteristics of IUGR are reviewed, and a management strategy is suggested. Published literature in English was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in January 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, IUGR, low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase clinician recognition of IUGR and guide intervention where appropriate. Optimal long-term follow-up of neonates diagnosed as IUGR may improve their long-term health.

  18. Mechanisms of action of intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M E; Croxatto, H B; Bardin, C W

    1996-12-01

    The major effect of all intrauterine devices (IUD) is to induce a local inflammatory reaction in the endometrium whose cellular and humoral components are released into the uterine cavity. This inflammatory reaction has a variable effect on the reproductive strategy of the species studied. For example, this foreign body reaction can be localized within the uterus of rodents; and in farm animals it can have striking extrauterine effects. Thus, the action of IUDs in humans cannot be discerned from animals. In humans, copper ions released from Cu-IUDs enhance the inflammatory response and reach concentrations in the luminal fluids of the genital tract that are toxic for spermatozoa and embryos. In women using the IUD, the entire genital tract seems affected, at least in part, because of luminal transmission of the fluids that accumulates in the uterine lumen. This affects the function or viability of gametes, decreasing the rate of fertilization and lowering the chances of survival of any embryo that may be formed, even before it reaches the uterus. Studies on the recovery of eggs from women using IUDs and from women not using contraception show that embryos are formed in the tubes of IUD users at a much lower rate compared with nonusers. This is believed to be the major action of IUDs. Therefore, the common belief that the major mechanism of action of IUDs in women is through destruction of embryos in the uterus (i.e., abortion) is not supported by the available evidence. In Cu-IUD users, it is likely that few spermatozoa reach the distal segment of the fallopian tube, those that encounter an egg may be in poor condition. Thus, the few eggs that are fertilized have little chance for development and their possibility for survival in the altered tubal milieu become worse as they approach the uterine cavity.

  19. Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) parameters and their evolution during preparation as predictors of pregnancy in intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed donor semen cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréour, Thomas; Jean, Miguel; Mirallié, Sophie; Dubourdieu, Sophie; Barrière, Paul

    2010-04-01

    To study the potential of CASA parameters in frozen-thawed donor semen before and after preparation on silica gradient as predictors of pregnancy in IUI with donor semen cycles. CASA parameters were measured in thawed donor semen before and after preparation on a silica gradient in 132 couples undergoing 168 IUI cycles with donor semen. The evolution of these parameters throughout this process was calculated. The relationship with cycle outcome was then studied. Clinical pregnancy rate was 18.4% per cycle. CASA parameters on donor semen before or after preparation were not significantly different between pregnancy and failure groups. However, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) of spermatozoa improved in all cycles where pregnancy occurred, thus predicting pregnancy with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 20%. Even if CASA parameters do not seem to predict pregnancy in IUI with donor semen cycles, their evolution during the preparation process should be evaluated, especially for ALH. However, the link between ALH improvement during preparation process and pregnancy remains to be explored. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction versus expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction at term : randomised equivalence trial (DIGITAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, K. E.; Vijgen, S. M. C.; Bijlenga, D.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Bekedam, D. J.; Kwee, A.; van der Salm, P. C. M.; van Pampus, M. G.; Spaanderman, M. E. A.; de Boer, K.; Duvekot, J. J.; Bremer, H. A.; Hasaart, T. H. M.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; van Meir, C. A.; Willekes, C.; Wijnen, E. J.; Rijken, M.; le Cessie, S.; Roumen, F. J. M. E.; Thornton, J. G.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Design Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Setting Eight academic and 44

  1. Interventions for intrauterine resuscitation in suspected fetal distress during term labor : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Runnard Heimel, P.J.; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M.B.; Oei, G.

    IMPORTANCE: Intrauterine resuscitation techniques during term labor are commonly used in daily clinical practice. Evidence, however, to support the beneficial effect of intrauterine resuscitation techniques on fetal distress during labor is limited and sometimes contradictory. In contrast, some of

  2. Induction versus expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction at term: randomised equivalence trial (DIGITAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, K.E.; Vijgen, S.M.C.; Bijlenga, D.; van der Post, J.A.M.; Bekedam, D.J.; Kwee, A.; van der Salm, P.C.M.; van Pampus, M.G.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Boer, K.; Duvekot, J.J.; Bremer, H.A.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.M.; van Meir, C.A.; Willekes, C.; Wijnen, E.J.; Rijken, M.; le Cessie, S.; Roumen, F.J.M.E.; Thornton, J.G.; van Lith, J.M.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Scherjon, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Design Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Setting Eight academic and 44

  3. Hysteroscopic sterilization of patient with intrauterine device Mirena®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depes, Daniella De Batista; Pereira, Ana Maria Gomes; Yatabe, Salete; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubal sterilization is the definitive procedure most often used worldwide to control fecundity. Laparoscopic ligature is safe, but invasive and with possible surgical and anesthetic risks. The hysteroscopic approach enables tubal occlusion at outpatient's setting without the need of incisions or anesthesia. A microdevice (Essure®) is inserted directly into the tubes and its polyethelene fibers cause obstruction of tubes in about three months. During this period, it is recommended that patients continue the use of a temporary birth control method. Several women use the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, which is called in the market as Mirena®. This report evaluated the possibility of inserting Essure® without remove the intrauterine device; patient tolerance to the procedure was also assessed. The tubal device was successfully placed in the patient without the need to remove Mirena®. After three months the intrauterine device was removed with no intercurrent events. PMID:23579753

  4. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawroth F

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frank Nawroth,1 Andreas Tandler-Schneider,2 Wilma Bilger3 1Centre for Reproductive and Prenatal Medicine, Endocrinology and Osteology, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center for Reproductive Medicine, Fertility Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Medical Affairs, Fertility, Endocrinology and General Medicine, Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles 15 mm. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population. The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%, 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%, and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1% on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%, 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%, and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1% on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. Keywords: ovulation

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of Endometrial Scratching in Repeated Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) Failure Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Leena; Mishra, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was (1) “to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of endometrial scratching in repeated controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) failure cycles.” And (2) “to compare differences in pregnancy outcome by endometrial scratching in early (D2–D4) and late follicular phases (D7–D9) of the same stimulation cycle.” Materials and Methods: Women attending infertility clinic in a tertiary care center and who have two or more repeated COS failure cycles and planned for COS with intrauterine insemination (IUI) were included in the study which is a prospective parallel, interventional, single-blinded, randomized control study, in 1:1 allocation ratio. A total of 165 patients were recruited and randomly allocated into three groups: Group A (n = 55) underwent endometrial scratching on D2–D4 of the same COS cycle, Group B (n = 55) on D7–D9, and Group C (n = 55) no intervention done. All the patients underwent COS according to standard protocol followed by IUI. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was 12.73% (odds ratio [OR] =0.87 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.288–2.55, P = 1), 16.36% (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.40–3.23, P = 1), and 14.54%, respectively, in Group A, B, and C, respectively (P = 0.86), as per intention to treat analysis. Using Chi-square test, P value between Group A and B was 0.787, between Group A and C was 1.000, and between Group B and C was 1.000. As per protocol analysis, clinical pregnancy rate was 13.46% (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.27–2.5, P = 0.74), 19.57% (OR = 1.3 95%; CI = 0.45–3.73, P = 0.41), and 15.69%. Using Chi-square test, Pvalue between Group A and B was 0.588, between Group A and C was 0.967, and between Group B and C was 0.815. No abortions and multiple pregnancies occurred in either of the groups. Conclusion: The effect found was of good quantum in Group B as per protocol analysis which could be of clinical relevance if larger sample size would have been taken. Endometrial scratching is a cost

  6. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  7. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  8. [Factors influencing conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B A

    2005-04-01

    This review describes factors that affect conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Intervals of 7 days between GnRH and PGF2alpha, 48 hours to the second GnRH treatment and a further 16 to 20 hours to the timed insemination have been proven to be most effective. Conception rates (CR) increase as lactation progresses up to 100 days in milk. Primiparous cows have higher CR than older cows. Anovular cows at the start of the synchronization protocols have poor CR. These are highest for cows started in early dioestrus. While poor body condition and some post partum and post insemination health disorders have negative effects on the CR, a significant effect of postpartum chronic endometritis could not be demonstrated. High milk yield was also not shown to have a negative effect on CR in almost all studies, while the negative effect of heat stress on fertility is also found in Ovsynch cows. However, the negative effects of high milk yields and heat stress on AI submission rates are overcome by the timed insemination protocol.

  9. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  10. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  11. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  12. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  13. Studies on the causes of inefficiency in artificial insemination systems in dairy cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Rodriguez de Vinals, L.

    2001-01-01

    Information was obtained on reproductive efficiency and management from 17 dairy farms which use artificial insemination (AI) in Argentina. The methods included use of questionnaires, body condition scoring at calving and AI, measurement of progesterone in milk samples on day of AI (day 0), day 10-12 and day 22-24 by radioimmunoassay, and measurement of milk urea on day 0. The overall conception rate (OCR) from 504 inseminations was 41.5%. There was non-fertilization or early embryo death in 27.8% of cases and late embryo death in 10.4%. Three percent of inseminations were performed on pregnant animals, 8.2% with intermediate progesterone values (1.25-3.18 nmol/L) and more than 2% during anoestrus or with ovarian cysts. Calving season did not affect OCR, but first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher for cows calved during winter and bred in spring. Cows fed pastures and hay (P+H) had lower body condition at the time of AI than those fed pastures plus concentrates with or without hay. The P+H group showed delayed interval to first AI and conception, but higher FSCR. Both groups fed concentrates had higher milk urea that was related to lower OCR. Mean milk urea on the day of AI for cows that conceived was 43.81 ± 1.42 mg/100mL, statistically different from the 48.87 ± 1.58 mg/100mL for those that did not conceive (P<0.05). Inseminators formally trained for more than a month, employed on government farms and paid fixed salaries had better performances than those trained less than a month, employed on commercial farms and paid on the basis of inseminations or conceptions, respectively. OCR was also higher when cows were inseminated into the uterus, when uterine tone was slight, and mucus was clear, compared with those inseminated in the cervix, with marked uterine tone and without the presence of mucus, respectively. Semen of known good quality resulted in higher OCR than semen which was unexamined or without good information on its quality. However, 12

  14. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  15. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows II: strategies and factors affecting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, O G; Meneghetti, M; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, we evaluated the effects of temporary weaning (TW), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments on results of a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows. In Experiment 1, treatment with 400 IU eCG or with TW for 48 h consistently improved pregnancy rates (PRs) at TAI, but, in Experiment 2, FSH treatment was less effective than eCG or TW. In Experiment 3, the inclusion of eCG treatment in cows subjected to TW did not improve PRs. We concluded that TW or 400 IU eCG should be included in the TAI protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows to enhance fertility. In Experiment 4, we used records from heifers and cows treated with the proposed protocol during the 2006-2007 (n=27,195) and 2007-2008 (n=36,838) breeding seasons from multiple locations in Brazil to evaluate factors potentially affecting PRs. Overall PR at TAI was 49.6% (31,786 of 64,033). Pregnancy rate differed (Pcow group within farm, by breed (Bos indicus, 48.3% [26,123 of 54,145]; Bos taurus, 61.7% [3652 of 5922]; and crossbred Bos indicus x Bos taurus, 50.7% [2011 of 3966]), category (nulliparous, 39.6% [2095 of 5290]; suckled primiparous, 45.2% [3924 of 8677]; suckled multiparous, 51.8% [24,245 of 46,767]; and nonsuckled multiparous, 46.1% [1522 of 3299]), body condition score at TAI ( or =3.5, 52.7% [9419 of 17,881]). Days postpartum at beginning of protocol did not affect PR (30 to 60 d, 47.6% [4228 of 8881]; 61 to 90 d, 51.7% [16,325 to 31,572]; and 91 to 150 d, 50.8% [7616 to 14,991]; P>0.1). Pregnancy rate was also consistently affected (P<0.01) by sire (results ranging from 7.2% to 77.3%) and artificial insemination technician (results ranging from 15.1% to 81.8%).

  16. Reducing barriers to the use of the intrauterine contraceptive device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The use of the IUD as a LARC method is increasing in many developed and developing countries. New technology should .... Margules spiral(Gynecoil). Copper T (TCu200 ..... health benefit to an intrauterine system, not just an improvement in ...

  17. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifnan, F.; Jameel, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and to find out the place of fetal destructive procedures and cesarean section. All women were included in the present study who presented before the onset of labour pains, after intrauterine fetal death at 26 weeks or onward with singleton pregnancy. Assessment of maternal demographic characteristics, gestational age at fetal demise, delivery-IUFD interval, mode of delivery; vaginal with or without fetal destructive procedures/cesarean section and maternal complications were the main outcome measures. There were 1834 live birth and 63 deliveries with intrauterine fetal death. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 87.4% and cesarean section in 12.6% of the cases. Twelve (21%) of the vaginal deliveries were complicated by lower urogenital tract injuries in certain cases, whereas 75% (6/8) of patients delivered by cesarean section developed major postoperative complications like postpartum haemorrhage, shock, endometritis, peritonitis and wound dehiscence. No maternal death was identified. Rate of delivery with intrauterine fetal death was 34.3/1000 live-birth deliveries. (author)

  18. Intrauterine adhesions at the University of Maiduguri Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context; Menstrual abnormalities and infertility are leading gynaecological complaints which can be caused by intrauterine adhesion, a preventable condition. Hence, the need to know the common aetiological factors in our environment. Objective; To determine the mode of presentation, aetiological factors and outcome of ...

  19. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  20. Intravesical Migration of a Failed and Forgotten Intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a commonly utilized reversible contraceptive technique especially in the developing world. Though effective, it is not immune to complications. Migration of the device is a rare but serious complication which may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. We report a case of a 45yr old ...

  1. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non‑specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years ...

  2. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of a newborn with intrauterine intussusception of a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of the vascular malformation leading to ileal atresia. To our knowledge, this is the fifth case report of this phenomenon. In all cases, definitive management required ... dense collection of small bowel and a small rim of proximal.

  3. Patient knowledge about and intention to use the intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a highly effective and safe method of ... A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Pelonomi Tertiary Hospital. A total ... Overall qualitative knowledge was poor, even among those aware of the ..... Nine percent of the 53 women who had heard about the IUCD in the.

  4. Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about

  5. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...

  6. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...

  7. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  8. Intrauterine exposure to tobacco and executive functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Richardson, Mark A; Buchanan-Howland, Kathryn; Chen, Clara A; Cabral, Howard; Heeren, Timothy C; Liebschutz, Jane; Forman, Leah; Frank, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures. A prospective low-income birth cohort (51% male; 89% African American/Caribbean) was followed through late adolescence (16-18 years old). At birth, intrauterine exposures to cocaine and other substances (52% cocaine, 52% tobacco, 26% marijuana, 26% alcohol) were identified by meconium and/or urine assays, and/or maternal self-report. High school teachers knowledgeable about the student and unaware of study aims were asked to complete the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Teacher Form (BRIEF-TF) annually. Teachers completed at least one BRIEF-TF for 131 adolescents. Multivariable analyses included controls for: demographics; intrauterine cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol exposures; early childhood exposures to lead; and violence exposure from school-age to adolescence. IUTE was associated with less optimal BRIEF-TF Behavioral Regulation scores (p <0.05). Other intrauterine substance exposures did not predict less optimal BRIEF-TF scores, nor did exposures to violence, lead, nor adolescents' own substance use. IUTE is associated with offspring's less optimal EF. Prenatal counseling should emphasize abstinence from tobacco, as well as alcohol and illegal substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field

  10. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Jalvingh, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  11. Distribution pattern and migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the uterine cervix of sheep, following insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution pattern of ram sperma in the uterine cervix of inseminated sheep were determined using 131 I for labelling. Emphasis in these studies was laid on comparison between diluted native sperma and deep-frozen sperma. All results so far obtained suggested that the migration capacity of most of the ram sperms had been impaired by the freezing-melting process. The amount of deep-frozen sperms present in the cranial region of the uterine cervix, a few hours after insemination, was significantly below that of native sperms. The difference was equally high and significant between native and deep-frozen sperma regarding the presence of labelled sperma between caudal and cranial regions. Evidence was produced to unambiguous nest formation of inseminated sperma in the uterine cervix. These findings are followed by a discussion of the role played by the uterine cervix as a site of sperma selection and as sperma reservoir following insemination. (author)

  12. Efficacy of carprofen on conception rates in lactating dairy cows after subcutaneous or intrauterine administration at the time of breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Goetze, L

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation of the reproductive tract can cause inflammatory processes in the endometrium and release of cytokines and prostaglandins. It has been shown that PGF2α has direct negative effects on embryonic survival and development. Treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen lysinate, flunixin meglumine) might improve pregnancy rates after embryo transfer in recipient heifers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows when administered at the time of first-service artificial insemination (AI) based on the hypothesis that uterine manipulation during AI might be similarly intense compared with embryo transfer in its effect on prostaglandin release. A total of 970 cows (333 primiparous and 637 multiparous) from 17 Holstein dairy farms were enrolled. On the day of first AI, cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Cows of group 1 received 1.4 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of carprofen subcutaneously immediately after AI (SC group). In group 2, 1.4 mg/kg of BW of carprofen was administered into the uterus using a sterile disposable catheter 12 to 24 h after AI (IU group). Animals of group 3 remained as untreated controls. First AI conception rate was similar for the SC group (42.2%) compared with the untreated control group (45.1%). A binary logistic regression model for the odds of conception at first AI revealed a negative effect of an intrauterine administration of carprofen on conception rate (38.3%). Cows allocated to the IU group had a lower likelihood of being pregnant within 200 d in milk than cows in the control group. In summary, subcutaneous treatment with the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug carprofen at the time of AI did not influence conception rate, whereas an intrauterine administration of carprofen 12 to 24 h after first AI had a negative effect on first-service conception rate in lactating dairy cows

  13. The shift from biological to social fatherhood--counselling men and their partners considering donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Men and women are likely to suffer from infertility in similar ways, but gender differences account for different ways in revealing--and not revealing--this emotional pain. The following article is based on this understanding. It seeks to describe counselling tasks and interventions that support men and their partners considering donor insemination. This pre-treatment counselling comprises a range of issues, including the provision of medical and legal information, supporting the grieving process, managing the taboo and stigma surrounding donor insemination, supporting disclosure, and last but not least raising awareness of the needs of the future child. The aim of counselling is to explore the short- and long-term implications and thus facilitate the shift from biological to social fatherhood for men and their partners.

  14. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  15. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  16. Artificial insemination by donor (AID) and the use of surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J H; Brown, D W

    1984-07-01

    Today families are being created by such procedures as test tube fertilization, artificial insemination and surrogate parenting. In addition to traditional couples, moreover, single persons, gay couples and others are seeking to form family units. In the eagerness to produce an offspring there is often little thought given to the needs or the feelings of the child so produced. There is a need for sociomedical data as well as a more open approach in these situations.

  17. Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID) and the Use of Surrogate Mothers—Social and Psychological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.

    1984-01-01

    Today families are being created by such procedures as test tube fertilization, artificial insemination and surrogate parenting. In addition to traditional couples, moreover, single persons, gay couples and others are seeking to form family units. In the eagerness to produce an offspring there is often little thought given to the needs or the feelings of the child so produced. There is a need for sociomedical data as well as a more open approach in these situations.

  18. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  19. Probing the germline-dependence of epigenetic inheritance using artificial insemination in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, Johannes; von Werdt, Sarah; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a simple, noninvasive artificial insemination technique to study epigenetic germline inheritance in mice. This technique avoids interfering factors introduced by superovulation, surgery, in vitro culture or mating that can confound the transmission of acquired epigenetic information through the germline. Using a stress model, we demonstrate that our method is suited to test the causal involvement of the male germline in transmitting acquired information from father to offspring. PMID:29492284

  20. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E; Moreno, Juan F; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Lammoglia, Miguel A; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V; Esperón-Sumano, A Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  1. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alvarez-Gallardo

    Full Text Available A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs, specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2 to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS, of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB, Celosil® (PGF2α (Shering-Plough and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL. In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037. Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  2. The initial fertilizing capacity of longerm-stored liquid boar semen following pre- and postovulatory insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Lietmann, C; Lübbert Zur Lage, W; Bortolozzo, F P; Willmen, T; Petzoldt, R

    1994-01-01

    In pigs, high variation is seen in the duration of estrus and in the time of ovulation. This is one of a wide range of factors not related to semen quality, which possibly influences the results of field insemination trials. Experiment 1 (n=81 gilts) was performed to determine the influence of the time of ovulation on the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen stored up to 118 h. The objective of Experiment 2 (n=102 gilts) was to study the fertilizing potential of semen stored up to 120 h in 2 different extenders, Androhep and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), by means of postovulatory AI. Inseminations were performed 0 to 4 h after ovulation in order to standardize the trial conditions. Fertilization rates based on Day-2 to Day-4 embryos, and the number of accessory spermatozoa per zona pellucida did not differ between semen stored for 0 to 48 and 48 to 87 h in gilts ovulating within 12 after insemination (Experiment 1). Gilts with an interval of 12 to 24 h between AI and ovulation had lower fertility results using semen stored for more than 48 h. A further decrease was observed when semen storage exceeded 87 h in those gilts ovulating later than 24 h after insemination. The time of ovulation has to be considered as being a major factor of variation in the fertility results of AI trials. In Experiment 2, fertilization rates and numbers of accessory spermatozoa decreased between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 24 to 48 h in BTS, and between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 48 to 72 h in Androhep. Significant differences in fertility between diluents were seen only when using semen stored for more than 96 h, with semen extended with Androhep giving the higher results. The results indicate that the decrease in fertilizing capacity due to in vitro aging of spermatozoa cannot be prevented even during the first days of storage.

  3. The socio-legal acceptance of new technologies: a close look at artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gaia

    2002-10-01

    Heated debates often surround the introduction of an important new technology into society, as exemplified by current controversies surrounding human cloning and privacy protection on the Internet. Underlying these controversies are disruptions to central socio-legal values caused by these new technologies. Whether new technologies will eventually be accepted by society is often contingent on the reaction of the legal system. This mandates the formulation of a conceptual framework for understanding and structuring the way the law should react in cases surrounding the adoption of new technologies. By using the case study of artificial insemination this Article develops the tools for structuring the legal role in the acceptance process of new technologies. The three-century controversy surrounding the innovation of artificial insemination results from the innovations' disruption of the socio-legal value of the family. Artificial Insemination--although invented in the eighteenth-century--was rarely used until the 1930s, and only legalized in the 1960s. Its application to surrogacy and its use by unmarried women extends the controversy into the twenty-first century. The case study demonstrates the nature of the relationship among the technological, social and legal acceptance processes of new technologies, and analyzes the legal acceptance debate. The conceptual framework produced is useful in understanding and structuring the legal role in current debates surrounding the introduction and acceptance of new technologies.

  4. The effect of prolonged intrauterine hyperinsulinemia on iron utilization in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, M K; Widness, J A; Mills, M M; Stonestreet, B S

    1989-11-01

    Newborn infants of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetic mothers demonstrate a redistribution of iron from serum and tissue stores into red blood cells. These changes may be due to increases in iron utilization during augmented Hb synthesis, which compensates for chronic intrauterine hypoxemia induced by prolonged fetal hyperinsulinemia. We tested this hypothesis by measuring plasma iron, total iron-binding capacity, percent iron-binding capacity saturation (total iron-binding capacity saturation), Hb concentration, total red cell Hb, and total red cell iron in the arterial blood of 11 chronically instrumented fetal sheep after 7-12 d of infusion with 15 U/day of insulin (n = 5) or placebo (n = 6). The insulin-infused fetal sheep had higher mean +/- SD plasma insulin concentrations (448 +/- 507 versus 11 +/- 8 mU/L; p less than 0.001) and lower arterial oxygen saturations (38 +/- 7 versus 54 +/- 9%; p less than 0.02). The insulin-infused group had a lower mean plasma iron concentration (20.8 +/- 10.9 versus 42.1 +/- 14.7 microM/L; p less than 0.02) and total iron-binding capacity saturation (36 +/- 20 versus 64 +/- 22%; p less than 0.02) and a higher total red cell Hb (45.4 +/- 8.7 versus 32.6 +/- 8.8 g; p less than 0.02) and total red cell iron content (154 +/- 29 versus 111 +/- 29 mg; p less than 0.02) when compared with the placebo group. Seven to 12 d of intrauterine hyperinsulinemia decreases serum iron and increases total red cell iron, most likely by stimulating increased Hb synthesis in response to low arterial oxygen saturation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Intrauterine Intervention for the Treatment of Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, A-M; Oliver, M H; Harding, J E; Bloomfield, F H

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased incidence of fetal and neonatal death, and of neonatal morbidity. Babies born following FGR also are at risk of a range of postnatal complications, which may contribute to an increased incidence of disease later in life. There currently are no effective clinical interventions which improve perinatal survival, intrauterine growth and later outcomes of the FGR baby. Postnatal interventions aimed at promoting or accelerating growth in FGR babies to improve outcome, particularly neurodevelopmental outcomes, may further increase the risk of metabolic dysregulation and, therefore, the risk of developing chronic disease in adulthood. An intrauterine intervention to improve nutrition and growth in the FGR fetus may have the potential to decrease mortality and improve long-term outcomes by delaying preterm delivery and mitigating the need for and risks of accelerated postnatal growth.

  6. Recurrent pneumonias following intrauterine irradiation of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, H.L.; Eife, R.F.; Muenchen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    A 9 year old girl is described who was born without thyroid function as a result of maternal 131 I treatment during early pregnancy. The patient had 15 pneumonias since her second year of life. Immunological investigations showed normal humoral immunity and a normal in vitro responsiveness of circulating lymphocytes. The patient was, however, anergic to 5 skintest antigens and exhibited a primary vaccination reaction after a smallpox revaccination. The findings suggest that intrauterine irradiation primarily affected memory-lymphocytes. (orig.) [de

  7. Inherited thrombophilia in pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriu, Letitia; Copaciu, Elena; Tulbure, Dan; Talmaci, Rodica; Secara, Diana; Coriu, Daniel; Cirstoiu, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The role of mutation in the factor V gene, prothrombin gene, MTHFR gene, as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction during pregnancy, is not very well known so far. This is a retrospective study of 151 pregnant women with a history of complicated pregnancy: intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss or maternal venous thromboembolism, who were admitted in Bucharest Emergency University Hospital, during the period January 2010 to July 2014. Genetic testing was performed for all the cases to detect: factor V Leiden mutation, G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, C677T mutation and A1298C mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Blood samples were obtained as soon as the diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction was established with ultrasonography. The following gene mutations were associated with increased risk of IUGR: G20210A prothrombin gene mutation (OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.22, p= 0.043), G1691A factor V gene mutation (factor V Leiden) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 - 4.080, p= 0.347), C677T MTHFR gene mutation (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.79 to 3.26, p= 0.186), compound heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C (OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.81- 3.42, p= 0.169). Particularly, for G20210A prothrombin gene mutation we found statistically significant risk (p≤0.05) of IUGR.

  8. Management of foetal asphyxia by intrauterine foetal resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhareddy, S.; Kirankumar, H

    2010-01-01

    Management of foetal distress is a subject of gynaecological interest, but an anaesthesiologist should know about resuscitation, because he should be able to treat the patient, whenever he is directly involved in managing the parturient patient during labour analgesia and before an emergency operative delivery. Progressive asphyxia is known as foetal distress; the foetus does not breathe directly from the atmosphere, but depends on maternal circulation for its oxygen requirement. The oxygen delivery to the foetus depends on the placental (maternal side), placental transfer and foetal circulation. Oxygen transport to the foetus is reduced physiologically during uterine contractions in labour. Significant impairment of oxygen transport to the foetus, either temporary or permanent may cause foetal distress, resulting in progressive hypoxia and acidosis. Intrauterine foetal resuscitation comprises of applying measures to a mother in active labour, with the intention of improving oxygen delivery to the distressed foetus to the base line, if the placenta is functioning normally. These measures include left lateral recumbent position, high flow oxygen administration, tocolysis to reduce uterine contractions, rapid intravenous fluid administration, vasopressors for correction of maternal hypotension and amnioinfusion for improving uterine blood flow. Intrauterine Foetal Resuscitation measures are easy to perform and do not require extensive resources, but the results are encouraging in improving the foetal well-being. The anaesthesiologist plays a major role in the application of intrauterine foetal resuscitation measures. PMID:21189876

  9. Effect of intrauterine position on the radiosensitivity of rat embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Aceto, H. Jr.; Karp, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were exposed to gamma rays or helium ions on one of days 4 to 9 of gestation. Embryonic survival was recorded as a function of intrauterine position at autopsy on day 20 of gestation. Embryos located at the ovarian and cervical ends of the uterus experienced higher rates of mortality than did their littermates located at the middle of the uterine horn. This effect was observed in litters exposed to both radiation modalities on all days studied. The influence of intrauterine position on embryonic survival was directly proportional to radiation dose and to the number of fetuses occupying the uterus horn. Under the least advantageous conditions (i.e., a crowded uterine horn exposed to a moderately high radiation dose), the cervical embryo's probability of survival was less than half that of the litter as a whole. A disproportionately high rate of embryonic mortality at the cervical position was also observed in litters irradiated under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that the non-random distribution of radiation effect was not the result of variations in oxygen concentration within the uterus. In contrast, there was no indication that intrauterine position influenced the distribution of gross morphologic abnormalities in irradiated litters

  10. Management of foetal asphyxia by intrauterine foetal resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Velayudhareddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of foetal distress is a subject of gynaecological interest, but an anaesthesiologist should know about resuscitation, because he should be able to treat the patient, whenever he is directly involved in managing the parturient patient during labour analgesia and before an emergency operative delivery. Progressive asphyxia is known as foetal distress; the foetus does not breathe directly from the atmosphere, but depends on maternal circulation for its oxygen requirement. The oxygen delivery to the foetus depends on the placental (maternal side, placental transfer and foetal circulation. Oxygen transport to the foetus is reduced physiologically during uterine contractions in labour. Significant impairment of oxygen transport to the foetus, either temporary or permanent may cause foetal distress, resulting in progressive hypoxia and acidosis. Intrauterine foetal resuscitation comprises of applying measures to a mother in active labour, with the intention of improving oxygen delivery to the distressed foetus to the base line, if the placenta is functioning normally. These measures include left lateral recumbent position, high flow oxygen administration, tocolysis to reduce uterine contractions, rapid intravenous fluid administration, vasopressors for correction of maternal hypotension and amnioinfusion for improving uterine blood flow. Intrauterine Foetal Resuscitation measures are easy to perform and do not require extensive resources, but the results are encouraging in improving the foetal well-being. The anaesthesiologist plays a major role in the application of intrauterine foetal resuscitation measures.

  11. Limited Uptake of Planned Intrauterine Devices During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jennifer; Moniaga, Natalie; Harken, Tabetha

    2015-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the percentage of women with a documented plan for postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion who had a device inserted within 8 weeks of delivery. The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with successful initiation of postpartum IUDs as planned. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women who had at least one prenatal visit and delivered a viable pregnancy at our academic medical center. Methods of planned and established postpartum contraceptive methods were recorded, as well as demographic information and documented reasons for failure to initiate planned intrauterine contraception. A total of 110 women planned postpartum IUD placement. Of these women, 84 (76%) presented for at least one postpartum appointment. Only 22.6% (95% confidence interval 13.7-31.5) of those presenting for postpartum follow-up underwent IUD placement within 8 weeks of delivery. Women planning postpartum IUD insertion were just as likely as women with no planned postpartum contraceptive method to fail to establish contraception within 8 weeks (P = 0.55). Failure to establish planned postpartum intrauterine contraception occurs frequently, even in a setting with a high rate of postpartum follow-up.

  12. Screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; McCarthy, Fergus P; Walker, Melissa; Kingdom, John

    2012-01-01

    To provide comprehensive background knowledge relevant to the SOGC Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee-approved guideline entitled "Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management." Publications in English were retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and any key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials, and high-quality prospective and retrospective observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Evidence obtained from at least one properly randomized controlled trial, Cochrane Reviews, and high quality cohort data have been combined to provide clinicians with evidence to optimize their practice for screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction. Considerable advances have been made to improve clinicians' ability to screen, diagnose, and manage pregnancies with suspected IUGR more effectively, including several properly randomized controlled trials. Pregnancies with late-onset IUGR may be managed equally effectively by early delivery or delayed delivery (with increased surveillance) anticipating favourable outcomes. By contrast, many aspects of the management of early-onset IUGR require further clinical trials.

  13. Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Cardiac miRNA Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell C. Lock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in the fetal heart include; Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF activation, dysregulation of angiogenesis, mitochondrial abnormalities and altered glucose and fatty acid transport/metabolism. It is important to understand how miRNAs are altered in these adverse environments to identify key pathways that can be targeted using miRNA mimics or inhibitors to condition an improved developmental response.

  14. Reproductive performances of the Borgou cow inseminated on natural or induced estrus with semen from Gir and Girolando at the Okpara Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foukpe Zhairath Adambi Boukari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aims to evaluate the reproductive performances of the Borgou cow inseminated on natural or induced estrus with semen from Gir and Girolando at the Okpara Breeding Farm. Materials and Methods: Semen from exotic breeds was used to inseminate 70 Borgou cows on induced estrus with the norgestomet implant and 285 others on natural estrous. Data on the reproductive performances of inseminated cows were collected. Results: In inseminated cows on induced estrus, the pregnancy rate was 30% and that of abortion was 9.52%. The fertility rate was 28.57% and those of live births and mortality were, respectively, 105.26% and 5% in these cows. As for inseminated cows on natural estrus, the pregnancy rate was 75.79% and the one of calving was 88.89%. The fertility rate recorded with natural estrous was 66.67% and was significantly higher than the one recorded with insemination on induced estrus. The live births and the birth-weaning mortality rates were, respectively, 98.96% and 11.58% in inseminated cows on natural estrus. Conclusion: Reproductive performances are better in Borgou cows inseminated on natural estrus than in those inseminated on induced estrus.

  15. Gene expression patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) in human placenta from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentpéteri, Imre; Rab, Attila; Kornya, László; Kovács, Péter; Joó, József Gábor

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe changes in gene expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in human placenta obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction using placenta from normal pregnancies as control. We compared gene expression of VEGF-A in placental samples from Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies versus placenta obtained from normal pregnancies. Among potential confounders, important clinical informations were also analyzed. In the IUGR group, the VEGF-A gene was overexpressed compared to the normal pregnancy group (Ln 2(α)β-actin: 1.32; Ln 2(α)GADPH: 1.56). There was no correlation between the degree of growth restriction and VEGF-A gene expression (Ln 2(α)(0-5)percentile: 0.58; Ln 2(α)(5-10)percentile: 0.64). Within the IUGR group, there was a trend toward a positive correlation between placental VEGF-A gene activity and gestational age at delivery (Ln 2(α) 37 weeks: 1.35). Our findings suggest that the increase in placental expression of the VEGF-A gene and the resultant stimulation of angiogenesis are a response to hypoxic environment developing in the placental tissue in IUGR. Thus, it appears to be a secondary event rather than a primary factor in the development of IUGR There is a trend toward a positive correlation between gestational age and placental VEGF-A gene activity.

  16. Effect of Dimethylsulfoxide (Dmso on Selected Quality Indicators of Insemination Dose of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An ejaculate was collected from male of synthetic broiler line and was diluted to concentration of 25 to 50 million./0.5 ml/1 ID. Dimethylsulfoxid was added to the ID (insemination dose in two concentrations –  0.5 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml and 1.75 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml. Control insemination dose was without DMSO. ID was evaluated by CASA system Sperm Vision with a microscope Olympus BX 51st. Motility and progressive mobility was monitored. Qualitative indicators of the insemination doses were evaluated on CASA in the time of the 1st hour and 6 hours after dilution. In a sample of DMSO 1.75 was recorded an increase of motility of the 1st hour after dilution in the level 60.21% and after 6 hours only 3.91%. In the sample of DMSO 0.5 was the level of motility after 1st hour 36.84% and after the 6 hours 39.33%. In the control group the level of motility was observed after 1st hour 47.30% and after 6 hours 64.65%. In evaluation of progressive motility we recorded in the sample of DMSO 1.75 after 1st hour 33.32% and 6th hours 0%. In the sample of 0.5 DMSO we observed progressive motility after 1st hour 18.06% and after 6 hours 31.61%. In the control group was observed progressive sperm mobility after 1st hour 30.50% and after 6 hours 31.61%.

  17. Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumar Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.

  18. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  19. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubara, A S [University of Khartoum, Faculty of Animal Production, Department of Animal Husbandry and Genetics (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 {mu} g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P{<=} 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P{<=}0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P{<=}0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed

  20. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  1. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubara, A. S.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  2. Caspase Activation in Fetal Rat Brain Following Experimental Intrauterine Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangpani, Aditi; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine inflammation has been implicated in developmental brain injuries, including the development of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies in our rat model of intrauterine inflammation demonstrated apoptotic cell death in fetal brains within the first 5 days after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to mothers and eventual dysmyelination. Cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases, or caspases, are proteins involved with apoptosis through both intracellular (intrinsic pathway) and extracellular (extrinsic pathway) mechanisms. We hypothesized that cell death in our model would occur mainly via activation of the extrinsic pathway. We further hypothesized that Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, would be increased and the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) would be detectable. Pregnant rats were injected intracervically with LPS at E15 and immunoblotting, immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses were performed. The presence of the activated form of the effector caspase (caspase-3) was observed 24 h after LPS administration. Caspase activity assays demonstrated rapid increases in (i) caspases-9 and -10 within 1 h, (ii) caspase-8 at 2 h and (iii) caspase-3 at 4 h. At 24 h after LPS, activated caspase-3+/Fas+ cells were observed within the developing white matter. Lastly, the DISC complex (caspase-8, Fas and Fas-associated Death Domain (FADD)) was observed within 30 min by immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis in our model occurs via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and activation of Fas may play a role. Understanding the mechanisms of cell death in models of intrauterine inflammation may affect development of future strategies to mitigate these injuries in children. PMID:18289516

  3. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH. PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH. This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  4. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  5. HEARING FUNCTION IN PREMATURE CHILDREN WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rakhmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial audiological test was performed in 136 premature children with various gestational age born from single fetation. The children were divided into 2 groups: prematures with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and prematures with normal weight for their gestational age (normotrophy. The study showed that the rate of passing the initial audiological test using the method of DPOAE was lower in both ears in children with IUGR, than in children with normotrophy. The correlation between the results of initial audiological test and birth weight was found: the lower was weight, the higher was risk of absence of acoustic response registration on initial examination.

  6. Congenital infantile myofibroma causing intrauterine death in a twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Gould, Steve; Akinsola, S Adeyemi

    2011-01-01

    While infantile myofibromatosis is the most common mesenchymal tumour of infancy, only around 300 cases have been reported. The authors report a 33-year-old para 1 with an uncomplicated, dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy who was diagnosed with an intrauterine death of one twin at 36+5 weeks gestation. At caesarean section, a macerated male stillborn weighing 2.72 kg was delivered. Postmortem examination revealed a pedunculated lesion attached to the left shoulder and underlying muscle consistent with a congenital myofibroma. The cause of death was postulated to be haemorrhage from the tumour surface causing fetal anaemia. PMID:22674951

  7. Intrauterine Defensive Mechanism of Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    金山, 尚裕

    1994-01-01

    To determine the intrauterine defensive role of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), we studied the effects of UTI in amniotic fluid, fetal membranes and myometrium. The level of UTI was 94±34U/ml in neonatal urine (compared to adult urine 8.0±6.0U/ml) and 88±37U/ml in amniotic fluid. This may indicate that the main source of UTI in the amniotic fluid is the fetal urine. UTI was found to be concentrated in vernix, fetal intestine, amniotic membranes and uterine myometrium. Immunostaining of term ...

  8. Intrauterine extremity gangrene and cerebral infarction at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Jørgensen, J S; Nybo, M

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG...... resonance imaging (MRI). At one year of age the boy was doing well and had prosthesis as a left arm. He had no signs of further complications. Despite thorough examination of the parents and the child, the reason for the thrombosis is still unknown....

  9. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  10. Neonatal morbidity after induction vs expectant monitoring in intrauterine growth restriction at term: a subanalysis of the DIGITAT RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Kim E.; van Wyk, Linda; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Kwee, Anneke; van Pampus, Maria G.; Spaanderdam, Marc E. A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Bremer, Henk A.; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Willekes, Christine; Rijken, Monique; Roumen, Frans J. M. E.; Thornton, Jim G.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; le Cessie, Saskia; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial at Term (DIGITAT) compared induction of labor and expectant management in suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term. In this subanalysis, we report neonatal morbidity between the policies based on the Morbidity

  11. Trend in the use of Intra-uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD ,TCU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the acceptance rate and trend of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) use in Enugu,Nigeria PATIENTS AND METHODS: A review of all new acceptors of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) over a nine year period(1999-2007) . RESULTS: A total of 133,375 clients were seen at the UNTH ...

  12. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  13. An Estimation of the Risk of Pseudotumor Cerebri among Users of the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenzuela, Reuben M; Rai, Ruju; Kirk, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    Because of a previous association of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) with levonorgestrel, we wished to evaluate the use of levonorgestrel-eluting intrauterine devices ("levonorgestrel intrauterine systems", LNG-IUS) in our University of Utah and Rigshospitalet PTC patients. In our retrospective series,...

  14. Fatal illness associated with pulmonary hypertension in a neonate caused by intrauterine echovirus 11 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, A.; Benne, CA; Timmer, A; Bergman, K.A.

    Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) infections are known to cause a wide range of illnesses in the neonatal period. In most cases, NPEV is presumed to be contracted during birth. Intrauterine NPEV infections occur infrequently. A case of Intrauterine echovirus 11 infection with pneumonia, persistent

  15. Effects of 1 or 2 treatments with prostaglandin F₂α on subclinical endometritis and fertility in lactating dairy cows inseminated by timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Greco, L F; Ayres, H; Favoreto, M G; Carvalho, M R; Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of PGF₂α as a therapy to reduce the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows subjected to a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. A total of 1,342 lactating Holstein dairy cows were allocated randomly at 25 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to remain as untreated controls (control, n=454) or to receive a single PGF₂α treatment at 39 ± 3 DIM (1PGF, n=474) or 2 treatments with PGF(α at 25 ± 3 and 39 ± 3 DIM (2PGF, n=414). All cows were enrolled in the double Ovsynch program at 48 ± 3 DIM and were inseminated at 75 ± 3 DIM. A subset of 357 cows had uterine samples collected for cytological examination at 25 ± 3, 32 ± 3, and 46 ± 3 DIM to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Subclinical endometritis was defined by the presence of ≥ 5% PMNL. Vaginal discharge score was evaluated at 25 ± 3 DIM and used to define the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge. Body condition score was assessed at 25 ± 3 DIM. Pregnancy was diagnosed 32 d after AI and reconfirmed 28 d later. At 32 ± 3 DIM, the prevalence of subclinical endometritis was reduced by treatment with PGF₂α at 25 ± 3 DIM in 2PGF (control=23.5% vs. 1PGF=28.3% vs. 2PGF=16.7%); however, this benefit disappeared at 46 ± 3 DIM, and 14% of the cows remained with subclinical endometritis. One or 2 treatments with PGF₂α did not influence P/AI on d 32 or 60 after timed AI, which averaged 39.9 and 35.2%. Similarly, treatment with PGF₂α had no effect on pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d of gestation (11.9%). Cows diagnosed with both purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis had the lowest P/AI and the highest pregnancy loss compared with those diagnosed with only 1 of the 2 diseases or compared with cows having no diagnosis of uterine diseases. Interestingly, subclinical endometritis depressed P/AI and increased pregnancy loss only

  16. Fertility response of artificial insemination methods in sheep with fresh and frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Towhidi, Armin; Kohram, Hamid; Akbarisharif, Abbas; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility response of artificial insemination (AI) methods with fresh and frozen sperm in sheep. In experiment 1, one hundred and fifty fat tailed Zandi ewes were assigned into 3 equal groups and inseminated with three AI methods consisting of vaginal, laparoscopic and trans-cervical AI with fresh semen. In experiment 2, a factorial study (3 AI methods × 2 extenders) was used to analyze the effects of three AI methods and two freezing extenders containing soybean lecithin (SL) or Egg yolk (EY) on reproductive performance of 300 fat tailed Zandi ewes. Also, total motility, progressive motility, viability and lipid peroxidation of semen were evaluated after freeze-thawing in two extenders. In result, there was no significant difference among three AI methods when fresh semen was used. In experiment 2, the highest percentage of pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were obtained in laparoscopic AI group (P semen, trans-cervical AI was more efficient than vaginal method when frozen-thawed semen was used, but its efficiency was not as high as laparoscopic method. Also, SL extender can be an efficient alternative extender to preserve ram sperm during cryopreservation procedure without adverse effects of EY. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Occurrence of Sperm Abnormality of Beef Cattle at Several Artificial Insemination Centers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purwantara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the most species studied sperm abnormalities have long been associated with male infertility and sterility. This study evaluated the sperm morphology (normality and abnormality of beef cattle at several Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 142 bulls were used in this study; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. A drop of semen was placed on 3-4 glass slides, and smears were prepared and air-dried. The smears were stained with carbolfluchsin-eosin (Williams stain. Types of morphological abnormalities were recorded from 500 cells on each sample. It was recorded that 77.46% samples had low primary sperm abnormalities (10% was found in 5.63% samples. Pear shaped was the most frequently type of abnormality found on examined samples (2.24 ± 2.94%; while double head was the lowest (0.01 ± 0.04%. (Animal Production 12(1: 44-49 (2010 Key words : sperm abnormality, beef catlle, artificial insemination center

  18. Analysis of the cost and benefit of bovine artificial insemination in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawadogo, G.J.; Ouedraogo, G.A.; Diakhoumpa, M.; Yameog, N.

    2007-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to determine the rate of success of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle in Senegal and the benefit obtained by raising the resulting F1 crossbred heifers. The area selected was the first one in which a public AI programme was implemented. A questionnaire was administered to farmers regarding the management of cattle and the costs and benefits of the AI service. Out of 207 inseminations, 80 were successful, resulting in a calving rate of 38.6%. The F1 crossbreds produced 8.9 litres of milk per day, compared with 2 litres per day for the local breeds, and had a lactation length of 13 months. The death rate for crossbred calves during the first year of life was 22.5%. The total cost for an AI was FCFA 48 143 per cow, and was mostly subsidized by the Senegal State. The net profit for the producer was FCFA 35 (Euro 1 = approx. FCFA 660) per litre of milk produced by a crossbred. The proportional costs of the different components of the AI service were 12.5% for the purchase and conservation of semen, 21.9% for the synchronization of heats and 53% for provision of the AI service. The study identified weaknesses and limitations in the dairy production system. Future actions are recommended to improve the results of AI, to reduce the costs and to increase the benefits to producers. (author)

  19. Comparison of IVF and ICSI when only few oocytes are available for insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borini, Andrea; Gambardella, Alessia; Bonu, Maria Antonietta; Dal Prato, Luca; Sciajno, Raffaella; Bianchi, Liana; Cattoli, Monica

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) when few eggs available for insemination. A total of 601 women (group A, mean age 31.2 +/- 2.8 years) who were undergoing a total of 671 assisted reproduction cycles donated their excess oocytes to 694 patients (group B, mean age 41.0 +/- 0.2) for 1606 replacement cycles. Each recipient received three to five eggs. The recipients were divided into two groups depending on the insemination method used (IVF, group B1; or ICSI, group B2); ICSI patients were then subdivided into two further groups based on the semen parameters: B2A adequate for IVF and B2B only suitable for ICSI. The results showed that, when comparing A versus B and B1 versus B2, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (28.0 versus 24.1% and 25.5 versus 21.4%), implantation (15.6 versus 14.9% and 15.9 versus 13.1%) and miscarriage (15.4 versus 20.5% and 17.9 versus 26.3) rates respectively. Comparing subgroups B2A and B2B, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (20.0 versus 21.9%), implantation (14.4 versus 12.7%) and miscarriage rates (18.2 versus 28.6%) respectively. In conclusion, ICSI does not seem to yield better outcomes.

  20. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained 1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  1. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of 131 I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma. (author)

  2. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  3. Immediate metabolic consequences of intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Jatinder; Gates, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Optimal fetal growth resulting in a 'normally grown' term infant is of paramount importance for assuring a healthy start for postnatal growth and development. Fetal, infant and childhood growth restriction is an important clinical problem for obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians and globally, for public health. Worldwide, an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight and a substantial proportion are small for gestational age. Many advances have been made in defining growth restriction by prenatal techniques, thus allowing the recognition of intrauterine growth restriction. Distinguishing infants who are small but have appropriate growth potential from those with growth restriction is important in order to apply obstetric surveillance, anticipate neonatal problems and plan for postneonatal guidance. It is clear that the fetus in growth-restricted pregnancies has limited supply of nutrients and oxygen. The resultant changes, if involving the placenta as well, can lead to circulatory and metabolic changes affecting both short- and long-term survival and development. In this paper, the causes and immediate consequence of being born with low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction or small for gestational age will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolnierczyk P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Zolnierczyk, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Wlodzimierz Sawicki Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous who had an intrauterine device (IUD inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years. After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. Keywords: intrauterine device, myometrium, IUD threads, uterine cavity, ultrasound examination

  5. Cytosine methylation dysregulation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Einstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and control subjects.Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4A gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins.Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.

  6. Cytosine Methylation Dysregulation in Neonates Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar D.; Fazzari, Melissa J.; Verma, Amit; Barzilai, Nir; Greally, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM), manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and control subjects. Methods and Findings Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4A) gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins. Conclusions Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease. PMID:20126273

  7. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  8. Intrauterine growth restriction affects the preterm infant's hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodygensky, Gregory A; Seghier, Mohammed L; Warfield, Simon K; Tolsa, Cristina Borradori; Sizonenko, Stephane; Lazeyras, François; Hüppi, Petra S

    2008-04-01

    The hippocampus is known to be vulnerable to hypoxia, stress, and undernutrition, all likely to be present in fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The effect of IUGR in preterm infants on the hippocampus was studied using 3D magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age Thirteen preterm infants born with IUGR after placental insufficiency were compared with 13 infants with normal intrauterine growth age matched for gestational age. The hippocampal structural differences were defined using voxel-based morphometry and manual segmentation. The specific neurobehavioral function was evaluated by the Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior at term and at 24 mo of corrected age by a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Voxel-based morphometry detected significant gray matter volume differences in the hippocampus between the two groups. This finding was confirmed by manual segmentation of the hippocampus with a reduction of hippocampal volume after IUGR. The hippocampal volume reduction was further associated with functional behavioral differences at term-equivalent age in all six subdomains of the Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior but not at 24 mo of corrected age. We conclude that hippocampal development in IUGR is altered and might result from a combination of maternal corticosteroid hormone exposure, hypoxemia, and micronutrient deficiency.

  9. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The effect of intrauterine and cervical manipulation on the equine oestrous cycle and hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtgen, J P; Ganjam, V K

    1979-01-01

    Endometrial biopsy or endometrial biopsy and uterine culture taken on Day 4 after oestrus induced lysis of the corpus luteum (CL), resulting in a sharp decline in serum progesterone concentration and shortened the interoestrous interval in 8/12 and 32/33 oestrous cycles, respectively, during 2 experiments. Cervical dilatation 4 days after oestrus shortened the interoestrus interval in 5/10 and 0/5 oestrous cycles. Endometrial biopsy and culture on Days 1 and 3 after oestrus also induced CL lysis during 4 of 7 cycles. Total oestrogen (oestrone plus oestradiol) concentrations increased at the onset of the subsequent oestrus in mares biopsied on Day 4 of dioestrus or in control cycle oestrous periods. Endometrial biopsy also induced lysis of the CL in mares with persistent luteal function. It is postulated that intracervical or intrauterine manipulations during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle may directly, or indirectly, stimulate the release of an endogenous luteolysin (prostaglandin) resulting in CL regression, followed by oestrus and ovulation in the mare.

  11. Long QT Syndrome–Associated Mutations in Intrauterine Fetal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Lia; Tester, David J.; White, Wendy M.; Bartos, Daniel C.; Insolia, Roberto; Besana, Alessandra; Kunic, Jennifer D.; Will, Melissa L.; Velasco, Ellyn J.; Bair, Jennifer J.; Ghidoni, Alice; Cetin, Irene; Van Dyke, Daniel L.; Wick, Myra J.; Brost, Brian; Delisle, Brian P.; Facchinetti, Fabio; George, Alfred L.; Schwartz, Peter J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Intrauterine fetal death or stillbirth occurs in approximately 1 out of every 160 pregnancies and accounts for 50% of all perinatal deaths. Postmortem evaluation fails to elucidate an underlying cause in many cases. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) may contribute to this problem. Objective To determine the spectrum and prevalence of mutations in the 3 most common LQTS susceptible genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A) for a cohort of unexplained cases. Design, Setting, and Patients In this case series, retrospective postmortem genetic testing was conducted on a convenience sample of 91 unexplained intrauterine fetal deaths (mean [SD] estimated gestational age at fetal death, 26.3 [8.7] weeks) that were collected from 2006-2012 by the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, or the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. More than 1300 ostensibly healthy individuals served as controls. In addition, publicly available exome databases were assessed for the general population frequency of identified genetic variants. Main Outcomes and Measures Comprehensive mutational analyses of KCNQ1 (KV7.1, LQTS type 1), KCNH2 (HERG/KV11.1, LQTS type 2), and SCN5A (NaV1.5, LQTS type 3) were performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct DNA sequencing on genomic DNA extracted from decedent tissue. Functional analyses of novel mutations were performed using heterologous expression and patch-clamp recording. Results The 3 putative LQTS susceptibility missense mutations (KCNQ1, p.A283T; KCNQ1, p.R397W; and KCNH2[1b], p.R25W), with a heterozygous frequency of less than 0.05% in more than 10000 publicly available exomes and absent in more than 1000 ethnically similar control patients, were discovered in 3 intrauterine fetal deaths (3.3% [95% CI, 0.68%-9.3%]). Both KV7.1-A283T (16-week male) and KV7.1-R397W (16-week female) mutations were associated with marked KV7.1 loss-of-function consistent with in utero LQTS type 1, whereas the HERG1b-R25W mutation

  12. Efficacy of a combined protocol for re-insemination of open cows after early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography and its effect on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Gaja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present field study was to establish the beneficial effects of re-insemination of non-pregnant cows using ultrasonography 20 to 23 days after the artificial insemination. A total of 245 Japanese Black cows were artificially inseminated and early pregnancy diagnosis (EPD was performed on 92 cows 20 days after insemination, using ultrasonography. The remaining 153 cows were considered as negative controls in which routine rectal palpation was performed for pregnancy diagnosis 45-50 days post-insemination. EPD revealed that eleven of the 92 cows (12% were infertile due to ovarian abnormalities and were thus excluded from the rest of the study. Forty-eight (59% of the remaining 81 cows were diagnosed as pregnant, while the other 33 (41% were diagnosed as non-pregnant. Of these non-pregnant cows, 17 of them received a dose of an analogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue and were then timed-inseminated, while the other 16 were observed for estrus signs, and 13 of them (81% were artificially inseminated. Rates of conception were 35% and 38% in the GnRH and the artificially inseminated groups, respectively (P>0.05. Total pregnancy rate for the EPD group increased significantly (74% (P<0.01 when compared to the control cows (54% within the same period. In conclusion, our field study demonstrated that re-insemination of non-pregnant cows following EPD is highly efficacious not only in improving the rate of fertility via reducing inter-insemination and inter-calving intervals, but also aids in the early detection of ovarian disorders.

  13. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P profit. The highest gross return was obtained under S13 with IUI0.75 and IUI0.5. The net profit of S13 was 34.37% higher than the traditional S9 (P profit favored IUI0.5 with relative differences of 4.13%, 2.41%, 1.72%, and 0.43% compared to CAI3, CAI2, IUI1.5, and IUI0

  14. Intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin infusion in oocyte donors promotes endometrial synchrony and induction of early decidual markers for stromal survival: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, Michael R; Su, Renwei; Young, James E; Dodds, William G; Shavell, Valerie I; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Ruíz-Alonso, Maria; Simón, Carlos; Lessey, Bruce A; Leach, Richard E; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2016-07-01

    Does a single intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at the time corresponding to a Day 3 embryo transfer in oocyte donors induce favorable molecular changes in the endometrium for embryo implantation? Intrauterine hCG was associated with endometrial synchronization between endometrial glands and stroma following ovarian stimulation and the induction of early decidual markers associated with stromal cell survival. The clinical potential for increasing IVF success rates using an intrauterine hCG infusion prior to embryo transfer remains unclear based on previously reported positive and non-significant findings. However, infusion of CG in the non-human primate increases the expression of pro-survival early decidual markers important for endometrial receptivity, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and NOTCH1. Oocyte donors (n=15) were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine infusion of 500 IU hCG (n=7) or embryo culture media vehicle (n=8) 3 days following oocyte retrieval during their donor stimulation cycle. Endometrial biopsies were performed 2 days later, followed by either RNA isolation or tissue fixation in formalin and paraffin embedding. Reverse transcription of total RNA from endometrial biopsies generated cDNA, which was used for analysis in the endometrial receptivity array (ERA; n = 5/group) or quantitative RT-PCR to determine relative expression of ESR1, PGR, C3 and NOTCH1. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin followed by blinded staging analysis for dating of endometrial glands and stroma. Immunostaining for ESR1, PGR, α-SMA, C3 and NOTCH1 was performed to determine their tissue localization. Intrauterine hCG infusion was associated with endometrial synchrony and reprograming of stromal development following ovarian stimulation. ESR1 and PGR were significantly elevated in the endometrium of hCG-treated patients, consistent with earlier staging. The ERA did not predict an overall positive impact of

  15. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley H. Weitzman

    Full Text Available A new inseminating fish species of the family Characidae, Bryconadenos tanaothoros, from tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil is described as the type species of a new genus. This new species and the genus are characterized by a glandular organ on the anterior region of the anal fin of sexually mature males, curved lower jaw teeth, and an inseminating reproductive mode. This new genus is hypothesized as most closely related to Attonitus, a genus with three inseminating species from Peru. Bryconadenos and Attonitus are suggested as related to certain inseminating, but undescribed characid species of uncertain relationships that are similar in certain respects to species of the glandulocaudine Planaltina and to the inseminating species of Knodus. These and a few other inseminating characids are included in a previous tentative characid subgroup designated as Clade A. No species among a relatively small sample of the many species of the Clade A genus Bryconamericus were found inseminating, except Bryconamericus pectinatus. However, newly collected specimens of B. pectinatus were found to have caudal-fin squamation like that of the species of Knodus and this species is here tentatively referred to Knodus. Our investigations indicate that at least several species of Knodus, including the type species, Knodus meridae, are not inseminating, but we found two inseminating apparently new characid species that currently would be referred to Knodus. These species lack the derived anal-fin rays present in the males of K. pectinatus. Other Clade A taxa known to be inseminating, such as two species of the large genus Creagrutus, three species of Monotocheirodon (two undescribed, and the species and genera of the characid subfamily Glandulocaudinae are briefly discussed regarding possible relationships to Attonitus and Bryconadenos. The anatomical aspects of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of

  16. Climate factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination during the first months of the breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P.; Yániz, J.; Fantova, E.; Vicente-Fiel, S.; Palacín, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the impact of several climate variables on the pregnancy rate after cervical artificial insemination (AI) of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. Data were derived from 8,977 inseminations in 76 well-managed flocks performed during the first month of the breeding season (July to October). The following data were recorded for each animal: farm, year, month of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, inseminating ram, AI technician, and climatic variables such as mean, maximum and minimum temperature, mean and maximum relative humidity, rainfall, and mean and maximum temperature-humidity index (THI) for each day from day 12 before AI to day 14 post-AI. Means were furthermore calculated for the following periods around AI (day 0): -12 to 0, -2 to 0, AI day, 0 to 2, and 0 to 14. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased when maximum temperature in the 2 days prior to AI was higher than 30 °C (by a factor of 0.81). Fertility was also lower for primiparous ewes and in multiparous ewes with more than five previous parturitions. Other factors with significant impact on fertility were flock, technician, inseminating ram, and a lambing-AI interval longer than 240 days. It was concluded that the 2 days prior to AI seems to be the period when heat stress had the greatest impact on pregnancy rate in Rasa Aragonesa ewes.

  17. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  18. Effects of pre- and post-insemination maternal plane of nutrition on peripheral and uterine luminal fluid metabolites [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can affect embryonic survival, but the mechanisms that cause embryonic mortality are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on peripheral and uterine lumina...

  19. Effects of pre- and post-insemination maternal plane of nutrition on estrus and embryo development [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can result in differential embryonic development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on estrus expression, interval to estrus, and day 6 embryo recovery, developme...

  20. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Jorritsma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of a successful first insemination (SFI). The investigation was performed with 51,791 lactations from 1,396 herds obtained from the Dutch dairy cow database of the Cattle Improvement Co-operative (CRV).

  2. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Motghare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight of the newborn is below 10th percentile for gestational age on the intrauterine growth curve. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17 package. Percentages, odds ratios with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used wherever appropriate. Results: Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status and number of antenatal visits were found to be the significant socio-demographic factors associated with Intrauterine growth restriction while, maternal height, parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and anemia were the maternal biological factors found to be significantly associated on bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and antenatal visits as significant maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions: A focus on good antenatal care, especially on high risk pregnancies would go a long way in reducing the problem of intrauterine growth restriction in the community thereby ensuring a safe and healthy future for our youngest generation.

  3. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  4. Assessment of Risk Factors of Intrauterine Adhesions in Patients With Induced Abortion and the Curative Effect of Hysteroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaoliang; Qin, Guirong; Zhou, Zhoulin; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-03

    To explore the risk factors for intrauterine adhesions in patients with artificial abortion and clinical efficacy of hysteroscopic dissection. 1500 patients undergoing artificial abortion between January 2014 and June 2015 were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups with or without intrauterine adhesions. Univariate and Multiple logistic regression were conducted to assess the effects of multiple factors on the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. The incidence rate for intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion is 17.0%. Univariate showed that preoperative inflammation, multiple pregnancies and suction evacuation time are the influence risk factors of intrauterine adhesions. Multiple logistic regression demonstrates that multiple pregnancies, high intrauterine negative pressure, and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. Additionally, intrauterine adhesions were observed in 105 mild, 80 moderate, and 70 severe cases. The cure rates for these three categories of intrauterine adhesions by hysteroscopic surgery were 100.0%, 93.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. Multiple pregnancies, high negative pressure suction evacuation and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortions. Hysteroscopic surgery substantially improves the clinical outcomes of intrauterine adhesions.

  5. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Trefz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin C (cblC defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect.

  6. [Pathophysiological changes of umbilical vessels in intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakó, Mária; Surányi, Andrea; Kaiser, László; Domokos, Dóra; Gáspár, Róbert; Bártfai, György

    2014-12-14

    The prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 4-5000/100,000 births, and they give the majority of perinatal morbidity. The aim of the authors was to compare the pathomorphologic data and vasoreactivity of umbilical vessels and placenta of small for date newborns to that of the normal pregnancies. Samples of the umbilical cord and placenta were divided into case and control groups. Two 10 cm long segments were cut of the umbilical cord at placental insertion. Tissue bath experiment was performed on umbilical vessels and pathomorphologic data were collected according to the Royal College of Pathologists' protocol. After the development of basal tone, oxytocin and desmopressin did not enhance the vascular contraction, but the pathomorphological and ultrasonographic data were significantly different in the two groups. The results indicate that umbilical vessels might not have oxytocin or vasopressin receptors. The pathomorphologic and flowmetric differences could be the causes of small birth weight.

  7. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  8. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  9. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  10. Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term: DIGITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisjes Anjoke JM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 80% of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR infants are born at term. They have an increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity including behavioral problems, minor developmental delay and spastic cerebral palsy. Management is controversial, in particular the decision whether to induce labour or await spontaneous delivery with strict fetal and maternal surveillance. We propose a randomised trial to compare effectiveness, costs and maternal quality of life for induction of labour versus expectant management in women with a suspected IUGR fetus at term. Methods/design The proposed trial is a multi-centre randomised study in pregnant women who are suspected on clinical grounds of having an IUGR child at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks. After informed consent women will be randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant management with maternal and fetal monitoring. Randomisation will be web-based. The primary outcome measure will be a composite neonatal morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes will be severe maternal morbidity, maternal quality of life and costs. Moreover, we aim to assess neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral outcome at two years as assessed by a postal enquiry (Child Behavioral Check List-CBCL and Ages and Stages Questionnaire-ASQ. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Quality of life analysis and a preference study will also be performed in the same study population. Health technology assessment with an economic analysis is part of this so called Digitat trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term. The study aims to include 325 patients per arm. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for which strategy is superior in terms of neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, costs and maternal quality of life aspects. This will be the first randomised trial for IUGR at term. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register and ISRCTN

  11. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. MRI Differences Associated with Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christie J; Bengani, Shreyans; Gomes, William A; Brewer, Mariana; Vega, Melissa; Xie, Xianhong; Kim, Mimi; Fuloria, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) further increases this risk. Brain imaging studies are often utilized at or near term-equivalent age to determine later prognosis. To evaluate the association between intrauterine growth and regional brain volume on MRI scans performed in preterm infants at or near term-equivalent age. This is a retrospective case-control study of 24 infants born at gestational age ≤30 weeks and cared for in a large, inner-city, academic neonatal intensive-care unit from 2012 to 2013. Each IUGR infant was matched with 1-2 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants who served as controls. Predischarge MRI scans routinely obtained at ≥36 weeks' adjusted age were analyzed for regional brain volumetric differences. We examined the association between IUGR and thalamic, basal ganglion, and cerebellar brain volumes in these preterm infants. Compared to AGA infants, IUGR infants had a smaller thalamus (7.88 vs. 5.87 mL, p = 0.001) and basal ganglion (8.87 vs. 6.92 mL, p = 0.002) volumes. There was no difference in cerebellar volumes between the two study groups. Linear regression analyses revealed similar trends in the associations between IUGR and brain volumes after adjusting for sex, gestational age at birth, and postconceptual age and weight at MRI. Thalamus and basal ganglion volumes are reduced in growth-restricted preterm infants. These differences may preferentially impact neurodevelopmental outcomes. Further research is needed to explore these relationships. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device potentiates stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleknaviciute, Jurate; Tulen, Joke H M; De Rijke, Yolanda B; Bouwkamp, Christian G; van der Kroeg, Mark; Timmermans, Mirjam; Wester, Vincent L; Bergink, Veerle; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Kooiman, Cornelis G; Kushner, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is currently recommended as a first-line contraceptive with an exclusively local intrauterine influence. However, recent clinical trials have identified side effects of LNG-IUD that appear to be systemically mediated, including depressed mood and emotional lability. We performed two experimental studies and a cross-sectional study. For each study, women were included from three groups: LNG-IUD (0.02mg/24h), oral ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (0.03mg/0.15mg; EE30/LNG) and natural cycling (NC). Study 1-Salivary cortisol was measured at baseline and at defined intervals following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the TSST. Study 2-Salivary cortisol and serum total cortisol were evaluated relative to low-dose (1μg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration. Study 3-Hair cortisol was measured as a naturalistic index of long-term cortisol exposure. Women using LNG-IUD had an exaggerated salivary cortisol response to the TSST (24.95±13.45 nmol/L, 95% CI 17.49-32.40), compared to EE30/LNG (3.27±2.83 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.71-4.84) and NC (10.85±11.03nmol/L, 95% CI 6.30-15.40) (Pcontraception induces a centrally-mediated sensitization of both autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsivity. LNG-IUD sensitization of HPA axis responsivity was observed acutely under standardized laboratory conditions, as well as chronically under naturalistic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia AM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdelhamid M Attia,1 Magdy M Ibrahim,1 Ahmed M Abou-Setta21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2George and Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation, University of Manitoba/Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids.Keywords: levonorgestrel, intrauterine device, contraception, family planning, Mirena, Skyla

  15. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-17

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  16. A new rapid and effective method for treatment of unexplained infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelstam, G.; Sjosten, A.; Bjuresten, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artificial insemination (intrauterine insemination by husband or artificial insemination by husband) is often tried as first treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. Perturbation has previously proved to increase the chance of achieving pregnancy for these couples. The effect...... and insemination cycles for couples with unexplained infertility. METHODS: In a prospective, open study, the patients were randomized, the day before ovulation, during a clomiphene citrate stimulated cycle to either perturbation with low-dose local anaesthetic or no perturbation before insemination. RESULTS......: The perturbation treatment significantly enhanced the clinical pregnancy rate and was well tolerated. No complications were noted. The combined treatment of clomiphene citrate, perturbation and insemination can be used as a cost-effective, first-line treatment for couples with unexplained infertility...

  17. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  18. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  19. Profitability of a dairy sheep genetic improvement program using artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Gelasakis, A I; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Banos, G

    2010-10-01

    This simulation study investigated the farm-level economic benefits of a genetic improvement scheme using artificial insemination (AI) with fresh ram semen in dairy sheep of the Chios breed in Greece. Data were collected from 67 farms associated with the Chios Sheep Breeders' Cooperative 'Macedonia', describing the percentage of ewes that would be artificially inseminated in the flock, pregnancy rate, annual ram costs that could be saved using AI rather than natural mating, expected improvement in milk production, annual costs of semen and feed, milk price and number of years of AI usage. The study considered 77 760 possible scenarios in a 3 × 4 × 4 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 15 factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the effect of each factor on farm profitability. All factors considered were statistically significant (P profitability and farmers should become aware that using AI is a long-term investment. Semen price, pregnancy rate and improvement in milk production also had substantial effects. The price of milk and feed had a considerably lower effect on profitability, as did the annual cost of maintaining rams that would be replaced by AI. A positive annual and cumulative return was achieved in the model within the first 6 years. The cost of semen was estimated at 8€ to 10€ per dose for the first 5 years. Where the annual improvement in milk production was 1% of annual phenotypic mean (e.g. 3.0 kg) profitability of the scheme was improved greatly.

  20. Successful Intracervical Insemination and Characteristics of Anoa (Bubalus sp. Parturation Behavior in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anoa, which is the endemic animal in Indonesia, its population is unevitably decreasing, therefore anoa included in the list of endangered species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The experiment was aimed to apply the artificial insemination (AI technique for anoa and to examine their parturition behavior. The experiment involved 2 males and 5 females anoa at Taman Safari Indonesia Bogor. Semen was collected by electroejaculator, then evaluated and diluted in Tris-egg yolk extender. The anesthetized estrous females were inseminated intracervically with extended semen (100x106 sperm/1.0 mL. Females which did not show estrous signs during 2-3 cycles after AI were predicted pregnant, and therefore confirmed by ultrasonography. As a comparison, another predicted-pregnant female after natural mating was scanned. The results showed that intracervical AI resulted pregnancy in one female, and the gestation period of anoa was ranged from 313 d (AI to 324 d (natural mating. There were three stages of parturition process was observed: Stage 1 was characterized by the abdominal contraction and amniotic membrane rupture, Stage 2 was characterized by the fetal expulsions, and Stage 3 was characterized by the placental expulsions and ingestion of placenta by the dam. The duration of each stage of parturition was 6-8 h (stage 1, 30-60 min (stage 2, and 15-180 min (stage 3. It is concluded that AI technique was applicable to anoa in captivity, and the parturation behavior of anoa was comparable to buffalo and cattle. However, the fetal delivery occurred when the dam was in standing position and the dam ingested the placenta.

  1. Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P

    1990-07-01

    Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.

  2. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  3. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  4. Isolated intrauterine growth restriction: a survey of Central Association of Obstetricians Gynecologists (CAOG) members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauhan, Suneet P.; Dahlke, Joshua D.; Magann, Everett F.; Chang, Eugene; Gupta, Lata; Mol, Ben W.; Lewis, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to ascertain clinicians' opinions and current management with isolated (no concomitant morbidity) intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Members of the Central Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (CAOG) were surveyed. We considered consensus to be agreement among 90% of

  5. Desferrioxamine treatment of iron overload secondary to RH isoimmunization and intrauterine transfusion in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaz, Mehmet; Bilgin, Betül Siyah; Köroğlu, Ozge Altun; Ay, Yılmaz; Arıkan, Ciğdem; Sagol, Sermet; Akısü, Mete; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2011-11-01

    Intrauterine transfusion is the standard of care in the management of severe Rh isoimmunization. Desferrioxamine has been used for the treatment of iron overload secondary to hemolysis and intrauterine transfusions in Rh isoimmunization cases. Here, we report a preterm infant born at 34 weeks of gestational age who had formerly received intrauterine transfusions for Rhesus hemolytic disease and presented with severe hyperferritinemia and elevated liver enzymes in the first week of life. Desferrioxamine treatment was started due to a ferritin level of 28,800 ng/ml and continued for 13 weeks. Although the treatment was successful, we observed resistant leukopenia which resolved after the cessation of treatment. In conclusion, iron overload secondary to intrauterine transfusions can be treated successfully with desferrioxamine; however, neonatologists must be aware of the possible side effects of this drug which has been used in only a limited number of newborns.

  6. Intrauterine adhesions as a risk factor for failed first-trimester pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Janelle; Allen, Rebecca H; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2007-10-01

    Risk factors for failed first-trimester surgical abortion include endometrial distortion caused by leiomyomas, uterine anomalies and malposition and cervical stenosis. This report introduces intrauterine adhesions as an additional risk factor. A multiparous woman presented for pregnancy termination at 6 weeks' gestation. Three suction-curettage attempts failed to remove what appeared to be an intrauterine pregnancy. Rising beta-hCG levels and concern for an interstitial ectopic pregnancy prompted a diagnostic laparoscopy and exploratory laparotomy without the identification of an ectopic pregnancy. After methotrexate treatment failed, the patient underwent ultrasound-guided hysteroscopy and suction curettage using a cannula with a whistle-cut aperture for the successful removal of a pregnancy implanted behind intrauterine adhesions. Intrauterine adhesions are a cause of failed surgical abortion. Ultrasound-guided hysteroscopy may be required for diagnosis.

  7. Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria; Rakhorst, G.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon

  8. A Real-Time Intrauterine Catheter Technique for Fetal Electrocardiogram Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horner, S

    2001-01-01

    ..., two sensors that include the invasive scalp electrode and intrauterine pressure catheter are used clink ally, Signal processing is required to obtain a FECG via the IC, Usually the maternal electrocardiogram (ECG...

  9. The Intra-uterine Device in Soweto and Other Townships | Spilhaus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal ... all the tribes found in South Africa, though Zulus and Sothos predominate, The variation of ... The performance of the intra-uterine device (IUD) is discussed against a background of well over 25000 insertions, ...

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® growth disturbances - risk of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelop, Carolyn M; Javitt, Marcia C; Glanc, Phyllis; Dubinsky, Theodore; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Harris, Robert D; Khati, Nadia J; Mitchell, Donald G; Pandharipande, Pari V; Pannu, Harpreet K; Podrasky, Ann E; Shipp, Thomas D; Siegel, Cary Lynn; Simpson, Lynn; Wall, Darci J; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J

    2013-09-01

    Fetal growth disturbances include fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth restriction. These fetuses may have an estimated fetal weight at less than the 10% or demonstrate a plateau of fetal growth with an estimated fetal growth greater than the 10%. Uteroplacental insufficiency may play a major role in the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Fetuses at risk for intrauterine fetal growth restriction are susceptible to the potential hostility of the intrauterine environment leading to fetal hypoxia and fetal acidosis. Fetal well-being can be assessed using biophysical profile, Doppler velocimetry, fetal heart rate monitoring, and fetal movement counting.Fetal growth disturbances include fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth restriction. These fetuses may have an estimated fetal weight at less than the 10% or demonstrate a plateau of fetal growth with an estimated fetal growth greater than the 10%. Uteroplacental insufficiency may play a major role in the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Fetuses at risk for intrauterine fetal growth restriction are susceptible to the potential hostility of the intrauterine environment leading to fetal hypoxia and fetal acidosis. Fetal well-being can be assessed using biophysical profile, Doppler velocimetry, fetal heart rate monitoring, and fetal movement counting.The ACR Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  11. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  12. Producing progeny from endangered birds of prey: Treatment of urine-contaminated semen and a novel intramagnal insemination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.M.; Gee, G.F.; Wildt, D.E.; Donoghue, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Wild raptors brought into an ex situ environment often have poor semen quality that is further compromised by urine contamination. Generally, it is believed that in birds, artificial insemination into the cloaca or caudal vagina of females requires large doses of high-quality spermatozoa to maximize fertility. In an effort to define and overcome some of the challenges associated with reproduction in wild raptors, the objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the frequency, impact, and remediation of urine contamination in fresh ejaculates for the purpose of maintaining sperm motility and viability in vitro, and 2) develop a deep insemination method that allows low numbers of washed sperm to be placed directly into the magnum to increase the probability of producing fertilized eggs. The species evaluated include golden eagle (Aquila chrysoetos), imperial eagle (A. adalberti), Bonelli's eagle (Hiernaetus fasciatus), and peregrine, falcon (Falco peregrinus). Semen samples were collected and pooled by species, and a minimum of 25 pooled ejaculates per species were evaluated for urine contamination, pH, sperm viability, and sperm motility; the samples were either unwashed or washed in neutral (pH 7.0) or alkaline (pH 8.0) modified Lake's diluent. Female golden eagles and peregrine falcons were inseminated via transjunctional, intramagnal insemination with washed spermatozoa from urine-contaminated samples. Urine contamination occurred in 36.8 +/- 12.8% (mean +/- SEM) golden eagle, 43.1 +/- 9.1% imperial eagle, 28.7 +/- 16.1% Bonelli's eagle, and 48.2 +/- 17.3% peregrine falcon ejaculates. The pH in urine-contaminated semen samples ranged from 6.48 +/- 0.3 to 6.86 +/- 0.2, and in noncontaminated samples it ranged from from 7.17 +/- 0.1 to 7.56 +/- 0.1. Sperm viability and motility were reduced (P golden eagle chick hatched after intramagnal insemination. This study demonstrates that urine contamination, a common and lethal acidifier in manually collected raptor

  13. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P growth in a model of IUGR, and the effect may be mediated by enhanced fetal muscle protein synthesis and/or increased NO production. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Effect of Number of Spermatozoa, Oviduct Condition and Timing of Artificial Insemination on Fertility and Fertile Period of Kampung Rooster Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the optimum fertility and fertile period using the number of spermatozoa, oviduct condition and timing of insemination of native rooster spermatozoa. Ninety six commercial Isa brown pullets and nine kampung roosters were used in this study in a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement with one bird in a cage constituting a unit. The factor levels were the number of spermatozoa (50, 100 and 150 million/0.1 ml, oviduct condition (hard-shelled eggs and free hard-shelled eggs, and timing of artificial insemination (in the morning, at 7 AM and in the afternoon, at 4 PM.  The results showed that among the treatments there was no significant interaction to fertility and fertile period. Insemination with 50 million sperm number seemed to be the same result with the other 2 treatments. Oviduct condition had a highly significant difference on fertility and fertile period percentage, and timing of insemination did not differ between morning and afternoon.  In conclusion, the only oviduct condition (free hard-shelled eggs was the best results for insemination in terms of fertility and fertile period of native roosters.  It is recommended that for the maximum fertility and fertile period, hens should be inseminated with 50 million spermatozoa, free of hard-shelled eggs and insemination performed in the morning or in the afternoon.   Keywords: timing of artificial insemination, fertility, fertile period, semen dose, oviduct condition Animal Production 14(1:32-36, January 2012

  15. Use of nuclear techniques for evaluation of first service conception rate in dairy herds with artificial insemination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, N.G.; Risopatron, J.; Rodriguez, F.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify causes of inefficiency in Artificial Insemination (AI) services in 12 dairy farms located in southern Chile. Milk progesterone concentration was determined on the day of breeding and then 10-12 and 21-22 days after AI. Data for semen and cow inseminated, including physical signs of oestrus, were recorded in a computer database (AIDA). Information from 713 cows with first services was analysed. The mean interval from calving to first service was 88.7 days and the mean interval from calving to conception was 107.9 days. The conception rate at first service was 61.9%. Incidence of incorrect AI, most likely due to erroneous heat detection, was 8.9%. Herd related problems affected efficiency of AI in 15.2%. The results show that important factors affecting reproductive performance include nutritional management, oestrus detection and AI technique. (author)

  16. No interaction between X-ray induced lesions in maternal and paternal chromosomes in inseminated eggs of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuergler, F.E.; Graf, U.; Jeanneret, P.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray induced premutational lesions persist in mature gametes of drosophila until fertilization. Repairable lesions in sperm and oocyte chromosomes are repaired exclusively by maternal repair systems in the inseminated egg. Interactions between irradiated genomes in inseminated eggs might result in additional lethality if breaks induced in separate nuclei, which would normally be repaired, could interact to form dicentric chromosomes. Adult drosophila flies were X-irradiated (up to 5 kR), individual females crossed to three or four males, and the dose-response curves for dominant lethals (embryonic lethality) compared. The results indicate thet the potentially lethal damage present in irradiated sperm chromosomes was expressed independently of whether or not the oocyte was also irradiated. There were no (or only very few) interactions between maternal and paternal chromosome complements, and the maternal repair systems acting on radiation-induced chromosome breaks in sperm were resistant to X-rays. (U.K.)

  17. Extended semen for artificial insemination in swine as a potential transmission mechanism for infectious Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonic, G; Pasternak, J A; Käser, T; Meurens, F; Wilson, H L

    2016-09-01

    Although typically unnoticed, Chlamydia infections in swine have been shown to be both widespread and may impact production characteristics and reproductive performance in swine. Serum titers suggest Chlamydia infection within boar studs is common, and infected boars are known to shed chlamydia in their ejaculates. Although the transmission of viruses in chilled extended semen (ES) is well established, the inclusion of antibiotics in commercially available extender is generally believed to limit or preclude the transmission of infectious bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ES used in artificial insemination to support transmission of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia suis (C suis) under standard industry conditions. First, the effect of C suis on sperm quality during storage was assessed by flow cytometry. Only concentrations above 5 × 10(5) viable C suis/mL caused significant spermicidal effects which only became evident after 7 days of storage at 17 °C. No significant effect on acrosome reaction was observed using any chlamydial concentration. Next, an in vitro infection model of swine testicular fibroblast cells was established and used to evaluate the effect of chilled storage on C suis viability under variable conditions. Storage in Androhep ES reduced viability by 34.4% at a multiplicity of infection of 1.25, an effect which increased to 53.3% when the multiplicity of infection decreased to 0.1. Interestingly, storage in semen extender alone (SE) or ES with additional antibiotics had no effect on bacterial viability. To rule out a secondary effect on extender resulting from metabolically active sperm, C suis was stored in fresh and expended SE and again no significant effect on bacterial viability was observed. Fluorescent microscopy of C suis in ES shows an association between bacteria and the remaining gel fraction after storage suggesting that the apparent reduction of bacterial viability in the presence

  18. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  19. Comparative evaluation of reproductive parameters between the automatic GEDIS cervical insemination method and the traditional in multicolor bristles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez-Torres Oscar Patricio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in Ecuador, in the province of Tungurahua, Cevallos county. A comparison of reproductive parameters between the cervical self insemination method and the traditional one in multiparous sows was performed using 12 sows (hybrid females between the second and fourth calving, dividing In two groups of 6 sows respectively, using the insemination protocol 12h - 24h - 36h. Fresh semen was prepared with long-term diluent + bidistilled water, at a concentration of 3 x 109 spermatozoa/mL in total volume per 100 mL straw. At the time of insemination the amount of seminal reflux was determined and when the Student's T test was applied with paired observations in the results, they statistically reported a significant difference at 5% among the evaluated methods, the calculated T value was 9.50 Which is greater than the T of tables at 5% of 2.57. The duration of each method was determined, results that reported similarity between the two methods (15 min. At 21 days post insemination pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound and evaluation of no return of heat, results that reported in both methods 100% effectiveness. Subsequently, at the time of delivery, the number of total born piglets was evaluated, using the Student's T-test with paired observations that statistically there was no significant difference at 5% between the two methods, the calculated T value was 0, 14 which is less than the T of tables at 5% of 2.57. We also determined the weight of piglets at birth, reported by Student's t-test with paired observations that there is a statistically significant difference to 5% among the evaluated methods, the calculated T value was 5.17, which is higher than the T Of tables at 5% of 2.57. As for costs there is no considerable difference.

  20. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  1. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  2. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  3. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Tehraninejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate effects ofG-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium.Materials and methods:In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient.Results:The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120±0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years,3, 1 and32.78± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM.Conclusion:G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy.

  4. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  5. Impact of intrauterine growth restriction on preterm lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Arun; Abraham, Vinita; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Polglase, Graeme R; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important cause for prematurity and adversely influences prematurity-related morbidities. This study evaluates the impact of IUGR on respiratory outcomes in infants CLD), CLD or death, and need for home oxygen at discharge. Subgroup analysis by gestation-based stratification (CLD (45% vs. 17%, p = 0.0001), death (16% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.0001), CLD or death (46% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.0001), home oxygen rates (13.7% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.01) and duration of respiratory support was significantly higher in the IUGR group. IUGR emerged as the strongest predictor of CLD (adjusted OR, 95%CI: (8.4 [2, 35]) and CLD or death (12.7 [3, 54]) across all gestation. IUGR is a major risk factor for adverse short-term pulmonary outcomes as reflected by higher rates of CLD, CLD or death, and oxygen dependency at discharge in preterm infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Menstrual Concerns and Intrauterine Contraception Among Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel J.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. Methods This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Results Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m2. Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population. PMID:21413894

  7. Neonatal cardiovascular system adaptation in babies with intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the adaptive features of the cardiovascular system in newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR on the basis of a clinical instrumental study.Subjects and methods. A study group included 100 newborn infants with IUGR; a control group consisted of 40 babies with normal anthropometric measurements at birth. Medical history and clinical data and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings were analyzed.Results. All the examinees with IUGR had manifestations of cardiovascular system dysadaptation. There was a high rate of electrocardiographic changes, such as cardiac arrhythmias; low voltage; systolic overload of the right heart and left ventricle; signs of ventricular hypertrophy; and transient myocardial ischemia. The specific features of cardiac hemodynamics were decreased sizes of the left ventricle, lower parameters of its systolic function, and longer functioning of fetal communications.Conclusion. IUGR is associated with the development of cardiovascular system dysadaptation syndrome, which is due to prior perinatal hypoxia. The findings necessitate a follow-up of children by involving a cardiologist.

  8. Routine counseling about intrauterine contraception for women seeking emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, E Bimla; Papic, Melissa; Parisi, Sara M; Baldauf, Erin; Rapkin, Rachel; Updike, Glenn

    2014-07-01

    To compare contraceptive knowledge and use among women seeking emergency contraception (EC) before and after an inner-city clinic began providing structured counseling and offering same-day intrauterine device (IUD) or implant placement to all women seeking EC. For 8 months before and 21 months after this change in clinic policy, women aged 15-45 who wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys immediately, 3 and 12 months after their clinic visit. In addition, we abstracted electronic medical record (EMR) data on all women who sought EC (n=328) during this period. We used chi-squared tests to assess pre/post differences in survey and EMR data. Surveys were completed by 186 women. After the clinic began offering structured counseling, more women had accurate knowledge of the effectiveness of IUDs, immediately and 3 months after their clinic visit. In addition, more women initiated IUD or implant use (survey: 40% vs. 17% preintervention, p=0.04; EMR: 22% vs. 10% preintervention, p=0.01), and fewer had no contraceptive use (survey: 3% vs. 17% preintervention, pcontraceptives with the option of same-day contraceptive placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  10. Intravaginal artificial insemination in bitches using frozen/thawed semen after dilution in powdered coconut water (ACP-106c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, D C; Silva, T F P; Mota Filho, A C; Silva, L D M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ACP-106c, 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, cooled and frozen. In the first phase of the study, straws with frozen semen were thawed and immediately subjected to the same analysis as the fresh semen and, in addition, to Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). In phase 2, 10 bitches that had been subjected to natural breeding during a preceding oestrous cycle were vaginally inseminated with thawed semen that had been re-diluted in ACP-106c. After thawing, a mean of 77% sperm motility was obtained through subjective analysis and 77.3% through CASA. Following artificial insemination, a 60% pregnancy rate was observed, resulting in a 50% parturition rate and a mean litter size of 3.4 (SEM 0.6), with 47.1% males and 52.9% females. ACP-106c can be successfully used for freezing canine semen, and vaginal deposition of such semen yields similar pregnancy rates to those reported in other studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  12. Transcriptome data of peripheral white blood cells from beef heifers collected at the time of artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Dickinson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of heifers within their first breeding season influences the success of beef cattle operations. Therefore, a means to identify infertile and late breeding heifers before the start of the breeding season holds great promise for the future of the beef industry. Pubertal beef heifers were subjected to estrous synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. We collected peripheral blood from the heifers at the time of artificial insemination (AI and generated RNA sequencing data to characterize the transcriptome of peripheral white blood cells (PWBC. Following insemination, heifers were exposed to natural service for a defined breeding season, and pregnancy was evaluated to classify heifers into one of three groups: AI-pregnant, natural-bred (NB pregnant, and non-pregnant. The raw transcriptome data of PWBC is available on the NCBI GEO repository (GSE103628 where the reader can also find raw read counts and normalized gene expression data. The normalized data on transcript coverage can be visualized as a genome browser at HeiferFertilityRNAseq.org. Keywords: Biomarkers, Infertility, Pregnancy

  13. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  14. Use of milk progesterone RIA for the monitoring of artificial insemination in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhenghua; Lu Yangping; Shang Zhaorong; Cheng Jinhua; Xian Baihua; Wang Yunheng

    2001-01-01

    Milk samples were collected on day 0, day 10-12 and day 22-24 after artificial insemination (AI) from 2349 dairy cows in 5 dairy farms. Progesterone concentration was measured by RIA. Based on the progesterone concentration in the three milk samples, the reproductive status of the cows could be identified and they were classified as pregnant (50.9%), non-fertilisation (25.8%), inactive ovary (6.1%), persistent corpus luteum (3.5%), AI at inappropriate time (during luteal phase or luteal cyst, 6.2%) and abnormal oestrous cycles (7.5%). The results and interpretation were sent back to AI technician and veterinarians in the dairy farms as soon as possible. They in turn used this information, together with their findings from rectal palpation, to arrive at a reliable diagnosis of the reproductive status in each cow and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate remedial measures in order to ensure pregnancy at subsequent service. So far, 3477 oestrus cycles have been monitored. For establishing a routine system of milk progesterone monitoring in these dairy farms, an ELISA method would be more practical. (author)

  15. Non-seasonal reproduction in inseminating species of Mimagoniates (Characidae, Characiformes from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Renner Lampert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some aspects of reproduction in two species of Mimagoniates, M. microlepis (Steindachner 1877 and M. rheocharis Menezes & Weitzman 1990 are herein described. Samples were taken monthly from January 1998 to February 1999 in two streams in the locality of Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results from the analysis of hundreds of specimens of M. microlepis and M. rheocharis in two investigated sites indicated mature specimens and peaks of the gonadosomatic index (GSI along the year. There was a negative and significant correlation between M. microlepis male’s GSI and water temperature. Females of the latter species and both sexes of M. rheocharis, in turn, showed no correlation with any of the tested parameters (relative stomach weight, day length, rainfall. Absolute and relative fecundity are lower than in externally fertilized species of Characidae. Maximum oocyte length was 1.14 mm for M. microlepis and 1.02 mm for M. rheocharis and both species were characterized as total spawners based on the type of oocyte development estimated through oocyte size analysis. Features like non-seasonal reproductive period, low fecundity, and insemination may indicate adaptive advantages, which may enhance the chance of survival even with low energetic investment and improved fertilization.

  16. Use of Carazolol at Pre-Synchronized Timed Artificial Insemination in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. M. Pancarci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of the β-adrenergic receptor blocker (carazolol at Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI was investigated. Cows (n = 73 were pre-synchronized with two PGF2α injections given 14 d apart to initiate the Ovsynch protocol at early and middle luteal stages 14 d later, and received injections of GnRH and PGF2α seven d apart followed by GnRH 48 h later, and TAI 16 - 18 h later. Corpus luteum (CL was detected via rectal palpation at the beginning of the Ovsynch protocol. Carazolol (Treatment I; n = 41 or physiologic saline (Treatment II; n = 32 were administered via jugular vein five min before TAI. Uterine tone was determined prior to infusion and at TAI via rectal palpation. Pregnancies were diagnosed with transrectal ultrasonography 40 ± 7 d after TAI. Uterine tone was 2.8 (1.4 - 5.3 times higher (P P < 0.05, and 66.7%, 75%, 52.6%, 100% and 16.7%, 33.3%, 25%, 28.6% in primiparous cows with CL and without CL, and in multiparous cows with CL and without CL in Treatments I and II, respectively. Pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments I (34.2% and II (40.6%. In conclusion, no beneficial effect of carazolol administration prior to TAI was found except for the increased uterine tone.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of assisted conception for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Cissen, Maarje; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI), with or without ovarian stimulation, IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) are frequently used treatments for couples with male subfertility. No consensus has been reached on specific cut-off values for semen parameters, at which IVF would be advocated

  18. Is IVF-served two different ways-more cost-effective than IUI with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bensdorp, A. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Koks, C.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P.; Broekmans, F. J.; Verhoeve, H. R.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D. A.; van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W. M.; Groen, H.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    What is the cost-effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with conventional ovarian stimulation, single embryo transfer (SET) and subsequent cryocycles or IVF in a modified natural cycle (MNC) compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (IUI-COH) as a

  19. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  20. Intrauterine insulin resistance in fetuses of overweight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jian-Ming; Voss, Courtney; Xiao, Huan-Yu; Sheng, Wei-Yang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal overweight and fetal insulin resistance. Nineteen overweight and 30 lean pregnant women were recruited in the present study. Maternal and fetal insulin resistance were determined by measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in maternal venous or umbilical cord serum, respectively. Maternal age, gestational age, height, pre-gravidity weight, pre-partum weight, as well as fetal gender, birth weight, birth height, and head circumference were collected as clinical data. Fetuses of overweight mothers had larger birth weight (3.58±0.55kg vs 3.32±0.42, adjusted P=0.006) and lower SHBG concentrations (26.64±3.65 vs 34.36±7.84, adjusted P=0.007) than those of lean mothers after values were adjusted for potential cofactors. Fetal SHBG level was negatively correlated with pre-gravidity body mass index (R=-0.392, adjusted P=0.025) and weight gain during pregnancy (R=-0.332, adjusted P=0.026) even with adjustment for potential cofactors. Among the 29 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the overweight mothers had higher H1AC levels than their lean counterparts (6.47±0.44 vs 5.74±0.52, adjusted P=0.004). Intrauterine insulin resistance is more prominent in fetuses of overweight mothers, an effect that is decreased by weight gain control during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzas, Sotirios; Karatza, Ageliki A; Davlouros, Periklis A; Chrysis, Dionisios; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Mantagos, Stefanos; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with structural and functional cardiac alterations but the electrophysiological consequences of these disturbances remain unknown. To explore the distribution of ventricular repolarization and its relation to myocardial mechanics in newborns with IUGR. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiographic data, and electrocardiographic parameters used to describe the distribution of ventricular repolarization (dispersion of QT [QTd] and JT [JTd]), were obtained on the second (D2) and fifth (D5) postnatal day and compared between 25 IUGR newborns and 25 matched-for-gestational age controls. IUGR was associated with relative interventricular septum hypertrophy, increased left ventricular (LV) E/E' ratio and higher LV myocardial performance index (MPI). On both study days, the IUGR infants presented higher QTd and JTd compared to controls (QTd-D2: 66±20 ms vs. 36±12 ms, P<0.001; JTd-D2: 54±13 ms vs. 34±9 ms, P<0.001; QTd-D5: 61±14 ms vs. 27±12 ms, P<0.001; JTd-D5: 54±13 ms vs. 27±9 ms, P<0.001). The association between QTd and LV E/E' (D2: regression coefficient beta 0.747, R(2) 0.585; D5: beta 0.843, R(2) 0.646) and QTd and MPI (D2: beta 0.680, R(2) 0.576; D5: beta 0.698, R(2) 0.650) was also significant (P<0.001 for all analyses). Our findings suggest that IUGR is associated with electrophysiological remodeling of the neonatal heart, a process which is closely related to the underlying alterations in ventricular mechanics and might predispose to adverse electrophysiological events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Camille M; White, Jessica R; Brown, Ashley S; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R; McElroy, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent "first hit", rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation.

  3. Memory functions of children born with asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Leitner, Yael; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Harel, Shaul

    2006-10-30

    Learning difficulties are frequently diagnosed in children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Models of various animal species with IUGR were studied and demonstrated specific susceptibility and alterations of the hippocampal formation and its related neural structures. The main purpose was to study memory functions of children born with asymmetric IUGR in a large-scale cohort using a long-term prospective paradigm. One hundred and ten infants diagnosed with IUGR were followed-up from birth to 9 years of age. Their performance was compared with a group of 63 children with comparable gestational age and multiple socioeconomic factors. Memory functions (short-term, super- and long-term spans) for different stimuli types (verbal and visual) were evaluated using Visual Auditory Digit Span tasks (VADS), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey-AVLT), and Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). Children with IUGR had short-term memory difficulties that hindered both serial verbal processing system and simultaneous processing of high-load visuo-spatial stimuli. The difficulties were not related to prematurity, neonatal complications or growth catch-up, but were augmented by lower maternal education. Recognition skills and benefits from reiteration, typically affected by hippocampal dysfunction, were preserved in both groups. Memory profile of children born with IUGR is characterized primarily by a short-term memory deficit that does not necessarily comply with a typical hippocampal deficit, but rather may reflect an executive short-term memory deficit characteristic of anterior hippocampal-prefrontal network. Implications for cognitive intervention are discussed.

  4. Neonatal outcome after fetal anemia managed by intrauterine transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, C; Rakza, T; Thomas, D; Wibaut, B; Vaast, P; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2015-11-01

    In-utero transfusion is now well under control and improves the survival of foetuses monitored for fetal anemia with a survival rate of more than 80 %. The aim was to evaluate short-term neonatal outcome after fetal severe anemia managed by intrauterine transfusions. We did a retrospective study of all neonates born after management of severe fetal anemia (n = 93) between January 1999 and January 2013 in our regional center. The two main causes of anemia were maternal red blood cell alloimmunization (N = 81, 87 %) and Parvovirus B19 infection (N = 10, 10.8 %). In the alloimmunization group, phototherapy was implemented in 85.2 % of cases with a maximum level of bilirubin of 114.4 ± 60.7 (mg/dl). Transfusion and exchange transfusion were, respectively, required in 51.9 % and in 34.6 % of cases. One neonate presented a convulsive episode, and we observed three neonatal deaths. In the parvovirus group, none of the child had anemia at birth and no management was necessary. Contemporary management of Rhesus disease is associated with encouraging neonatal outcomes. In case of Parvovirus infection, no specific management is necessary at. But, in all cases of fetal anemia, children should be followed up with particular attention to neurologic development. • In-utero transfusion is now well under control and improves the survival of fetuses monitored for fetal anemia. • Limited studies are available on the effect of IUT on postnatal outcome in infants with a history of fetal anemia. What is New: • Contemporary management of severe Rhesus disease is associated with encouraging neonatal outcomes. • The majority of infants can be managed with phototherapy and a limited number of top-up transfusions and exchange transfusions. In case of Parvovirus infection, the short-term neonatal outcome is excellent.

  5. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Women with Intrauterine Adhesion in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efena R. Efetie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using 2. Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97±4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (<0.02 occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68% were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (<0.05. Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  6. Diagnostic Criteria for Transient Myocardial Ischemia in Newborn Infants with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida F. Nasirova, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances in newborns with intrauterine growth retardation resulting from the transferred intrauterine hypoxia, lead to the development of transient myocardial ischemia. Study included 158 newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation, 83% of which have the asymmetric and 17% - the symmetric form of IUGR, revealed differences in heart rate due to higher dispersion parameters of cardiac rhythm. It was determined that in infants with intrauterine growth retardation heart rate, respiratory rate accelerated and blood pressure increased in compare with the newborns in the control group. According to the ECG examination results, were revealed the signs of focal changes of ST-T, accompanied by inversion of the ST-T segment below the isoline, which accompanied with the positive and peaked T waves, considered as myocardial ischemia. In infants with intrauterine growth retardation, survived after perinatal damage of the central nervous system, the prolongation of the QRST interval was noted in compare with the control group newborns, which could be an indicator of conjunction of hypoxic and ischemic changes in the myocardium. Clinical manifestations of transient myocardial ischemia followed by pale skin, acrocyanosis, and perioral cyanosis against dullness of heart sounds. Obtained results deepened an understanding of posthypoxic myocardial dysfunction, which is characterized by cardiac rhythm and conductivity disturbances, as well as changes in ventricular complex, and causing the need for electrocardiographic screening in the neonatal period

  7. A new rapid and effective method for treatment of unexplained infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelstam, G.; Sjosten, A.; Bjuresten, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artificial insemination (intrauterine insemination by husband or artificial insemination by husband) is often tried as first treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. Perturbation has previously proved to increase the chance of achieving pregnancy for these couples. The effe...

  8. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  9. Morphometry of megakaryocytes in the liver of New Zealand White rabbits during intrauterine and postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Maria Rita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic megakaryocytic cells of New Zealand White rabbit in the intrauterine phase and in the immediate postnatal period were studied. Statistical analysis of the data concerning the cytoplasm and nucleus of those cells, i.e., area, perimeter, maximum diameter, minimum diameter, volume and shape factor, presented significant differences (p<0.01 for F values concerning the life phases studied on15th, 22nd and 29th day of intrauterine life and 10th day of postnatal life, and for F values for animal within each phase. The Tukey?s test showed that most of the parameters studied in the cytoplasm and nucleus of these megakaryocytic cells presented the lowest values on the 15th day of intrauterine life and the highest on the 22nd day of the same phase.

  10. Constraints limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination of cattle in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, M.; Bhuiyan, M.M.U.; Sikder, T.K.; Sugulle, A.H.; Chanda, P.K.; Alam, M.G.S.; Galloway, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the factors that influence postpartum intervals to first detected luteal activity, first service and to conception, and the conception rates of cows in the artificial insemination (AI) programme in Bangladesh. A baseline survey (investigations 1, 2 and 3) was made on 444 milking cows of various breeds presented for the first postpartum insemination by 413 farmers living at 182 villages/regions in Mymensingh District to 6 AI centres and sub-centres. Each cow was then examined three times after each AI until she stopped returning to oestrus. Sixty to 120 days after the last AI, the cows were examined per rectum to confirm the pregnancy. Milk progesterone data on Day 0 and Day 21-24 contributed to a clear diagnosis with respect to pregnancy in 82.5% cows indicating a possible use of this progesterone assay schedule for pregnancy diagnosis in AI programmes. The intervals to first service and to conception varied from 31 to 427 days (median = 184; n=444) and 40 to 426 days (median 184; n=232) respectively, and conception rate from 32-58% (average 46.2%; n=444). Prolongation of weaning age of calves resulted in long intervals to first service and to conception (P<0.001); weaning age varied from 6 to 19 months (median = 10). Cows with body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) of 3 or more and cows calved during July to September had shorter intervals to first service and conception than those with BCS less than 3 and those calved during March. The conception rate was influenced by cattle rearing systems (intensive vs. extensive), purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs. dairy + draught), BCS and milk production (P<0.05). The degrees of vulvar swelling, nature of genital discharge, tonicity of uterus, and interval between oestrus and AI had significant effects on the conception rate. Bulls classified as good and poor on the basis of semen evaluation data differed with respect to the conception rate in AI (P<0.001); this indicates a way of

  11. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  12. Evaluation of ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination in water buffaloes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, M.N.; Talukder, A.K.; Akter, M.; Shamsuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A total of 65 water buffaloes (groups A, B, and C) at =>60 days postpartum with a body condition score (BCS) of =>2.5 were selected to evaluate ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination (TAI). The group A buffaloes (n = 25) were treated with a simple ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF alpha - Day 2 - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). The group B buffaloes (n = 22) received PGF2 alpha treatment 12 days before the initiation of simple ovsynch (PGF2 alpha at Day -12 + simple ovsynch; modified ovsynch). The group C buffaloes (n = 18) were treated with a double ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - Day 3 - GnRH - Day 7 - GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - 48 h - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). Milk P4 ELISA was used for tracking ovulation and conception rates. Ovulation rates were higher in buffaloes that received the double ovsynch treatment (group C; 83.3%) than those with simple ovsynch (group A; 72.0%; P < 0.05). The group C cows (44.4%) achieved a higher concentration rate than the cows of groups A (28.0%) and B (36.4%) (P < 0.05) and multiparous buffaloes having BCS of =>3.5 responded better to the ovsynch treatments than the primiparous ones (P < 0.05). The double ovsynch protocol increases both ovulation and conception rates in comparison to the simple and modified ovsynch protocols and is more effective in multiparous cows than in primiparous ones. (author)

  13. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ESTABLISHING AN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI CENTER FOR CARABAOS IN SAN ILDEFONSO, BULACAN, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Arrienda II

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the carabao subsector is influenced by several constraints such as social,technical, economic and policy factors. The need to enhance the local production of carabaos will helplocal farmers to increase their income. Thus, producing thorough breeds of carabaos and improving itgenetically is the best response to these constraints. This study was conducted to present the feasibilitystudy of establishing an Artificial Insemination (AI Center and its planned area of operation in Brgy.San Juan, Ildefonso, Bulacan. The market, production, organizational and financial viability of operatingthe business would also be evaluated. This particular study will provide insights in establishing an AICenter. Included in this study is the identification of anticipated problems that could affect the businessand recommendation of specific courses of action to counteract these possible problems. Primary datawere obtained through interviews with key informants from the Philippine. Carabao Center (PCC. Togain insights about the present status of an AI Center, interviews with the technicians of PCC and privatefarm were done to get additional information. Secondary data were acquired from various literatures andfrom San Ildefonso Municipal Office. The proposed area would be 1,500 square meters that would beallotted for the laboratory and bullpen. The AI Center will operate six days a week and will be openedfrom 8 AM until 5 PM. However, customers or farmers can call the technicians beyond the office hoursin case of emergency. The total initial investment of Php 3,825,417.39 is needed in establishing the AICenter. The whole amount will be sourced from the owner’s equity. Financial projection showed an IRRof 30% with a computed NPV of Php 2,415,597.00 and a payback period of 3.97 years. Based on all themarket, technical, organizational, financial factors, projections and data analysis, it is said that thisbusiness endeavor is viable and feasible.

  14. Comparison of Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer and Intrauterine Embryo Transfer for Male-factor Infertility After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui Lin

    2004-03-01

    Conclusion: The data presented in this report demonstrate that there was no therapeutic improvement associated with the increased complexity of ZIFT as compared with intrauterine ET after ICSI for the treatment of male-factor infertility. With the advent of improvements in culture techniques in the IVF laboratory, intrauterine ET remains the technique of choice.

  15. Expression of von Willebrand factor and caldesmon in the placental tissues of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksever Çelik, Hale; Uhri, Mehmet; Yildirim, Gökhan

    2017-11-02

    The decreased placental perfusion is the underlying reason for intrauterine growth restriction that in turn leads to reduced placental perfusion and ischemia. However, there are several issues to be understood in the pathophysiology of intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to study whether any compensatory response in placental vascular bed occur in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction by the immunohistochemical staining of von Willebrand factor and caldesmon in placental tissues. A total of 103 pregnant women was enrolled in the study including 50 patients who were complicated with IUGR and 50 uncomplicated control patients. The study was designed in a prospective manner. All placentas were also stained with von Willebrand factor and caldesmon monoclonal kits. The immunohistochemical staining of von Willebrand factor and caldesmon expressions in placental tissues were different between normal and intrauterine growth restriction group. The percentages of 2+ and 3+ von Willebrand factor expression were higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group comparing with the normal group, although the difference was not statistically significant. The intensity of caldesmon expression was significantly lower in the intrauterine growth restriction group in comparison with the normal group (p intrauterine growth restriction which is a hypoxic condition. But newly formed vessels are immature and not strong enough. Our study is important to clarify the pathophysiology and placental compensatory responses in intrauterine growth restriction.

  16. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  17. Is dilatation and curettage obsolete for diagnosing intrauterine disorders in premenopausal patients with persistent abnormal uterine bleeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emanuel, M. H.; Wamsteker, K.; Lammes, F. B.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the predictive value of dilatation and curettage (D&C) for diagnosing intrauterine disorders in patients with persistent abnormal uterine bleeding. An observational descriptive study was performed in a large university-affiliated teaching hospital. The suspicion of intrauterine

  18. Defining and predicting 'intrauterine fetal renal failure' in congenital lower urinary tract obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Rodrigo; Safdar, Adnan; Au, Jason; Koh, Chester J; Gargollo, Patricio; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Espinoza, Jimmy; Cass, Darrell L; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Welty, Stephen; Roth, David R; Belfort, Michael A; Braun, Michael C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of 'intrauterine fetal renal failure' in fetuses with severe congenital lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). We undertook a retrospective study of 31 consecutive fetuses with a diagnosis of LUTO in a tertiary Fetal Center between April 2013 and April 2015. Predictors of 'intrauterine fetal renal failure' were evaluated in those infants with severe LUTO who had either a primary composite outcome measure of neonatal death in the first 24 h of life due to severe pulmonary hypoplasia or a need for renal replacement therapy within 7 days of life. The following variables were analyzed: fetal bladder re-expansion 48 h after vesicocentesis, fetal renal ultrasound characteristics, fetal urinary indices, and amniotic fluid volume. Of the 31 fetuses included in the study, eight met the criteria for 'intrauterine fetal renal failure'. All of the latter had composite poor postnatal outcomes based on death within 24 h of life (n = 6) or need for dialysis within 1 week of life (n = 2). The percentage of fetal bladder refilling after vesicocentesis at time of initial evaluation was the only predictor of 'intrauterine fetal renal failure' (cut-off <27 %, area under the time-concentration curve 0.86, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.99; p = 0.009). We propose the concept of 'intrauterine fetal renal failure' in fetuses with the most severe forms of LUTO. Fetal bladder refilling can be used to reliably predict 'intrauterine fetal renal failure', which is associated with severe pulmonary hypoplasia or the need for dialysis within a few days of life.

  19. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  20. Enteral feeding of intrauterine growth restriction preterm infants: theoretical risks and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bozzetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR infants are thought to have impaired gut function after birth secondary to intrauterine redistribution of the blood flow, due to placental insufficiency, with a consequent reduction of gut perfusion. For this reason, infants complicated by IUGR have been considered at higher risk of feeding intolerance. Postnatal evaluation of splanchnic perfusion, through Doppler of the superior mesenteric artery, and of splanchnic oxygenation, through near infrared spectroscopy measurements, may be useful in evaluating the persistence (or not of the redistribution of blood flow occurred in utero.

  1. Value of endometrial thickness measurement for diagnosing focal intrauterine pathology in women without abnormal uterine bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, E; Sorensen, S Stampe; Ibsen, P H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of transvaginal sonographic (TVS) measurement of endometrial thickness for diagnosing focal intrauterine pathology in women without abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). METHODS: A random selection from the Danish Civil Registration System was made: 1660 women...... of endometrial thickness is a poor diagnostic test, but is apparently efficacious in excluding focal intrauterine pathology, especially in postmenopausal women. The 4-5-mm threshold conventionally used to exclude endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding is not transferable to women without...

  2. New Approaches to Treatment of Severe Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Kurmangali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality due to placental insufficiency. Currently, one of the new approaches to treating this disease is the injection of nutrients to the fetus through intravascular port-systems (catheters.Objective. To assess the impact of nutrient injections as treatment to fetuses with severe growth retardation.Materials and methods. Pregnant women with IUGR (abdominal circumference (AC < 5th percentile with the absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and a fetal gestational age of less than 30 weeks were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group included six pregnant women who had an intravascular port-system for the infusion of nutrients (amino acids and glucose in the umbilical vein of the fetus for 14 ± 3 days. The control group consisted of eight patients who received only traditional dynamic monitoring and delivery at the optimum time of pregnancy. Fetal status was assessed using ultrasound equipment Accuvix V20 (Medison, South Korea by examining indicators of biometry and Doppler study of blood flow in utero, umbilical arteries, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus with fetal vascular resistance index calculation - pulsatility index (PI. Criteria for blood flow disturbances in the vessels were considered PI values above normal values for their gestational age, which were defined as absence or reverse blood flow in a diastole in the umbilical artery.Results. In a comparative analysis of the two groups, the treatment led to a 44.7% increase in AC of the fetus (121.0 ± 11.5 mm and 219.3 ± 18.3 mm, respectively, p ˂ 0.001. In all cases, the profile of blood flow in the umbilical artery had a positive diastolic component. As a result, there was a 45.3% decrease in PI in the umbilical artery (2.14 ± 0.54 and 1.17 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.05. Average fetal weight in the study group was not significantly higher than the

  3. Accuracy of information about the intrauterine device on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Tessa; Cortez, Sarah; Kuzemchak, Marie; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Politi, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective methods of contraception, but use continues to lag behind less effective methods such as oral contraceptive pills and condoms. Women who are aware of the actual effectiveness of various contraceptive methods are more likely to choose the IUD. Conversely, women who are misinformed about the safety of IUDs may be less likely to use this method. Individuals increasingly use the Internet for health information. Information about IUDs obtained through the Internet may influence attitudes about IUD use among patients. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of information about IUDs among World Wide Web sites providing contraceptive information to the public. We developed a 56-item structured questionnaire to evaluate the quality of information about IUDs available through the Internet. We then conducted an online search to identify web sites containing information about contraception and IUDs using common search engines. The search was performed in August 2013 and web sites were reviewed again in October 2015 to ensure there were no substantial changes. Our search identified >2000 web sites, of which 108 were eligible for review; 105 (97.2%) of these sites contained information about IUDs. Of sites, 86% provided at least 1 mechanism of the IUD. Most web sites accurately reported advantages of the IUD including that it is long acting (91%), highly effective (82%), and reversible (68%). However, only 30% of sites explicitly indicated that IUDs are safe. Fifty percent (n = 53) of sites contained inaccurate information about the IUD such as an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease beyond the insertion month (27%) or that women in nonmonogamous relationships (30%) and nulliparous women (20%) are not appropriate candidates. Among sites, 44% stated that a mechanism of IUDs is prevention of implantation of a fertilized egg. Only 3% of web sites incorrectly stated that IUDs are an abortifacient. More than a quarter of

  4. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPARIAN, Shahram; ABDULAHNEJAD, Ahad; RASHIDI, Farzad; TOGHYANI, Majid; GHEISARI, Abbasali; EGHBALSAIED, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 109 sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks. PMID:26935324

  5. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  7. Relationship between physical characteristics and ionic content of cervical mucus pregnancy status to inseminate heifers detected in estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savia CL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of zeal tends to be one of them factors multiple that affect the rate of pregnancy in dairy farms; because females are inseminated outside the most appropriate time to reach fertilization. The objective of the present study was to analyze macroscopic characteristics(quantity, appearance and consistency, crystallization phenomenon, pH, level of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine in the cervical mucus of heifers in order to relatethese properties with the periovulatory period. Be used 20 Holstein heifers. Mucus was obtained prior to insemination and it was picked up by suction from the cervix. pH was determined using reactive tape (6-7,9 and the degree of crystallization (0-4 was evaluated according to typical and atypical fern leaf formations. It was determined pH test (6-7,9 tape and evaluate the degree of crystallization (0 - 4 according to the typical and atypical formations of fern leaves. Ionic content was determined using commercial kits (Wiener SAIC laboratories. Pregnancy was detected in 60 days post insemination. Each variable was described by its mean and deviation standard and by ANOVA established significant differences between means. It showed that the pregnancy was related to a mucus contains a concentration significantly less than K and Mg, compared with empty heifers (K, P:7,76 V: 12,97; Mg, P:2, 80 V:3,93; p<0,05 t=2,16. pH was significantly higher in the pregnant females, and the crystallization grade significantly lower (pH P:7, 60 V: 6, 23; crystallization P: 1,31 V2, 21; p<0,01 t=3,01. The results allow concluding that the optimum to inseminate was associated with cervical mucus observed macroscopically liquid, transparent and generous; with a pH above 7.0 and that it was forming atypical leaves of fern with an average of 1.31. Probably, the liquid consistency or liquid facilitates the transport of sperm and an osmotic active, responsible for the retention force is not related to content perhaps

  8. 131I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    The method of 131 I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma. (author)

  9. Impact of the quality of life of inseminators on the results of artificial insemination programs in beef cattle Impacto da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nos resultados de programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of factors of personal life and work conditions on the results obtained by inseminators in conventional and fixed-timed artificial insemination programs in beef cattle. Inseminators from three farms (21 in the total were interviewed and evaluated according to the general obtained pregnancy rates. The differences among the pregnancy rates obtained in the farms, motivation and its association with the obtained pregnancy rate and the effect of each variable of the groups of needs on the pregnancy rate at first insemination were evaluated. The open questions were grouped by similarity and then analyzed by frequency of the answers. Pregnancy rates obtained by the inseminators ranged from 12 to 57%, with a mean service index of 3.10 ± 1.62 doses/pregnancy. It was also observed that the satisfaction of biological, financial, and training needs was more intimately related to the pregnancy rate than the satisfaction of the other needs, although none had shown an antagonistic relationship with it. Factors concerned to life quality and to the work can be important in determining the performance of these professionals.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho sobre os resultados obtidos por inseminadores em programas de inseminação artificial convencional e em tempo fixo em bovinos de corte. Inseminadores de três propriedades rurais (21 no total foram entrevistados e avaliados quanto à taxa de gestação geral obtida. Foram avaliadas as diferenças entre as taxas de gestação obtidas nas fazendas, a motivação e sua associação com a taxa de gestação obtida e o efeito de cada variável dos grupos de necessidades sobre a taxa de gestação à primeira inseminação. As questões abertas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade, foram analisadas por frequência de respostas. A taxa de gestação obtida pelos inseminadores variou entre 12 e 57%, com

  10. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before TCAI in ewes, mainly in the breeding season. The specific reason(s) for impaired fertility after the TCAI using

  11. JSAR Innovative Technology Award. Development of ovulation synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyoji

    2005-04-01

    Recently, reproductive management has become more difficult as a result of increased herd size. Problems with missing estrous signs and decrease in conception rate by artificial insemination (AI) performed at wrong timing have caused low AI conception rates. In 1995, ovulation synchronization and fixed-time AI (Ovsynch/TAI) was developed in the USA as a new reproductive technology, which was accepted as an useful reproductive management tool in many countries. However, no information on the use of Ovsynch/TAI was available in Japan. It was, therefore, warranted to show the ovulation rate and conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI using gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-A, fertirelin acetate) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-THAM, both were commercially available in this country. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI has been known to vary among different herds and individuals. Investigation and analysis of factors affecting the conception rate was also warranted to improve the conception rate. A series of experiments were carried out to establish Ovsynch/TAI using domestically produced GnRH-A and PGF2alpha and to study factors affecting conception rate after Ovsynch protocol. Ovsynch using 100 microg GnRH-A and 25 mg PGF2alpha were observed using ultrasonography. As a result, a high synchronization rate of ovulation at 16 to 20 h after the second GnRH injection was confirmed. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was compared in 87 cows with the conception rate after AI at estrus induced by PGF2alpha (139 cows). Conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was higher than the figure after AI at induced estrus (59.1% vs 20.9%, Pbody condition score (BCS) was 3.75 at dry period and 3.0 at the day of Ovsynch. In conclusion, Ovsynch/TAI is an effective tool for the reproductive management of dairy cows. A steady and sufficient conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI could be expected by taking the factors affecting the conception rate into the consideration.

  12. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  13. The dangers of disease transmission by artificial insemination and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, M

    1993-01-01

    This review summarizes the major infectious diseases of the three major agricultural species (cattle, sheep and pigs) and horses, and presents the evidence for and against the possibility of infectious agents being transmitted between animals via the venereal route or by the use of semen or early embryos in commercial artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET). Cattle feature most prominently in the widespread distribution of frozen semen, and national and international organizations have set out guidelines to work towards disease-free bull studs with semen free from potential pathogens. With the control of major epizootic diseases, attention has been focused on such diseases as IBR, BVD and blue tongue, where clinical signs are rarely evident but the detection of virus in semen is of great importance. New information on the relevance of bacterial disease such as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, campylobacteriosis and leptospirosis is reviewed, along with details of the mycoplasma and ureaplasma species of the bull's genital tract. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has attracted much research and semen is not regarded as a source of infection. New work on the pathogenesis of a number of diseases and the use of new biotechnology in diagnosis is included. The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has encouraged a great deal of experimental work--much originating in Canada--on the risk of transmission of disease from donors to recipients via a 7-day-old blastocyst. There has been much success in demonstrating that with an approved protocol of handling the embryos, to date there is very little danger in disease transmission with both viruses and bacteria. The mycoplasma group appear more intractable and the role of BSE is still being evaluated. In sheep, scrapie, Brucella ovis infection and blue tongue feature in current work. In the pig there is a surge in international movement of pig semen, and Aujeszky's disease and the new so-called Blue Ear

  14. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  15. Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeygunawardena, H.; Alexander, P.A.B.D.; Abeygunawardena, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

  16. Conception rates to fixed-time artificial insemination of two oestrus synchronisation programmes in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Parkinson, T J; Laven, R A

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the conception rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) of two oestrus synchronisation programmes in dairy heifers on eight farms over 2 years. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2010 on eight farms near Palmerston North, New Zealand. Nulliparous Friesian and Friesian×Jersey heifers (13-15 months of age) were randomly allocated to one of two oestrus synchronisation programmes. Group 1 (GPG+P4; n=330), received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I/M on Day 0, a progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device from Days 0-7, prostaglandin F2α (PGF) I/M on Day 7 and a second dose of GnRH at the time of FTAI on Day 9. The second group (P4+PGF; n=343) received a P4-releasing intravaginal device from Days 0-7, PGF on Day 6 and FTAI on Day 9. Pregnancy was diagnosed from Days 42-52 by transrectal ultrasonography. The overall conception rate was 52.4% and 54.8% for the GPG+P4 and P4+PGF groups, respectively. The odds of conception for the two treatments were not different (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.67-1.23), nor was there any difference between groups in different years (p=0.58). Farm affected conception rate (p=0.002), but there was no interaction with treatment (p=0.92) . This study has shown that an alternative synchronisation programme can produce similar results in terms of conception rate to the GPG+P4 treatment, currently commonly used in heifers. More research is required to establish whether other modifications to the GPG+P4 programme can produce similar results at lower costs, and to identify and quantify farm factors which affect the economic benefit of heifer synchronisation. This study indicated that synchronising heifers with P4 and PGF resulted in conception rates equivalent to those resulting from a GPG+P4 treatment, but with reduced drug costs. However, because heifers in the GPG+P4 group received the second GnRH injection at the time of AI, they needed only three yardings as opposed to the four required for the heifers treated with P4

  17. Creatinine concentrations of accumulated intrauterine fluid to confirm the clinical diagnosis of urometra in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnobrich, M R; Gordon, D L; Scoggin, C F; Bradecamp, E A; Canisso, I F

    2017-03-25

    Urine pooling, as a persistent condition, is a cause of infertility in mares due to endometrial inflammation and sperm toxicity. Identification of urometra can be challenging in mares presenting with the condition intermittently, or when urine flows into the uterus but is undetectable in the vagina. Currently, there are no reported objective methods to confirm the clinical diagnosis of urine contamination in intrauterine-fluid accumulations. Since creatinine is present in high concentrations in urine and does not diffuse across cell membranes, creatinine concentration should be increased in mares with urometra, but negligible in normal and mares with intrauterine fluid accumulation (non-urometra cases). To test this hypothesis, creatinine concentrations of intrauterine fluid were measured in mares with a clinical diagnosis of urine accumulation (n=9) or intrauterine fluid containing no urine (n=10). Results showed that creatinine concentrations (mg/dl) were significantly higher in mares that had a clinical diagnosis of urometra (42.8±12.6, range 4.1-109.2) compared with those that did not (0.38±0.1, range 0-0.9). Also, two mares after urethral extension surgery demonstrated a remarkable reduction in creatinine concentrations. This study highlights an undocumented approach to confirm a clinical diagnosis of urometra in mares; the authors anticipate that testing for creatinine in the uterine fluid of mares may become a standard tool for identifying urometra in mares and confirming the success of urogenital surgeries. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Low-grade inflammation in young adults exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between fetal exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adult offspring. METHOD: We studied 597 offspring, aged 18-27years, from four different groups concerning...

  19. Ultrasonographic visualization of bleeding sites can help control postpartum hemorrhage using intrauterine balloon tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Eiji; Konishi, Mitsunaga; Kariya, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of precise bleeding sites is generally important to control hemorrhage. Nevertheless, the optimal technique to detect the bleeding sites has not yet been fully defined for patients with life-threatening post partum hemorrhage. We describe that ultrasonographic visualization of bleeding sites can help control post partum hemorrhage using intrauterine balloon tamponade. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  2. Intra-uterine tissue engineering of full-thickness skin defects in a fetal sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, Nynke A.; Eggink, Alex J.; Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Bank, Ruud A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Geutjes, Paul J.; Daamen, Willeke F.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Tiemessen, Dorien M.; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Crevels, Jane J.; Blokx, Willeke A. M.; Lotgering, Fred K.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Feitz, Wout F. J.

    In spina bifida the neural tube fails to close during the embryonic period and it is thought that prolonged exposure of the unprotected spinal cord to the amniotic fluid during pregnancy causes additional neural damage. Intra-uterine repair might protect the neural tissue from exposure to amniotic

  3. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  4. Intrauterine dwarfism, peculiar facies and thin bones with multiple fractures - a new syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Kan, A.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1988-01-01

    Three newborns with thin ribs and thin long bones with multiple fractures are reported. Whereas one patient presents a syndromic association of bone dysplasia and intrauterine dwarfism two other patients cannot be appropriately evaluated due to lack of basic clinical and pathologic data. (orig.)

  5. Morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosenko, O.L.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in cytogenetic studies and morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated. The alterations in relative mass organs, increase of number sperm cells and abnormal form of sperm cells in epididymis were ascertained. (authors)

  6. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p language comprehension, total expressive language (vocabulary, structure, content), naming skills and non-words repetition. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between relative growth of the head [(Actual head circumference - head circumference at birth)/(Body weight - birth weight)] and language outcome. Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p language comprehension and total expressive language. Intrauterine growth retardation has a negative impact on language development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Timing of insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Pahh; Geomini, Pmaj; Herman, M C; Veersema, S; Bongers, M Y

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether patient-perceived pain during the insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) depends on the timing during the menstrual cycle. DESIGN: A stratified two-armed non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large

  8. Does measurement of intrauterine pressure have predictive value during oxytocin-augmented labor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Ben Willem J.; Logtenberg, Sabine L. M.; Verhoeven, Corine J. M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Bakker, Jannet J. H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous randomized trial that compared monitoring uterine contractions with an intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) versus external monitoring, we demonstrated that use of an IUPC did not improve the outcome of labor. To provide insight in the lack of a positive effect, we evaluated level of

  9. Intrauterin Device Migration to the Bladder and Endoscopic Treatment; Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižsmail Nalbant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrauterine device (IUD is a long term, efficient, reversible and common method of contraception. IUD migration into the bladder is a rarely observed complication. Chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, resistant urinary tract infections and bladder irritative voiding symptoms in the presence of IUD migration should be considered. This study aimed to report cases of bladder petrified IUD.

  10. Pre- and postnatal imaging of Pai syndrome with spontaneous intrauterine closure of a frontal cephalocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Ebner, Lukas; Stranzinger, Enno [Inselspital University Hospital, University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Liniger, Benjamin [Inselspital University Hospital, University of Bern, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Weisstanner, Christian [Inselspital University Hospital, University of Bern, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by cutaneous polyps of the face, pericallosal lipoma and median cleft lip. We report on a newborn girl with a variant of Pai syndrome presenting with all typical findings except a median cleft. In addition, fetal sonography and MRI showed the unique intrauterine evolution of a cephalocele into an atretic cephalocele. (orig.)

  11. Intrauterine contraception: the role of general practitioners in four Dutch general practices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.A.; Veldhuis, H.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) use in the Netherlands and the United States is limited to a small group of women, though the risk of infection and pregnancy is small. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the characteristics of women who choose an IUD as contraceptive method and the influence

  12. Intrauterine transfusion combined with partial exchange transfusion for twin anemia polycythemia sequence: modeling a novel technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, F.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; Akkermans, J.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Middeldorp, J. M.; Klumper, F. J.; Oepkes, D.; Lopriore, E.

    2015-01-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described disease in monochorionic twin pregnancies, characterized by large inter-twin hemoglobin differences. Optimal management for TAPS is not clear. One of the possible treatment modalities is intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) in the donor

  13. The Probable Effects of Cytokines in Intrauterine Infections and Perinatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oflaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain injuries and the subsequent development of cerebral palsy are closely associated with intrauterine infections and inflammatory response. Premature prenatal rupture of membranes and premature births are also closely linked to infections and inflammation, and the presence of both infection / inflammation and premature birth together greatly increase the risk for cerebral palsy. Periventricular leukolamacia, a common neonatal brain white matter lesion, is a major risk factor for cerebral palsy. Inflammatory cytokines released during the course of intrauterine infection play an important role in the genesis of brain white matter lesion. Maternal intrauterine infection appears to increase the risk of preterm delivery, which in turn is associated with an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal white matter damage, and subsequent cerebral palsy. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor-%u03B1 might be the link between prenatal intrauterine infection and neonatal brain damage, and interrupting the proinflammatory cytokine cascade might prevent later disability in those born near the end of the second trimester.

  14. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; van Vugt, J. M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester serum specimens of 23

  15. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Vugt, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester

  16. Empty-bladder (hysterographic) view on US for evaluation of intrauterine devices. Work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R; Gombergh, R

    1987-06-01

    Ultrasound scanning of the pelvis with an empty bladder permits a true frontal view of the uterus to be easily obtained. This view is comparable to the en face view seen at hysterography performed with contrast material. Good definition both of the endometrium and the uterine wall makes this the optimal method for the evaluation of an intrauterine contraceptive device.

  17. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded

  18. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. This study was embedded in the Generation R Focus

  19. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  20. Training contraceptive providers to offer intrauterine devices and implants in contraceptive care: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirsten M J; Rocca, Corinne H; Stern, Lisa; Morfesis, Johanna; Goodman, Suzan; Steinauer, Jody; Harper, Cynthia C

    2018-06-01

    US unintended pregnancy rates remain high, and contraceptive providers are not universally trained to offer intrauterine devices and implants to women who wish to use these methods. We sought to measure the impact of a provider training intervention on integration of intrauterine devices and implants into contraceptive care. We measured the impact of a continuing medical education-accredited provider training intervention on provider attitudes, knowledge, and practices in a cluster randomized trial in 40 US health centers from 2011 through 2013. Twenty clinics were randomly assigned to the intervention arm; 20 offered routine care. Clinic staff participated in baseline and 1-year surveys assessing intrauterine device and implant knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare changes that occurred in the intervention sites to changes in the control sites 1 year later. Prespecified outcome measures included: knowledge of patient eligibility for intrauterine devices and implants; attitudes about method safety; and counseling practices. We used multivariable regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by clinic to examine intervention effects on provider outcomes 1 year later. Overall, we surveyed 576 clinic staff (314 intervention, 262 control) at baseline and/or 1-year follow-up. The change in proportion of providers who believed that the intrauterine device was safe was greater in intervention (60% at baseline to 76% at follow-up) than control sites (66% at both times) (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.4). Likewise, for the implant, the proportion increased from 57-77% in intervention, compared to 61-65% in control sites (adjusted odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.59). The proportion of providers who believed they were experienced to counsel on intrauterine devices also increased in intervention (53-67%) and remained the same in control sites (60

  1. Differential performance of honey bee colonies selected for bee-pollen production through instrumental insemination and free-mating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of bee-pollen as a nutritional supplement or as a production-enhancing agent in livestock has increased the demand for this product worldwide. Despite the current importance of this niche within the apiculture industry, few studies have addressed the pollen production. We tested the performance of free-mated (FM and instrumentally inseminated queens (IQ in order to establish the effect of different breeding systems on pollen production. The F1 generation of IQ queens produced 153.95±42.83g/day, showing a significant improvement on the pollen production (2.74 times when compared to the parental generation (51.83±7.84g/day. The F1 generation of free-mated queens produced 100.07±8.23 g/day, which increased by 1.78 times when compared to the parental generation. Furthermore, we observed a statistically significant difference between the pollen production between colonies from the IQ and FM treatments. This study suggests that inseminated queens should be considered by beekeepers that aim to increase pollen production.

  2. Secrecy, disclosure and everything in-between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Jadva, Vasanti; Golombok, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined families where children lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their parents. A total of 101 families (36 donor insemination families, 32 egg donation families and 33 surrogacy families) were interviewed when the child was aged 7 years. Despite a shift in professional attitudes towards openness, about half of the children conceived by egg donation and nearly three-quarters of those conceived by donor insemination remained unaware that the person they know as their mother or father is not, in fact, their genetic parent. By contrast, almost all the surrogacy parents had told their child how they were born. A majority of parents who planned never to tell their child about their conception had told at least one other person. However, qualitative data indicated that to categorize families as ‘secret’ or ‘open’ is inadequate. In fact many parents engage in ‘layers’ of disclosure about their child’s conception, both with their child and with family and friends. PMID:21398181

  3. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate.

  4. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP: hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA. Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF, which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P0.05. The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required.

  5. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momongan, V.G.; Palad, O.A.; Singh, M.; Sarabia, A.S.; Chiong, R.D.; Nava, Z.M.; Obsioma, A.R.; Del Barrio, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  6. A levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system embedded in the omentum in a woman with abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Mirena intrauterine system has been licensed as a contraceptive in the United Kingdom since May 1995. The use of an intrauterine system as a primary method of contraception among women has been slowly increasing over the last few years and they now account for about 3% of contraceptive use in England. The Mirena intrauterine system now also has a license for the management of idiopathic menorrhagia. Women may be informed that the rate of uterine perforation associated with intrauterine contraceptive use is low (0-2.3 per 1000 insertions. The rate of perforation reported with the Mirena intrauterine system in a large observational cohort study was 0.9 per 1000 insertions. Case presentation In this case report, the diagnosis of an intraperitoneal Mirena intrauterine system was noted nearly four years after its insertion, despite the patient having had a vaginal hysterectomy and admissions to hospital in the interim with complaints of abdominal pain. Conclusion This case report demonstrates clearly that whenever there is a question of a intrauterine system having fallen out following an ultrasound scan report showing an empty uterus, clinicians should also perform an abdominal X-ray.

  7. Impact of HBV replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cell on HBV intrauterine transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Wang, Xuefei; Xu, Xixi; Feng, Yongliang; Li, Shuzhen; Feng, Shuying; Wang, Bo; Wang, Suping

    2017-12-01

    This study determined the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HBsAg-positive mothers on HBV intrauterine transmission. A total of 150 HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates were recruited in this study. Within 24 h after birth, HBV serological markers, serum HBV DNA, PBMC HBV relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA), and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were measured in the HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates before passive-active immune prophylaxis. The relationship between HBV replication in PBMC and HBV intrauterine transmission was examined through Chisquare test and logistic regression. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission was 8.00% (12/150) in the 150 neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers. The positivities of PBMC HBV rcDNA and cccDNA in the HBsAg-positive mothers were 36.67% (55/150) and 10% (15/150), respectively. Maternal PBMC HBV cccDNA was a risk factor of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR = 6.003, 95% CI: 1.249-28.855). Maternal serum HBeAg was a risk factor of PBMC HBV rcDNA (OR = 3.896, 95% CI: 1.929-7.876) and PBMC HBV cccDNA (OR = 3.74, 95% CI: 1.186-11.793) in the HBsAg-positive mothers. Administration of hepatitis B immune globulin was a protective factor of PBMC HBV cccDNA (OR = 0.312, 95%CI: 0.102-0.954) during pregnancy. The positivity of PBMC HBV rcDNA was related to that of cccDNA in the HBsAg-positive mothers (χ 2 = 5.087, P = 0.024). This study suggests that PBMC is a reservoir of HBV and an extrahepatic site for virus replication and plays a critical role in HBV intrauterine transmission.

  8. Association of cord blood chemokines and other biomarkers with neonatal complications following intrauterine inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Otsubo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine inflammation has been associated with preterm birth and neonatal complications. Few reports have comprehensively investigated multiple cytokine profiles in cord blood and precisely identified surrogate markers for intrauterine inflammation.To identify the cytokines and surrogate markers associated with intrauterine inflammation and subsequent neonatal complications.We analyzed cord blood samples from 135 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Sasebo City General Hospital. We retrospectively determined the associations between the presence of neonatal complications and cord blood cytokines, prenatal factors, and laboratory data at birth. A total of 27 cytokines in the cord blood were measured using a bead-based array sandwich immunoassay.Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels were low, whereas the levels of growth factors and chemokines were high. In particular, chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1α were significantly higher in very premature neonates when compared with more mature neonates. In addition, some have been shown to be associated with multiple neonatal complications, including patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and chronic lung disease (CLD. Similarly, the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, nucleated RBC, and urinary β2-microglobulin were associated with these complications and chemokine levels.Our results suggest the association of inflammatory chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1α with intrauterine inflammation, premature birth, and neonatal complications in these perinatal subjects. Furthermore, the association of the aforementioned biomarkers with PDA, RDS, and CLD may help establish early diagnostic measures to predict such neonatal complications following intrauterine inflammation.

  9. Brain metabolite alterations in infants born preterm with intrauterine growth restriction: association with structural changes and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rui V; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Cruz-Lemini, Mónica; Eixarch, Elisenda; Bargalló, Núria; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth represent 2 independent problems that may occur simultaneously and contribute to impaired neurodevelopment. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the frontal lobe metabolic profiles of 1 year old intrauterine growth restriction infants born prematurely and adequate-for-gestational-age controls, both premature and term adequate for gestational age and their association with brain structural and biophysical parameters and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. A total of 26 prematurely born intrauterine growth restriction infants (birthweight intrauterine growth restriction infants had slightly smaller brain volumes and increased frontal lobe white matter mean diffusivity compared with both prematurely born but adequate for gestational age and term adequate for gestational age controls. Frontal lobe N-acetylaspartate levels were significantly lower in prematurely born intrauterine growth restriction than in prematurely born but adequate for gestational age infants but increased in prematurely born but adequate for gestational age compared with term adequate-for-gestational-age infants. The prematurely born intrauterine growth restriction group also showed slightly lower choline compounds, borderline decrements of estimated glutathione levels, and increased myoinositol to choline ratios, compared with prematurely born but adequate for gestational age controls. These specific metabolite changes were locally correlated to lower gray matter content and increased mean diffusivity and reduced white matter fraction and fractional anisotropy. Prematurely born intrauterine growth restriction infants also showed a tendency for poorer neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years, associated with lower levels of frontal lobe N-acetylaspartate at 1 year within the preterm subset. Preterm intrauterine growth restriction infants showed altered brain metabolite profiles during a critical stage of brain maturation, which

  10. Left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in term neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Bahar; Sert, Ahmet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated structural changes in the heart and cardiac dysfunction in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. There are no available data that evaluated left ventricular dimensions and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. We also assessed associated maternal risk factors, and compared results with healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates. In all, 62 asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, 39 symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, and 50 healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. The asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters and posterior wall diameter in systole and diastole than the control group. The symmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than the control group. All left ventricular dimensions were lower in the asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates compared with symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates (p>0.05), but not statistically significant except left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (3.08±0.83 mm versus 3.54 ±0.72 mm) (pintrauterine growth restriction groups had significantly lower relative posterior wall thickness (0.54±0.19 versus 0.48±0.13 versus 0.8±0.12), left ventricular mass (9.8±4.3 g versus 8.9±3.4 g versus 22.2±5.7 g), and left ventricular mass index (63.6±29.1 g/m2 versus 54.5±24.4 g/m2 versus 109±28.8 g/m2) when compared with the control group. Our study has demonstrated that although neonates with both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction had lower left ventricular dimensions, relative

  11. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with short- and long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Structural brain changes underlying these alterations have been described with the use of different magnetic resonance-based methods that include changes in whole structural brain networks. However, evaluation of specific brain circuits and its correlation with related functions has not been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction. In this study, we aimed to investigate differences in tractography-related metrics in cortico-striatal-thalamic and motor networks in intrauterine growth restricted children and whether these parameters were related with their specific function in order to explore its potential use as an imaging biomarker of altered neurodevelopment. We included a group of 24 intrauterine growth restriction subjects and 27 control subjects that were scanned at 1 year old; we acquired T1-weighted and 30 directions diffusion magnetic resonance images. Each subject brain was segmented in 93 regions with the use of anatomical automatic labeling atlas, and deterministic tractography was performed. Brain regions included in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks were defined based in functional and anatomic criteria. Within the streamlines that resulted from the whole brain tractography, those belonging to each specific circuit were selected and tractography-related metrics that included number of streamlines, fractional anisotropy, and integrity were calculated for each network. We evaluated differences between both groups and further explored the correlation of these parameters with the results of socioemotional, cognitive, and motor scales from Bayley Scale at 2 years of age. Reduced fractional anisotropy (cortico-striatal-thalamic, 0.319 ± 0.018 vs 0.315 ± 0.015; P = .010; motor, 0.322 ± 0.019 vs 0.319 ± 0.020; P = .019) and integrity cortico-striatal-thalamic (0.407 ± 0.040 vs 0.399 ± 0.034; P = .018; motor, 0.417 ± 0.044 vs 0

  12. Evaluation of a seasonal-breeding artificial insemination programme in Uruguay using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Juanbeltz, R.; Canclini, E.; ElHordoy, D.; Lanzzeri, S.; Gama, S.; Martinez, E.; Galina, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate artificial insemination (AI) services and reproductive efficiency in dairy herds in Uruguay two surveys were conducted in 1995 and 1996. The 1995 survey was done in 10 dairy farms of 3 regions on 696 lactating Holstein cows. The 1996 survey was done in 5 dairy farms in one region and included 768 cows. Precision of oestrus detection and efficiency of AI services were determined by milk progesterone samples taken at days 0, 10 and 23 after breeding and by analysis of the records. In 1995 and 1996, the intervals from calving to first service were 123 and 101 days, and to conception were 158 and 134 days, respectively. Parity, body weight and body condition at calving influenced these parameters, but not body weight or body condition at breeding nor milk production. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by milk progesterone was 70.4%. Heat detection rate was 37.5% and pregnancy rate was 15.6%. In 1997 a second study was done to determine the factors affecting reproductive efficiency in a seasonal breeding AI programme in 328 lactating cows on 3 dairy farms. Milk progesterone measurement revealed that 12.5% of the cows were anoestrous at the beginning of the season and remained so during the trial. The category mostly affected were first-calf heifers (82%). Also, 8.5% of the cows cycling were never reported in heat and this was influenced by farm. Oestrus detection efficiency for cows determined to be cycling by progesterone profiles was evaluated in three periods of 21 days and overall efficiency was 46.9%. Main factor affecting it was farm, with an effect of parity (67.8% in mature cows and 33.2% in first-calf heifers) but no effect of days postpartum. Mean interval from the beginning of the breeding season to first service was 27.4 days, again with a strong farm variation but no effect of parity or days postpartum. In an attempt to improve reproductive efficiency in lactating dairy cows, a treatment protocol was designed, where 414 cows in two herds were

  13. Presynchronization with Double-Ovsynch improves fertility at first postpartum artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, M M; Giordano, J O; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Keskin, A; Nascimento, A B; Guenther, J N; Gaska, J M; Kacuba, S J; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T; Wiltbank, M C

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) following Ovsynch-56 after 2 different presynchronization protocols: Double-Ovsynch (DO) or Presynch-Ovsynch (PS). Our main hypothesis was that DO would increase fertility in primiparous cows, but not in multiparous cows. Within each herd (n=3), lactating dairy cows (n=1,687; 778 primiparous, 909 multiparous) were randomly assigned to DO [n=837; GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-3d-GnRH-7d-Ovsynch-56 (GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-56h-GnRH-16hTAI)] or PS (n=850; PGF(2α)-14d-PGF(2α)-12d-Ovsynch-56). In 1 herd, concentrations of P4 were determined at the first GnRH (GnRH1) of Ovsynch-56 and at d 11 after TAI (n=739). In all herds, pregnancy was diagnosed by palpation per rectum at 39 d. In 1 herd, the incidence of late embryo loss was determined at 74d, and data were available on P/AI at the subsequent second service. Presynchronization with DO reduced the percentage of animals with low P4 concentrations (cows treated with DO had low P4 concentrations at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 (3.3 vs. 19.7%, DO vs. PS primiparous; and 8.8 vs. 31.9%, DO vs. PS multiparous). Presynchronization with DO improved P/AI at the first postpartum service (46.3 vs. 38.2%, DO vs. PS). Statistically, a fertility improvement could be detected for primiparous cows treated with DO (52.5 vs. 42.3%, DO vs. PS, primiparous), but only a tendency could be detected in multiparous cows (40.3 vs. 34.3%, DO vs. PS, multiparous), consistent with our original hypothesis. Presynchronization treatment had no effect on the incidence of late embryo loss after first service (8.5 vs. 5.5%, DO vs. PS). A lower body condition score increased the percentage of cows with low P4 at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 and reduced fertility to the TAI. In addition, P4 concentration at d 11 after TAI was reduced by DO. The method of presynchronization at first service had no effect on P/AI at

  14. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Camara, Tamara N; Lima, José B P; Bruno, Rafaela V; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little...

  15. Practical use of a uterine score system for predicting effects on interval from calving to first insemination and non-return rate 56 in Danish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise; Gustafsson, Hans; Callesen, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    A detailed study of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows was undertaken. The objective was to investigate the information gained by evaluating vaginal discharge in cows from 5 to 19 days post-partum (p.p.) using an ordinal scale from 0 to 9. The study focused on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and the non-return rate 56 days after first insemination (NR56), adjusted for the confounders milk production and body condition score (BCS). For the analyses, BCS was evaluated on the same day that the uterine score was made. Milk production was defined as test-day milk yield in the first month p.p. The study showed that the evaluation of vaginal discharge according to this score system permitted ranking of cows according to CFI and NR56, i.e. an increasing uterine score was associated with a significantly longer time from calving to first insemination and significantly reduced the probability of success of the first insemination. Reproductive success was already affected if the uterine score had reached 4 (i.e. before the discharge smelled abnormally). The negative effect on CFI and NR56 increased as the uterine score increased, which suggested that the uterine scoring system was a useful guide to dairy producers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Somchai Chantsavang,; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after

  17. Unprotected intercourse in the 2 weeks prior to requesting emergency intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica N; Howell, Laura; Saltzman, Hanna M; Schwarz, E Bimla; Thompson, Ivana S; Turok, David K

    2016-11-01

    Previous emergency contraception studies have excluded women who report >1 episode of unprotected or underprotected intercourse. Thus, clinical recommendations are based on exposure to a single episode of underprotected intercourse. We sought to assess the prevalence and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes among women requesting emergency contraception and to examine the probability of pregnancy following an emergency contraception regimen including placement of either a copper intrauterine device or a levonorgestrel intrauterine device with simultaneous administration of an oral levonorgestrel pill in women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes, including episodes beyond the Food and Drug Administration-approved emergency contraception time frame (6-14 days). Women seeking emergency contraception who had a negative pregnancy test and desired either a copper intrauterine device or levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimen enrolled in this prospective observational study. At enrollment, participants reported the number and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes in the previous 14 days. Two weeks later, participants reported the results of a self-administered home pregnancy test. Of the 176 women who presented for emergency contraception and received a same-day intrauterine device, 43% (n = 76) reported multiple underprotected intercourse episodes in the 14 days prior to presenting for emergency contraception. Women with multiple underprotected intercourse episodes reported a median of 3 events (range 2-20). Two-week pregnancy data were available for 172 (98%) participants. Only 1 participant had a positive pregnancy test. Pregnancy occurred in 0 of 97 (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0-3.7%) women with a single underprotected intercourse episode and 1 of 75 (1.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0-7.2%) women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes; this includes 1 of 40 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0-13.2%) women

  18. Threshold-linear analysis of measures of fertility in artificial insemination data and days to calving in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, K A; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I

    2004-04-01

    Mating and calving records for 47,533 first-calf heifers in Australian Angus herds were used to examine the relationship between days to calving (DC) and two measures of fertility in AI data: 1) calving to first insemination (CFI) and 2) calving success (CS). Calving to first insemination and calving success were defined as binary traits. A threshold-linear Bayesian model was employed for both analyses: 1) DC and CFI and 2) DC and CS. Posterior means (SD) of additive covariance and corresponding genetic correlation between the DC and CFI were -0.62 d (0.19 d) and -0.66 (0.12), respectively. The corresponding point estimates between the DC and CS were -0.70 d (0.14 d) and -0.73 (0.06), respectively. These genetic correlations indicate a strong, negative relationship between DC and both measures of fertility in AI data. Selecting for animals with shorter DC intervals genetically will lead to correlated increases in both CS and CFI. Posterior means (SD) for additive and residual variance and heritability for DC for the DC-CFI analysis were 23.5 d2 (4.1 d2), 363.2 d2 (4.8 d2), and 0.06 (0.01), respectively. The corresponding parameter estimates for the DC-CS analysis were very similar. Posterior means (SD) for additive, herd-year and service sire variance and heritability for CFI were 0.04 (0.01), 0.06 (0.06), 0.14 (0.16), and 0.03 (0.01), respectively. Posterior means (SD) for additive, herd-year, and service sire variance and heritability for CS were 0.04 (0.01), 0.07 (0.07), 0.14 (0.16), and 0.03 (0.01), respectively. The similarity of the parameter estimates for CFI and CS suggest that either trait could be used as a measure of fertility in AI data. However, the definition of CFI allows the identification of animals that not only record a calving event, but calve to their first insemination, and the value of this trait would be even greater in a more complete dataset than that used in this study. The magnitude of the correlations between DC and CS-CFI suggest that

  19. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  20. A randomized, multi-center, clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of alginate carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid compared to carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid to prevent postoperative intrauterine adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tak; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Choi, Doo Seok; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Lee, Byoung Ick; Jung, Min Hyung; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Cha, Sun Hee; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lee, Kyu Sup; Oh, Sung Tack; Cho, Chi Heum; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the efficacy of alginate carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid (ACH) gel to prevent intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery in comparison with carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid (CH) gel, which is known as an effective adhesion inhibitor. Randomized, multicenter, single-blind, clinical trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary university hospital. One hundred eighty-seven patients with a surgically treatable intrauterine lesion (myomas, polyps, septa, intrauterine adhesion, dysfunctional uterine bleeding). Patients were randomized to 2 groups: hysteroscopic surgery plus intrauterine application of ACH or CH. The rate of adhesion formation and the adhesion severity score with type and extent were calculated 4 weeks after surgery. The ACH group had results that were comparable to the CH group in terms of the development of intrauterine adhesions at 4 weeks follow-up. The adhesion severities were not different between the 2 groups. In a subgroup without baseline intrauterine adhesion, the ACH group showed a lower intrauterine adhesion rate than the CH group (p = .016). ACH had a comparable efficacy to CH in terms of the adhesion rate and severity. In the case of no baseline intrauterine adhesion, intrauterine application of ACH after hysteroscopic surgery had a lower rate of intrauterine adhesion than application of CH. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Histomorphometric evaluation of the testicular parenchyma of rats submitted to protein restriction during intrauterine and postnatal life

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, JESSICA; SILVA, ALLUANAN; SOUZA, SANDRA; MORAIS, ROSANA; MELO, ELIZABETH NEVES; MAIA, FREDERICO; JUNIOR, VALDEMIRO SILVA

    2017-01-01

    The critical period of development is highly susceptible to disorders. Environmental contaminants, stress, and poor nutrition may permanently affect structurally and functionally an organism during adulthood. Protein restriction in intrauterine and neonatal periods may impair testicular cells and reduce steroidogenic activity. The current study investigated the effect of low protein diet during intrauterine and postnatal life on testicular function in immature and adult rats. Pregnant Wistar ...

  2. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat b...

  3. Specific features of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for fetal hemolytic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the characteristics of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine blood transfusion for Rh-induced fetal hemolytic disease. It is shown that the early diagnosis and detection of the signs of fetal hemolytic disease, and intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion may prolong pregnancy, ensure the birth of a baby with normal anthropometric indicators, optimize his/her neonatal period and prognosis of severe hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn.

  4. Comparison of placebo and intrauterine lidocaine with/or without rectal diclofenac sodium suppositories used in office endometrial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Celik, Handan; Sahinoglu, Ali Haydar

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of intrauterine lidocaine, intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac, and a placebo on analgesia and to determine the satisfaction of patients and surgeons in cases of endometrial biopsy. The double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun,Turkey, from April 2013 to January 2014, and comprised patients scheduled for in-office endometrial biopsy.They were divided into three groups: Group P, 5ml of 0.9% saline intrauterine; Group L, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine; and Group LD, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine ± 10min before the procedure plus 50mg of rectal diclofenac sodium. Haemodynamic changes and visual analogue scale scores were recorded during the preoperative period, when the cervix was grasped with a tenaculum, immediately after intrauterine instillation, during uterine curettage and at postoperative 10 min. The patient and the surgeon were questioned about their satisfaction 15 min after the procedure. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. The 90 patients in the study were divided into three equal groups of 30(33.33%) each. There were no statistically significant inter-group differences in age, bodyweight, parity, number of postmenopausal patients, haemodynamic parameters and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (p>0.05 in all categories). In Group P, the visual analogue scale score estimated when the cervix was grasped with the tenaculum was lower when compared with Group L and Group LD (p=0.029 and p=0.007, respectively). At other measurement time points, the scores did not differ between the groups. The groups did not differ with respect to patient and surgeon satisfaction and complication rates (p>0.05). Intrauterine lidocaine or intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac application had no effect on visual analogue scale scores, patient satisfaction and vasovagal reaction.

  5. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  6. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  7. Analysis of morbidity of children irradiated intrauterine as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychik, S.I.; Stozharov, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was analysis of the influence of intrauterine irradiation of radioactive iodine on the structure and dynamics of prenatal irradiated children morbidity. It was examined children's group ( 10 years old aged ) irradiated in intrauterine status and having been lived constantly on polluted by radionuclide area of the Stolyn District of the Brest Region with contamination density of caesium 137 up to 15 Ci/km 2 . Control group were children aged 9 years old born after the accident and lived constantly in the same points that prenatal irradiated. The observation of morbidity since 1987 to 1995 years has shown that among prenatal irradiated children were more high parameters of general and primary morbidity in the structure of morbidity. It was established that thyroid gland participated in the forming of pathology of other organs and systems

  8. Leptin administration affects growth and skeletal development in a rat intrauterine growth restriction model: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-El Dadon, Shimrit; Shahar, Ron; Katalan, Vered; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Reifen, Ram

    2011-09-01

    Skeletal abnormalities are one of the hallmarks of growth delay during gestation. The aim of this study was to determine changes induced by leptin in skeletal growth and development in a rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Intrauterine growth retardation was induced prepartum and the effects of leptin to mothers prenatally or to offspring postnatally were studied. Radii were harvested and tested mechanically and structurally. Tibias were evaluated for growth-plate morphometry. On day 40 postpartum, total bone length and mineral density and tibial growth-plate width and numbers of cells within its zones of offspring treated with leptin were significantly greater than in the control group. Postnatal leptin administration in an IUGR model improves the structural properties and elongation rate of bone. These findings could pave the way to preventing some phenotypic presentations of IUGR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P 30% elevated, P 5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  10. [Placental gene activity of significant angiogenetic factors in the background of intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Rab, Attila; Szentpéteri, Imre; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia. It is chronic hypoxia that turns on VEGF-A as a compensatory mechanism to improve fetal vascular blood supply by promoting placental blood vessel formation. Although the maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is a potential predictor for both IUGR and praeeclampsia, placental PlGF gene activity may be less of an active in the regulation of placental circulation in IUGR pregnancies during the later stages of gestation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 612-617.

  11. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease.

  12. The echoic pseudogestational sac of ectopic pregnancy simulating early intrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, R M; Stein, K; Shih, Y H; Goodman, J D

    1983-05-01

    The sonographic features of ectopic pregnancy have been well documented. When an early intrauterine pregnancy is identified or an obvious extrauterine sac is visualized, diagnosis is not a problem; but often a sac is seen within the uterus that may contain a well-defined rind and even internal echoes simulating an early fetal pole. This has been mistaken for an early intrauterine pregnancy. In this review, four patients with pseudogestational sacs had internal echoes within the sac, and two of them ultimately underwent dilatation and curettage, which revealed blood clots. This supports the assertion that fetal cardiac activity and/or fetal motion should be demonstrated within a fetal pole before the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is excluded.

  13. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Kell hemolytic disease of the fetus. Combination treatment with plasmapheresis and intrauterine blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, S; Machado, P; Pecos, P; Coloma, M; Rebollo, S; Raya, J M

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 36-year old pregnant woman with a Kell alloimmunization (anti-K1), probably secondary to a previous blood transfusion, and a severe hemolytic disease of the fetus. Once the first fetal blood transfusion by cordocentesis was performed, we started treatment with repeated plasmapheresis to maintain anti-K1 titer below 1:32. With this scheme we did not need to perform a second intrauterine fetal blood transfusion and only mild anemia was found in the newborn. Taking into account that the rate of serious complications with plasmapheresis is lower than that related with intrauterine blood transfusion, this could be an alternative approach to repeated transfusions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  16. Causes and Mechanisms of Intrauterine Hypoxia and Its Impact on the Fetal Cardiovascular System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hutter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until today the role of oxygen in the development of the fetus remains controversially discussed. It is still believed that lack of oxygen in utero might be responsible for some of the known congenital cardiovascular malformations. Over the last two decades detailed research has given us new insights and a better understanding of embryogenesis and fetal growth. But most importantly it has repeatedly demonstrated that oxygen only plays a minor role in the early intrauterine development. After organogenesis has taken place hypoxia becomes more important during the second and third trimester of pregnancy when fetal growth occurs. This review will briefly adress causes and mechanisms leading to intrauterine hypoxia and their impact on the fetal cardiovascular system.

  17. Comparison of spermiogenesis in the externally fertilizing Hemigrammus erythrozonus and the inseminating Corynopoma riisei (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pecio

    Full Text Available Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure were analyzed in two species of characids with different modes of fertilization: externally fertilizing Hemigrammus erythrozonus and inseminating Corynopoma riisei. Spermiogenesis in H. erythrozonus is characterized by lateral development of the flagellum, nuclear rotation, formation of a shallow nuclear fossa, condensation of the chromatin by elimination of the electron-lucent area from the peripheral region of the nucleus, and renewal of the nuclear membrane. Multilammelated membrane and multivesicular bodies were also observed during elimination of the excess cytoplasm. The spermatozoon exhibits characters typical of "aquasperm," i.e. a spherical head containing a spherical nucleus with highly condensed chromatin, several small mitochondria located at the base of the nucleus within a cytoplasmic collar that extends into a long cytoplasmic sleeve surrounding the anterior part of the single flagellum, which is contained within a cytoplasmic canal. The flagellum lacks fins. The proximal and distal centrioles are nearly parallel to one another, with the anterior tips of both located within shallow nuclear fossae. Spermiogenesis in C. riisei is characterized by nuclear elongation alongside the forming flagellum, formation of an elongate cytoplasmic canal, displacement and elongation of the mitochondria, and uniform condensation of chromatin throughout the nucleus through enlargement of the diameter of the chromatin granules. The spermatozoon has an elongate nucleus with two elongate mitochondria localized to one side. Mitochondria are also located posterior to the nucleus forming a mitochondrial region. The single flagellum, which lacks fins, is lateral to the nucleus and initially contained within the greatly elongate cytoplasmic canal before exiting the canal at its posterior terminus. The spermatozoon of C. riisei exhibits several characters typical of "introsperm," such as an elongate nucleus and

  18. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, R.; Roller, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Felipe, N.; Bravo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  19. The number of service per conception of Indonesian Friesian Holstein with artificial insemination in Selo, Boyolali, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, A. M.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Boyolali is an area in Central Java Indonesia, it has large number of Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH; dairy cattle). To improve its population as well as genetic quality of milk production, artificial insemination (AI) is widely applied as mating program. The success of AI can be evaluated from the number of service per conception (S/C), represent a number of service using AI to achieve one pregnancy. Its mirroring mating management and reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle, estimated in herd during specific time and location. For that, this study aims to estimate S/C in Selo, Boyolali during October 2016 to January 2017. Data were gathered with 95% confidence level. Sample size were 367 IFH, visited and selected purposively based on criteria one-time partus, 3 y.o and have complete AI record. Animal data were collected in reproduction and mating management. In addition, 124 dairy farmer who have minimum 5 years experiences in rearing IFH cow were interviewed as respondent in estrus detection, followed with 2 skilled inseminators for AI performing time data. Result shows that S/C is 1.71, this mean one pregnancy need 1.71 times AI services. In the estrus detection, most of dairy farmers were able to observe estrus sign in vulva color, size and the present of mucus by visual. Moreover, AI was performed in 9 to 12 hours after the sign of estrus observed. It is concluded that AI of IFH in Selo, Boyolali has been successfully applied, however there are still rooms to improve the reproduction efficiency through mating management in regard to lower S/C.

  20. Low-dose natural prostaglandin F2α (dinoprost) at timed insemination improves conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Gobikrushanth, Mohanathas; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Kastelic, John P

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine if low doses of PGF2α (dinoprost) given intramuscularly (im) concurrent with timed artificial insemination (TAI) would improve conception rates in dairy cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if body condition score (BCS) and parity would influence conception rates, either independently or in interaction with PGF2α treatment. In experiment I, 307 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 5-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 154) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 153) at TAI (Day 0). Blood samples were obtained on Days -10, -3, 0, and 7 to determine plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Pregnancy was confirmed 30 to 32 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment II, 451 cows were randomly assigned to receive either 10-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 226) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 225) at TAI, and pregnancy was confirmed 45 to 50 days after TAI by palpation per rectum. Pregnancy data were analyzed by CATMOD (SAS). In experiment I, PGF2α treatment, BCS, and parity did not affect conception rate (35.7% vs. 37.0% for PGF2α treated vs. control; P > 0.05). However, in experiment II, conception rates were higher in cows given 10-mg PGF2α than those in control cows (45.8% vs. 36.0%; P conception rates. In summary, 5 mg of PGF2α given im concurrent with TAI failed to enhance conception rate in lactating dairy cows, whereas 10 mg of PGF2α significantly increased conception rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting the intrauterine fetal death of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Mai; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiromi; Mochizuki, Akihiko; Sekiguchi, Futoshi; Koshimizu, Naho; Itai, Toshiyuki; Odagami, Mizuha

    2018-01-11

    We investigated whether it was possible to predict the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy based on the degree of neck thickening. We retrospectively analyzed 57 singleton pregnancies with fetuses with cystic hygroma who were examined before the 22nd week of pregnancy. The fetuses were categorized according to the outcome, structural abnormalities at birth, and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we proposed a new sonographic predictor with which we assessed neck thickening by dividing the width of the neck thickening by the biparietal diameter, which is expressed as the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio. The median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio in the intrauterine fetal death group (0.51) was significantly higher than that in the live birth group (0.27). No significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the structural abnormalities group at birth and the no structural abnormalities group, and no significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the chromosomal abnormality group and the no chromosomal abnormality group. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio to predict intrauterine fetal death. When the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio cut-off value was 0.5, intrauterine fetal death could be predicted with a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 100%. It is possible to predict intrauterine fetal death in fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured. However, even if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured, predicting the presence or absence of a structural abnormality at birth or a chromosomal abnormality is difficult. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Yavarikia; Mahnaz Shahnazi; Samira Hadavand Mirzaie; Yousef Javadzadeh; Razieh Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding.Methods: This w...

  4. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yavarikia, Parisa; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hadavand Mirzaie, Samira; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Lutfi, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding.

  5. Mother's prior intrauterine position affects the sex ratio of her offspring in house mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L

    1994-01-01

    Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is lon...

  6. Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Reolon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been indications that intrauterine and early extrauterine growth can influence childhood mental and motor function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and early extrauterine head growth on the neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins. Thirty-six monozygous twin pairs were evaluated at the corrected age of 12 to 42 months. Intrauterine growth restriction was quantified using the fetal growth ratio. The effects of birth weight ratio, head circumference at birth and current head circumference on mental and motor outcomes were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression models. Separate estimates of the between (interpair and within (intrapair effects of each measure on development were thus obtained. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, by a psychologist blind to the exposure. A standardized neurological examination was performed by a neuropediatrician who was unaware of the exposures under investigation. After adjustment, birth weight ratio and head circumference at birth were not associated with motor or mental outcomes. Current head circumference was associated with mental but not with motor outcomes. Only the intrapair twin effect was significant. An increase of 1 cm in current head circumference of one twin compared with the other was associated with 3.2 points higher in Mental Developmental Index (95%CI = 1.06-5.32; P < 0.03. Thus, no effect of intrauterine growth was found on cognition and only postnatal head growth was associated with cognition. This effect was not shared by the co-twin.

  7. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  8. Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Valeria Bahamondes, M; Shulman, Lee P

    2015-01-01

    Most contraceptive methods present benefits beyond contraception; however, despite a large body of evidence, many healthcare professionals (HCPs), users and potential users are unaware of those benefits. This review evaluates the evidence for non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods. We searched the medical publications in PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS for relevant articles, on non-contraceptive benefits of the use of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, which were published in English between 1980 and July 2014. Articles were identified using the following search terms: 'contraceptive methods', 'benefits', 'cancer', 'anaemia', 'heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB)', 'endometrial hyperplasia', 'endometriosis' and 'leiomyoma'. We identified, through the literature search, evidence that some combined oral contraceptives have benefits in controlling HMB and anaemia, reducing the rate of endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancer and ectopic pregnancy as well as alleviating symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Furthermore, the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also controls HMB and anaemia and endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, reduces rates of endometrial polyps in users of tamoxifen and alleviates pain associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate controls crises of pain associated with sickle cell disease and endometriosis. Users of the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant have the benefits of a reduction of pain associated with endometriosis, and users of the copper intrauterine device have reduced rates of endometrial and cervical cancer. Despite the high contraceptive effectiveness of many hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, many HCPs, users and potential users are concerned mainly about side effects and safety of both hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods, and there is scarce information

  9. Effect of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia on maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Hong Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia on maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section. Methods: 37 puerperae receiving cesarean section for fetal intrauterine hypoxia between May 2014 and December 2016 were selected as hypoxia group and 40 puerperae receiving cesarean section during the same period and without complications during pregnancy or fetal intrauterine hypoxia were selected as control group. Umbilical arterial blood was collected after delivery of placenta for blood gas analysis, and the placenta tissue and serum samples were collected to test the content of oxidative stress products and antioxidants. Results: Umbilical arterial blood gas analysis parameters pH value as well as PO2, HCO3 - and BE content of hypoxia group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; NADPH, reactive oxide species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS content in placenta tissue of hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of control group (P <0.05 while glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, Trx, vitamin C (VitC, VitE and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α content of hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia can lead to maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section and increase the generation of free radicals and the consumption of antioxidants.

  10. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  11. Application of spectroscopy (1HMRS) to assess liver metabolite concentrations in rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Pingyang; Bian, Dujun; Chen, Juncao

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) measurement of liver metabolism in intrauterine growth restriction rats has seldom been reported. This study investigated the application of 1 H-MRS in assessing liver metabolism in newborn pups that experienced intrauterine growth restriction. Intra-uterine growth restriction was established by feeding rats low-protein diets during pregnancy. Newborn pups received conventional magnetic resonance imaging and 1 H-MRS using a 3.0T whole body MR scanner at 3, 8 and 12 weeks post birth. The success rate of 1 H-MRS was 83.33%. Significantly lower body weight, BMI and body length at 3 weeks as well as significantly lower body weight, BMI and waist circumference at 8 and 12 weeks were observed in newborn pups of IUGR rats compared with pups of control rats. Significant differences in ACho/H 2 O, ACr/H 2 O, AGlx/H 2 O and ALipid/H 2 O at 3 and 8 weeks as well as significant differences in ACr/H 2 O, ALipid/H 2 O and AGlx/H 2 O at 12 weeks were observed between pups of control rats and pups of IUGR rats. 1 H-MRS allows noninvasive assessment of liver metabolism in the rat and demonstrated the poor liver development of rats that experienced IUGR.

  12. Recurrent chronic histiocytic intervillositis with intrauterine growth restriction, osteopenia, and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, April; Moore, Lynette; Bennett, Gregory; Savarirayan, Ravi; Manton, Nicholas; Khong, Yee; Barnett, Christopher P; Haan, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) is characterized by the presence of histiocytes within the intervillous space of the placenta. The pathogenesis is unclear but available evidence supports an alloimmune mechanism on the basis of the presence in maternal blood of HLA antibodies directed against paternal HLA antigens. CHI has a high risk of recurrence and of abnormal perinatal outcomes. Little is known about the effects of CHI on the developing fetus, in particular on the growth and development of the skeleton. We have studied a woman whose third pregnancy was terminated after ultrasonography showed severe intrauterine growth restriction, raising the possibility of a lethal skeletal dysplasia. Postmortem radiographs showed multiple fractures and other signs of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). However, bone histology was not typical of OI and no abnormalities were identified by sequencing OI genes. The subsequent pregnancy was also severely growth restricted and was terminated. The placenta showed chronic histiocytic intervillositis, which, on retrospective review, had also been present in her second and third pregnancies. Her fifth pregnancy was again associated with intrauterine growth restriction and CHI but resulted in a premature birth. CHI can be associated with radiographic features that mimic OI and should be considered when fetal fractures occur in the context of recurrent miscarriage, fetal death in utero, and intrauterine growth restriction. The correct diagnosis can be made by histopathology of the placenta, supported by bone histology and normal results of molecular studies for OI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The association between intrauterine inflammation and spontaneous vaginal delivery at term: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different factors contribute to the onset of labor at term. In animal models onset of labor is characterized by an inflammatory response. The role of intrauterine inflammation, although implicated in preterm birth, is not yet established in human term labor. We hypothesized that intrauterine inflammation at term is associated with spontaneous onset of labor. METHODS/RESULTS: In two large urban hospitals in the Netherlands, a cross-sectional study of spontaneous onset term vaginal deliveries and elective caesarean sections (CS, without signs of labor, was carried out. Placentas and amniotic fluid samples were collected during labor and/or at delivery. Histological signs of placenta inflammation were determined. Amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 375 women were included. In term vaginal deliveries, more signs of intrauterine inflammation were found than in elective CS: the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was higher (18 vs 4%, p = 0.02 and amniotic fluid concentration of IL-6 was higher (3.1 vs 0.37 ng/mL, p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (10.93 vs 0.96 ng/mL, p<0.001 and percentage of detectable TNF-alpha (50 vs 4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This large cross-sectional study shows that spontaneous term delivery is characterized by histopathological signs of placenta inflammation and increased amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines.

  14. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Laser Center, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-04-07

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  15. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A

    2008-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  16. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Apparent rarity of asymptomatic herpes cervicitis in a woman with intra-uterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Fowotade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.

  18. Is intrauterine exchange transfusion a safe procedure for management of fetal anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, C; Philippe, M; Vaast, P; Wibaut, B; Salleron, J; Delsalle, A; Rakza, T; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2014-08-01

    To study modalities and complications of intrauterine exchange transfusion (IUET) for the management of severe fetal anaemia. Retrospective study of all IUET procedures performed between January 1999 and January 2012 at a regional centre. Characteristics of each procedure were studied to identify risk factors for complications. Survival rates according to the different aetiologies of anaemia were evaluated. In total, 225 IUET procedures were performed in 96 fetuses. Major indications were feto-maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization (n=80/96, 83.3%) and parvovirus B19 infection (n=13/96, 13.5%). Twenty-six percent of the fetuses (25/96) had hydrops fetalis before the first IUET. Intrauterine fetal death occurred after 2.7% (6/225) of procedures, premature rupture of the membranes occurred after 0.9% (2/225) of procedures, and emergency caesarean section was required after 3.6% (8/225) of procedures. Fetal bradycardia [odds ratio (OR) 37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-170; prate in the study cohort was 87.5% (84/96): 90% (72/80) in the alloimmunization group and 76.9% (10/13) in the parvovirus-infected group (NS). IUET has a higher complication rate than simple intrauterine transfusion, and should be performed by well-trained specialists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Changes in GH/IGF-1 axis in intrauterine growth retardation: consequences of fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, S; Sridhar, M G

    2009-11-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process that depends on the genotype and epigenotype of the fetus, maternal nutrition, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, intrauterine insults, and a variety of growth factors and proteins of maternal and fetal/placental origin. In the fetus, growth hormone (GH) plays little or no role in regulating fetal growth, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) control growth directly independent of fetal GH secretion. Placental growth hormone (PGH) is the prime regulator of maternal serum IGF-1 during pregnancy. Total as well as free PGH and IGFs are significantly lower in pregnancies with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The GH/IGF axis is significantly affected by intrauterine growth retardation and some of these alterations may lead to permanent pathological programming of the IGF axis. Alterations in the IGF axis may play a role in the future occurrence of insulin resistance and hypertension. In this review we focus on the regulation of fetal growth and the role of fetal programming in the late consequences of a poor fetal environment reflected in IUGR.

  20. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane K Tilley

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age.Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age.Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development.Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  1. Molecular pathways reflecting poor intrauterine growth are found in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Rami; Joseph, Roy; Leow, Shi Chi; Li, Ying; Löffler, Mona; Aris, Izzuddin M; Tan, Jun Hao; Teh, Ai Ling; Chen, Li; Holbrook, Joanna D; Ng, Kai Lyn; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Yap Seng; Summers, Scott A; Gluckman, Peter D; Stünkel, Walter

    2014-10-10

    Are molecular pathways reflecting the biology of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates preserved in umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)? MSCs from SGA newborns were found to express an altered EGR-1-dependent gene network involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and oxidative stress. Individuals with suboptimal intrauterine development are at greater risk of metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Umbilical cords (n = 283) from the GUSTO (growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes) birth cohort study, and primary MSC isolates established from SGA and matched control cases (n = 6 per group), were subjected to gene expression analysis and candidate genes were studied for functional validation. Umbilical cord specimens were derived from babies born at the National University Hospital (NUH) in Singapore. Local ethical approval was obtained. MSC isolates were established in Wharton's jelly and molecular analysis was conducted by gene expression microarrays and RT-PCR. Cells from SGA and control groups were compared in the presence and absence of insulin and candidate gene function was studied via siRNA-mediated gene knockdown and over-expression experiments in MSCs. Using repeated measure ANOVAs, proliferation rates of MSCs isolated from SGA neonates were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01). In the absence of insulin, EGR-1 levels were found to be significantly reduced in the group of SGA-derived MSCs, whereas EGR-1 expression was found to be up-regulated in the same group in the presence of insulin (P < 0.01). EGR-1 was found to induce expression of COX-2 in the SGA group (P < 0.01) and both, EGR-1 and COX-2 stimulated glucose uptake in MSCs (P < 0.01). EGR-1 and COX-2 levels were associated in whole umbilical cords (n = 283, P < 0.01) and EGR-1 positively correlated with abdominal circumference and birthweight (n = 91, P < 0.01 and n = 91, P < 0.01). Cell models may not entirely

  2. Assessment of reproductive results of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy for intrauterine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röyale Seferli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the reproductive outcomes of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy (HS with the diagnoses of uterine septum, endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, and intrauterine adhesion. Methods: This retrospective study included 334 patients who had been diagnosed with primary and secondary infertility, aged between 18–35 years and diagnosed with uterine septum (group 1, endometrial polyp (group 2, submucous myoma (group 3, and intrauterine adhesion (group 4 by hysterosalpingography or office HS and who were treated via hysteroscopic operation between January 2009 and January 2013. Pregnancy results were obtained from the patients’ files and hospital database; when this was not possible, the patients were queried by phone calls. Groups were then compared in terms of characteristics, prognoses, and pregnancy outcomes. Results: The cumulative pregnancy rate was 58.7% in infertile patients who underwent operative HS due to intrauterine pathology. The mean length of time from operation to conception was 10.8±9.6 months in all groups. Mean age, infertility duration, infertility type, and smoking status were statistically different among the groups (p<0.05. Following surgery, 95 (66.4% of 143 patients in group 1 conceived and 57 (60% of these pregnancies resulted in term birth. There were 64 (54.2% pregnancies in group 2 and 34 (53.1% resulted in term birth. Sixteen (47.1% patients conceived in group 3, and 6 (37.5% of them had term birth. Twenty-one (53.8% patients conceived in group 4. Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1% had term birth. The most common mode of delivery was cesarean section in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, operative HS increases pregnancy rates in patients with intrauterine pathology. In future, large-scale prospective studies should be carried out to reveal the effects of the hysteroscopic method and compare this approach with other methods in order to achieve better pregnancy outcomes in

  3. Integrating an automated activity monitor into an artificial insemination program and the associated risk factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Fernandes, A C C; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF 2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (BCS; scale 1 to 5), hock score (scale: 1 to 4), gait score (scale: 1 to 4), and corpus luteum presence detected by ovarian ultrasonography were recorded twice during the presynchronization. On the ACT treatment, 50.5% of cows were inseminated based on detected estrus, whereas 83.2% of the cows on the TAI treatment were inseminated appropriately after the timed AI protocol. Pregnancy per AI did not differ by treatment (30.8 vs. 33.5% for ACT and TAI, respectively). Success of pregnancy was affected by parity, cyclicity, BCS, milk production, and a tendency for leg health. In addition, treatment × cyclicity and treatment × parity interactions were found to affect pregnancy success, where anovulatory cows and older cows had compromised pregnancy outcomes on the ACT treatment but not on the TAI treatment. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes varied among farms. Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was affected by farm, parity, BCS, a treatment × cyclicity interaction, and a tendency for an interaction between leg health and farm. Detection of estrus was affected by farm, parity, cyclicity, and leg health, but not BCS or milk production. Expression of estrus was compromised in anovular and older

  4. Effects of a single administration of different gonadotropins on day 7 post-insemination on pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; Aboul-Ezz, Z R

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P 4 ) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group). Does of each group were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of one of physiological saline (placebo; control), GnRH (0.8  μg buserelin), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 25 IU) or eCG (25 IU). Concentration of serum P 4 was determined on Days 6, 9, 11 and 18 post-insemination. On Day 14 post-insemination, the ovaries and reproductive tracts of pregnant does were removed and weighed. Also, numbers of visible follicles, hemorrhagic follicles, corpora lutea of pregnancy (pCLs), new CLs (nCLs; formed after Day 7 post-insemination) and implantation sites were recorded. Conception rate, parturition rate, abortion rate, litter size/weight and litter viability were recorded. The highest (P reproductive tract and ovary weights were for eCG. The highest (P rate of fetal loss was in does treated with GnRH. The concentration of serum P 4 decreased (P conception and parturition rates by 24 and 22%; respectively, while GnRH and hCG treatments decreased (P < 0.05) them by 57 and 47.6%; respectively. Litter size and litter weight at birth were improved by eCG, but were adversely affectd by GnRH and hCG. In conclusion, a single administration of eCG 7 Days post-insemination could be recommended for improving pregnancy outcomes in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges in nourishing the intrauterine growth-restricted foetus - Lessons learned from studies in the intrauterine growth-restricted foetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-08-01

    Previous attempts to improve growth and development of the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) foetus during pregnancy have not worked or caused harm. Our research identifies tissue-specific mechanisms underlying foetal growth restriction and then tests strategies to improve growth and ameliorate many of the metabolic problems before the infant is born. The goal of our studies is to reduce the impact of foetal growth restriction at critical stages of development on the lifelong complications of IUGR offspring. Defining specific mechanisms that cause growth restriction in the foetus might identify specific nutrients and hormones that could be given to the mother to improve foetal growth and reduce metabolic complications, using strategies first tested in our IUGR animal model. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reactive oxygen species are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hua; Wei, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm labor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced developmental toxicity at early gestational stages has been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure at late gestational stages on intrauterine fetal growth and skeletal development and to assess the potential role of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. The timed pregnant CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (25 to 75 microg/kg per day) on gestational day 15 to 17. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species on lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation, the pregnant mice were injected with alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide (75 microg/kg per day, intraperitoneally), followed by an additional dose of alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 3 hours after lipopolysaccharide. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses, and resorption sites was counted on gestational day 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. Maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly increased fetal mortality, reduced fetal weight and crown-rump and tail lengths of live fetuses, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone in a dose-dependent manner. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, almost completely blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal death (63.2% in lipopolysaccharide group versus 6.5% in alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone + lipopolysaccharide group, P intrauterine growth restriction

  7. Comparison on models for genetic evaluation of non-return rate and success in first insemination of the Danish Holstein cow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Su, G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of is study was to compare a linear Gaussian model with logit model and probit model for genetic evaluation of non-return rate within 56 d after first-insemination (NRR56) and success in first insemination (SFI). The whole dataset used in the analysis contained 471,742 records from...... the EBV of proven bulls, obtained from the whole dataset and from a reduced dataset which only contains the first-crop daughters of sires; 2) χ2 statistic for the expected and observed frequency in a cross validation. Heritabilities estimated using linear, probit and logit models were 0.011, 0.014 and 0....... Model validation showed that there was no difference between probit model and logit model, but the two models were better than linear model in stability and predictive ability for genetic evaluation of NRR56 and SFI. However, based on the whole dataset, the correlations between EBV estimated using...

  8. Functional characterisation of semen in honeybee queen (A.m.ligustica S. spermatheca and efficiency of the diluted semen technique in instrumental insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences over time in the quality of semen present in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica queen spermatheca werestudied. An increase in the non-vital spermatozoa was shown to be evident (P>0.05 between the 12th and 24th month.The study of semen viability demonstrated that the passage of the semen to the spermatheca is due to sperm motility.In the queen inseminated with non-viable spermatozoa, no semen was detected in the spermatheca. Queens inseminatedtwice with a Hyes solution/semen mixture (1:1 stored as many spermatozoa in their spermatheca as those inseminatedonce with the classic technique. Queen replacement, oviposition and other functional characteristics were similarto those observed in the classic insemination procedure.

  9. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non

  10. Birth of puppies of predetermined sex after artificial insemination with a low number of sex-sorted, frozen-thawed spermatozoa in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Chen, Fang-Liang; Tang, Shu-Sheng; Mao, Ai-Guo; Li, Li-Guang; Cheng, Lu-Guang; Chen, Chao; Li, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Bin; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Jing; Wan, Jiu-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 10 6 unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 10 6 sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25.0%) and Y (4/20; 20.0%) group (P > 0.05), but lower than controls (11/20; 55.0%) (P dog spermatozoa at a farm level, making sperm-sexing technology potentially applicable for elite breeding units. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  12. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  13. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  15. Angiogenic factors for prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction onset in high-risk women: AngioPred study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia-Barjat, Tiphaine; Prieux, Carole; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Chapelle, Céline; Laporte, Silvy; Chauleur, Céline

    2017-09-22

    The study aimed to compare the level of two angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), for the prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in high-risk pregnant women. A prospective multicenter cohort study of 200 pregnant patients was conducted between June 2008 and October 2010. sFlt1 and sEng were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-five patients developed a placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome. Plasma levels of sFlt1 and sEng were higher in patients who will experience a preeclampsia at 28, 32, and 36 weeks compared with patients with no complication. The same results were observed for intrauterine growth restriction. Plasma levels of sFlt1 and sEng were not significantly different for patients with preeclampsia compare to patients with intrauterine growth restriction. Patients with early pre-eclampsia (PE) had very high rates of angiogenic factors at 20, 24, and 28 weeks. Patients with late PE and early and late intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) had high rates at 32 and 36 weeks. In high-risk women, angiogenic factors are disturbed before the onset of preeclampsia and this is true for intrauterine growth restriction.

  16. Fetal Programming of Body Composition, Obesity, and Metabolic Function: The Role of Intrauterine Stress and Stress Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Entringer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular, and molecular evidence suggests that the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and during gestation in fetal programming. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms is an area of interest and intense investigation. In this perspectives paper we propose that in addition to maternal nutrition-related processes it may be important to concurrently consider the potential role of intrauterine stress and stress biology. We frame our arguments in the larger context of an evolutionary-developmental perspective that supports roles for both nutrition and stress as key environmental conditions driving natural selection and developmental plasticity. We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition, on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis, and metabolic function. We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate mechanisms that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. We conclude with a commentary of the implications for future research and clinical practice.

  17. POSTPARTUM BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS TREATMENT BY INTRAUTERINE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION OF OXITETRACYCLINE TRATAMENTO DE ENDOMETRITE BOVINA PÓS PUERPERAL PELAS VIAS INTRAMUSCULAR E INTRA-UTERINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alexandre Alves Torres

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the postpartum bovine endometritis treatment by intrauterine and intramuscular administration of tetracycline. Forty six cross bred cows diagnosed by gynecological exam with postpartum endometritis were assigned randomly in two treatments: G1 (n=21 - animals were treated with one intramuscular (IM dose of tetracycline (20 mg/Kg of body weight, while in G2 (n=25 animals were