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Sample records for steven leshin pharmacology

  1. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after blisters form If you have Stevens-Johnson syndrome, several days before the rash develops you may experience: Fever Sore mouth and throat Fatigue Cough Burning eyes When to see a doctor Stevens-Johnson ...

  2. Pinkerton's Creator: Steven Kellogg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the life of Steven Kellogg, a children's book illustrator and writer. Includes extension ideas for school library media center activities related to his works and presents a selected annotated bibliography in chronological order, videos, and biographical information. (LRW)

  3. Steven Weinberg visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Steven Weinberg visiting the ATLAS cavern accompanied by Peter JenniIt was no surprise that the CERN audience arrived early in the Globe of Science and Innovation for the colloquium on 7 July. Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg is one of the major contributors to the Standard Model of particle physics. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for his work on the unified theory of the electromagnetic and weak interactions, one of the essential pillars of the Standard Model. After lunch at CERN and a visit to ATLAS, Weinberg gave a colloquium on "The Quantum Theory of Fields: Effective or Fundamental" to a packed audience. In his talk, he looked at how the use of quantum field theory in particle physics has fluctuated in popularity since Paul Dirac first introduced the approach to describe the interaction of particles with electromagnetic fields in the late 1920s. In particular, he posed the question: Is quantum field theory fundamental or does it a...

  4. Steven Vogel (1940–2015)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    duced in this issue. Steven Vogel was an eminent American biophysicist. ... as unusual and remarkable as his own work. He pre- .... called Reynolds stress, after the scientist who taught us to think in this ... PES Institute of Technology. Campus.

  5. James Stevens / James Stevens ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, James

    2006-01-01

    Inglise disainerist James Stevensist (sünd. 1962) ja tema tegevusest. J. Stevens 2000. a. Amsterdamis tehtud intervjuus koos Jon Bainsi ja Kim Bulliga 1995. a. Londonis avatud Interneti-agentuurist Obsolete, 1996-2000 tegutsenud Interneti-kohvikust Backspace, mittekommertsiaalse juhtmeteta nerworki Consume.net rajamisest Londonis

  6. Steven Hawking with Robert Aymar

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Steven Hawking is seen meeting with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. Hawking visited CERN between 24 September and 1 October 2006. During his stay he gave two lectures and toured the LHC, which may provide insights into Hawking's most famous area of study, black holes.

  7. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) is the primary law governing marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters. It has since been...

  8. Stevens-Johnson syndrome after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.R.; Knight, A.L.; Scruggs, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported a case of classic Stevens-Johnson syndrome in association with treatment using a cobalt radiation therapy unit. Previous reports of such an association have been extremely rare. At the time of the reaction, the patient's only medications were methyldopa and trichlormethiazide. Other drugs in the thiazide class have been associated with such a reaction. We feel this is an unlikely association in our patient, however, because she had been on trichlormethiazide for a number of years. This report suggests the role of radiotherapy as a rare cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. 14 references

  9. Steven Spielberg hädas Peeter Paaniga / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi raskused J.M. Barrie "Peeter Paani" ekraniseerimisel, tulemuseks mängufilm "Hook" : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1991. Järgneb 16. aug. 2004, lk. 38 pealkirja all "Rahulolematu Steven Spielberg"

  10. Steven Moffat and Sue Vertue visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Steven William Moffat, OBE is a Scottish television writer and producer, known for his work as showrunner, writer and producer of the British television series Doctor Who and Sherlock. Susan "Sue" Nicola Vertue is an English television producer, mainly of comedy shows, including Mr. Bean and Coupling.

  11. Stevens Johnsons syndrom og toksisk epidermal nekrolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Zachariae, Claus; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute mucocutaneous diseases primarily due to drug intake. The diseases are characterised by the separation of epidermis from dermis which can be life-threatening. Mortality is often caused by sepsis and multiple organ failure. The most...

  12. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome After Armodafinil Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfinger, Steven; Roy, Asim; Schmidt, Markus

    2018-05-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old woman in whom Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) developed after initiation of armodafinil. Although this rare and life-threatening reaction is listed on armodafinil's label, no cases have been reported in the literature. This case, in addition to an update of the drug's label after post-marketing research, both support the link between armodafinil and SJS. Providers should maintain a high clinical suspicion for SJS when starting therapy to minimize associated morbidity and mortality by discontinuing armodafinil at the onset of first symptoms. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Steven Vogel was an eminent American biophysicist. He made ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Steven Vogel, biomechanics, Péclet number, diffusion, advection, transport. Abstract. Steven Vogel was a pinoneer in applying principles of mechanics to diverse living systems. This article first provides a brief overview of his career. It then reviews the concepts of P´eclet number and Reynolds number which are ...

  14. Co-amoxiclav-induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome in a child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is an uncommon life threatening disease generally induced by drugs. Antibiotics, mainly sulphonamides, are the most involved drugs in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in children. Co-amoxiclav is a well tolerated antibiotic. It has never been reported to cause, lonely this syndrome in children.

  15. Anesthetic pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Alex S; Maze, M; Kharasch, Evan D

    2011-01-01

    ...: Section 1 introduces the principles of drug action, Section 2 presents the molecular, cellular and integrated physiology of the target organ/functional system and Section 3 reviews the pharmacology...

  16. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW. Introduction. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal ... that affect the skin and mucous membranes. ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the .... pathogenic components are removed from plasma. The.

  17. Two autographs: Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (for Steven Hawking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Two autographs given to author by professor Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (the son of Steven Hawking for his father) in 1987 during the Quantum Gravity Seminar in Moscow are presented. The first was given during a visit to Physical Institute of the Academy of sciences of the USSR, where a seminar held in the Theoretical department. the second was given during a lunch with Steven Hawking, Andrei Linde and Robert Hawking at the 2-nd floor of the Conference floor.

  18. Cefepime Associated With Phenytoin Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Del Río, José; Domingo-Chiva, Esther; Cuesta-Montero, Pablo; Valladolid-Walsh, Ana; García-Martínez, Eva María

    We describe a recent case of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. A 49-year-old man was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of an Anaesthesia and Resuscitation Department because of a Fournier gangrene that derived in a sepsis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal failure. He was under treatment with cefepime and suffered a generalized status epilepticus, so started treatment with phenytoin. The next day he developed a "maculous cutaneous eruption in trunk and lower limbs" compatible with a Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is a very severe and potentially fatal multiorganic disease, especially when present in critically ill patients, with a strong drug-related etiology, especially with antiepileptic drugs.

  19. Tables of Products of Tensor Operators and Stevens Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    Numerical tables of products of tensor (Racah) operators, Rl,m(J), and Stevens operators Olm(J), working within a J-multiplet are given as a function of X=J(J+1). Examples of the use of the tables, such as the calculation of commutation relations and thermal averages are given.......Numerical tables of products of tensor (Racah) operators, Rl,m(J), and Stevens operators Olm(J), working within a J-multiplet are given as a function of X=J(J+1). Examples of the use of the tables, such as the calculation of commutation relations and thermal averages are given....

  20. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Justice John Paul Stevens and the Erotic Boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marc

    Justice John Paul Stevens of the United States Supreme Court has ruled on obscenity cases in seven instances since his appointment. His rulings reveal that he regards obscenity as a nuisance rather than as a danger threatening to undermine the nation's morality, that he supports a nationwide standard to adjudicate obscenity cases, and that he…

  2. Risk of nevirapine-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute life-threatening condition often elicited by drugs. The government's indecisiveness in deciding to stop the use of nevirapine (NVP) in HIV-infected pregnant women owing to the increase of SJS among this population group in South Africa prompted this investigation ...

  3. Gamification is broken. An interview with Steven Poole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Benoit Carbone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Steven Poole is the author of Trigger Happy (2000. New York, NY: Arcade Publish, Unspeak (2006. New York, NY: Grove Press, and You Aren’t What You Eat (2012. In press. He has written extensively on books, culture, and videogames for The Guardian and other publications.

  4. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  5. Holokaust Steven Spielbergi pilgu läbi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2000-01-01

    Oscari võitnud dokumentaalfilm "Need viimased päevad" ("The Last Days") : režissöör James Moll : Tootja Steven Spielbergi loodud Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999. Filmi esitlusest Eesti Vabariigi Välisministeeriumis

  6. Steven Vogel was an eminent American biophysicist. He made ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Steven Vogel was a pinoneer in applying principles of mechanics to diverse living systems. This article first provides a brief overview of his career. It then reviews the concepts of P´eclet number and Reynolds number which are helpful in appreciating the Classics article by Vogel reproduced in this issue.

  7. Born To Draw: A Profile of Steven Kellogg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Presents a profile of Steven Kellogg, an illustrator of children's books. Gives an overview of his career discussing how he got started and broke into the scene. Describes some of the books he has illustrated and relates his experiences with those books. (SG)

  8. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  9. Fatal nevirapine-induced Stevens- Johnson syndrome with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... of Stevens-Johnson syndrome highlights the dilemmas and complications that may arise when prescribing multiple medications in HIV-associated ... HIV enters the central nervous system early in the course of HIV ... Affected individuals with SJS/TEN are genetically predisposed to developing severe ...

  10. Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Cavalcanti Pita Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the severe reactions to medications, immune-mediated Mucocutaneous Disorders are widely represented. Steven-Johnson’s syndrome, or great multiform erythema, appears as a systemic disturbance, involving the skin and mucous membranes, and is related to several factors, such as, viral or bacterial infections and particularly the administration of medicines, in general painkillers and antibiotics. The objective of this article is report the onset of ulcerative vesicle –blister lesions in the regions of the lips, gums, tongue and genital mucosa membrane in a 26 year-old patient, a leukoderm man, being treated with sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim for a respiratory infection, after being diagnosed as having the Steven-Johnson syndrome. SSJ1 558187121279.

  11. HLA-B Sequencing in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Stevens -Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Brittany L. Lenz, MD, Andrew T. Patterson, MD, Amanda J . Laska, MD, Patrick J . Brown, MD, and...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 DEC 2016 1. Your paper, entitled HLA-B Sequencing in Patients with Stevens -Johnson...PATIENTS WITH STEVENS -JOHNSON SYNDROME AND TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROL YSIS 2. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? DYES rgj NO FUNDING SOURCE: I I 3. IS THIS

  12. Musical Metaphors in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wallace Stevens’s “The Man with the Blue Guitar” (1937 is widely recognized as one of the most important and influential poems of the 20th century. Inspired by Picasso’s painting The Old Guitarist, the poem in turn inspired Michael Tippett’s sonata for solo guitar, “The Blue Guitar” (Tippett 1983 and David Hockney’s The Blue Guitar: Etchings by David Hockney who was inspired by Wallace Stevens who was inspired by Pablo Picasso (Hockney and Stevens 1977. Central to “The Man with the Blue Guitar,” the metaphor of the musical instrument as a transformational symbol of the imagination is common in Stevens’s poems. The structure of “The Man with the Blue Guitar,” according to J. Hillis Miller, is the structure of stream-of-consciousness. Stevens’s poem creates what has been called “the deconstructed moment in modern poetry,” “an attempt to project a spatialized time that can be viewed from the privileged position of a timeless, static moment capable of encompassing a life at a glance” (Jackson 1982. This consciousness, which Derrida refers to as the “trace,” Stevens calls “the evasive movement of language.” The trace is the perception of the absence of meaning after the word or perception has passed, the glimpse of a hidden meaning that immediately vanishes. Stevens’s poem influenced not only other poets, artists and composers; references to and echoes of his ideas and techniques can be seen in popular music and culture well into the 21st century.

  13. Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with Malarone antimalarial prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberger, Michael; Lechner, Arno Michael; Zelger, Bernhard

    2003-07-01

    To the best of our knowledge, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) has not been reported previously as an adverse reaction to Malarone, which is a combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride used for antimalarial prophylaxis and therapy. We describe a 65-year-old patient who had SJS with typical clinical and histopathological findings associated with the use of Malarone prophylaxis for malaria. This report should alert physicians to this severe cutaneous reaction, and Malarone should be added to the list of drugs that can potentially cause SJS.

  14. 75 FR 24549 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and Individual Fishing... Fisheries Finance Program (FFP or the Program) provides long-term financing to the commercial fishing and...) lending program, 16 U.S.C. 1855(i)(1). The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management...

  15. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and atypical Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Rappaport, Lara D; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Wadowsky, Robert M; Wald, Ellen R; Michaels, Marian M

    2007-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory illness in the adolescent population. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is an extrapulmonary manifestation that has been associated with M. pneumoniae infections. Three adolescent males presented within a 1-month period with M. pneumoniae respiratory illnesses and severe mucositis but without the classic rash typical of Stevens-Johnson. Diagnosis was facilitated by the use of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. This case series highlights the potential for M. pneumoniae-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome to occur without rash and supports the use of polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hung SI. Recent advances in the genetics and immunology of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrosis. ... 2012 May 29. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference ...

  18. T. Rapatsikou on  Bart and Ragg’s Wallace Stevens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Eeckhout, Bart and Edward Ragg, eds. Wallace Stevens Across the Atlantic (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Pp. xvii + 246. ISBN 978-0-230-53584-8.Bart Eeckhout and Edward Ragg’s edited collection of essays entitled Wallace Stevens Across the Atlantic is a diverse, well-informed and excellently conceptualized volume offering fresh insights into Wallace Stevens’ poetry. This book can serve as a good introduction to Wallace Stevens’ oeuvre for the general reader, university s...

  19. Bronchiolitis obliterans in children with Stevens-Johnson syndrome: follow-up with high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.J.; Lee, K.Y.

    1996-01-01

    About one third of children with Stevens-Johnson syndrome have pulmonary involvement. As a consequence of airway epithelial injury, bronchiolitis obliterans can occur in these patients. Two cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome-associated bronchiolitis obliterans in children were diagnosed and followed by high resolution CT without open lung biopsy. Serial changes of high resolution CT features of bronchiolitis obliterans are discussed and the literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Steven johnsons syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri ram Anne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the etiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS. Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

  1. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are thought to be hypersensitivity syndromes with various causes, and radiotherapy might be one of the causes of these syndromes. We herein report two cases of EM/SJS following radiotherapy. The first case was a 63-year-old woman with breast cancer. At the end of postoperative radiotherapy with 60 Gy, severe pruritic erythema appeared in the irradiated area and spread over the whole body. She was diagnosed with EM by a skin biopsy. The second case was a 77-year-old woman with uterine cervical cancer who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. At a dose of 30.6 Gy, pruritic redness appeared in the irradiated area and the precordial region, and it became widespread rapidly with polymorphic transformation. Although without any histological confirmation, SJS was strongly suspected because of her pruritic conjunctivitis. Because both patients were given medicines during irradiation, radiotherapy may not be the only cause of EM/SJS. However, it should be noted that radiotherapy might trigger EM/SJS. (author)

  2. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  3. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  4. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN): could retinoids play a causative role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Eriator, Ike; Karre, Sridhar

    2015-01-12

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are overlapping manifestations on a spectrum of acute drug-induced conditions associated with severe blistering, skin peeling, and multi-organ damage. TEN is an eruption resembling severe scalding, with ≥30% skin detachment. SJS is a mild form of TEN, characterized histologically by epidermal keratinocyte apoptosis with dermo-epidermal separation and extensive small blisters with <10% body surface skin detachment. The syndrome can be induced by numerous medications and typically occurs 1-4 weeks after the initiation of therapy. Granulysin is found in the lesions of patients with SJS/TEN and plays a significant pathogenic role in the condition, but the overall mechanisms linking medications, granulysin, and disease manifestations remain obscure. This paper reviews evidence suggesting that the different medications implicated in SJS/TEN have the common property of interacting and synergizing with endogenous retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners), in many instances causing the latter to accumulate in and damage the liver, the main storage organ for vitamin A. It is hypothesized that liver damage leads to the spillage of toxic retinoid compounds into the circulation, resulting in an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A and cytotoxicity with widespread apoptosis, mediated by granulysin and recognized as SJS/TEN. Subject to testing, the model suggests that symptom worsening could be arrested at onset by lowering the concentration of circulating retinoids and/or granulysin via phlebotomy or plasmapheresis or by pharmacological measures to limit their expression.

  5. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Lars E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Both are rare, with TEN and SJS affecting approximately 1or 2/1,000,000 annually, and are considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Currently, TEN and SJS are considered to be two ends of a spectrum of severe epidermolytic adverse cutaneous drug reactions, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the aetiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Genetic susceptibility to SJS and TEN is likely as exemplified by the strong association observed in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and SJS induced by carbamazepine. Diagnosis relies mainly on clinical signs together with the histological analysis of a skin biopsy showing typical full-thickness epidermal necrolysis due to extensive keratinocyte apoptosis. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS. Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis

  6. [Fatal toxic respiratory epitheliolysis. Subacute tracheo-bronchial desquamation in Stevens-Johnson syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L; Hazouard, E; Michalak-Provost, S; Maurage, C; Machet, L

    2001-09-01

    Acute bronchial mucosal sloughing related to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell syndrome) is widely reported in literature. On the contrary severe respiratory involvement is rare in post-infectious or toxic Epitheliolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome). There is no well-known predictive sign of bronchial epithelium involvement. An 18-year-old patient was admitted for Stevens-Johnson syndrome related to sulfasalazine (salazosulfapyridine). There were no respiratory signs. An acute respiratory failure occurred 36 hours after from admission due to an obstructive and desquamative necrosis of the tracheobronchial epithelium. We purpose that a fiberoptic laryngoscopy should be performed even in non-dyspneic patients suffering from Stevens-Johnson syndrome if hypersecretion is present. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be helpful in these cases.

  7. 77 FR 27436 - Stevens Institute of Technology, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Number: 12-014. Applicant: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125. Instrument: Nova Nano... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Stevens Institute of Technology, et al... Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC Docket Number: 12-008. Applicant: Stevens Institute of Technology...

  8. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS) and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (the Hawkins) (collectively, Applicants) have filed a verified notice of exemption...

  9. Synthesis of (±)-amathaspiramide F and discovery of an unusual stereocontrolling element for the [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-10-04

    A formal total synthesis of (±)-amathaspiramide F through a tandem palladium-catalyzed allylic amination/[2,3]-Stevens rearrangement is reported. The unexpected diastereoselectivity of the [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement was controlled by the substitution patterns of an aromatic ring. This discovery represents a new stereocontrolling element for [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements in complex molecular settings.

  10. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF DIURETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Soldatenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacology of diuretics in the international system of ATC (anatomic-therapeutic-chemical is presented. Classification of this group by the action mechanism and caused effects is provided. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features, indications and principles of diuretics usage in clinics are considered. Contraindications, side effects and interaction with other drugs of this group are discussed in detail.

  11. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  12. 78 FR 21114 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast Region, NMFS (Assistant Regional Administrator), has made a... University Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, NY. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... limits to conduct onboard sampling. This project proposes to evaluate bottom trawl modifications as a...

  13. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis during long-term etanercept therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Zdanowska, Natalia; Znajewska-Pander, Aleksandra; Placek, Waldemar

    2016-03-31

    Etanercept and other anti-TNF-alpha agents have been indicated as a therapeutic option in severe drug reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Etanercept has been shown to quickly reduce the detachment of the epidermis and shorten healing time. Cases of etanercept-induced severe adverse drug reactions were also described. A 27-year-old woman with a 4-year history of etanercept and sulfasalazine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis was admitted with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The patient received one dose of an OTC drug containing acetaminophen, phenylephrine and pheniramine two days prior to developing fist mucocutaneous symptoms. The most probable causative agent was paracetamol. Throughout the successful routine therapy of Stevens-Johnson syndrome etanercept therapy was continued. Sulfosalazin administration was stopped and administered again after recovery with no recurrence of the skin and mucosal symptoms. This case indicates that there is no justification for discontinuation of long-term anti-TNF-alpha treatment in patients who develop Stevens- Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis.

  14. 76 FR 11857 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    .... The pollock peer-reviewed benchmark stock assessment review (Stock Assessment Workshop, or SAW, 50... overfishing, rebuild overfished stocks, achieve optimum yield (OY), and minimize the economic impact of... Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). This action would revise the biological reference points and stock...

  15. 76 FR 56985 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... to estimate total haddock catch by the herring midwater trawl fleet in these herring management areas.... 110627355-1539-02] RIN 0648-BB08 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions... the NE Multispecies Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which increases the haddock incidental catch cap...

  16. 76 FR 43745 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... during the course of the FY. Management uncertainty for the LAGC IFQ fleet is considered very low because... incorporate ACT into the LAGC IFQ fleet allocation, but chose not to apply any management uncertainty buffer... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA...

  17. What Recourse for the Principal Abused by Community Activists? The Case of "Stevens v. Tillman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacker, Julius

    1990-01-01

    "Stevens v. Tillman" illustrates the limited reach of federal law in controversies where community activists use extreme, even illegal, methods to exert their will over objecting school officials. Defamation charges against activists for verbal abuses will apparently be very difficult to sustain, given court views that being called a…

  18. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  19. Alfred Russel Wallace’s record of his consignments to Samuel Stevens, 1854-1861

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    An annotated facsimile of those pages of Alfred Russel Wallace’s notebook recording his consignments from the Malay Archipelago to his London agent, Samuel Stevens, is provided. Records of individual consignments are linked with the stages of Wallace’s and Charles Allen’s itineraries to which they

  20. 78 FR 63892 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    .../13monkeia.html . Copies of the small entity compliance guide are available at the following internet address... Procedure Act (APA). Pursuant to section 305(c)(3)(B) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, management measures... APA. Comments and Responses Fifteen comments were received during the public comment period on the...

  1. Steven Spielberg peab oma uut filmi koostööks Stanley Kubrickuga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    30. juunil üheaegselt Jaapanis ja USAs esilinastub Steven Spielbergi "Tehisintellekt" ("A.I. Artificial Intelligence"), mille kohta režissöör Tokyos pressikonverentsil väitis, et see on õieti Stanley Kubricku film, kuna põhineb temast järelejäänud 90-leheküljelisel ideeprojektil

  2. 78 FR 38693 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens..., 978-281-9177. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine... preliminary determination that an exempted fishing permit application contains all of the required information...

  3. 78 FR 21913 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens... preliminary determination that an exempted fishing permit application contains all of the required information....'' Fax: (978) 281-9135. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist...

  4. Stevens-Johnson syndrome progressing to toxic epidermal necrolysis with haloperidol and carbamazepine combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine and other anticonvulsants are commoner cause of severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions such as erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. We report a case of SJS rapidly progressing to TEN with a combination of haloperidol and carbamazepine in a patient with bipolar affective disorder. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying this reaction is discussed.

  5. 78 FR 32375 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ..., Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology... study and examining the influence of temperature. To facilitate compensation fishing in support of this...

  6. Steven Spielberg's "Amistad": Film as History and the Trivializing of History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that Steven Spielberg's film "Amistad" fictionalizes the overall facts of the case by inaccurately portraying many of the events that occurred. Explains that the myth-making tradition of Hollywood changes the messages derived from the Amistad court case. Critiques the teaching kit that corresponds to the movie. (CMK)

  7. 78 FR 25685 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation... implement the provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) and prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing shark fins on board a fishing vessel unless they are...

  8. 77 FR 16942 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Multispecies Fishery Management Plan which was approved on March 8, 2012. This action amends the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan to explicitly define and facilitate the effective operation of state.... 110901552-20494-02] RIN 0648-BB34 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

  9. Steven Spielberg: My Primary Purpose in Making "Schindler's List" Was for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Stephen; Totten, Samuel

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Steven Spielberg on his goals and methods for making "Schindler's List." Maintains that the important lessons of truth and tolerance will help prevent the Holocaust from happening again. Describes cooperative ventures with educational groups to develop instructional materials associated with the film. (CFR)

  10. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  11. Pharmacological effects of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    In the last few decades, more vitamin-mediated effects have been discovered at the level of gene expression. Increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of these vitamins has opened new perspectives that form a connection between nutritional signals and the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. The vitamin regulates genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism: Biotin has stimulatory effects on genes whose action favors hypoglycemia (insulin, insulin receptor, pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase); on the contrary, biotin decreases the expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme that stimulates glucose production by the liver. The findings that biotin regulates the expression of genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism are in agreement with several observations that indicate that biotin supply is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Biotin deficiency has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased utilization of glucose. On the other hand, the diabetic state appears to be ameliorated by pharmacological doses of biotin. Likewise, pharmacological doses of biotin appear to decrease plasma lipid concentrations and modify lipid metabolism. The effects of biotin on carbohydrate metabolism and the lack of toxic effects of the vitamin at pharmacological doses suggest that biotin could be used in the development of new therapeutics in the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, an area that we are actively investigating.

  12. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  13. Investigation of Monnose-Binding Lectin gene Polymorphism in Patients with Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Toka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monnose-Binding lectin (MBL appears to play an important role in the immune system. The genetic polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene can result in a reduction of serum levels, leading to a predisposition to recurrent infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in codon 54 of the MBL2 gene on the susceptibility to Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Overlap Syndrome (EM, SJS and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome. Material and Methods: Our study included 64 patients who were clinically and/or histopathologically diagnosed with EM, SJS, and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome and 66 healthy control subjects who were genotyped for the MBL2 gene codon 54 polymorphism using the PCR-RFLP method. For all statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of the B allele was 18% in the EM, SJS and SJS/TEN patient groups and 13% in the control group. No significant differences in allele frequencies of any polymorphism were observed between the patient and control groups, although the B allele was more frequent in the patient groups (p=0.328.Conclusion: Our results provide no evidence of a relationship between MBL2 gene codon 54 polymorphism and the susceptibility to EM, SJS and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome. However, these findings should be confirmed in studies with a larger sample size.

  14. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven; Gates, Bill; Podesta, John

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called Fireside Chat that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  15. Stevens Johnson Syndrome in a patient undergoing gynaecological brachytherapy: An association or an incident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M. R.; Amado, A.; Jorge, M.; Grillo, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Erythema Multiforme are hypersensitivity skin reactions generally arising in the context of multiple causes. Radiation therapy is considered to be one of these causes, although most reports are hindered by concomitant medications. Aim: The aim of this paper was to present a case of Stevens Johnson Syndrome arising in a patient undergoing gynaecological brachytherapy with an unusual presentation. Case:We describe a case of a 56-year-old woman with endometrial cancer undergoing adjuvant gynaecological radiotherapy. While undergoing a gynaecological brachytherapy boost, she developed bilateral conjunctivitis that progressed to oral mucositis and pruritic erythema with sloughing of the skin on her arms and legs but not the torso or irradiated fields (namely the vaginal mucosa). Conclusion: This case illustrates the association of RT/SJS; however, it also raises the question of patients undergoing RT being more susceptible to SJS as opposed to a direct cause of the disease. (authors)

  16. Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in life-threatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug.

  17. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence

  18. Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: Presentación de 1 caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa María Pacheco Álvarez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, es una enfermedad inflamatoria aguda, originada por una hipersensibilidad, que incluye la piel y las membranas mucosas; en una forma mayor pone en peligro la vida del paciente. Puede ser inducida por muchos factores precipitantes, desde los medicamentos hasta una infección. La afección se caracteriza por una súbita erupción morfológicamente variable, acompañada de estomatitis y oftalmia. En este trabajo se presenta un niño de 8 años de edad, con la entidad clínica en forma muy severa, el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, que involucra manifestaciones cutáneas, oculares y de la mucosa oral, acompañada de otras complicaciones graves, por lo que requirió terapéutica en cuidados intensivos, y se logró una evolución satisfactoria del paciente.Stevens-Johnson syndrome is an acute inflammatory disease caused by a hypersensibility that includes the skin and the mucous membranes and that in a severe form endangers the patient’s life. It may be induced by many precipitating factors, from drugs to infection. The affection is characterized by a sudden morphologically variable rash, accompanied with stomatitis and ophthalmia. An 8-year-old boy suffering from this clinical entity in a very severe form, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, with skin , ocular and oral mucosa manifestations and with other serious complications, is presented in this paper. He had to be treated at the ICU and a satisfactory evolution was attained.

  19. Pediatric Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Halted by Etanercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavigan, Geneviève M; Kanigsberg, Nordau D; Ramien, Michele L

    2018-02-01

    We report a case of an 11-year-old female with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) overlap, most likely triggered by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, who was treated with the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclosporine, and etanercept. Her condition stabilized and her skin involvement did not progress after the addition of etanercept. To our knowledge, this is the first report of etanercept for pediatric SJS/TEN.

  20. Evaluation of conjunctival bacterial flora in patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Frizon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora present in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of the conjunctival bacterial flora was performed in 41 eyes of 22 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The information gathered included the patient's sex and age, the duration of disease, the cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and treatments. Scrapings of the inferior conjunctival fornix were performed in both eyes. Fourteen days before scraping, the patients were asked to interrupt all topical medication and start using 0.5% nonpreserved methylcellulose. The microbiological evaluation included microorganism identification and determination of antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 22 patients (41 eyes, 14 (64% were females, and eight (36% were males. The mean age was 33.2 years, and the mean duration of disease was 15.6 years. Visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/25 (1.57 logMar. The treatment received by most patients consisted of tear substitutes, topical antibiotics, and contact lenses. Bacterial identification was positive in 39 eyes (95% and negative in two eyes (5%. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 55.5% of the microorganisms, whereas gram-positive bacilli and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 19% and 25.5%, respectively. Half of the patients (54% had multiple bacterial species in their flora, and only one bacterial species was identified in the other half. Resistant bacteria were isolated from four eyes. The antibiotic sensitivity results for the Streptococcus group showed the lowest sensitivity and the highest microbial resistance identified. CONCLUSION: Patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome have a diverse conjunctival flora that includes many pathogenic species.

  1. Data Mining FAERS to Analyze Molecular Targets of Drugs Highly Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart, Keith K.; Abernethy, Darrell; Jackson, David

    2015-01-01

    Drug features that are associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have not been fully characterized. A molecular target analysis of the drugs associated with SJS in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) may contribute to mechanistic insights into SJS pathophysiology. The publicly available version of FAERS was analyzed to identify disproportionality among the molecular targets, metabolizing enzymes, and transporters for drugs associated with SJS. The FAERS in-house version was al...

  2. Stevens-Johnson syndrome following use of metronidazole in a dental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Goutameswar; Shome, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    Metronidazole alone rarely causes Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). We present a case of an elderly male patient who, following metronidazole use, developed neurological symptoms followed by pain and blisters on both soles, erythema of face and neck, scrotal itching and erosion, and hemorrhagic encrustation around the lips and oral mucous membrane. Initial neurological symptoms followed by mucocutaneous manifestation of SJS following metronidazole use is probably a new presentation of this case.

  3. Comparison of Olive Tipped and Conventional Steven's Cannula for Sub-Tenon Ophthalmic Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Motowa, Saeed; Ahmad, Nauman; Khandekar, Rajiv; Zahoor, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of the olive tipped (OT) cannula to the conventional Steven's cannula for sub-Tenon block (STB) before cataract surgery. This prospective, randomized, double-masked compared STB delivered in cataract surgery patients with an OT cannula or a conventional Steven's cannula (ST). Outcome variables included the akinesia score and lid movement scores at 5 and 10 min. The patient perception of pain during delivery of the STB and surgery were also compared between groups. Surgeon satisfaction with anesthesia was compared between groups. P <0.05 was statistically significant. There were sixty patients in each group. The age between groups was not statistically different ( P = 0.4). The body mass index was higher in the ST group compared to the OT group ( P < 0.001). The akinesia score at 5 and 10 min did not differ between groups ( P = 0.07 and P = 0.6, respectively). The patient perception of pain during STB and surgery were similar between groups ( P = 0.1 and P = 0.06, respectively). There were six patients with mild chemosis and redness in the OT group and 15 patients in the ST group. An OT cannula is equally effective as the conventional Steven's cannula for delivering STB anesthesia before cataract surgery.

  4. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  5. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  7. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  8. Pharmacology of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, L; Schaffner, R; Scherschlicht, R; Polc, P; Sepinwall, J; Davidson, A; Möhler, H; Cumin, R; Da Prada, M; Burkard, W P; Keller, H H; Müller, R K; Gerold, M; Pieri, M; Cook, L; Haefely, W

    1981-01-01

    8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (midazolam, Ro 21-3981, Dormicum) is an imidazobenzodiazepine whose salts are soluble and stable in aqueous solution. It has a quick onset and, due to rapid metabolic inactivation, a rather short duration of action in all species studied. Midazolam has a similar pharmacologic potency and broad therapeutic range as diazepam. It produces all the characteristic effects of the benzodiazepine class, i.e., anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sleep-inducing, muscle relaxant, and "sedative" effects. The magnitude of the anticonflict effect of midazolam is smaller than that of diazepam in rats and squirrel monkeys, probably because a more pronounced sedative component interferes with the increase of punished responses. In rodents, surgical anaesthesia is not attained with midazolam alone even in high i.v. doses, whereas this state is obtained in monkeys. The drug potentiates the effect of various central depressant agents. Midazolam is virtually free of effects on the cardiovascular system in conscious animals and produces only slight decreases in cardiac performance in dogs anaesthetized with barbiturates. No direct effects of the drugs on autonomic functions were found, however, stress-induced autonomic disturbances are prevented, probably by an effect on central regulatory systems. All animal data suggest the usefulness of midazolam as a sleep-inducer and i.v. anaesthetic of rapid onset and short duration.

  9. Pharmacology of pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushay, H M; Notterman, D A

    1997-02-01

    The resuscitation of children from cardiac arrest and shock remains a challenging goal. The pharmacologic principles underlying current recommendations for intervention in pediatric cardiac arrest have been reviewed. Current research efforts, points of controversy, and accepted practices that may not be most efficacious have been described. Epinephrine remains the most effective resuscitation adjunct. High-dose epinephrine is tolerated better in children than in adults, but its efficacy has not received full analysis. The preponderance of data continues to point toward the ineffectiveness and possible deleterious effects of overzealous sodium bicarbonate use. Calcium chloride is useful in the treatment of ionized hypocalcemia but may harm cells that have experienced asphyxial damage. Atropine is an effective agent for alleviating bradycardia induced by increased vagal tone, but because most bradycardia in children is caused by hypoxia, improved oxygenation is the intervention of choice. Adenosine is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Lidocaine is the drug of choice for ventricular dysrhythmias, and bretylium, still relatively unexplored, is in reserve. Many pediatricians use dopamine for shock in the postresuscitative period, but epinephrine is superior. Most animal research on cardiac arrest is based on models with ventricular fibrillation that probably are not reflective of cardiac arrest situations most often seen in pediatrics.

  10. Fundamental Flaws In The Derivation Of Stevens' Law For Taste Within Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, Lance

    2010-01-01

    Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception (1975-present) is a general theory of perception, based on Shannon's Information Theory. Among many bold claims, the Entropy Theory presents a truly astounding result: that Stevens' Law with an Index of 1, an empirical power relation of direct proportionality between perceived taste intensity and stimulus concentration, arises from theory alone. Norwich's theorizing starts with several extraordinary hypotheses. First, 'multiple, parallel receptor-neuron units' without collaterals 'carry essentially the same message to the brain', i.e. the rate-level curves are identical. Second, sensation is proportional to firing rate. Third, firing rate is proportional to the taste receptor's 'resolvable uncertainty'. Fourth, the 'resolvable uncertainty' is obtained from Shannon's Information Theory. Finally, 'resolvable uncertainty' also depends upon the microscopic thermodynamic density fluctuation of the tasted solute. Norwich proves that density fluctuation is density variance, which is proportional to solute concentration, all based on the theory of fluctuations in fluid composition from Tolman's classic physics text, 'The Principles of Statistical Mechanics'. Altogether, according to Norwich, perceived taste intensity is theoretically proportional to solute concentration. Such a universal rule for taste, one that is independent of solute identity, personal physiological differences, and psychophysical task, is truly remarkable and is well-deserving of scrutiny. Norwich's crucial step was the derivation of density variance. That step was meticulously reconstructed here. It transpires that the appropriate fluctuation is Tolman's mean-square fractional density fluctuation, not density variance as used by Norwich. Tolman's algebra yields a 'Stevens Index' of -1 rather than 1. As 'Stevens Index' empirically always exceeds zero, the Index of -1 suggests that it is risky to infer psychophysical laws of sensory response from information theory

  11. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  12. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Treatment With a Biologic: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ian; Chao, Alice

    2017-01-01

    One of the most dangerous dermatologic emergencies is Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Although a rare disease, it can often lead to significant mortality. In this case report, we present a 77-year-old man who developed a sloughing rash that was secondary to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. In addition to the recommended supportive care, the patient was treated with etanercept, a new, less commonly used intervention. We provide a brief review of SJS/TEN. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a rare cause of SJS/TEN, and additionally, the use of biologics is a novel treatment modality for SJS/TEN.

  13. Low amplitude impact of PBX 9501: Modified Steven spigot gun tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W. [and others

    1998-12-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact and subsequent high explosive (HE) reaction are of concern in credible accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of nuclear weapons. Using modified Steven spigot gun tests, the authors have investigated the high-explosive violent-reaction (HEVR) potential of PBX 9501 to low-amplitude insult. Reliable modeling predictions require that one identify the relevant parameters and behavioral responses that are key to the reaction mechanism(s) in PBX 9501. Additional efforts have been targeted at identifying relevant differences in the response between baseline and stockpile-aged PBX 9501 to low-velocity impacts.

  14. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  15. Guidelines for the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Martin, Abhay Mani; Agarwal, Nidheesh; D'Souza, Paschal; Das, Sudip; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Sushil; Das, Nilay Kanti; Kumaresan, Muthuvel; Kumar, Piyush; Garg, Anubhav; Singh, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe, life-threatening mucocutaneous adverse drug reactions with a high morbidity and mortality that require immediate medical care. The various immunomodulatory treatments include systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, intravenous immunoglobulin, cyclophosphamide, plasmapheresis and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. The ideal therapy of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis still remains a matter of debate as there are only a limited number of studies of good quality comparing the usefulness of different specific treatments. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the published medical literature and frame management guidelines suitable in the Indian perspective. The Indian Association of Dermatologists, Venereologists and Leprologists (IADVL) assigned the task of preparing these guidelines to its special interest group on cutaneous adverse drug reactions. The group performed a comprehensive English language literature search for management options in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis across multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane) for keywords (alone and in combination) and MeSH items such as "guidelines," "Stevens-Johnson syndrome," "toxic epidermal necrolysis," "corticosteroids," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "cyclosporine" and "management." The available evidence was evaluated using the strength of recommendation taxonomy and graded using a three-point scale. A draft of clinical recommendations was developed on the best available evidence which was also scrutinized and critically evaluated by the IADVL Academy of Dermatology. Based on the inputs received, this final consensus statement was prepared. A total of 104 articles (meta-analyses, prospective and retrospective studies, reviews [including chapters in books], previous guidelines [including Indian guidelines of 2006] and case series) were critically evaluated and the evidence

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Induced-Stevens Johnson Syndrome: Rare Occurrence in an Adult Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Rasul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an uncommon occurrence in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae infection (1–5% and has been mainly reported in children and young adults. We present a case of SJS in a 32-year-old male induced by M. pneumoniae infection. This patient presented with fever, cough, and massive occupation of mucus membranes with swelling, erythema, and necrosis accompanied by a generalized cutaneous rash. He clinically responded after treatment with antibiotics and IVIG. SJS is usually a drug-induced condition; however, M. pneumoniae is the commonest infectious cause and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Brizuela, Ener de Jesús; Morales Díaz, Felicia

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, también llamado eritema multiforme mayor, se caracteriza por una serie de lesiones cutáneas de diversa morfología, es una grave lesión en la cual están afectadas al menos dos membranas mucosas y la piel. La patogenia de esta enfermedad es desconocida aunque generalmente se considera que es provocada por una reacción de hipersensibilidad a drogas, infecciones y exposición a sustancias tóxicas. Caso clínico: esta afección fue diagnosticada en un niño ...

  18. Pharmacology Portal: An Open Database for Clinical Pharmacologic Laboratory Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen Bjånes, Tormod; Mjåset Hjertø, Espen; Lønne, Lars; Aronsen, Lena; Andsnes Berg, Jon; Bergan, Stein; Otto Berg-Hansen, Grim; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Larsen Burns, Margrete; Toralf Fosen, Jan; Frost, Joachim; Hilberg, Thor; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Kvan, Elena; Narum, Sigrid; Austgulen Westin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    More than 50 Norwegian public and private laboratories provide one or more analyses for therapeutic drug monitoring or testing for drugs of abuse. Practices differ among laboratories, and analytical repertoires can change rapidly as new substances become available for analysis. The Pharmacology Portal was developed to provide an overview of these activities and to standardize the practices and terminology among laboratories. The Pharmacology Portal is a modern dynamic web database comprising all available analyses within therapeutic drug monitoring and testing for drugs of abuse in Norway. Content can be retrieved by using the search engine or by scrolling through substance lists. The core content is a substance registry updated by a national editorial board of experts within the field of clinical pharmacology. This ensures quality and consistency regarding substance terminologies and classification. All laboratories publish their own repertoires in a user-friendly workflow, adding laboratory-specific details to the core information in the substance registry. The user management system ensures that laboratories are restricted from editing content in the database core or in repertoires within other laboratory subpages. The portal is for nonprofit use, and has been fully funded by the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Society of Clinical Pharmacology, and the 8 largest pharmacologic institutions in Norway. The database server runs an open-source content management system that ensures flexibility with respect to further development projects, including the potential expansion of the Pharmacology Portal to other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  20. The pharmacology of gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, A

    1980-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of the pharmacology of gynecology is on the following: vaginal infections; genital herpes; genital warts; pelvic inflammatory disease; urinary infections; pruritus vulvae; menstrual problems; infertility; oral contraception; and hormone replacement therapy. Doctors in England working in Local Authority Family Planning Clinics are debarred from prescribing, and any patient with a vaginal infection has to be referred either to a special clinic or to her general practitioner which is often preferable as her medical history will be known. Vaginal discharge is a frequent complaint, and it is necessary to obtain full details. 1 of the most common infections is vaginal candidosis. Nystatin pessaries have always been a useful 1st-line treatment and are specific for this type of infection. Trichomonas infection also occurs frequently and responds well to metronidazole in a 200 mg dosage, 3 times daily for 7 days. It is necessary to treat the consort at the same time. Venereal diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea always require vigorous treatment. Patients are now presenting with herpes genitalis far more often. The only treatment which is currently available, and is as good as any, is the application of warm saline to the vaginal area. Genital warts may be discovered on routine gynecological examination or may be reported to the doctor by the patient. 1 application of a 20% solution of podophyllum, applied carefully to each wart, usually effects a cure. Pelvic inflammatory disease seems to be on the increase. Provided any serious disease is ruled out a course of systemic antibiotics is often effective. Urinary infections are often seen in the gynecologic clinic, and many of these will respond well to 2 tablets of co-trimoxazole, 2 times daily for 14 days. In pruritus vulvae it is important to determine whether the cause is general or local. Menstrual problems regularly occur and have been increased by the IUD and the low-dose progesterone pill

  1. Some assembly required: Contributions of Tom Stevens' lab to the V-ATPase field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laurie A; Finnigan, Gregory C; Kane, Patricia M

    2018-06-01

    Tom Stevens' lab has explored the subunit composition and assembly of the yeast V-ATPase for more than 30 years. Early studies helped establish yeast as the predominant model system for study of V-ATPase proton pumps and led to the discovery of protein splicing of the V-ATPase catalytic subunit. The Vma - phenotype, characteristic of loss-of-V-ATPase activity in yeast was key in determining the enzyme's subunit composition via yeast genetics. V-ATPase subunit composition proved to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. Genetic screens for new vma mutants led to identification of a set of dedicated V-ATPase assembly factors and helped unravel the complex pathways for V-ATPase assembly. In later years, exploration of the evolutionary history of several V-ATPase subunits provided new information about the enzyme's structure and function. This review highlights V-ATPase work in the Stevens' lab between 1987 and 2017. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Are steroids effective in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La necrólisis epidérmica tóxica y el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson son reacciones cutáneas adversas graves a medicamentos e infecciones. Los corticoides se describen como una alternativa terapéutica, sin embargo, su uso es aún controvertido. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples bases de datos, identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen once estudios primarios que responden la pregunta de interés. Extrajimos los datos y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que no está claro si los corticoides disminuyen la mortalidad o la estadía hospitalaria en la necrólisis epidérmica tóxica y el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  3. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  4. Review of The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity by Steven Strogatz

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Catalano

    2014-01-01

    Strogatz, Steven. The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity, (New York, NY, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 316 pp. ISBN 978-0-547-51765-0 The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity, by Steven Strogatz, is an engaging and example-filled argument for mathematics as a valuable and enjoyable activity. The thirty chapters are divided into six parts, entitled Numbers, Relationships, Shapes, Change, Data, and Frontiers. The discussion ranges from intuitive expl...

  5. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    to safety pharmacology studies, and, when indicated, to secondary pharmacodynamic studies, does not influence the scientific standards of studies. However, applying formal GLP standards will ensure the quality, reliability and integrity of studies, which reflect sound study management. It is important...... to encourage a positive attitude among researchers and academics towards these lines, whenever possible. GLP principles applied to the management of non-clinical safety studies are appropriate quality standards when studies are used in the context of protecting public health, and these quality standards...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...

  6. 78 FR 36149 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation.... SUMMARY: NMFS published a proposed rule on May 2, 2013, to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing...

  7. 78 FR 40687 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation... period. SUMMARY: NMFS published a proposed rule on May 2, 2013, to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea...

  8. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, J.Y.; Safai, B.; Posner, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In 15 months we encountered eight patients with intracranial tumors who developed erythema multiforme (EM) or erythema multiforme bullosa (Stevens-Johnson syndrome). All occurred shortly after use of phenytoin (DPH) and brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The clinical picture differed from the classic form of EM in that the erythema began on the scalp and spread to the extremities, progressing in three cases to extensive bullous formation. There were no cases of EM among patients who received either DPH or radiotherapy alone. The combination of DPH, WBRT, and tapering of steroids seems to predispose to EM. The pathogenesis of the disorder is probably immunologic. In the absence of seizures, anticonvulsants should not be given routinely to patients with brain tumors. When anticonvulsants are necessary in patients scheduled for WBRT, DPH may not be the drug of choice

  9. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients on phenytoin and cranial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafaga, Y.M.; Jamshed, A.; Allam, A.A.K.; Ezzat, A.; Gray, A.J.; Schultz, H.; Mourad, W.A.; Al Eisa, A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of phenytoin as a prophylactic anticonvulsant after brain surgery, particularly for brain tumors, is a common practice, regardless of whether the patient has a previous history of convulsions. This treatment policy assumes that the benefits exceed the risks. Four cases are described of adverse reactions of phenytoin during the cocomitant use of cranial radiotherapy. In one patient this proved fatal. There is increasing anecdotal support in the literature for a synergistic effect between phenytoin therapy and cranial radiotherapy that can result in the life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome. While the association is uncommon, four cases within 24 months in one department suggest that the routine use of postoperative phenytoin as a prophylactic anticonvulsant in the absence of a history of seizures may not be warranted, particularly if the patient is to receive cranial radiotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Irradiated fields spared Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient undergoing radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musio, D.; Parisi, E.; Dionisi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe, rare, and life-threatening adverse reactions to medications. Their incidence is approximately two patients per million population per year. Several cases have been reported in the literature in which SJS and TEN have occurred in patients with a neoplasm undergoing radiation therapy and who are taking an anticonvulsant. We report a case of SJS-TEN that developed in a 51-year-old woman with nonresectable non-small-cell lung cancer during treatment with phenobarbital plus radiation therapy for bone metastases but in whom the irradiated areas did not exhibit the SJS skin reaction. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. (author)

  11. Representations of nurses and individuals in psychological distress in the photographic exhibit USAnatomy, by Steven Klein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Araújo, Edna Maria de; Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Santos, Alexandro Gesner Gomes Dos

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To analyze the representations of the nurse and individual in mental suffering portrayed in the photographic work by Steven Klein, in the USAnatomy exhibit held at the Museum of Sculpture (Museu da escultura) in São Paulo, in 2011. Methods Qualitative study carried out in 2012. Three photographs were submitted to iconographic analysis. The interpretation of the findings was based on theoretical frameworks of Foucault and Bourdieu on power relations. Results The nurse is represented as a sensual, insensitive person, with the power to control and torture while the person in psychological distress is represented as dirty, imprisoned and subjected to an asymmetrical relationship of power with the nurse. Final considerations Relationships of submission and symbolic dominance, in which the person in psychological distress has their body molded by discipline imposed by the nurse. Stereotypes of the image of the nurse oppose the ideology of the profession, which is to ensure the integrity of those being cared for.

  12. Comprehensive approach to ocular consequences of Stevens Johnson Syndrome - the aftermath of a systemic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Kamala Muralidharan, Seema; Arumugam, Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) can lead to end stage corneal blindness. This study describes the comprehensive treatment measures and their outcomes in the management of ocular sequelae and complications of SJS. Four hundred sixty-four eyes of 232 patients of SJS who underwent surgical intervention (punctal cautery, mucus membrane grafting for lid margin keratinisation, fornix reconstructive procedures, tectonic procedures, keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis) were studied. It was a non-comparative, retrospective, interventional case series. The primary outcome was the change in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary outcome measures included an improvement in the ocular surface status as indicated by corneal epithelial fluorescein staining and Schirmer's I strip wetting. The BCVA and the ocular surface status improved and/or stabilized in > 70 % of eyes following punctal cautery (n = 160) and > 80 % of eyes following lid margin mucus membrane grafting (n = 238). BCVA improved in 50 % of eyes following fornix reconstructive procedures (n = 24) with COMET (n = 6), in 63.9 % eyes with the Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) lens (n = 36), in 81.8 % of eyes after cataract surgery (n = 22). A BCVA of ≥20/200 was achieved in 72.34 % of eyes following keratoprostheses procedures (n = 47). The mean duration of follow up was 53.3 ± 15.2 months. The ocular sequelae of Stevens Johnson Syndrome can be blinding. They need to be identified and addressed early to retard the continued deterioration of the ocular surface. Our study aims to highlight the problem as well as the importance of comprehensive measures in the management of this potentially blinding disorder.

  13. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  14. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  15. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  16. Pharmacological Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sugi, MD PhD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation has a variety of purposes, such as pharmacological defibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm, heart rate control to prevent congestive heart failure and prevention of both cerebral infarction and atrial remodeling. Sodium channel blockers are superior to potassium channel blockers for atrial defibrillation, while both sodium and potassium channel blockers are effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. In general, digitalis or Ca antagonists are used to control heart rate during atrial fibrillation to prevent congestive heart failure, while amiodarone or bepridil also reduce heart rates during atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is recommended to prevent cerebral infarction and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonists or angiotensin II receptor blockers are also used to prevent atrial remodeling. One should select appropriate drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation according to the patient's condition.

  17. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal ...

  18. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  19. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in refractory glaucoma after osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis in Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Matteo; Adabache-Guel, Tania; Bratu, Adriana; Rossini, Paolo; Mingaine, Mpekethu Sam; Cavallini, Gian Maria; Forlini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    To report successful treatment of refractive glaucoma in a patient submitted to osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. An interventional case report. The patient is a 62-year-old Indian man with known Stevens-Johnson syndrome since 1972 secondary to tetracycline therapy, with bilateral dry eye and corneal blindness. He underwent symblepharon release surgery with mucous membrane graft in both eyes. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery was later performed on the left eye. He was submitted to 2 Ahmed valve implants to control secondary glaucoma but visual fields continued to worsen; hence, he underwent endoscopic 140° cyclophotocoagulation with a good control of IOP. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation as alternative treatment provides good results in refractory glaucoma after osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery.

  20. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update on pharmacogenetics studies in drug-induced severe skin reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufini, Sara; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Politi, Cristina; Giardina, Emiliano; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe, life-threatening drug reactions involving skin and membranes mucous, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and triggered, especially by drug exposure. Different studies have demonstrated that drug response is a multifactorial character and that the interindividual variability in this response depends on both environmental and genetic factors. The last ones have a relevant significance. In fact, the identification of new specific genetic markers involved in the response to drugs, will be of great utility to establish a more personalized therapeutic approach and to prevent the appearance of these adverse reactions. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the Pharmacogenetics studies related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis reporting the major genetic factors identified in the last years as associated with the disease and highlighting the use of some of these genomic variants in the clinical practice.

  1. Stevens - Johnson Syndrome Induced by Combination of Lamotrigine and Valproic Acid in a 9-Year-Old Boy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maduemem, K

    2017-06-01

    We describe the case history of a 9-year-old boy who developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) following concomitant use of valproic acid and lamotrigine. He presented with rash and fever several weeks after introduction of lamotrigine, having been on valproic acid for seizure disorder. SJS happens to be one of the rare adverse reactions of antiepilepsy drugs (AED). Management is mainly supportive with care escalation when necessary because of the significant morbidity.

  2. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously Had Carbamazepine Induced Pruritus - A Case Report -

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Min; Park, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Moon, Dong Eon

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening skin reaction disease and carbamazepine is one of its most common causes. We report a case of SJS secondary to carbamazepine in a patient with previous pruritus due to carbamazepine which was given for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. We would like to caution all providers that carbamazepine readministration should be avoided in the patient with a previous history of SJS or adverse skin reaction. In addition, we strongly recommen...

  3. Osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis in Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sc, Reddy; I, Tajunisah; T, Tan D

    2011-01-01

    To report a successful osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis (OOKP) procedure in a case of end stage of corneal blindness due to Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). An interventional case report. We describe a 35-year-old Indian woman, a known case of SJS with bilateral dry eyes and corneal blindness (failed corneal graft with vascularised total corneal opacity in the right eye and non-healing corneal ulcer in the left eye). Vision was hand movement only in both eyes. The corneal ulcer healed with medical treatment resulting in vascularised total corneal opacity with no improvement in vision. OOKP was performed in the right eye and the vision was improved from hand movement to 6/6. The same vision was maintained in the right eye at the last follow-up 5 years after surgery. OOKP provides good visual rehabilitation with long-term anatomically stable prosthesis in patients with end-stage of ocular surface disorders and corneal blindness secondary to SJS.

  4. A Tribute to Professor Steven L. Wechsler (1948-2016): The Man and the Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-01

    Professor Steven L. Wechsler, a world-renowned eye researcher and virologist, passed away unexpectedly on June 12, 2016 at the age of 68. Many scientists came to know Professor Wechsler as a gifted researcher in the field of ocular Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) latency, reactivation, and pathogenesis. Professor Wechsler published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers during his career, pushing forward the frontiers of his field eye research. His colleagues would say, 'Steve literally wrote the book on herpes latency and reactivation.' He was the first to show that the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) is essential for the HSV-1 high spontaneous reactivation phenotype and that LAT has anti-apoptosis activity. This discovery of LAT's anti-apoptosis activity, which is a key factor in how the LAT gene enhances reactivation, was published in Science in 2000 and created a new paradigm that greatly increased understanding of HSV-1 latency and reactivation. In collaboration with Professor Lbachir BenMohamed, an immunologist, they later demonstrated that LAT also acts as an immune evasion gene. He was a caring scientist who truly enjoyed working and sharing his experience and expertise with young researchers. He will be remembered as a significant pillar within scientific and ocular herpes research communities worldwide. Professor Wechsler's dedication to science, his compassionate character, and wonderful sense of humor were exemplary. We, who were his friends and colleagues, will mourn his passing deeply.

  5. Mucous membrane grafting for the post-Steven-Johnson syndrome symblepharon: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old woman was referred with late sequelae of chloroquine-induced Steven-Johnson syndrome. At the time of presentation, the symblepharon was involving the upper lids to almost the whole of the cornea, and part of the lower bulbar conjunctiva with the lower lid bilaterally. Other ocular examinations were not possible due to the symblepharon. B-scan ultrasonography revealed acoustically clear vitreous, normal chorioretinal thickness, and normal optic nerve head, with an attached retina. Conjunctivo-corneal adhesion released by superficial lamellar dissection of the cornea. Ocular surface reconstruction was carried out with a buccal mucous membrane. A bandage contact lens was placed over the cornea followed by the symblepharon ring to prevent further adhesion. The mucosal graft was well taken up along with corneal re-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity of 20/120 in both sides after 1 month and 20/80 after 3 months was achieved and maintained till the 2.5-year follow-up.

  6. The Epidemiology of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN are life-threatening disease. However, there are only few epidemiologic studies of SJS/TEN from China. To analyze the clinical characteristics, causality, and outcome of treatment for SJS/TEN in China, we reviewed case reports of patients with SJS/TEN from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Wanfang database from 2006 to 2016 and patients with SJS/TEN who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University during the same period. There were 166 patients enrolled, including 70 SJS, 2 SJS/TEN overlap, and 94 TEN. The most common offending drugs were antibiotics (29.5% and anticonvulsants (24.1%. Carbamazepine, allopurinol, and penicillins were the most common single offending drugs (17.5%, 9.6%, and 7.2%. Chinese patent medicines accounted for 5.4%. There were 76 (45.8% patients receiving systemic steroid and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG in combination therapy, especially for TEN (80.3%, and others were treated with systemic steroids alone. Mortality rate of combination treatment comparing with steroid alone in TEN patients had no statistical significance. In conclusion, carbamazepine and allopurinol were the leading causative drugs for SJS/TEN in China. Combination of IVIG and steroids is a common treatment for TEN, but its efficacy in improving mortality needs further investigation.

  7. Contemporary perspectives in aesthetic theory: Steven Connor, Sianne Ngai and the edible world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article interprets the work of cultural theorists Steven Connor and Sianne Ngai in terms of their efforts to reevaluate certain key presumptions of aesthetic theory that inherits the surprisingly resilient biases of the 18th century, in particular the work of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke. Focusing on the work of Ngai and Connor, I think through the implications this recent theory has for the previously peripheral position occupied by gustatory taste and the cultural objects and experiences it implicates. I discuss the possibility that ideas and examples drawn from the work of Connor and Ngai might form the basis for an alternative area of analysis that is better adapted to the peculiarities of gustatory taste and the culinary. In particular, I argue that the visceral element, which tends to accompany gustatory taste, ought to be interpreted in terms of its generative contribution to the creation of concepts through metaphor, rather than as a muddying influence that prevents clarity of discrimination. Similarly, the close relationship between the edible and the domestic is deserving of a more generous reading than is commonly found in aesthetic theory underwritten by the categories of the sublime and the beautiful.

  8. Genetic Markers and Danger Signals in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Chung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are life-threatening adverse reactions, which could be induced by a variety of drugs. It was proposed that human leukocyte antigen (HLA-restricted presentation of antigens (drugs or their metabolites to T lymphocytes initiates the immune reactions of SJS/ TEN. However, the genetic susceptibility and the exact pathogenesis were not clear until the recent studies. We first identified that HLA-B*1502 is strongly associated with carbamazepine (CBZ-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol-SJS/TEN in Han Chinese. The same associations had been validated across different human populations. For the downstream danger signals, Fas-Fas ligand (FasL and perforin/granzyme B had been advocated as cytotoxic mediators for keratinocyte death in SJS/TEN. However, expression levels of these cytotoxic proteins from the skin lesions were too low to explain the distinct and extensive epidermal necrosis. Our recent study identified that the granulysin, a cytotoxic protein released from cytotoxic T cells or natural killer (NK cells, is a key mediator for disseminated keratinocyte death in SJS/TEN. This article aims to provide an overview of both of the genomic and immunologic perspectives of SJS/TEN. These studies give us a better understanding of the immune mechanisms, biomarkers for disease prevention and early diagnosis, as well as providing the therapeutic targets for the treatments of SJS/TEN.

  9. Data Mining FAERS to Analyze Molecular Targets of Drugs Highly Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Keith K; Abernethy, Darrell; Jackson, David

    2015-06-01

    Drug features that are associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have not been fully characterized. A molecular target analysis of the drugs associated with SJS in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) may contribute to mechanistic insights into SJS pathophysiology. The publicly available version of FAERS was analyzed to identify disproportionality among the molecular targets, metabolizing enzymes, and transporters for drugs associated with SJS. The FAERS in-house version was also analyzed for an internal comparison of the drugs most highly associated with SJS. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, carbonic anhydrase 2, and sodium channel 2 alpha were identified as disproportionately associated with SJS. Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) 3A4 and 2C9 are disproportionately represented as metabolizing enzymes of the drugs associated with SJS adverse event reports. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), and PEPT2 were also identified and are highly associated with the transport of these drugs. A detailed review of the molecular targets identifies important roles for these targets in immune response. The association with CYP metabolizing enzymes suggests that reactive metabolites and oxidative stress may have a contributory role. Drug transporters may enhance intracellular tissue concentrations and also have vital physiologic roles that impact keratinocyte proliferation and survival. Data mining FAERS may be used to hypothesize mechanisms for adverse drug events by identifying molecular targets that are highly associated with drug-induced adverse events. The information gained may contribute to systems biology disease models.

  10. Bicycles, Airplanes and Peter Pans: Flying Scenes in Steven Spielberg's Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Audissino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Steven Spielberg's cinema the flight is a recurring theme. Flying scenes can be sorted into two classes: those involving a realistic flight – by aircraft – and those involving a magical flight – by supernatural powers. The realistic flight is influenced by the war stories of Spielberg's father – a radio man in U.S. Air-force during WWII – and it is featured in such films as Empire of the Sun (1987, Always (1989, and 1941 (1979. The magical flight is influenced by James M. Barries' character Peter Pan (Peter and Wendy, 1911, which is quoted directly in E.T. the Extraterrestrial (1982 and, above all, in Hook (1991, which is a sequel to Barrie's story. These two types of flying scenes are analysed as to their meanings, compared to the models that influenced them, and surveyed as to their evolution across Spielberg's films. A central case study is the episode The Mission from Amazing Stories (1985, in which the realistic and the magical flights overlap.

  11. Pharmacological chaperoning: a primer on mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenheimer, Nancy J; Ryder, Katelyn G

    2014-05-01

    Approximately forty percent of diseases are attributable to protein misfolding, including those for which genetic mutation produces misfolding mutants. Intriguingly, many of these mutants are not terminally misfolded since native-like folding, and subsequent trafficking to functional locations, can be induced by target-specific, small molecules variably termed pharmacological chaperones, pharmacoperones, or pharmacochaperones (PCs). PC targets include enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, revealing the breadth of proteins that can be engaged by ligand-assisted folding. The purpose of this review is to provide an integrated primer of the diverse mechanisms and pharmacology of PCs. In this regard, we examine the structural mechanisms that underlie PC rescue of misfolding mutants, including the ability of PCs to act as surrogates for defective intramolecular interactions and, at the intermolecular level, overcome oligomerization deficiencies and dominant negative effects, as well as influence the subunit stoichiometry of heteropentameric receptors. Not surprisingly, PC-mediated structural correction of misfolding mutants normalizes interactions with molecular chaperones that participate in protein quality control and forward-trafficking. A variety of small molecules have proven to be efficacious PCs and the advantages and disadvantages of employing orthostatic antagonists, active-site inhibitors, orthostatic agonists, and allosteric modulator PCs are considered. Also examined is the possibility that several therapeutic agents may have unrecognized activity as PCs, and this chaperoning activity may mediate/contribute to therapeutic action and/or account for adverse effects. Lastly, we explore evidence that pharmacological chaperoning exploits intrinsic ligand-assisted folding mechanisms. Given the widespread applicability of PC rescue of mutants associated with protein folding disorders, both in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic potential of PCs is vast

  12. A review of current practices and the future for deep well injection in the upper Miocene Stevens sand, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, S.C.; Chenot, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-water disposal is a major concern of the petroleum business, especially because of complications associated with many produced-water surface-impoundment percolation facilities. In the San Joaquin Valley, California, the current environmental regulations protecting the potentially usable groundwaters are stringent. the Stevens has significant potential as a disposal zone that may offer considerable capacity when the project is designed using proper geologic and engineering studies. The Stevens sands are well known for their oil-producing capabilities, however, not much has been published regarding its suitability as a zone for deep well injection. Conditions that make the Stevens potentially suitable include (1) adequate confinement providing geologic separation from the groundwater sources in the basin, (2) storage capacity, and (3) large areal extent. Because the search for acceptable disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal activities in the Stevens sands were reviewed and the areas offering the greatest future potential were identified. The authors then discuss class II disposal projects in Stevens sands in the West Bellevue and Midway Sunset oil fields and estimate the ultimate basin-wide disposal capacity of the Stevens

  13. Iomazenil: pharmacological and animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.F.; Blaeuenstein, P.A.; Hasler, P.H.; Schubiger, P.A.; Hunkeler, W.; Bibettu, E.P.; Pieri, L.; Grayson Richards, J.

    1990-01-01

    The flumazenil analogue Ro 16-0154 (Iomazenil), a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, has been labelled by halogen exchange to enable SPECT investigations of central benzodiazepine receptors in human brain. The purified 123 I-Ro 16-0154 was found to be stable in rat brain preparations and to be metabolized in rat liver preparations. Its pharmacological properties were comparable to those of flumazenil with the exception of the antagonism of diazepam versus pentylenetetrazol. Biodistribution in rats (1 h p.i.) resulted in a high brain to blood ratio of 16. Clinical studies revealed images of the bezodiazepine receptor density in the brain. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs

  14. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  15. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    -steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results. Antibodies...... pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted....... against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics beta-lactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based...

  16. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Bing Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C6-C3 constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research.

  17. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  18. Pharmacological management of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Marchesi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlo MarchesiPsychiatric Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a disabling condition which appears in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects more frequently women than men. PD is frequently characterized by recurrences and sometimes by a chronic course and, therefore, most patients require longterm treatments to achieve remission, to prevent relapse and to reduce the risks associated with comorbidity. Pharmacotherapy is one of the most effective treatments of PD. In this paper, the pharmacological management of PD is reviewed. Many questions about this effective treatment need to be answered by the clinician and discussed with the patients to improve her/his collaboration to the treatment plan: which is the drug of choice; when does the drug become active; which is the effective dose; how to manage the side effects; how to manage nonresponse; and how long does the treatment last. Moreover, the clinical use of medication in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding or in children and adolescents was reviewed and its risk-benefit balance discussed.Keywords: panic disorder, pharmacological treatment, treatment guidelines

  19. Topical Treatment for Stevens - Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schandra Purnamawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stevens - Johnson syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN are currently regarded to be same disease entity which differs only in the extent and severity of epidermal sloughing. Both are potentially life-threatening mucocutaneous immunologic reaction, which are most frequently induced by drug consumption. The epithelial destruction of skin and mucosal membrane can cause both acute as well as chronic/ long term outcomes in term of  late sequelae during the course of the disease. Sequelae often occur during the late phase of SJS/TEN and become a significant problem due its chronicity and severe degree of impairment, which leads to deterioration of quality of life for the patients. This may prevented or decreased in terms of intensity if the patient’s received prompt and sufficient topical therapy, particularly in managing lesions on the mucosa of the eye, oral, and genital. Objective : This review underlines topical therapies which could be delivered for management of mucocutaneous lesions from SJS/ TEN, aimed to prevent late sequelae due to SJS – TEN in order to improve the life quality of SJS – TEN survivors. Conclusion: SJS/ TEN frequently lead to late sequeale which includes skin, ocular, oral, and genital involvement. These sequelaes are often severe and chonic. Thus, may cause significant decrease in quality of life of SJS/TEN survivors. It is therefore most important to detect them early in order to manage them adequately. To date, we still have an impression that the specific sequelae of SJS – TEN are often late diagnosed and insufficiently treated. Finally, we want to emphasize that for mucosal involvement in particular, such as ocular, genital and oral involvement, a careful topical treatment have to be taken into special consideration in order to prevent severe late sequelae. 

  20. Mucosal complications of modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayan; Pillai, Vinay Sukumara; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-11-01

    To describe clinical outcomes of complications afflicting the autologous oral mucous membrane graft after modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Prospective case series. This study included 30 eyes of 30 patients with SJS-induced dry keratinized ocular surfaces; the patients underwent various stages of this procedure between August 2009 and February 2012. Mucosal complications were classified as either necrosis or overgrowth. Mucosal necrosis was managed according to a predesigned algorithm based on timing (pre- and postimplantation) and location (central or peripheral) of necrosis. Cases with mucosal overgrowth underwent mucosal debulking and trimming. Mucosal necrosis developed in 15 (50%) eyes and overgrowth in 4 (13.3%) eyes. Preimplantation necrosis (n = 7) was initially managed conservatively, but 2 eyes required free labial-mucous membrane grafting for persistent corneal exposure. Free labial-mucous membrane grafting was performed in all cases of postimplantation necrosis (n = 10), but 8 eyes required additional tarsal pedicle flaps (n = 6, for peripheral necrosis) or through-the-lid revisions (n = 2, for central necrosis). Debulking and trimming effectively managed all cases of mucosal overgrowth, but 3 eyes required repeat procedures. At 24.1 ± 6.5 months postimplantation, the keratoprosthesis was retained in all eyes, and the probability of maintaining 20/60 or better vision was similar in eyes with or without mucosal necrosis (86 ± 8.8% vs 80 ± 10.3%). Mucosal complications, especially necrosis, occurred commonly following modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in dry keratinized post-SJS eyes. The algorithm-based management approach described in this study was successful in treating these complications, retaining the prosthesis and preserving useful vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving mortality outcomes of Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: A regional burns centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, M; Ward, J A; Frew, Q; Gerrish, H; Martin, N; Shaw, A; Barnes, D; Shelly, O; Philp, B; El-Muttardi, N; Dziewulski, P

    2018-05-01

    Stevens Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare, potentially fatal desquamative disorders characterised by large areas of partial thickness skin and mucosal loss. The degree of epidermal detachment that occurs has led to SJS/TEN being described as a burn-like condition. These patients benefit from judicious critical care, early debridement and meticulous wound care. This is best undertaken within a multidisciplinary setting led by clinicians experienced in the management of massive skin loss and its sequelae. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of SJS/TEN overlap & TEN patients managed by our regional burns service over a 12-year period. We present our treatment model for other burn centres treating SJS/TEN patients. A retrospective case review was performed for all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TEN or SJS/TEN overlap admitted to our paediatric and adult burns centre between June 2004 and December 2016. Patient demographics, percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), mucosal involvement, causation, severity of illness score (SCORTEN), length of stay and survival were appraised with appropriate statistical analysis performed using Graph Pad Prism 7.02 Software. During the study period, 42 patients (M26; F: 16) with TEN (n=32) and SJS/TEN overlap (n=10) were managed within our burns service. Mean %TBSA of cutaneous involvement was 57% (range 10-100%) and mean length of stay (LOS) was 27 days (range 1-144 days). We observed 4 deaths in our series compared to 16 predicted by SCORTEN giving a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 24%. Management in our burns service with an aggressive wound care protocol involving debridement of blistered epidermis and wound closure with synthetic and biological dressings seems to have produced benefits in mortality when compared to predicted outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Sedimentology of a surficial uranium deposit on North Flodelle Creek, Stevens County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macke, D.L.; Johnson, S.Y.; Otton, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial accumulations of uranium (up to 0.2 wt. % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, dry basis) are currently forming in organic-rich, poorly drained sediments deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. Known occurrences are in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, the Sierra Nevada, the Colorado Front Range, New Hampshire, and several areas in Canada. The first accumulation of this type to be mined is in postglacial sediments of a 10-acre boggy meadow along North Flodelle Creek in Stevens County, Washington. The meadow is flanked by hills of fine- to medium-grained two-mica quartz monzonite that are mantled by glacial drift of late Wisconsin age (about 18,000 to 11,500 yr B.P.). Relatively thick, hummocky deposits of this same glacial drift impede drainage at the lower end of the meadow. Following ice retreat, glacial sediments on the meadow floor were reworked by fluvial processes, and patches of organic-rich sediment may have formed in ice-melt depressions. About 6700 yr B.P., a blanket of Mazama ash from the Crater Lake eruption was deposited in the meadow. Shortly thereafter, a beaver dam across the lower end of the meadow further restricted drainage, and peat and organic mud accumulated in the pond behind the dam. The dam is preserved in the stratigraphic record as a sheet-like body of woody peat (with beaver-gnawed sticks) about 100m wide and 60 cm thick. After the gradual influx of sand and coarse silt had filled the pond, and the beavers had abandoned the site, fluvial deposition was reestablished

  3. Qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de síndrome de Stevens-Johnson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Ruth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de síndrome de Stevens-Johnson. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 14 pacientes com SSJ no período de 1998 e 1999 no Setor de Córnea do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP. Empregou-se o questionário S. F. 36 - pesquisa em saúde. A pontuação indica melhor condição de saúde. A mesma avaliação foi repetida quatro vezes em intervalo de três meses. RESULTADOS: As médias das médias das 4 avaliações dos 14 pacientes apresentaram importante redução dos seus valores em todos os subitens do S.F. 36 (41,04±22,38 para aspectos físicos, 53,82±22,82 para aspectos sociais, 26,24±22,46 para aspectos emocionais, 34,95±25,45 para capacidade funcional, 42,03±31,85 para dor, 46,33±18,37 para vitalidade, 46,18±24,83 para saúde mental e 50,26±16,29 para saúde geral. CONCLUSÃO: O questionário S.F. 36 representa método adequado de avaliação de aspectos físicos e emocionais em pacientes com baixa de acuidade visual, que nos permitiu detectar comprometimento importante nas funções básicas dos pacientes com SSJ. Mais pacientes com maior tempo de seguimento são necessários para aprimorar a análise de qualidade de vida nesses pacientes e avaliar os efeitos do acompanhamento psicológico.

  4. Pharmacological and non- pharmacological treatment of hypertension: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seyedmazhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic disease. It is more common and more severe in elderly persons. Various studies however have estimated 41.9 million men and 27.8 million women to have prehypertension. Diagnosis and early treatment of prehypertension are of utmost importance. Although hypertension is usually divided into 2 general categories of essential (primary and secondary hypertension, the initial treatment for hypertension often depends on its stage which is determined by systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Lifestyle modification is the first step in treating stage one hypertension. Pharmaceutical treatments including diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, calcium blockers, beta blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails to control blood pressure.    METHODS: The PubMed database was searched by a number of keywords including hypertension, pharmaceutical treatment, and non-pharmaceutical treatment. The results were limited by determining a date range of 2008-11.    RESULTS: High blood pressure causes major health problems for many people around the world. It should be controlled because of its high mortality and morbidity. However, in order to select an appropriate treatment modality, it is initially important to diagnose the kinds and stages of hypertension. Pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatments can then be employed to control this serious disease.    CONCLUSION: Treating hypertension depends on the kinds and stages of this disease. Several tips should be considered when selecting a method of treatment.       Keywords: Hypertension, Pharmacological treatment, Non-pharmacological treatment

  5. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...

  6. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...

  7. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  8. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Alireza; Basirnejad, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells, effector T-cell function and the production of cytokines. Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. It is thought that carotenoids act in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, eds., The Russian Military: Power and Policy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Tsypkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Russian military largely went below the radar of Western interest after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.  More than a decade after the creation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, they have become again the object of interest for scholars – this time, both Western and Russian, as demonstrated by the reviewed volume, whose editors assembled a group of extraordinarily knowledgeable experts from Russia and the West.  In his introduction, Steven Miller explains that the purp...

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of functionalized cyclic amino acid derivatives via a [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement and ring-closing metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Aaron; Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-09-20

    Unnatural cyclic amino acids are valuable tools in biomedical research and drug discovery. A two-step stereoselective strategy for converting simple glycine-derived aminoesters into unnatural cyclic amino acid derivatives has been developed. The process includes a palladium-catalyzed tandem allylic amination/[2,3]-Stevens rearrangement followed by a ruthenium-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis. The [2,3]-rearrangement proceeds with high diastereoselectivity through an exo transition state. Oppolzer's chiral auxiliary was utilized to access an enantiopure cyclic amino acid by this approach, which will enable future biological applications.

  11. High Level Human Herpesvirus-6 Viremia Associated with onset of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Report of 2 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppercorn, Amanda F.; Miller, Melissa B.; Fitzgerald, David; Weber, David J.; Groben, Pamela A.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) remains obscure but it has been associated with various infectious agents, including members of the Herpes virus family. We present the first report of high level human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) viremia at the onset of SJS suggesting a possible new association. This finding supports the need for further investigation into the possible relationship between HHV-6 and SJS which may illuminate the pathogenesis of SJS and bring us closer to achieving enhanced prevention and treatment of this rare disease. PMID:20182379

  12. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Awards Ceremony for 2011 Award Winners (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The winners for 2011 of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award were recognized in a ceremony held May 21, 2012. Dr. Steven Chu and others spoke of the importance of the accomplishments and the prestigious history of the award. The recipients of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award for 2011 are: Riccardo Betti (University of Rochester); Paul C. Canfield (Ames Laboratory); Mark B. Chadwick (Los Alamos National Laboratory); David E. Chavez (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Amit Goyal (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Thomas P. Guilderson (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Lois Curfman McInnes (Argonne National Laboratory); Bernard Matthew Poelker (Thomas Jeffereson National Accelerator Facility); and Barry F. Smith (Argonne National Laboratory).

  13. Pharmacologic treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus W.; Glazenborg, Arjon; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Mostert, Jop; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is a common problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is unclear which pharmacologic treatment is the most effective and the least harmful. Objectives To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologic treatments for depression in patients with MS. Search

  14. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  15. The Dutch vision of clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, J H M; Grouls, R; Guchelaar, H J; Touw, D J; Rongen, G A; de Boer, A; Van Bortel, L M

    Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether

  16. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  17. Future pharmacological therapy in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Merrill H; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector O

    2018-04-26

    Hypertension (HTN) is a widespread and growing disease, with medication intolerance and side-effect present among many. To address these obstacles novel pharmacotherapy is an active area of drug development. This review seeks to explore future drug therapy for HTN in the preclinical and clinical arenas. The future of pharmacological therapy in HTN consists of revisiting old pathways to find new targets and exploring wholly new approaches to provide additional avenues of treatment. In this review, we discuss the current status of the most recent drug therapy in HTN. New developments in well trod areas include novel mineralocorticoid antagonists, aldosterone synthase inhibitors, aminopeptidase-A inhibitors, natriuretic peptide receptor agonists, or the counter-regulatory angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Neprilysin inhibitors popularized for heart failure may also still hold HTN potential. Finally, we examine unique systems in development never before used in HTN such as Na/H exchange inhibitors, vasoactive intestinal peptide agonists, and dopamine beta hydroxylase inhibitors. A concise review of future directions of HTN pharmacotherapy.

  18. [History and pharmacology of trazodone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, A

    1986-10-01

    Trazodone, a non-tricyclic molecule, represents the first of a new generation of antidepressants. It is currently marketed in a number of European countries, in the United States and in Latin America. The pharmacological and biochemical data, the mechanism of action and the preferential indications of trazodone are presented and compared to those of imipramine and other tricyclics. Unlike imipramine, trazodone inhibits the adrenergic system. The two molecules have anti-nociceptive properties, similar effects on the serotoninergic system and, after repeated administrations, they both reduce the density of beta-receptors. The clinical implications of the alpha-blocking activity of trazodone are reported. Trazodone is preferable to tricyclic anti-depressants in the treatment of depression in elderly subjects in general, and especially when they present closed angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, tremor or cardiovascular problems due to hyperactivity of the adrenergic system, as well as in organic depressions and in depression secondary to schizophrenia, alcoholism and in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  19. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  20. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-11-14

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  1. [Pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis--2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter

    2011-08-14

    Osteoporosis affects approximately 9% of the population in Hungary resulting in about 100 000 osteoporotic fractures annually. Thirty-five percent of patients with hip fractures due to osteoporosis will die within 1 year. Direct costs of osteoporosis exceed 25 billion forints per year. Apparently, cost-effective reduction of bone loss and consequent fracture risk will add up to not only financial savings but improvement in quality of life, as well. A number of pharmacological modalities are available for this purpose. The mainstay of the treatment of osteoporosis is the bisphosphonate group that includes effective anti-resorptive compounds mitigating bone loss and fragility. The recently registered denosumab exhibits similar efficacy by neutralizing RANK ligand, however, marked differences can be observed between the two drug classes. Strontium has a unique mechanism of action by rebalancing bone turnover, and thus, providing an efficient treatment option for the not fast bone losers who are at high fracture risk. The purely anabolic teriparatide is available for the extremely severe osteoporotic patients and for those who do not respond to other types of therapy. Older treatment options such as hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, tibolone or calcitonin may also have a restricted place in the management of osteoporosis.

  2. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.

  3. Honoring the work and life of Leroy C. Stevens. A symposium as part of the International Stem Cell Initiative Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher F; Solter, Davor; Gearhart, John D; Nadeau, Joseph H; Knowles, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, a symposium was convened in Leroy C. Stevens' honor, in association with a meeting of the International Stem Cell Initiative (ISCI). ISCI, funded internationally, is composed of a group of ~100 scientists from many countries, under the leadership of Peter Andrews, who have worked together to characterize a significant number of human pluripotent stem cell lines, to monitor their genetic stability and their differentiation into mature cell types and tissues in vitro and in vivo. Those at the ISCI meeting puzzled through one of the thorniest problems in the therapeutic use of the differentiated derivatives of pluripotent stem cells for human therapy; namely, pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into any cell type in the adult organism, but they also have the capacity for unlimited self-renewal, hence if mutated they may have tumorigenic potential. The meeting considered how these cells might become genetically or epigenetically abnormal and how the safety of these cells for human therapeutic uses could be assessed and assured. The symposium was an opportunity to pay tribute to Leroy Stevens and to the basic science origins of this newest aspect of regenerative medicine. It was a time to reflect on the past and on how it can influence the future of our field.

  4. Review of The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity by Steven Strogatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strogatz, Steven. The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity, (New York, NY, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. 316 pp. ISBN 978-0-547-51765-0 The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity, by Steven Strogatz, is an engaging and example-filled argument for mathematics as a valuable and enjoyable activity. The thirty chapters are divided into six parts, entitled Numbers, Relationships, Shapes, Change, Data, and Frontiers. The discussion ranges from intuitive explanations of basic concepts such as place value, the four arithmetic operations, percentage increase and decrease, and solving equations, to “higher” levels of mathematics such as calculus, probability and statistics, group theory, and the nature of infinity. As in John Allen Paulos’ work, Beyond Numeracy, the chapters are short and punchy, and they can be read independently. While the book is not specifically devoted to numeracy, several chapters, especially those in Part Five on Data, address ideas and examples relevant to quantitative literacy.

  5. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Odion

    Full Text Available In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper.

  6. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Baker, William L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue) agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper.

  7. Detection of an ylide intermediate in the electrochemically-induced Stevens rearrangement of an ammonium salt by in situ UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco, Amedeo; Caruso, Tonino; Palombi, Laura; Peluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanistic insights of the electro-induced Stevens rearrangement are provided. ► The reduction of PhCOCH 2 N + (CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 Ph is ascribed to a one-electron transfer process. ► An electrogenerated ammonium ylide has been detected by UV-spectroelectrochemistry. -- Abstract: The electrochemically-induced Stevens rearrangement of 2-(benzyldimethyl)ammonium acetophenone has been investigated by in situ UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry. Voltammetric analysis and absorption spectra recorded during the potentiostatic reduction indicate that the reaction proceeds via a one-electron transfer with a Platinum cathode and generation of an ammonium ylide intermediate

  8. Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone. ... Methods: The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, ... Keywords: 7-methyljugulone; biosynthesis; in vitro synthesis; pharmacology

  9. [PROFESSOR VLADIMIR V. NIKOLAEV AND RUSSIAN PHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, N G; Fisenko, V P

    2016-01-01

    Various stages of scientific research activity of Prof. Vladimir V. Nikolaev are analyzed. The importance of Prof. Nikolaev's discovery of the two-neuron parasympathetic nervous system and some new methods of pharmacological substances evaluation is shown. Prof. Nikolaev is known as the editor of the first USSR Pharmacopoeia. Peculiarities of pharmacology teaching at the First Moscow Medical institute under conditions of changing social demands are described. Successful research of Prof. Nikolaev with colleagues in studying new mechanisms of drug action and developing original pharmacological substances is summarized.

  10. Problems of pharmacological supply of disaster medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs

  11. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee. University ... has been used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of ..... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by.

  13. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar, publishing sites such as Elsevier .... A number of pharmacological activities of C. bulbispermum have been ..... bulbispermum using the direct plate method and minimum inhibitory ...

  14. Bioanalysis, metabolism & clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, R. ter

    2009-01-01

    The aims of all studies described in this thesis were to develop new bioanalytical and more patient friendly methods for studying the clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs and to ultimately improve antiretroviral treatment.

  15. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of Annona Comosus linn. ... Therapeutic plants, and the drugs derived from them, are the most important ... also as treatment to: diarrhea, indigestion, pneumonia, bronchitis, arthritis, ...

  16. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  17. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Etoposide posses high plasma protein binding (97%) and is degraded via ... The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological .... caprolactone and were found efficient as drug delivery vehicles.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topical cocaine 10% in both eyes gave an odds ratio of 1 050:1 that. Horner's syndrome ... nerve endings and therefore do not stimulate the effector cells directly. ... Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome – a new paradigm. Derrick P ...

  19. Precision pharmacology for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Aguilar, Lisi Flores; Benda, Norbert; Broich, Karl; Cuello, A Claudio; Cummings, Jeffrey; Dubois, Bruno; Federoff, Howard J; Fiandaca, Massimo; Genthon, Remy; Haberkamp, Marion; Karran, Eric; Mapstone, Mark; Perry, George; Schneider, Lon S; Welikovitch, Lindsay A; Woodcock, Janet; Baldacci, Filippo; Lista, Simone

    2018-04-01

    The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses. Consequently, the distinct pattern of AD pathophysiology in space and time must be investigated on the basis of the individual biological makeup. This requires the implementation of systems biology and neurophysiology to facilitate Precision Medicine (PM) and Precision Pharmacology (PP). The regulation of several processes at multiple levels of complexity from gene expression to cellular cycle to tissue repair and system-wide network activation has different time delays (temporal scale) according to the affected systems (spatial scale). The initial failure might originate and occur at every level potentially affecting the whole dynamic interrelated systems within an organism. Unraveling the spatial and temporal dynamics of non-linear pathophysiological mechanisms across the continuum of hierarchical self-organized systems levels and from systems homeostasis to systems failure is key to understand AD. Measuring and, possibly, controlling space- and time-scaled adaptive and compensatory responses occurring during AD will represent a crucial step to achieve the capacity to substantially modify the disease course and progression at the best suitable timepoints, thus counteracting disrupting critical pathophysiological inputs. This approach will provide the conceptual basis for effective

  20. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return fo...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  1. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  2. Organizational Heritage and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper’s Theories Reflected in the Emergence and Growth of the Plastic Molds Industry in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the emergence of the molds and plastics industries in Portugal, finding that this history fits nicely with the accounts—originally proposed in Steven Klepper’s various works—of new industries emerging from older, related industries, and regional clusters emerging

  3. Från outsiderfilmmakare till etablerad indieregissör : David Lynch, Jim Jarmusch och Steven Soderbergh

    OpenAIRE

    Simberg, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Det här arbetet behandlar kreativ frihet och konstnärligt oberoende i filmskapande, utgående från begreppet independent film och regissörerna David Lynch, Jim Jarmusch och Steven Soderbergh. Den centrala frågeställningen är hur det har varit möjligt för en filmkonstnär att uppnå konstnärligt oberoende och samtidigt ha en långlivad och framgångsrik karriär. Arbetets fokus ligger på de tre regissörernas genombrottsfilmer; Eraserhead, Stranger Than Paradise och sex, lies, and videotape, och förs...

  4. Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson e necrólise epidérmica tóxica

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Inês Dionísio

    2013-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Dermatologia), apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. A Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson (SSJ) e a necrólise epidérmica tóxica (NET) são reacções mucocutâneas raras consideradas emergências médicas, podendo tornar-se fatais. Constituem dois extremos do mesmo espectro clínico das reacções cutâneas severas adversas a fármacos com necrose epidérmica, diferindo apenas na extensão do descolamento epidérmico. A gra...

  5. Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and SJS-TEN overlap: A retrospective study of causative drugs and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and SJS-TEN overlap are serious adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Drugs are often implicated in these reactions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of inpatients′ data with these dermatological diagnoses were carried out for three years, to study the causative drugs, clinical outcome, and mortality in these conditions. Results: Thirty patients (15 TEN, nine SJS-TEN overlap, and six SJS were admitted. In 21 cases, multiple drugs were implicated whereas single drugs were responsible in nine. Anticonvulsants (35.08% were the most commonly implicated drugs followed by antibiotics (33.33% and NSAIDS (24.56%. Twenty-five patients recovered whereas five died (four TEN, one SJS-TEN overlap. Conclusion: Anticonvulsants, antibiotics and NSAIDs were the most frequently implicated drugs. TEN causes higher mortality than both SJS and SJS-TEN overlap.

  6. Association of HLA-BFNx011502 allele and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome among Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Timir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe cutaneous reactions caused by certain drugs, including antiepileptic carbamazepine. A strong association has been reported between human leucocyte antigen (HLA-BFNx011502 and carbamazepine-induced SJS in Han Chinese patients. European studies suggested that HLA-BFNx011502 is not a universal marker but is ethnicity-specific for Asians. Aim: To study the association between HLA-BFNx011502 and carbamazepine-induced SJS in Indian patients. Methods: Eight individuals who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SJS induced by carbamazepine were identified and HLA-B molecular typing was performed. HLA-B genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Results: Out of eight patients studied for genotype, six patients were found to have the HLA-BFNx011502 allele. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between HLA-BFNx011502 and carbamazepine-induced SJS in Indian patients.

  7. Steven Pinker. The Better Angels of Our Nature. Why violence has declined. Viking Adult, New York, 2011, 832 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2011-01-01

    Aunque ya es una tesis bastante aceptada por los historiadores y sociólogos, la posibilidad de que, al contrario de la creencia popular, vivamos en tal vez una de las épocas más pacíficas de la historia es aún controvertida, más aún cuando llega un trabajo de una de las figuras públicas de la academia como es el profesor de Harvard Steven Pinker. Sin embargo, Pinker se había dedicado a psicología cognitiva y ganó fama al presentar al lenguaje como un instinto de la humanidad, y más aún al pre...

  8. Steven Pinker. The Better Angels of Our Nature. Why violence has declined. Viking Adult, New York, 2011, 832 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aunque ya es una tesis bastante aceptada por los historiadores y sociólogos, la posibilidad de que, al contrario de la creencia popular, vivamos en tal vez una de las épocas más pacíficas de la historia es aún controvertida, más aún cuando llega un trabajo de una de las figuras públicas de la academia como es el profesor de Harvard Steven Pinker. Sin embargo, Pinker se había dedicado a psicología cognitiva y ganó fama al presentar al lenguaje como un instinto de la humanidad, y más aún al presentar sus resultados en libros dirigidos al público en general, algo bastante común entre los científicos norteamericanos.

  9. Pharmacological stress agents in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However there are a group of patients who may not be able to undergo treadmill tests. Patients with underlying conditions like neuromuscular disease, musculoskeletal disorder, heart failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis would find it difficult to perform exercise on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. These conditions prevent them from performing adequate exercise. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. Nuclear medicine departments use various pharmacological agents while performing stress tests on cardiac patients. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilators and catecholamines. In addition to these agents, adjuvant use of nitrates and atropine is also a common practice in nuclear cardiology. This review addresses various physiological and pharmacological properties of the commonly used pharmacological stress agents in MPS and critically analyses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their safety and efficacy. (author)

  10. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied.

  11. Pharmacological screening technologies for venom peptide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Hasaballah, Nojod; Vetter, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Venomous animals occupy one of the most successful evolutionary niches and occur on nearly every continent. They deliver venoms via biting and stinging apparatuses with the aim to rapidly incapacitate prey and deter predators. This has led to the evolution of venom components that act at a number of biological targets - including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and enzymes - with exquisite selectivity and potency, making venom-derived components attractive pharmacological tool compounds and drug leads. In recent years, plate-based pharmacological screening approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom-derived drug discovery. A range of assays are amenable to this purpose, including high-throughput electrophysiology, fluorescence-based functional and binding assays. However, despite these technological advances, the traditional activity-guided fractionation approach is time-consuming and resource-intensive. The combination of screening techniques suitable for miniaturization with sequence-based discovery approaches - supported by advanced proteomics, mass spectrometry, chromatography as well as synthesis and expression techniques - promises to further improve venom peptide discovery. Here, we discuss practical aspects of establishing a pipeline for venom peptide drug discovery with a particular emphasis on pharmacology and pharmacological screening approaches. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Only connect: the merger of BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Elizabeth C; Morrey, Christopher; Appleford-Cook, Joanne M

    2012-08-13

    This editorial celebrates the launch of BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology within the BMC series of journals published by BioMed Central. The scope of the journal is interdisciplinary encompassing toxicology, experimental and clinical pharmacology including clinical trials. In this editorial we discuss the origins of this new journal and the ethos and policies under which it will operate.

  13. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Traumatic brain injury pharmacological treatment: recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents the recommendations on the pharmacological treatment employed in traumatic brain injury (TBI at the outpatient clinic of the Cognitive Rehabilitation after TBI Service of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. A systematic assessment of the consensus reached in other countries, and of articles on TBI available in the PUBMED and LILACS medical databases, was carried out. We offer recommendations of pharmacological treatments in patients after TBI with different symptoms.

  15. Delirium in the elderly: A systematic review of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Carboni Tardelli Cerveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Delirium is a common disorder associated with poor prognosis, especially in the elderly. The impact of different treatment approaches for delirium on morbimortality and long-term welfare is not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in elderly patients with delirium. METHODS: This systematic review compared pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients over 60 years old with delirium. Databases used were: MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS from inception to January 6th, 2016. RESULTS: A total of ten articles were selected. The six non-pharmacological intervention studies showed no impact on duration of delirium, mortality or institutionalization, but a decrease in severity of delirium and improvement in medium-term cognitive function were observed. The most commonly used interventions were temporal-spatial orientation, orientation to self and others, early mobilization and sleep hygiene. The four studies with pharmacological interventions found that rivastigmine reduced the duration of delirium, improved cognitive function and reduced caregiver burden; olanzapine and haloperidol decreased the severity of delirium; droperidol reduced length of hospitalization and improved delirium remission rate. CONCLUSION: Although the pharmacological approach has been used in the treatment of delirium among elderly, there have been few studies assessing its efficacy, involving a small number of patients. However, the improvements in delirium duration and severity suggest these drugs are effective in treating the condition. Once delirium has developed, non-pharmacological treatment seems less effective in controlling symptoms, and there is a lack of studies describing different non-pharmacological interventions.

  16. Pharmacological therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with COPD require pharmacological therapy. ... pulmonary dysfunction. Clearly the patient's tolerance to the various drugs will influence the choice of long-term maintenance treatment. The other important factor in the .... blocking cervical immune responses might leave her less protected against other infections.

  17. Multidimensional Screening as a Pharmacology Laboratory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marvin H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A multidimensional pharmacodynamic screening experiment that addresses drug interaction is included in the pharmacology-toxicology laboratory experience of pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific. The student handout with directions for the procedure is reproduced, drug compounds tested are listed, and laboratory evaluation results are…

  18. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.; Simon, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising [fr

  19. Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To provide an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses and ... calls for detailed phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the species aimed at identifying the ... urban communities throughout its native ... sized, densely leafy tree reaching 15 m tall [17] ..... Williams College, United States; 1998; p 133.

  20. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  1. Jatropha Tanjorensis - Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of this work, future study on the phytochemistry and chemical constituents in relation to certain other biological activities are required to fully understand the phytochemical and complex pharmacological effect of the plant specie. Further work to isolate active compounds from the plant is also necessary.

  2. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Anzenbacher, P.; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2009), s. 342-361 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cytokines * immunotherapy * immunopharmacology Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 5.204, year: 2009

  3. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  4. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Biology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Rossetto, Ornella; Eleopra, Roberto; Montecucco, Cesare

    2017-04-01

    The study of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is rapidly progressing in many aspects. Novel BoNTs are being discovered owing to next generation sequencing, but their biologic and pharmacological properties remain largely unknown. The molecular structure of the large protein complexes that the toxin forms with accessory proteins, which are included in some BoNT type A1 and B1 pharmacological preparations, have been determined. By far the largest effort has been dedicated to the testing and validation of BoNTs as therapeutic agents in an ever increasing number of applications, including pain therapy. BoNT type A1 has been also exploited in a variety of cosmetic treatments, alone or in combination with other agents, and this specific market has reached the size of the one dedicated to the treatment of medical syndromes. The pharmacological properties and mode of action of BoNTs have shed light on general principles of neuronal transport and protein-protein interactions and are stimulating basic science studies. Moreover, the wide array of BoNTs discovered and to be discovered and the production of recombinant BoNTs endowed with specific properties suggest novel uses in therapeutics with increasing disease/symptom specifity. These recent developments are reviewed here to provide an updated picture of the biologic mechanism of action of BoNTs, of their increasing use in pharmacology and in cosmetics, and of their toxicology. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  5. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research: Advanced Search ... either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of ...

  6. Pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of treatment is to relieve daily symptoms, improve quality of life and importantly decrease the risk of future exacerbations. Current guidelines are based on grade A and B evidence. Pneumococcal and annual influenza vaccinations are encouraged. A holistic approach that augments pharmacological ...

  7. Emerging pharmacological therapy for functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Mariko; Nagahara, Akihito; Asaoka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sumio

    2013-10-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a multifactorial disease with complex underlying pathophysiology. To date, there is no established treatment for FD. This review summarizes recent progress in pharmacological therapy for the disease. A newly developed drug, acotiamide, is expected to improve symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome. Herbal medicines are also expected to become options for FD treatment.

  8. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The

  9. Kinship and interaction in neuromuscular pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, Sjouke

    2006-01-01

    The background of this thesis is presented in the introductory chapters and stafts with a brief history of neuromuscular relaxants. It is followed by a short description of the neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology in chapters 2 and 3, respectively. In chapter 4 the aim of the thesis is

  10. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  11. Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A large number of research articles related to “Cynomorium songaricum” “pharmacological effects” .... contents in C. songaricum at different stages of its growth are varied in a .... Oral water-soluble polysaccharides of C. ... tested strains, mouse somatic cells and germ cells. .... change under the influence of heating.

  12. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  13. Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial Drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-15

    Jun 15, 1974 ... Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial. Drugs. D.BOTHA. SUMMARY. A short review is given of antimalarial drugs currently in use. S. Air. Med. l., 48, 1263 (1974). CLASSIFICATION. The chemotherapy of malaria may be conveniently classi- fied as (i) casual prophylaxis; (ii) suppressive treatment;.

  14. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  15. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum bulbispermum so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, phytochemistry ...

  16. Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-12-01

    Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.

  17. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  18. Comparison of the U-233 dog data of Stevens et al. with uranium retention functions in ICRP Publication 30 and a 3-compartment mammillary model for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stevens measured the distribution, retention, and excretion of U-233 in seven beagles each given a single injection of U-233 citrate [2.8 μCi/kg U-233 (VI) (approx.3 mg/dog)]. These data, when plotted together with results obtained with the ICRP (Pub. 30) retention functions for purposes of comparison, are seen to differ only slightly from the ICRP-30 model. The number of transformations in the body, over a fifty-year period agree within a factor of 2. A three-compartment mammillary model has been parameterized from the data of Stevens by the method of Bernard. Retention in tissues of the body is represented by a linear combination of three compartments. The data plots for the dogs and ICRP-30 model will be presented and discussed together with the three compartment mammillary model for U-233 retention, distribution, and excretion. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references

  20. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Concise Review with a Comprehensive Summary of Therapeutic Interventions Emphasizing Supportive Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Jeremy A.; Cohen, Philip R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe dermatologic conditions occurring in the inpatient setting. There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate management of SJS and TEN. Purpose The scientific literature pertaining to SJS and TEN (subsequently referred to as SJS/TEN) is summarized and assessed. In addition, an interventional approach for the clinician is provided. Methods PubMed was searched with the key words: cortic...

  1. Characterization of fish sauce aroma-impact compounds using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' power law exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A J; Schilling, M W; Yoon, Y; Kamadia, V V; Marshall, D L

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) coupled with Stevens' Power Law. Compounds were separated using GCMS and GCO and were identified with the mass spectral database, aroma perceived at the sniffing port, retention indices, and verification of compounds by authentic standards in the GCMS and GCO. Aromas that were isolated and present in all 4 fish sauce samples at all concentrations included fishy (trimethylamine), pungent and dirty socks (combination of butanoic, pentanoic, hexanoic, and heptanoic acids), cooked rice and buttery popcorn (2,6-dimethyl pyrazine), and sweet and cotton candy (benzaldehyde). All fish sauces contained the same aromas as determined by GCO and GCMS (verified using authentic standard compounds), but the odor intensity associated with each compound or group of compounds was variable for different fish sauce samples. Stevens' Power Law exponents were also determined using this analytical technique, but exponents were not consistent for the same compounds that were found in all fish sauces. Stevens' Power Law exponents ranged from 0.14 to 0.37, 0.24 to 0.34, 0.09 to 0.21, and 0.10 to 0.35 for dirty socks, fishy, buttery popcorn, and sweet aromas, respectively. This demonstrates that there is variability in Stevens' Power Law exponents for odorants within fish sauce samples.

  2. Q&A with Steven Spencer: Speaker in the Women and STEM Series Talks About How He Became Interested in Studying Psychology, Dissonance, and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    As I talked with Steven Spencer, Professor at the University of Waterloo and a groundbreaking researcher in the field of stereotype threat, I was impressed by his kind demeanor and effective speaking style. He shared information about his academic career, advice for graduate students as well as discussing this research on how to dismantle the negative stereotypes that inhibit women’s progression in science, technology, engineering, and math fields (STEM).

  3. “Inspired by real events”—Media (and Memory in Steven Spielberg’s MUNICH (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nachreiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Spielberg’s 2005 film Munich tells the story of an Israeli counter-terrorist team in the aftermath of the hijacking and massacre at the Olympic Games in 1972. The film spawned broad discussion about its historical accuracy and its political standpoint. While criticism primarily focused on the historiographical representation of the actions depicted, this paper analyzes in two steps the genuinely filmic mode of historical representation ofMunich. First, the analysis discusses the interplay of two conflicting narrative strategies that negotiate the character development with the political struggle. And second, analysis focuses on the two formal devices at the core of the narrative conflict: The reflexive framing of television in the depiction of the Munich massacre as a traumatic media event and the excessive transformation of its memory in a series of flashbacks. Such elaboration of the narrative and formal strategies reveals the implicit historiographical structures of the film and suggests that the notion of ‘cultural trauma’ serves as the preferential—but problematic—template in telling the history of terrorism and violence.

  4. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis--A Comprehensive Review and Guide to Therapy. I. Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohanim, Sahar; Palioura, Sotiria; Saeed, Hajirah N; Akpek, Esen K; Amescua, Guillermo; Basu, Sayan; Blomquist, Preston H; Bouchard, Charles S; Dart, John K; Gai, Xiaowu; Gomes, José A P; Gregory, Darren G; Iyer, Geetha; Jacobs, Deborah S; Johnson, Anthony J; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mantagos, Iason S; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Perez, Victor L; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Sangwan, Virender S; Sippel, Kimberly C; Sotozono, Chie; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Tan, Donald T H; Tandon, Radhika; Tseng, Scheffer C G; Ueta, Mayumi; Chodosh, James

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this review is to comprehensively appraise the state of the art with regard to Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), with particular attention to the ocular surface complications and their management. SJS and TEN represent two ends of a spectrum of immune-mediated, dermatobullous disease, characterized in the acute phase by a febrile illness followed by skin and mucous membrane necrosis and detachment. The widespread keratinocyte death seen in SJS/TEN is rapid and irreversible, and even with early and aggressive intervention, morbidity is severe and mortality not uncommon. We have divided this review into two parts. Part I summarizes the epidemiology and immunopathogenesis of SJS/TEN and discusses systemic therapy and its possible benefits. We hope this review will help the ophthalmologist better understand the mechanisms of disease in SJS/TEN and enhance their care of patients with this complex and often debilitating disease. Part II (April 2016 issue) will focus on ophthalmic manifestations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Síndrome de Stevens Johnson, presentación de un caso en edad pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Morales Solís

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Stevens-Johnson (SSJ es una variante severa del eritema multiforme, consistente en una reacción de hipersensibilización que afecta piel y mucosa, además de otros órganos internos, y que se manifiesta con lesiones en zonas genitales, bucales y cutáneas, es idiopático en el 50% de los casos, generalmente producido por alergia a medicamentos. La muerte sobreviene en el 5-15% de los casos sin tratar. El riesgo de recurrencia es del 37% o más.  Al Hospital Pediátrico Provincial Docente “Mártires de Las Tunas”  fue  traído un niño de seis años  de edad, que tras el uso del Sulfaprín comenzó con lesiones que afectaban la piel y  todas las mucosas, además de toma del estado general. Inmediatamente fue admitido en la Unidad de Cuidados  Intensivos Pediátricos, donde fueron tomadas medidas que incluyeron supresión del agente causal,  corticoterapia endovenosa, antibioticoterapia endovenosa, tratamiento de las lesiones, vigilancia del balance hidromineral y atención oftalmológica, respondiendo favorablemente. Se presenta el caso, por ser una enfermedad poco frecuente y de muy mal pronóstico.

  6. The Pitfalls of Picturing Atlantic Slavery: Steven Spielberg’s Amistad vs Guy Deslauriers’s The Middle Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Eckstein

    2011-04-01

    On the one hand, the arts are particularly called for in this situation to fill the documentary gaps and silences through acts of experiment and imagination, and they may indeed have a redemptive effect by offering, in Hayden White’s terms, successful ‘emplotments’ of a traumatic past. One the other hand, this redemptive potential simultaneously poses a serious ethical challenge: As Theodor W. Adorno has warned with reference to the Holocaust, it is precisely by making ‘sense’ of human suffering, and by making accessible to the ‘senses’ what is utterly senseless and incomprehensible, that injustice may be done to the victims. In this paper, I will try to illustrate this problematic by looking at two recent films that have attempted to represent the horrors of the middle passage – Steven Spielberg’s canonical Amistad (a terrible failure, in my view, and Guy Deslauriers’ film The Middle Passage [Passage du Milieu]. Based on a script by the Martiniquean novelist and poet Patrick Chamoiseau, the latter example uses an aesthetic approach which may point at a way out of the dilemma outlined above.

  7. Nine years of a single referral center management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Diana; Egipto, Paula; Barbosa, Julia; Horta, Ricardo; Amarante, Jose; Silva, Pedro; Silva, Alvaro

    2017-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) corresponds to a rare and acute life-threatening mucocutaneous reactions characterized by extensive necrosis and epidermal detachment. There are no efficacious pharmaceutical interventions proven through large clinical trials. We sought to study clinical cases admitted in our institution in order to determine which drugs and medical comorbidities or treatments impacted the mortality. In a retrospective study over 9 years we evaluated all patients presenting biopsy-proven SJS or TEN for age, gender, total body surface area involved, causing agents, SCORTEN score, blood transfusion, steroid administration, intubation, length of intensive care stay and death rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical software. The highest incidence of SJS and TEN was in age group of 71-80 years. Of the 30 patients, 30% died from SJS/TEN, mainly due sepsis. For each subgroup SJS/TEN overlap had the highest mortality. The highest mortality was from antibiotic treatment as causing agent. Step-wise regression analysis identified mechanical ventilation requirement and age over 65 years as mortality high-risk factors. The most crucial interventions are discontinuation of the offending drug and prompt referral to a burn unit, which helps in early diagnosis and decrease mortality in these diseases. When SJS/TEN is caused by antibiotics suspicion of developing fatal sepsis should be high, independently of patients' medical condition.

  8. Pharmacists' and general practitioners' pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F

    Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge

  9. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Pharmacology profiling of chemicals and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    between pharmaceuticals and proteins in vivo potential leads to unwanted adverse effects, toxicity and reduced half-life, but can also lead to novel therapeutic effects of already approved pharmaceuticals. Hence identification of in vivo targets is of importance in discovery, development and repurposing....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... to its nonself origin, which potentially alters the pharmacology profile of the substance. The neutralization of biopharmaceuticals by antidrug antibodies (ADAs) is an important element in the immune response cascade, however studies of ADA binding site on biopharmaceuticals, referred to as B...

  11. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  12. Pharmacologic management of chronic neuropathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Alex; Weinberg, Erica; Moulin, Dwight E.; Clarke, Hance

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain. Quality of evidence A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement. Main message Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain. Tramadol and other opioids are recommended as second-line agents, while cannabinoids are newly recommended as third-line agents. Other anticonvulsants, methadone, tapentadol, topical lidocaine, and botulinum toxin are recommended as fourth-line agents. Conclusion Many pharmacologic analgesics exist for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Through evidence-based recommendations, the CPS revised consensus statement helps guide family physicians in the management of patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:29138154

  13. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  14. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  15. Conception of pharmacological knowledge and needs amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students who are taking/have taken the medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices from ... and 31.1% different drugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% use standard textbooks, ...

  16. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  17. Pharmacological interventions to treat phlebitis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.

  18. Pharmacological Aspects of Neuro-Immune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vadim V; Kudryashov, Nikita V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Barreto, George E; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2018-01-01

    The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organisms is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of adult brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. The changes that occur as a result of the influence of pharmacological agents at one of the systems should inevitably lead to the functional reorganization at another. Integrative mechanisms underlying the neuro-immune interactions may explain the "pleiotropic" pharmacological effects of some antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. Amantadine, which was originally considered as an antiviral agent, was approved as anti-parkinsonic drug after its wide medical use. The prolonged administration of interferon alpha caused depression in 30-45% of patients, thus limiting its clinical use. The antiviral drug "Oseltamivir" may provoke the development of central side effects, including abnormal behavior, delirium, impaired perception and suicides. Anti-herpethetical drug "Panavir" shows pronounced neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experimental and clinical data related to central effects of drugs with antiviral or/and immunotropic activity, and to discover the relationship of these effects with changes in reactivity of immune system and proinflammatory response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Pharmacological Effects of Biotin in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron-Negrete, Leticia; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, it was found that vitamins affect biological functions in ways other than their long-known functions; niacin is the best example of a water-soluble vitamin known to possess multiple actions. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that serves as a covalently-bound coenzyme of carboxylases. It is now well documented that biotin has actions other than participating in classical enzyme catalysis reactions. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, reproduction, development, and immunity. The effect of biotin on these functions is related to its actions at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. The bestsupported mechanism involved in the genetic effects of biotin is the soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. Although there are commercially-available products containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin, the toxic effects of biotin have been poorly studied. This review summarizes the known actions and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological doses of biotin in animals and current information regarding biotin toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

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    Stephen T. Abedon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virions alone. Ecologically, we can consider phage propagation, densities, distribution (within bodies, impact on body-associated microbiota (as ecological communities, and modification of the functioning of body “ecosystems” more generally. These ecological and physiological components in many ways represent different perspectives on otherwise equivalent phenomena. Comparable to drugs, one also can view phages during phage therapy in pharmacological terms. The relatively unique status of phages within the context of phage therapy as essentially replicating antimicrobials can therefore result in a confluence of perspectives, many of which can be useful towards gaining a better mechanistic appreciation of phage therapy, as I consider here. Pharmacology more generally may be viewed as a discipline that lies at an interface between organism-associated phenomena, as considered by physiology, and environmental interactions as considered by ecology.

  1. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add

  2. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa- levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia. Methods This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks. Results The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51) than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56) at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively). There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51) and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56) at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5%) than in the occlusion group (30%). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3%) than in the occlusion group (22%). Conclusion Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia. PMID:22536029

  3. Inter population variability of frost-resistance in provenances of scot pines (Pinusylvestris L.R. hamata Steven in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Halil Barış

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost-resistance variability of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. var. hamata Steven seedlings grown in nurseries conditions, originated from 10 provenances, have been analyzed. The provenances from Black Sea region, Central Anatolian region and Eastern Anatolian region in Turkey have been used in selection of seed zones. The results of frost-resistance tests indicated a strong relationship of implemented freezing degrees with injury degrees of Scotch pine needles and photosynthetic productivities. On the other hand, another significant relationship has been determined between chlorophyll fluorescence and ion leakage methods (r=-0.801. This result shows that those two methods can be safely used in determining the damages due to low temperatures. In frost resistance tests, Scotch pine seedlings from different provenances have been frozen at -10, -20, -30 and -40°C. According to the Duncan test results, it has been determined that damage increased as temperature decreased. The damage level at -10°C implementation is 3.5% which can be tolerated by plants. But when the temperature has been decreased to -20°C, the level of damage has increased to 51.25%. As a result of photosynthetic analyses in this phase, it has been determined that there is a statistically significant relationship between provenances and temperature levels. Under the light of those findings, they have determined that the photosynthetic productivity has significantly decreased at temperatures between -20°C and -40°C. This situation conforms to injury index values determined in this study. As a result of injury index and photosynthetic productivity tests used for determining the damage after frost-resistance tests, it has been determined that the provenances of Amasya-Kunduz, Bolu-Aladağ, Düzce-Yığılca, Samsun-Vezirköprü and Eskişehir-Çatacık are more sensitive to frost than other provenances.

  4. Survey of Nonprescription Medication and Antibiotic Use in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, and Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Sullivan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and overlap syndrome (SJS-TEN are rare, serious skin and mucosa break-down conditions frequently associated with antibiotic use. The role of nonprescription medications alone, or in combination with antibiotics in triggering SJS/TEN, is largely unknown. This study summarized data collected from patient surveys about nonprescription and antibiotic use prior to a SJS/TEN diagnosis. The survey was administered online to members of the U.S. SJS Foundation who had been diagnosed with SJS/TEN or were the parent of a child who had been diagnosed with SJS/TEN. Respondents were asked about nonprescription medications taken within the year before diagnosis, and the approximate point in time before diagnosis that they had taken them. They were also asked about specific prescription medications, including antibiotics, that they took before diagnosis. An estimated 4500 patients received an invitation to complete the survey. 251 patients completed it, resulting in a response rate of 5.6%. The mean age of respondents was 43 years (SD (standard deviation = 17.3 and 70% were female. 32.3% of respondents indicated that a prescription antibiotic triggered their reaction. 14.1% indicated a nonprescription medication had triggered their SJS/TEN, and 18.1% said a nonprescription medication may have triggered their SJS/TEN. 85.5% of respondents said they took a nonprescription medication within three months of their SJS/TEN diagnosis. Of those respondents who reported that an antibiotic triggered their SJS/TEN, 35.2% reported taking a nonprescription medication within the three months prior to their diagnosis. This survey captured valuable information about nonprescription and antibiotic use in SJS/TEN patients. It is important for future studies to estimate the impact of antibiotics on SJS/TEN, and account for nonprescription medication use in that relationship.

  5. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sakamoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN in a large population of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE patients. Methods: Multicenter study including 852 cSLE patients followed in Pediatric Rheumatology centers in São Paulo, Brazil. SJS was defined as epidermal detachment below 10% of body surface area (BSA, overlap SJS-TEN 10-30% and TEN greater than 30% of BSA. Results: SJS and TEN was observed in 5/852 (0.6% cSLE female patients, three patients were classified as SJS and two patients were classified as overlap SJS-TEN; TEN was not observed. The mean duration of SJS and overlap SJS-TEN was 15 days (range 7-22 and antibiotics induced four cases. Regarding extra-cutaneous manifestations, hepatomegaly was observed in two cSLE patients, nephritis in two and neuropsychiatric involvement and conjunctivitis were observed respectively in one patient. Hematological involvement included lymphopenia in four, leucopenia in three and thrombocytopenia in two patients. The mean SLEDAI-2K score was 14.8 (range 6-30. Laboratory analysis showed low C3, C4 and/or CH50 in two patients and the presence of anti-dsDNA autoantibody in two patients. One patient had lupus anticoagulant and another one had anticardiolipin IgG. All patients were treated with steroids and four needed additional treatment such as intravenous immunoglobulin in two patients, hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine in two and intravenous cyclophosphamide in one patient. Sepsis was observed in three cSLE patients. Two patients required intensive care and death was observed in one patient. Conclusion: Our study identified SJS and overlap SJS-TEN as rare manifestations of active cSLE associated with severe multisystemic disease, with potentially lethal outcome.

  6. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    A novel functional-genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in "big data" providing comprehensive information about the drugs' targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In "process pharmacology", drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high-dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Vucovich, Lee A.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients’ chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research. PMID:27267445

  8. Pharmacology Goes Concept-Based: Course Design, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Amelia; Davis, Rebecca G

    Although concept-based curricula are frequently discussed in the nursing education literature, little information exists to guide the development of a concept-based pharmacology course. Traditionally, nursing pharmacology courses are taught with an emphasis on drug class where a prototype drug serves as an exemplar. When transitioning pharmacology to a concept-based course, special considerations are in order. How can educators successfully integrate essential pharmacological content into a curriculum structured around nursing concepts? This article presents one approach to the design and implementation of a concept-based undergraduate pharmacology course. Planning methods, supportive teaching strategies, and course evaluation procedures are discussed.

  9. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenyi; Du, Yijie; Meng, Hong; Dong, Yinmao; Li, Li

    2017-07-11

    Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae that has been used for generations to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. The fruits and roots of TT have been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in China, India, Sudan, and Pakistan. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, such as saponins and flavonoids, have been isolated and identified from TT that are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of TT and provides evidence for better medicinal usage of TT.

  11. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  12. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  13. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  14. Reappraisal of GIP Pharmacology for Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are considered the best current medicines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity due to their actions in lowering blood glucose and body weight. Despite similarities to GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has not been extensively pursue...... be beneficial for metabolic diseases. However, a growing body of new evidence - including data based on refined genetically modified models and improved pharmacological agents - suggests a paradigm shift on how the GIP system should be manipulated for metabolic benefits....

  15. Milliste plaanidega lähed vastu uuele õppeaastale? / Triinu Lepp, Gleb Tšurbanov, Erik Paemurru, Steven Huang...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad hariduskolleegiumi algkooli 3. klassi õpilane Egert, prantsuse lütseumi 12. klassi õpilane Triinu Lepp, Sillamäe kutsekooli 3. kursuse õpilane Gleb Tšurbanov, Tallinna reaalkooli 11. klassi õpilane Erik Paemurru, Toronto Crescenti keskkooli õpilane Steven Huang, kunstiakadeemia muinsuskaitse- ja restaureerimisosakonna õppejõud Jaan Tamm, Tartu Miina Härma gümnaasiumi 2. a klassi õpilane Erki Külaots, Tallinna 21. kooli 11. klassi õpilane Sander Kaur ja Tapa gümnaasiumi 7. klassi õpilane Evelin Orgse

  16. Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes among Children with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A 20-Year Study in a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Susheera Chatproedprai; Vanvara Wutticharoenwong; Therdpong Tempark; Siriwan Wananukul

    2018-01-01

    Aim. To determine the probable causative factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and SJS-TEN overlap in children. Methods. A 20-year database review of all children diagnosed with SJS/TEN/SJS-TEN overlap at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Results. 36 patients (M : F, 16 : 20) with the mean age of 9.2±4.0 years were identified. There were 20 cases of SJS, 4 cases of SJS-TEN overlap, and 12 cases...

  17. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  18. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  19. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  20. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  1. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  3. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  4. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  5. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatment of tumorigenesis, asthama, gastric, erectile dysfunction, apoptosis, melanoma and congestive heart failure. Ability to produce nitric oxide offers various applications as in the prevention of age and hair loss. It serves as a precursor of creatine with ergogenic potential. The ability to increase endogenous growth hormone makes arginine a preferred supplement for the improvement of physical performance. In the present study details about the pharmacological applications of arginine based on modern scientific investigations have been discussed. There are immense properties hidden in arginine that need to be explored using the scientific investigations to make it beneficial for the medicine and human health. More research is needed to evaluate the role of arginine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations in healthy and diseased populations before taking any conclusions.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E

    2011-03-26

    Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.

  7. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  8. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the aetiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention, but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have, however, emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca 2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progress towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  9. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-01-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  10. Harnessing Big Data for Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Draizen, Eli J; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-01-06

    Systems pharmacology aims to holistically understand mechanisms of drug actions to support drug discovery and clinical practice. Systems pharmacology modeling (SPM) is data driven. It integrates an exponentially growing amount of data at multiple scales (genetic, molecular, cellular, organismal, and environmental). The goal of SPM is to develop mechanistic or predictive multiscale models that are interpretable and actionable. The current explosions in genomics and other omics data, as well as the tremendous advances in big data technologies, have already enabled biologists to generate novel hypotheses and gain new knowledge through computational models of genome-wide, heterogeneous, and dynamic data sets. More work is needed to interpret and predict a drug response phenotype, which is dependent on many known and unknown factors. To gain a comprehensive understanding of drug actions, SPM requires close collaborations between domain experts from diverse fields and integration of heterogeneous models from biophysics, mathematics, statistics, machine learning, and semantic webs. This creates challenges in model management, model integration, model translation, and knowledge integration. In this review, we discuss several emergent issues in SPM and potential solutions using big data technology and analytics. The concurrent development of high-throughput techniques, cloud computing, data science, and the semantic web will likely allow SPM to be findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable, reliable, interpretable, and actionable.

  11. Neuropathic pain in people with cancer (part 2): pharmacological and non-pharmacological management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the management of neuropathic pain associated with cancer and to provide helpful clinical advice for nurses working with patients who may have neuropathic pain. While cancer pain is a mixed-mechanism pain, this article will focus only on neuropathic pain management. The impact of neuropathic pain on patients' quality of life is great and while many patients recover from their cancer, a significant number continue to suffer from a neuropathic pain syndrome. Management of neuropathic pain is significantly different from management of nociceptive pain with respect to pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Neuropathic pain is complex, and as such requires complex management using pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological approaches. Specific drugs for neuropathic pain may be effective for some patients, but not all; therefore, ongoing and comprehensive assessment and management are required. Furthermore, these patients may require trials of several drugs before they find one that works for them. It is important for nurses to understand neuropathic pain, its manifestation, impact on quality of life and management when nursing patients with neuropathic pain associated with cancer.

  12. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the

  13. Neutrophil Collagenase, Gelatinase and Myeloperoxidase in Tears of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Samer N.; Suelves, Ana M.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Chodosh, James; Foster, C. Stephen; Dohlman, Claes H.; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in tears of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP). Design Prospective non-interventional cohort study. Participants Four SJS patients (7 eyes), 19 OCP patients (37 eyes) and 20 post-phacoemulsification healthy controls (40 eyes). Methods Tear washes were collected from all patients and were analyzed for levels of MMP-2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -12, MPO and TIMP-1 using multi-analyte bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total MMP activity was determined using a fluorimetric assay. Correlation studies were performed between the various analytes within study groups. Main Outcome Measures Levels of MMP-2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -12, MPO and TIMP-1 (in ng/µg protein), total MMP activity (in relative fluorescent units/min/µg protein) in tears, MMP-8/TIMP-1, MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios and the correlations between MMP-8 and MMP-9 and each MMP and MPO. Results MMP-8, MMP-9 and MPO levels were significantly elevated in SJS and OCP tears (SJS > OCP) when compared to controls. MMP activity was highest in SJS while OCP and controls showed lower and similar activities. TIMP-1 levels were decreased in SJS and OCP when compared to controls with OCP levels reaching significance. MMP-8/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were markedly elevated in SJS and OCP tears (SJS > OCP) when compared to controls. Across all study groups, MMP-9 levels correlated strongly with MMP-8 and MPO levels and MMP-8 correlated with MPO but did not reach significance in SJS. There was no relationship between MMP-7 and MPO. Conclusions Since MMP-8 and MPO are produced by inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, the correlation data indicate that they may be the common source of elevated enzymes including MMP-9 in SJS and OCP tears. Elevated MMP/TIMP ratios and MMP activity suggest an imbalance in tear MMP regulation

  14. Neutrophil collagenase, gelatinase, and myeloperoxidase in tears of patients with stevens-johnson syndrome and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Samer N; Suelves, Ana M; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Chodosh, James; Foster, C Stephen; Dohlman, Claes H; Gipson, Ilene K

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in tears of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP). Prospective, noninterventional cohort study. Four SJS patients (7 eyes), 19 OCP patients (37 eyes), and 20 healthy controls who underwent phacoemulsification (40 eyes). Tear washes were collected from all patients and were analyzed for levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, MPO, and TIMP-1 using multianalyte bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Total MMP activity was determined using a fluorometric assay. Correlation studies were performed between the various analytes within study groups. Levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, MPO, and TIMP-1 (in nanograms per microgram of protein) and total MMP activity (in relative fluorescent units per minute per microgram of protein) in tears; MMP-8-to-TIMP-1 ratio; MMP-9-to-TIMP-1 ratio; and the correlations between MMP-8 and MMP-9 and both MMP and MPO. MMP-8, MMP-9, and MPO levels were elevated significantly in SJS and OCP tears (SJS>OCP) when compared with controls. The MMP activity was highest in SJS patients, whereas OCP patients and controls showed lower and similar activities. The TIMP-1 levels were decreased in SJS and OCP patients when compared with those in controls, with levels in OCP patients reaching significance. The MMP-8-to-TIMP-1 and MMP-9-to-TIMP-1 ratios were markedly elevated in SJS and OCP tears (SJS>OCP) when compared with those of controls. Across all study groups, MMP-9 levels correlated strongly with MMP-8 and MPO levels, and MMP-8 correlated with MPO, but it did not reach significance in SJS patients. There was no relationship between MMP-7 and MPO. Because MMP-8 and MPO are produced by inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, the correlation data indicate that they may be the common source of elevated enzymes, including MMP-9

  15. CYP2C19*2 status in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laska AJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amanda J Laska,1 Marie J Han,1 Josh A Lospinoso,2 Patrick J Brown,1 Thomas M Beachkofsky1 1Department of Dermatology, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, San Antonio, TX, 2780th Military Intelligence Brigade, Ft Meade, MD, USA Purpose: Genetic polymorphisms have been linked to an increased predisposition to developing certain diseases. For example, patients of Han-Chinese descent carrying the HLA-B*1502 allele are at an increased risk of developing Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN if given carbamazepine. Given the complexity of in vivo drug metabolism, it is plausible that the activity of enzyme systems unrelated to specific drug metabolism may be important. Although multiple biomarkers have been identified in unique ethnic groups, there has yet to be a study investigating the presence of the slow metabolizing allele of CYP2C19, denoted CYP2C19*2, in diverse groups and the risk of developing SJS/TEN. Patients and methods: This study looked into the carrier status of CYP2C19*2, a poor metabolizing variant of CYP2C19, in patients diagnosed with SJS/TEN. We looked at its status in our series as a whole and when patients were divided by ethnicity. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of patients with biopsy-proven SJS/TEN and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess for the presence of CYP2C19*2. Results: CYP2C19*2 status was determined in 47 patients. Twenty-nine of these 47 patients had a single medication implicated as causing their disease, and eight of these patients were heterozygous or homozygous for CYP2C19*2. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that the presence of CYP2C19*2 is an independent predictor of risk for developing SJS/TEN in our series as a whole. This analysis also confirmed that the frequency of the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism within the different ethnicities in our series did not vary statistically from reported ethnic

  16. Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Maternal and Foetal Outcomes in Twenty-Two Consecutive Pregnant HIV Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Knight

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN form a spectrum of a rare and life-threatening cutaneous drug reaction. SJS/TEN in pregnancy poses largely unknown risk factors and outcomes for both the mother and foetus compared to the general population.We conducted a study of consecutive pregnant women admitted to single tertiary referral centre in South Africa with SJS/TEN over a 3 year period. They were all managed by the same medical team using the same protocols. We evaluated their underlying illnesses, offending drugs and the course of pregnancy and outcomes to determine factors influencing maternal and foetal outcomes.We identified twenty-two women who developed SJS/TEN while pregnant, all of them HIV-infected. Their median age was 29 years. The majority 16/22 (73% had SJS, the milder variant of the disease affecting < 10% body surface area. Nevirapine was the offending drug in 21/22 (95% cases. All 22 of the mothers survived with 3/22 (14% developing postpartum sepsis. Pregnancy outcomes were known in 18/22 women and 9/18 (50% babies were delivered by caesarean section. There were 2 foetal deaths at 21 and 31 weeks respectively and both were associated with post-partum sepsis. Postnatal complications occurred in 5 cases, 3 involving the respiratory system and the other two being low birth weight deliveries. Eight placentae and one foetus were sent for histology and none showed macroscopic or microscopic features of SJS/TEN. On follow-up, only 12/20 children were tested for HIV at 6 weeks post-delivery and none of them were HIV-infected. All had received prophylactic ARVs including nevirapine.TEN, the severe form of the disease, was associated with poorer foetal outcomes. SJS/TEN-associated mortality is not increased in HIV-infected pregnant women. Maternal SJS/TEN does not seem to commonly manifest in the foetus.

  17. Purupaljaks / Steven Bertoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bertoni, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Duty Free Shoppersi asutaja Chuck Feeney on oma sihtasutusega Atlantic Philanthropies 30 aasta jooksul annetanud juba üle 6 miljardi dollari toetades erinevaid meditsiini, haridust ning päästeprojekte kogu maailmas, tehes seejuures kõik, et tema isik avalikuks ei tuleks

  18. Pharmacology national board examinations: factors that may influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidle, E A; Kahn, N

    1977-12-01

    Data from a survey of pharmacology courses in 60 dental schools were used to determine whether certain teaching variables affect performance in pharmacology National Board examinations. In addition, three-year class-averaged pharmacology scores and, rarely, one-year averaged scores were correlated with several admissions variables. While correlations between some admissions variables and pharmacology scores were quite good, the averaged pharmacology scores were not powerfully affected by course length, placement of the course in the curriculum, length of the curriculum, or the presence of a dentally trained pharmacologist in the department. It is suggested that other factors, related to the student and his capabilities, influence performance on National Boards. Dental pharmacology courses should be designed to given students the best possible exposure to an important basic science, not to make them perform well on National Boards, because student performance on National Boards may be independent of the nature of the didactic courses.

  19. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD.

  20. Clozapine-resistant schizophrenia – non pharmacological augmentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaszkiewicz Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the drug of choice for drug-resistant schizophrenia, but despite its use, 30-40% patients fail to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. In such situations, augmentation attempts are made by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. To date, most of the work has been devoted to pharmacological strategies, much less to augemantation of clozapine with electroconvulsive therapy (C+ECT, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.

  1. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaykaran,; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. Materials and Methods: All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals′ (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of...

  2. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  3. Network-based Approaches in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezio, Baptiste; Audouze, Karine; Ducrot, Pierre; Taboureau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    In drug discovery, network-based approaches are expected to spotlight our understanding of drug action across multiple layers of information. On one hand, network pharmacology considers the drug response in the context of a cellular or phenotypic network. On the other hand, a chemical-based network is a promising alternative for characterizing the chemical space. Both can provide complementary support for the development of rational drug design and better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Recent progress in both concepts is discussed here. In addition, a network-based approach using drug-target-therapy data is introduced as an example. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods...... improvement is seen with the previous drugs. Nabiximols has a positive effect when used as add-on therapy in patients with poor response and/or tolerance to first-line oral treatments. Despite limited evidence, intrathecal baclofen and intrathecal phenol show a positive effect in severe spasticity...... and suboptimal response to oral drugs. Conclusion: The available studies on spasticity treatment offer some insight to guide clinical practice but are of variable methodological quality. Large, well-designed trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of antispasticity agents and to produce evidence...

  5. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered

  6. Pharmacological Aspects of Vipera xantina palestinae Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momic, Tatjana; Arlinghaus, Franziska T.; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Katzhendler, Jeoshua; Eble, Johannes A.; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Lazarovici, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In Israel, Vipera xantina palestinae (V.x.p.) is the most common venomous snake, accounting for several hundred cases of envenomation in humans and domestic animals every year, with a mortality rate of 0.5 to 2%. In this review we will briefly address the research developments relevant to our present understanding of the structure and function of V.x.p. venom with emphasis on venom disintegrins. Venom proteomics indicated the presence of four families of pharmacologically active compounds: (i) neurotoxins; (ii) hemorrhagins; (iii) angioneurin growth factors; and (iv) different types of integrin inhibitors. Viperistatin, a α1β1selective KTS disintegrin and VP12, a α2β1 selective C-type lectin were discovered. These snake venom proteins represent promising tools for research and development of novel collagen receptor selective drugs. These discoveries are also relevant for future improvement of antivenom therapy towards V.x.p. envenomation. PMID:22174978

  7. Safety pharmacology--current and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas; Sidaway, James; Sison-Young, Rowena; Smith, Emma; Stebbings, Richard; Tingle, Yulia; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Williams, Awel; Williams, Dominic; Park, Kevin; Goldring, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological Strategies to Retard Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaras, Irene; Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Lakatta, Edward G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the leading cause of death in the United States. Traditionally, the effort to prevent CVD has been focused on addressing the conventional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and high circulating levels of triglycerides. However, recent preclinical studies have identified new approaches to combat CVD. Calorie restriction has been reproducibly shown to prolong lifespan in various experimental model animals. This has led to the development of calorie restriction mimetics and other pharmacological interventions capable to delay age-related diseases. In this review, we will address the mechanistic effects of aging per se on the cardiovascular system and focus on the pro-longevity benefits of various therapeutic strategies that support cardiovascular health. PMID:27174954

  9. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Anthraquinones As Pharmacological Tools and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Enas M; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-01

    Anthraquinones (9,10-dioxoanthracenes) constitute an important class of natural and synthetic compounds with a wide range of applications. Besides their utilization as colorants, anthraquinone derivatives have been used since centuries for medical applications, for example, as laxatives and antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents. Current therapeutic indications include constipation, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Moreover, biologically active anthraquinones derived from Reactive Blue 2 have been utilized as valuable tool compounds for biochemical and pharmacological studies. They may serve as lead structures for the development of future drugs. However, the presence of the quinone moiety in the structure of anthraquinones raises safety concerns, and anthraquinone laxatives have therefore been under critical reassessment. This review article provides an overview of the chemistry, biology, and toxicology of anthraquinones focusing on their application as drugs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Targeting HIV latency: pharmacologic strategies toward eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785

  12. Pharmacological Needs of Nurses: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study was carried out to determine the most commonly used drugs in health centers. By identifying common medications, pharmacological educational needs of nurses gets clear and officials can provide nurses specific relevant training about common drugs. Material and Methods: In this descriptive report, the hospitals’ pharmacies were asked to name ten of the most widely used drugs in the past 6 months. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 13 software using descriptive tests. Results: Gastrointestinal drugs and antibiotics in all centers and oxytocin in obstetrics and gynecological centers were the most commonly used drugs. Conclusion: Due to the important and dangerous side-effects of these common medications, renewing nurses’ information in this field is required. ​

  13. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  14. Ethnobotany, biochemistry and pharmacology of Minthostachys (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N

    2008-08-13

    The South American mint genus Minthostachys is of great importance in the Andes as a medicinal, aromatic, culinary and commercial essential oil plant. After decades of taxonomic confusion and virtual indeterminability of specimens, new systematic and taxonomic work has been conducted in recent years. The present paper attempts to summarize the state of knowledge about Minthostachys with a focus on ethnobotany, analyses of essential oil content and pharmacology, to identify the currently accepted species names for the plants examined in these previous studies, and to assess where additional research is needed. All available studies on Minthostachys were obtained and evaluated. Herbaria were contacted to identify voucher specimens cited in the respective publications. The great majority of published studies was conducted on a single species, Argentinean Minthostachys verticillata. In contrast, the most widely distributed and well-known species (Minthostachys mollis) as well as several locally important and intensively used species (e.g., Minthostachys acutifolia) have received disproportionately little attention, and virtually nothing is known about the local endemics among the 17 species currently recognized. In many cases, however, it is difficult to relate the results to taxonomic entities due to the lack of voucher specimens. Future research efforts should especially be directed at studying the chemistry and potential for use of several common but so far neglected species of the central and northern Andes, at disentangling environmental and genetic influences on essential oil composition, at prerequisites for cultivation, and at the pharmacological basis of the most important traditional uses. Because of the morphological complexity of the genus, future researchers are urged to deposit voucher specimens of the plants used in their studies to facilitate species identification and to make the results more comparable and reproducible.

  15. Clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerahee, M

    1999-05-01

    Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that is used for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil was reviewed. Atovaquone is a highly lipophilic compound with low aqueous solubility, the absorption of which is limited by the rate and extent of dissolution. Dietary fat increases the rate and extent of atovaquone absorption, increasing AUC two- to threefold and C(max) fivefold over fasting. Proguanil is rapidly and extensively absorbed regardless of food intake. Atovaquone is highly protein bound (> 99%) but does not displace other highly protein bound drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely. Atovaquone is predominantly eliminated unchanged in feces, with negligible excretion in urine. Proguanil is partially metabolized and partially excreted unchanged in urine. Its principal metabolite, cycloguanil, is also excreted in urine. Metabolism of proguanil is mediated in the liver by the cytochrome P450 3A and 2C subfamilies. The elimination half-life of atovaquone is 2 to 3 days in adults and 1 to 2 days in children. The elimination half-lives of proguanil and cycloguanil are 12 to 15 hours in adults and children. Dosage adjustments based on body weight categories in children (1/4 dose for 11-20 kg, 1/2 dose for > 20-30 kg, 3/4 dose for > 30-40 kg, and full dose for > 40 kg) achieve plasma concentrations that are safe and effective during prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. No dose adjustments for race, proguanil metabolizer status, gender, or elderly patients are needed, or for patients with mild to moderately impaired renal or hepatic function. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil provides a rationale for the dosing regimens recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.

  16. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα 1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα 1 -adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  17. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  20. A network pharmacology approach to investigate the pharmacological effects of Guizhi Fuling Wan on uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liuting; Yang, Kailin; Liu, Huiping; Zhang, Guomin

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) in the treatment of uterine fibroids, a network pharmacology approach was used. Information on GFW compounds was collected from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) databases, and input into PharmMapper to identify the compound targets. Genes associated with uterine fibroids genes were then obtained from the GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The interaction data of the targets and other human proteins was also collected from the STRING and IntAct databases. The target data were input into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery for gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Networks of the above information were constructed and analyzed using Cytoscape. The following networks were compiled: A compound-compound target network of GFW; a herb-compound target-uterine fibroids target network of GWF; and a compound target-uterine fibroids target-other human proteins protein-protein interaction network, which were subjected to GO and pathway enrichment analyses. According to this approach, a number of novel signaling pathways and biological processes underlying the effects of GFW on uterine fibroids were identified, including the negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the Ras, wingless-type, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathways. This network pharmacology approach may aid the systematical study of herbal formulae and make TCM drug discovery more predictable.

  1. An Integrated Approach to Instruction in Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Robert L.; Walton, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the clinical faculty on the content of the pharmacology course is described in a discussion of trends in pharmacology instruction. Interfaculty communication and development of course objectives are reviewed, and descriptions of two baccalaureate courses at the University of Texas College of Pharmacy are appended. (LBH)

  2. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  3. Human pharmacology of current and new treatments for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis together show different ways of studying human pharmacology, give an impression of the current drug development in schizophrenia, and provide examples how human pharmacology can be applied in an early stage of drug development in healthy volunteers. The investigated

  4. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  5. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal......, tiagabine (49) containing (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as the GABA transport carrier-recognizing structure element, is now marketed as an antiepileptic agent....

  6. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD...

  7. Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosál, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 56-60 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * tharapeutical drugs * natural antioxidants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/intox.2017.10.issue-2/intox-2017-0009/intox-2017-0009.pdf

  8. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  9. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-08-04

    Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009) , ASSIA (1987 to September 2009) , BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the data available were generally insufficient to allow any independent statistical analysis. The

  10. Pharmacological Treatment Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kevin; Nezgovorova, Vera; Uzunova, Genoveva; Schlussel, Danya; Hollander, Eric

    2018-04-26

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. However, not all patients respond to treatment, and BDD symptoms remain even in those who do respond. This review outlines current pharmacological and neuromodulation treatments for body dysmorphic disorder, and suggests directions for future studies of novel treatments such as augmentation with atypical antipsychotics and the use of intranasal oxytocin in cases of body dysmorphic disorder that show residual symptomatology even with tailored monotherapy. There is emerging evidence suggesting that non-invasive neurostimulatory techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, may be of value in treatment-resistant cases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  12. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  13. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  14. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C J; Geiger, J D

    2000-03-01

    Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive drug in the world. As many know, chronic use of caffeine leads to dependence, tolerance, drug craving, and upon abrupt cessation unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Thus, caffeine fulfills pharmacological criteria by which agents are classified as drugs of abuse. Nevertheless, its use is legal and only at high, but readily attainable, levels is it banned from sport. Its use is widespread by athletes as young as 11 years of age who are seeking athletic advantage over fellow competitors. It is likely that its use will not decline any time soon because it is inexpensive, readily available, medically quite safe, socially acceptable, and by most measures legal. However, at levels allowed in sport, caffeine through its wide-ranging physiological and psychological effects increases endurance in well-trained athletes. If the goal of drug-testing and education programs in sport is to protect the health of athletes, prevent unfair advantage (cheating) and encourage ethical behavior then it seems obvious that the allowable levels of caffeine ingestion should be decreased. The alternative is to continue with policies designed largely to punish only those that get caught.

  16. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  18. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  20. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  1. Ways of Narrating Memory: Hannah Arendt’s "Eichmann in Jerusalem" and Steven Spielberg’s "Schindler’s List" / Formas de narração da memória: “Eichmann em Israel”, de Hannah Arendt e “A Lista de Schindler”, de Steven Spielberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Heuer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is self-evident that events of the past are bound to places and acting people, they are playing a decisive role for memory and history. Meaning and importance of places and actions in the past depend on their contexts and each change inevitably also changes the meaning of the events itself. I would like to demonstrate some of the consequences of such a change by comparing Hannah Arendt’s “Eichmann in Jerusalem“ with Steven Spielberg’s “Schindler’s List“ who decontextualized a factual story and thus changed places and acting people. But before doing this, I would like to emphasize the importance which places and acting people play for memory and history with some perhaps unusual remarks. They refer to the official European history and politics which seem to be marked by the absence of places and acting people.Keywords: Eichmann in Jerusalem, Hannah Arendt, Schindler’s List, Steven SpielbergResumo É autoevidente que acontecimentos do passado estão condicionados a lugares e a pessoas atuantes, que têm papel fundamental na memória e na história. O significado e a importância de lugares e de ações do passado dependem de seu contexto e cada mudança sua inevitavelmente altera também os próprios acontecimentos. Eu gostaria de demonstrar algumas das consequências de tal mudança comparando “Eichmann em Israel”, de Hannah Arendt com “A Lista de Schindler”, de Steven Spielberg, que descontextualizou uma história real e, assim, modificou lugares e pessoas de atuação. Mas antes disso, eu gostaria de enfatizar a importância que lugares e pessoas atuantes têm a memória e na história com alguns comentários talvez inusitados. Eles fazem referência à História oficial e à política da Europa que parecem ser marcados pela ausência de lugares e de pessoas de atuação marcante.Palavras-chaves: Eichmann em Israel, Hannah Arendt, Lista de Schindler, Steven Spielberg

  2. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  3. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Concise Review with a Comprehensive Summary of Therapeutic Interventions Emphasizing Supportive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jeremy A; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe dermatologic conditions occurring in the inpatient setting. There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate management of SJS and TEN. The scientific literature pertaining to SJS and TEN (subsequently referred to as SJS/TEN) is summarized and assessed. In addition, an interventional approach for the clinician is provided. PubMed was searched with the key words: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, etanercept, intravenous immunoglobulin, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Supportive care is the most universally accepted intervention for SJS/TEN. Specific guidelines differ from the care required for patients with thermal burns. Adjuvant therapies are utilized in most severe cases, but the data are thus far underwhelming and underpowered. Using systemic corticosteroids as sole therapy is not supported. A consensus regarding combined corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has not been reached. Data regarding IVIG, currently the standard of care for most referral centers, is conflicting. Newer studies regarding cyclosporine and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are promising, but not powered to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. Data regarding plasmapheresis is equivocal. Thalidomide increases mortality. Clinicians who manage SJS/TEN should seek to employ interventions with the greatest impact on their patients' condition. While supportive care measures may seem an obvious aspect of SJS/TEN patient care, providers should understand that these interventions are imperative and that they differ from the care recommended for other critically ill or burn patients. While adjuvant therapies are frequently discussed and debated for hospitalized patients with SJS/TEN, a standardized management approach is not yet clear based on the current data. Therefore, until further data

  4. Higher-order Zeeman and spin terms in the electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian; their description in irreducible form using Cartesian, tesseral spherical tensor and Stevens' operator expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead

    2009-01-01

    In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS 3 and BS 5 . Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, 1-bar Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present.

  5. Pharmacological screening of Ageratum conyzoides L. (mentrasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia A. Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities of a water extract (WE of Ageratum conyzoides L, a plant populary known for its analgesic and anti-inflamatory properties, were studied in vivo and in vitro preparations. Oral administration (p.o. of the water extract (WE, 0.1 to 5 g/Kg to rats and mice induced quietness and reduced the spontaneous motility. the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. in mice was not altered by previous treatment with We (2 g/Kg, p.o.. The same treatment did not influence the paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran, nor did it reduce the chronic paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or formaldehyde in rats. The tail flick response in immersion test and writhings induced by 0.8%acetic acid in mice were not altered by WE either. In isolated guinea-pig ilea WE (0.4 to 4 mg/ml did not alter the EC50 values of histamine or acetylcholine, but reduced the maximal response to the agonists by 20 to 50%. We (0.01 to 10 mg/ml produced tonic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle proportional to the doses, reaching a maximum of 75% relatively to the maximum obtained with histamine. Those contractions were blocked by diphenhydramine (10 nM and reduced by 32% in presence of atropine (10 nM. The results indicated that oral treatment of rodents with A. conyzoides L neither reduced the inflammatory edema nor did it decrease the reaction to pain stimuli. In vitro the extract presented an unexpected histamine-like activity characteristic of a partial agonist. The results did not confirm the popular medicinal indications of the plant.

  6. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  7. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Squadrito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects.

  8. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrito, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects. PMID:28491036

  9. Trials of Pharmacological Interventions for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waldon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is a childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic and often complicated by co-morbid behavioural problems. The pharmacological treatment of GTS focuses on the modulation of monoaminergic pathways within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of tics in patients with GTS, in order to provide clinicians with an evidence-based rationale for the pharmacological treatment in GTS.

  10. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  11. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology: A Case for Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, C J; Ramanujan, S; Schmidt, B J; Ghobrial, O G; Lu, J; Heatherington, A C

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) has emerged as an innovative approach in model-informed drug discovery and development, supporting program decisions from exploratory research through late-stage clinical trials. In this commentary, we discuss the unique value of disease-scale "platform" QSP models that are amenable to reuse and repurposing to support diverse clinical decisions in ways distinct from other pharmacometrics strategies. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  12. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribba, B; Grimm, H P; Agoram, B; Davies, M R; Gadkar, K; Niederer, S; van Riel, N; Timmis, J; van der Graaf, P H

    2017-08-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early Development to focus discussions on two critical methodological aspects of QSP model development: optimal structural granularity and parameter estimation. We here report in a perspective article a summary of presentations and discussions. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Targeting Adenosine Signaling in Parkinson's Disease: From Pharmacological to Non-pharmacological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Nazario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease displaying negative impacts on both the health and social ability of patients and considerable economical costs. The classical anti-parkinsonian drugs based in dopaminergic replacement are the standard treatment, but several motor side effects emerge during long-term use. This mini-review presents the rationale to several efforts from pre-clinical and clinical studies using adenosine receptor antagonists as a non-dopaminergic therapy. As several studies have indicated that the monotherapy with adenosine receptor antagonists reaches limited efficacy, the usage as a co-adjuvant appeared to be a promising strategy. The formulation of multi-targeted drugs, using adenosine receptor antagonists and other neurotransmitter systems than the dopaminergic one as targets, have been receiving attention since Parkinson's disease presents a complex biological impact. While pharmacological approaches to cure or ameliorate the conditions of PD are the leading strategy in this area, emerging positive aspects have arisen from non-pharmacological approaches and adenosine function inhibition appears to improve both strategies.

  14. Holistic Management of Schizophrenia Symptoms Using Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Pronab; Soliman, Abdrabo; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia lead a poor quality of life, due to poor medical attention, homelessness, unemployment, financial constraints, lack of education, and poor social skills. Thus, a review of factors associated with the holistic management of schizophrenia is of paramount importance. The objective of this review is to improve the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia, by addressing the factors related to the needs of the patients and present them in a unified manner. Although medications play a role, other factors that lead to a successful holistic management of schizophrenia include addressing the following: financial management, independent community living, independent living skill, relationship, friendship, entertainment, regular exercise for weight gained due to medication administration, co-morbid health issues, and day-care programmes for independent living. This review discusses the relationship between different symptoms and problems individuals with schizophrenia face (e.g., homelessness and unemployment), and how these can be managed using pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Thus, the target of this review is the carers of individuals with schizophrenia, public health managers, counselors, case workers, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists aiming to enhance the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia.

  15. Arformoterol Tartrate: A Review of Pharmacology, Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    suggest the potentially enhanced efficacy of this drug in the treatment of COPD including ... pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, analytical techniques, drug-drug interactions, ..... accordance with the United States Food and. Drug ...

  16. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION ...... Rankin SM, DeWhalley CV, Hoult S, Jessup W, Willins GM, Collard J, .... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull ...

  17. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, J.G.C. van

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this

  18. Pharmacological Properties of Melanin and its Function in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeid, Adila Salih; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Haseeb, Adil M

    2017-06-01

    The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photoprotective and immunological action, are well recognized. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognized and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system. In this MiniReview, we consider the steadily increasing literature on the bioavailability and functional activity of melanin. Published literature shows that melanin may play a number of possible pharmacological effects such as protective, stimulatory, diagnostic and curative roles in human health. In this MiniReview, possible health roles and pharmacological effects are considered. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  19. Breastfeeding information in pharmacology textbooks: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2013-07-01

    Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.

  20. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  1. Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Ahad, Amjid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2014-01-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, are natural compounds found in a number of vegetable oils, wheat germ, barley, and certain types of nuts and grains. Like tocopherols, tocotrienols are also of four types viz. alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Unlike tocopherols, tocotrienols are unsaturated and possess an isoprenoid side chain. Tocopherols are lipophilic in nature and are found in association with lipoproteins, fat deposits and cellular membranes and protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation reactions. The unsaturated chain of tocotrienol allows an efficient penetration into tissues that have saturated fatty layers such as the brain and liver. Recent mechanistic studies indicate that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, and γ-tocotrienol, have unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are superior to those of α-tocopherol against chronic diseases. These forms scavenge reactive nitrogen species, inhibit cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed eicosanoids and suppress proinflammatory signalling, such as NF-κB and STAT. The animal and human studies show tocotrienols may be useful against inflammation-associated diseases. Many of the functions of tocotrienols are related to its antioxidant properties and its varied effects are due to it behaving as a signalling molecule. Tocotrienols exhibit biological activities that are also exhibited by tocopherols, such as neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol lowering properties. Hence, effort has been made to compile the different functions and properties of tocotrienols in experimental model systems and humans. This article constitutes an in-depth review of the pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and biosafety aspects of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are detectable at appreciable levels in the plasma after supplementations. However, there is inadequate data on the plasma concentrations of tocotrienols that are sufficient to

  2. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  3. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Laties, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search ...

  4. Pharmacological characterization of social isolation-induced hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....

  5. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  6. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eJonckers; Disha eShah; Julie eHamaide; Marleen eVerhoye; Annemie eVan Der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimu...

  7. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-09-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.

  8. Strains of Rodents and the Pharmacology of Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Castellano, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Mendelian genetic tools have extensively been used to improve the description of the pharmacological mechanisms involved in learning and memory. The first part of this short review describes experiments involving the bidirectional selection of rats or mice for extreme behavioral characteristics or for sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. The second part focuses specifically on inbreeding. In conclusion, the advantages and the limits of a Mendelian pharmacog...

  9. Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Marcu, Jahan

    2017-01-01

    The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive. Medical and recreational consumers alike have long believed in unique attributes of certain cannabis chemovars despite their similarity in cannabinoid profiles. This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas. Additional parts of the cannabis plant provide a wide and distinct variety of other compounds of pharmacological interest, including the triterpenoid friedelin from the roots, canniprene from the fan leaves, cannabisin from seed coats, and cannflavin A from seed sprouts. This chapter will explore the unique attributes of these agents and demonstrate how cannabis may yet fulfil its potential as Mechoulam's professed "pharmacological treasure trove." © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Therapies of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elzbieta; Morel, Agnieszka; Redlicka, Justyna; Miller, Igor; Saluk, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms. Therefore, this review focused on the current status of our knowledge about possible methods of treatment cognitive impairment in MS patients including novel strategies. Research and online content was performed using Medline and EMBASE databases. The most recent research suggests that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion volume and brain atrophy. The examination of the cognitive impairment is usually based on particular neuropsychological batteries. However, it can be not enough to make a precise diagnosis. This creates a demand to find markers that might be useful for identifying patients with risk of cognitive impairment at an early stage of the disease. Currently the most promising methods consist of neuroimaging indicators, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl aspartate levels. Diagnosis problems are strictly connected with treatment procedures. There are two main cognitive therapies: pharmacological (disease modifying drugs (DMD), symptomatic treatments) and non-pharmacological interventions that are focused on psychological and physical rehabilitation. Some trials have shown a positive association between physical activity and the cognitive function. This article is an overview of the current state of knowledge related to cognition impairment treatment in MS. Additionally, novel strategies for cognitive impairments such as cryostimulation and other complementary methods are

  11. Palliative pharmacological sedation for terminally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine M; van Driel, Mieke L; McGregor, Leanne; Truong, Shani; Mitchell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-02

    Terminally ill people experience a variety of symptoms in the last hours and days of life, including delirium, agitation, anxiety, terminal restlessness, dyspnoea, pain, vomiting, and psychological and physical distress. In the terminal phase of life, these symptoms may become refractory, and unable to be controlled by supportive and palliative therapies specifically targeted to these symptoms. Palliative sedation therapy is one potential solution to providing relief from these refractory symptoms. Sedation in terminally ill people is intended to provide relief from refractory symptoms that are not controlled by other methods. Sedative drugs such as benzodiazepines are titrated to achieve the desired level of sedation; the level of sedation can be easily maintained and the effect is reversible. To assess the evidence for the benefit of palliative pharmacological sedation on quality of life, survival, and specific refractory symptoms in terminally ill adults during their last few days of life. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to November 2014), and EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), using search terms representing the sedative drug names and classes, disease stage, and study designs. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, non-RCTs, and observational studies (e.g. before-and-after, interrupted-time-series) with quantitative outcomes. We excluded studies with only qualitative outcomes or that had no comparison (i.e. no control group or no within-group comparison) (e.g. single arm case series). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of citations, and full text of potentially eligible studies. Two review authors independently carried out data extraction using standard data extraction forms. A third review author acted as arbiter for both stages. We carried out no meta-analyses due to insufficient data for pooling on any outcome; therefore, we reported

  12. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-04

    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  14. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  15. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in patients with early arthritis: a systematic literature review informing the 2016 update of EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daien, Claire Immediato; Hua, Charlotte; Combe, Bernard; Landewe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To perform a systematic literature review (SLR) on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, in order to inform the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of early arthritis (EA). The expert committee defined research questions concerning

  16. Analysis of Body Constitution of Fifty-two Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) Using Kampo Medical Questionnaires: Prediction of SJS based on Body Constitution Using Decision Tree

    OpenAIRE

    大嶋, 繁; 羽鳥, 有紀子; 本間, 精一; 寺澤, 捷年; 齋藤, 侑也; 小林, 大介

    2011-01-01

    Reports have indicated a relationship between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism and a relationship between Body Constitution (BC) and HLA polymorphism. Thus, a relationship between ADR and BC is suggested. We therefore created a questionnaire (hereinafter “Questionnaire”) to survey the typical BC of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) patients to determine how they differ from healthy persons, and studied the relationship between the development of SJS and ...

  17. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Illicit Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information on illicitly used synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are structurally heterogeneous and commonly used drugs of abuse that act as full agonists of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor but have a variety of additional pharmacologic effects. There are numerous cases of patient harm and death in the United States, Europe, and Australia with many psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal adverse events. Although most users prefer using cannabis, there are convenience, legal, and cost reasons driving the utilization of synthetic cannabinoids. Clinicians should be aware of pharmacologic and clinical similarities and differences between synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis use, the limited ability to detect synthetic cannabinoids in the urine or serum, and guidance to treat adverse events. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Clinical Pharmacology of Chemotherapy Agents in Older People with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations around the world are aging, and the associated increase in cancer incidence has led to the recognition of the importance of geriatric oncology. Chronological age is a poor determinant of pharmacological response to cancer chemotherapy agents. Age-associated changes in physiology and organ function have a significant impact on the clinical pharmacology of cancer chemotherapy agents used in cancer treatment. Altered response to medicines in older people is a consequence of changes in body composition, organ function, concomitant pathophysiology, multiple medications, genetic determinants of drug response, and patient's clinical status. These issues highlight the need to individualize the management of cancer in the older people with consideration of age-related changes in the clinical pharmacology of cancer drugs, analgesics, and adjunctive therapies.

  19. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  20. Human pharmacology for addiction medicine: From evidence to clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Herdener, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are complex and often chronic diseases with negative health outcomes and social consequences. Pharmacological treatment options for SUD can be separated in medications for (i) intoxication, (ii) withdrawal, and (iii) reduction of use together with relapse prevention. This chapter will focus on approved or clinically established pharmacological strategies suited to manage symptoms of withdrawal, and to reduce substance use or to promote abstinence. Hereby SUD involving alcohol, nicotine, stimulants, and opioids are primarily discussed as these substances are considered most harmful for both the individual and the society. Moreover, the pharmacotherapy of SUD related to the use of cannabis, benzodiazepines, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate is also briefly reviewed. Since most approved pharmacological treatment options show only moderate effect sizes especially in the long term, the development of new treatment strategies including new drugs, new combinations of available compounds, and biomarkers for response prediction is still warranted. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  2. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  3. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2008-05-08

    Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development.

  4. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  5. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Standard Reporting and Evaluation Guidelines: Results of a National Institutes of Health Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maverakis, Emanual; Wang, Elizabeth A; Shinkai, Kanade; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Margolis, David J; Avigan, Mark; Chung, Wen-Hung; Goldman, Jennifer; La Grenade, Lois; Pirmohamed, Munir; Shear, Neil H; Tassaeeyakul, Wichittra; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Yasuda, Sally Usdin; Sharon, Victoria R; Sukhov, Andrea; Micheletti, Robert; Struewing, Jeff; French, Lars E; Cheng, Michelle Y

    2017-06-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are rare, acute, life-threatening dermatologic disorders involving the skin and mucous membranes. Research into these conditions is hampered by a lack of standardization of case reporting and data collection. To establish a standardized case report form to facilitate comparisons and maintain data quality based on an international panel of SJS/TEN experts who performed a Delphi consensus-building exercise. The elements presented for committee scrutiny were adapted from previous case report forms and from PubMed literature searches of highly cited manuscripts pertaining to SJS/TEN. The expert opinions and experience of the members of the consensus group were included in the discussion. Overall, 21 out of 29 experts who were invited to participate in the online Delphi exercise agreed to participate. Surveys at each stage were administered via an online survery software tool. For the first 2 Delphi rounds, results were analyzed using the Interpercentile Range Adjusted for Symmetry method and statements that passed consensus formulated a new case report form. For the third Delphi round, the case report form was presented to the committee, who agreed that it was "appropriate and useful" for documenting cases of SJS/TEN, making it more reliable and valuable for future research endeavors. With the consensus of international experts, a case report form for SJS/TEN has been created to help standardize the collection of patient information in future studies and the documentation of individual cases.

  6. In Silico Risk Assessment of HLA-A*02:06-Associated Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Caused by Cold Medicine Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto Isogai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are severe drug hypersensitivities with high mortality. Typical over-the-counter drugs of cold medicines are suggested to be causative. As multiple ingredients are generally contained in cold medicines, it is of particular interest to investigate which ingredients are responsible for SJS/TEN. However, experimental examination of causal relationships between SJS/TEN and a particular drug molecule is not straightforward. Significant association between HLA-A*02:06 and SJS/TEN with severe ocular surface complications has been observed in the Japanese. In the present study, we have undertaken in silico docking simulations between various ingredients contained in cold medicines available in Japan and the HLA-A*02:06 molecule. We use the composite risk index (CRI that is the absolute value of the binding affinity multiplied by the daily dose to assess the potential risk of the adverse reactions. The drugs which have been recognized as causative drugs of SJS/TEN in Japan have revealed relatively high CRI, and the association between SJS/TEN and HLA-A*02:06 has been qualitatively verified. The results have also shown that some drugs whose links to SJS/TEN have not been clinically recognized in Japan show the high CRI and suggested that attention should be paid to their adverse drug reactions.

  7. Fatal Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously had Carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Huang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare but life-threatening skin disease that is most commonly drug-induced. It has recently been suggested that Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS belongs to the same group of skin disorders, although it has a lower mortality rate than TEN. We report the case of a 26-year-old male schizophrenic patient with a history of carbamazepine-induced SJS 5 years earlier. At the time of his current admission, he was admitted to our psychiatry department with acute agitation due to schizophrenia. However, the patient and his family denied history of drug allergy. After 3 days of carbamazepine treatment, the patient developed TEN (body surface area > 90%. He was transferred to the burn center, but despite appropriate treatment, including intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg q6h and being covered with sterile biological material, he died. It is important to note that re-administration of a drug that previously caused SJS may lead to TEN, which has a very high mortality rate.

  8. Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson e Necrólise Epidérmica Tóxica em um hospital do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ferreira Barbosa Emerick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as características demográficas e clínicas dos clientes diagnosticados com Síndrome de Stevens Johnson (SSJ e Necrólise Epidérmica Tóxica (NET, bem como identificar as ações dos profissionais de saúde para o manejo das Reações Adversas a Medicamentos (RAM em um hospital público do Distrito Federal. Pesquisa descritiva, retrospectiva, com abordagem quantitativa. Dados coletados em todos os prontuários de 22 clientes internados de janeiro de 2005 a setembro de 2012. Análise mediante estatística descritiva. Houve aumento gradativo de casos, com maior número nos anos de 2007 e 2012. Dos casos analisados, 9 foram diagnosticados com NET e 7 com SSJ; predominaram as mulheres (14 e a faixa etária de 21 aos 40 anos (10; 21 obtiveram cura. Os fármacos associados a RAM mais frequentes foram os antiepilépticos (10. Observou-se fragilidade nos registros clínicos nos prontuários e nas ações de monitoramento de RAM no serviço estudado.

  9. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr Richard Stevens for his comments (1) on our recent article that showed no increased risk of breast cancer following recent night shift work when compared with recent day shift work (2). This finding was based on linkage of day-by-day information on working hours and breast cancer...... incidence data. Results are thus less likely to have been biased by differential misclassification than findings from earlier studies relying on self-report (3). We defined a night shift as ≥3 hours of work between 24:00-05:00 hours and a day shift as ≥3 hours work between 6:00-20:00 hours. This day shift...... definitions of shifts affect the risk of breast cancer, which will be possible using this type of data. We only had information on working hours from 2007 and onwards, and night shift work prior to 2007 could have confounded our analyses towards no effect but only if inversely associated with night shift work...

  10. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds.

  11. Simulation in an Undergraduate Nursing Pharmacology Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnon, Elizabeth; Newton, Rebecca

    This study examined the effectiveness of simulation as a method of teaching pharmacological concepts to nursing students; perceptions of satisfaction with simulation as a teaching strategy were also evaluated. Second-semester juniors participated in three simulations and completed the National League for Nursing Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality Survey; a control group received traditional lectures. A unit exam on anticoagulant therapy content was administered to measure effectiveness. Findings support that simulation is as effective as traditional lecture for an undergraduate pharmacology course.

  12. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  13. New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

  14. Pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders and its relationship with neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves. This chapter discusses the relationship between sleep disorders, pharmacological treatments, and brain plasticity, including the treatment of insomnia, hypersomnias such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias.

  15. Neuroscience of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although substantial advances have been made in behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions, moving treatment development to the next stage may require novel ways of approaching addictions, particularly those derived from new findings regarding of the neurobiological underpinnings of addictions, while assimilating and incorporating relevant information from earlier approaches. In this review, we first briefly review theoretical and biological models of addiction and then describe existing behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for the addictions within this framework. We then propose new directions for treatment development and targets that are informed by recent evidence regarding the heterogeneity of addictions and the neurobiological contributions to these disorders. PMID:21338880

  16. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine

  17. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  18. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundram, F X [General Hospital of Singapore, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Senegal)

    1996-12-31

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine.

  19. The internet as a tool in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Josep-Maria; Figueras, Albert; Vigo, Joan-Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The invention of the internet and the world-wide web was a landmark that has affected many aspects of everyday life, but is so recent and dynamic that many of its potential uses are still being explored. Aside from its purely commercial use as a virtual pharmacy (e-commerce), the internet is useful in at least three aspects related to clinical pharmacology: communication, training and research. In this paper we briefly review several internet applications related to clinical pharmacology and describe, as an example, the logistics of a multicentre research collaboration related to the promotion of rational drug use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:16722847

  20. Talking about Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction Timothy Ferris, Iris Fry, Steven Dick, Ann Druyan, Pinky Nelson, Neil Tyson, Steve Benner and William Bains; Part II. Earth Roger Buick, Lynn Rothschild, John Baross, Joe Kirschvink, Andrew Knoll, Simon Conway Morris, Roger Hanlon and Lori Marino; Part III. Solar System Chris McKay, David Grinspoon, Jonathan Lunine, Carolyn Porco, Laurie Leshin, Guy Consolmagno and Peter Smith; Part IV. Exoplanets Alan Boss, Geoff Marcy, Debra Fischer, Sara Seager, David Charbonneau and Vikki Meadows; Part V. Frontiers Jill Tarter, Seth Shostak, Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Ben Bova and Jennifer Michael Hecht; Reading list; Glossary; Index.

  1. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  2. Hard Core Pharmacology: How Much Is Taught in Pharmacy Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)

  3. The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Halpern, John H; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Emrich, Hinderk M; Hintzen, Annelie

    2008-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so-called "experimental psychosis" by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures ("psycholytic" and "psychedelic" therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and better study oversight, scientific interest in LSD has resumed for brain research and experimental treatments. Due to the lack of any comprehensive review since the 1950s and the widely dispersed experimental literature, the present review focuses on all aspects of the pharmacology and psychopharmacology of LSD. A thorough search of the experimental literature regarding the pharmacology of LSD was performed and the extracted results are given in this review. (Psycho-) pharmacological research on LSD was extensive and produced nearly 10,000 scientific papers. The pharmacology of LSD is complex and its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. LSD is physiologically well tolerated and psychological reactions can be controlled in a medically supervised setting, but complications may easily result from uncontrolled use by layman. Actually there is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill.

  4. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaykaran; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals' (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of reporting of method of description and central tendencies. Inferential statistics was evaluated on the basis of fulfilling of assumption of statistical methods and appropriateness of statistical tests. Values are described as frequencies, percentage, and 95% confidence interval (CI) around the percentages. Inappropriate descriptive statistics was observed in 150 (78.1%, 95% CI 71.7-83.3%) articles. Most common reason for this inappropriate descriptive statistics was use of mean ± SEM at the place of "mean (SD)" or "mean ± SD." Most common statistical method used was one-way ANOVA (58.4%). Information regarding checking of assumption of statistical test was mentioned in only two articles. Inappropriate statistical test was observed in 61 (31.7%, 95% CI 25.6-38.6%) articles. Most common reason for inappropriate statistical test was the use of two group test for three or more groups. Articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals are not devoid of statistical errors.

  5. High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinec, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

  6. Applying linked data approaches to pharmacology: Architectural decisions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, A.J.G; Groth, P.T.; Loizou, A.; Askjaer, S; Brenninkmeijer, C; Burger, K.; Chichester, C.; Evelo, C.T.; Goble, C.A.; Harland, L; Pettifier, S; Thompson, M.; Waagmeester, A; William, A.J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new medicines requires pharmacologists to interact with a number of information sources ranging from tabular data to scientific papers, and other specialized formats. In this application report, we describe a linked data platform for integrating multiple pharmacology datasets that

  7. BPS Pharmacology 2014 - Drug Discovery Pathways symposium Report

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Report on BPS Pharmacology 2014, BPS Industry Committe and Learned Societies Drug Discovery Pathways Group symposium: "Realizing the potential of new approaches to target identification and validation" by Dr Andrew Marsh Associate Professor Department of Chemistry University of Warwick go.warwick.ac.uk/marshgroup Twitter @marshgroup

  8. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus cannabinus showed the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, lignans, essential oils, glucosides such as cannabiscitrin, cannabiscetin and anthocyanin glycoside. The pharmacological studies revealed that Hibiscus cannabinus possessed cytotoxic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, immunological, haematinic and hepatoprotective effects. This review will highli...

  9. Treatment of Fabry's Disease with the Pharmacologic Chaperone Migalastat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germain, Dominique P; Hughes, Derralynn A; Nicholls, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease, an X-linked disorder of lysosomal α-galactosidase deficiency, leads to substrate accumulation in multiple organs. Migalastat, an oral pharmacologic chaperone, stabilizes specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase, increasing enzyme trafficking to lysosomes. METHODS: The...

  10. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  11. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  12. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  13. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  15. Non-pharmacological interventions for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramp, Fiona; Hewlett, Sarah; Almeida, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and potentially distressing symptom for people with rheumatoid arthritis with no accepted evidence based management guidelines. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical activity and psychosocial interventions, have been shown to help people with a range of other long...

  16. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...

  17. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  18. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, J.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this thesis

  19. Towards predictive cardiovascular safety : a systems pharmacology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues related to changes in blood pressure, arise frequently in drug development. In the thesis “Towards predictive cardiovascular safety – a systems pharmacology approach”, a system-specific model is described to quantify drug effects on the interrelationship between mean

  20. Advances in Pharmacology of Isatin and its Derivatives: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione), an indole derivative of plant origin, is involved in many pharmacological activities like antiallergic, antimalarial, antiviral and antimicrobial; isatin and its derivatives have been found to show promising results against various cancer cell lines. Isatin is a versatile precursor for many biologically ...

  1. I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202. Nairobi, Kenya. '~nternational Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Volatile sex pheromone w as collected from the extruded p heromone g land o f females of the spotted stalk borer ...

  2. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  3. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, R D

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930's, and Vakhil's historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  4. On the Pharmacology of Oxidative Burst of Human Neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl 4 (2015), S445-S452 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * chemiluminescence * protein kinase C * apoptosis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_S445.pdf

  5. Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Rasmussen, Jesper Ø

    2018-01-01

    .13 points, 95% CI -4.03 to 3.77; very low-quality evidence).The following pharmacological interventions reduced symptoms of anxiety at end of intervention: carbamazepine (1 study, 36 participants; MD -6.00 points, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.42; very low-quality evidence), pregabalin (1 study, 106 participants; MD...

  6. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelle, K.J.; Faulmüller, N.; Caviola, L.; Hewstone, M.

    2014-01-01

    A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is "pharmacological cognitive enhancement" (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place

  8. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodologies for quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models : Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, Hp; Agoram, B.; Davies, M.R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, Ph.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  10. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, H. P.; Agoram, B.; Davies, M. R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  11. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Shan; Yu, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Xia

    2003-02-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation. The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel, and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism, etc.

  12. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  13. The neurobiology and pharmacology of depression: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Over the past decade, targeted drug design has led to significant advances in the pharmacological management of depression. A serendipitous approach to drug discovery has therefore been replaced by the development of drugs acting on predetermined neurobiological targets recognised to be involved in ...

  14. Pharmacology Students' Perceptions of Creating Multimodal Digital Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, W.; Hoban G.; Hyland, C. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Students can now digitally construct their own representations of scientific concepts using a variety of modes including writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech, all of which communicate meaning. In this study, final-year chemistry students studying a pharmacology subject created a ''blended media'' digital product as an assignment…

  15. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  16. The benefit of pharmacological venous thromboprophylaxis in foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks and benefits of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis are well documented in respect of total joint arthroplasty and hip fractures, but little is understood about the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or the potential risks and benefits of chemoprophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. Objective. To determine ...

  17. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum sambac revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, coumarins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, steroids, fats, essential oils, fixed oils, terpines, resin, and salicylic acid. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant extracts possessed antimicrobial, insecticidal, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, anticancer, CNS and peripheral NS, ca...

  18. PHARMAVIRTUA: Educational Software for Teaching and Learning Basic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…

  19. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model for Obesity Pharmacology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Vasselli, Joseph R; King, Jason F; King, Michael L; We, Wenqian; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Johnson, William D; Finley, John W; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J; Enright, Frederic M; Greenway, Frank L

    The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.

  20. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  1. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Frydenberg, Morten; Christiansen, Peer; Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Bonde, Jens Peter E

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr Richard Stevens for his comments (1) on our recent article that showed no increased risk of breast cancer following recent night shift work when compared with recent day shift work (2). This finding was based on linkage of day-by-day information on working hours and breast cancer incidence data. Results are thus less likely to have been biased by differential misclassification than findings from earlier studies relying on self-report (3). We defined a night shift as ≥3 hours of work between 24:00-05:00 hours and a day shift as ≥3 hours work between 6:00-20:00 hours. This day shift definition did not exclude shifts starting before 05:00 or ending after 24:00 hours. However, this affected only 0.02% and 0.3% of all day shifts, respectively. This diminutive misclassification, that is expected to be non-differential, can hardly explain our negative findings. It is suggested that shifts that begin after 07:00 and end before 18:00 would constitute a more sensible baseline comparison group. Since the biological mechanism is not certain, it is not obvious to us if this will be a more appropriate reference than the present. However, we agree that future studies should test how different definitions of shifts affect the risk of breast cancer, which will be possible using this type of data. We only had information on working hours from 2007 and onwards, and night shift work prior to 2007 could have confounded our analyses towards no effect but only if inversely associated with night shift work in 2007 or later. We find this unlikely. Left truncation could also have biased findings towards the null. We therefore supplemented analyses of the total study population with analyses of the one-third of the population with first recorded employment in 2008 or later (the inception population). Even if the mean age was 35.5 years - and many undoubtedly had been working (with and without night shifts) prior to 2008 - this population should be less affected by such

  2. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE. We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness.We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have.

  3. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  4. Minor salivary glands and labial mucous membrane graft in the treatment of severe symblepharon and dry eye in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant' Anna, Ana Estela B P P; Hazarbassanov, Rossen M; de Freitas, Denise; Gomes, José Álvaro P

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate minor salivary glands and labial mucous membrane graft in patients with severe symblepharon and dry eye secondary to Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). A prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series of 19 patients with severe symblepharon and dry eye secondary to SJS who underwent labial mucous membrane and minor salivary glands transplantation. A complete ophthalmic examination including the Schirmer I test was performed prior to and following surgery. All patients had a preoperative Schirmer I test value of zero. Nineteen patients with severe symblepharon and dry eye secondary to SJS were included in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement in the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in eight patients (t test; p=0.0070). Values obtained in the Schirmer I test improved significantly in 14 eyes (73.7%) 6 months following surgery (χ(2) test; p=0.0094). A statistically significant increase in tear production (Schirmer I test) was found in eyes that received more than 10 glands per graft compared with eyes that received fewer glands (χ(2) test; p=0.0096). Corneal transparency improved significantly in 11 (72.2%) eyes and corneal neovascularisation improved significantly in five eyes (29.4%) (McNemar test; p=0.001 and p=0.0005). The symptoms questionnaire revealed improvement in foreign body sensation in 53.6% of the patients, in photophobia in 50.2% and in pain in 54.8% (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.0167). Labial mucous membrane and minor salivary glands transplantation were found to constitute a good option for the treatment of severe symblepharon and dry eye secondary to SJS. This may be considered as a step prior to limbal stem cell and corneal transplantation in these patients.

  5. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, despite differences in cutaneous presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraki, Y; Shibuya, M; Izaki, S

    2010-10-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by late disease onset, fever, rash, hepatic dysfunction, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy and often, human herpesvirus (HHV) reactivation. The diagnosis of DIHS is based on the combined presence of these findings. Anticonvulsants are a major cause of DIHS and may also cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). We examined whether SJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants display similar clinical and laboratory features seen in DIHS. Patients diagnosed with SJS or TEN due to anticonvulsants (n = 8) were examined and their clinical features and laboratory findings were compared with patients with anticonvulsant-related DIHS (n = 6). Seven of the eight patients with SJS/TEN developed symptoms > 3 weeks after starting anticonvulsants. Hepatic dysfunction was present in six patients with SJS/TEN and five patients with DIHS. Leucocytosis and/or eosinophilia was noted in seven patients with SJS/TEN and four patients with DIHS. Only one patient in the SJS/TEN group had atypical lymphocytosis; this was present in four patients with DIHS. Reactivation of HHV-6 was detected in one of the four patients tested in the SJS/TEN group, although it was seen in five of the six patients with DIHS. TSJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants may exhibit some clinical and laboratory features of DIHS. The nature of the cutaneous involvement should be emphasized in the diagnosis of DIHS. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Racial disparities in the risk of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis as urate-lowering drug adverse events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Rai, Sharan K; Terkeltaub, Robert; Kim, Seoyoung C; Menendez, Mariano E; Choi, Hyon K

    2016-10-01

    HLA-B*5801 allele carriage (a strong determinant of allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome) varies substantially among races, which may lead to racial disparities in the risk of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in the context of urate-lowering drug adverse events (ULDAEs). We examined this hypothesis in a large, racially diverse, and generalizable setting. Using a database representative of US hospitalizations (2009-2013), we investigated the racial distribution of hospitalized SJS/TEN (principal discharge diagnosis) as ULDAEs (ICD-9-CM Classification of External Causes). Our reference groups included the US Census population, US allopurinol users, and ULDAE hospitalizations without SJS/TEN. We identified 606 cases hospitalized for SJS/TEN as ULDAEs (mean age = 68 years; 44% male), among which there was an overrepresentation of Asians (27%) and Blacks (26%), and an underrepresentation of Whites (29%) and Hispanics (% too-low-to-report), compared with the US Census population (5%, 12%, 67%, and 15%, respectively). The hospitalization rate ratios for SJS/TEN among Asians, Blacks, and Whites were 11.9, 5.0, and 1.0 (referent), respectively. These associations persisted using other national referents. According to the NHANES 2009-2012, allopurinol constituted 96.8% of urate-lowering drug use, followed by probenecid (2.1%). These national data indicate that Asians and Blacks have a substantially higher risk of SJS/TEN as ULDAEs than Whites (or Hispanics), correlating well with corresponding frequencies of HLA-B*5801 in the US population (i.e., 7.4%, 4%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). Given its market dominance and established association with SJS/TEN, our findings support the use of vigilance in these minorities when considering allopurinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes among Children with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A 20-Year Study in a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheera Chatproedprai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the probable causative factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap in children. Methods. A 20-year database review of all children diagnosed with SJS/TEN/SJS-TEN overlap at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Results. 36 patients (M : F, 16 : 20 with the mean age of 9.2±4.0 years were identified. There were 20 cases of SJS, 4 cases of SJS-TEN overlap, and 12 cases of TEN. Drugs were the leading cause for the diseases (72.3%; antiepileptics were the most common culprits (36.1%. Cutaneous morphology at presentation was morbilliform rash (83.3%, blister (38.9%, targetoid lesions (25.0%, and purpuric macules (2.8%. Oral mucosa (97.2% and eye (83.3% were the 2 most common mucosal involvements. Majority of the cases (77.8% were treated with systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Treatment outcomes between those who received systemic therapy and those who received only supportive care were comparable. Skin and eye were the principal sites of short-term and long-term complications. Conclusions. SJS/TEN are not common but are serious diseases which lead to significant morbidities in children. Early withdrawal of suspicious causes and meticulous supportive care are very important. This study found that the systemic therapy was not superior to supportive care because the treatment outcomes for both groups were comparable.

  8. Fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in outpatient health care. An analysis of statutory health insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Kristin; Kemper, Claudia; Glaeske, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition impacting on quality of life, causing physical and psychological impairment resulting in limited participation in professional and social life. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions of FMS, patients' characteristics and to compare findings to current research. About 1.6 Mio patients of a German statutory health insurance company (GEK) in 2007 were analyzed for: (a) the prevalence of FMS (ICD-10: M79.7); (b) and comorbid depression (ICD-10: F32/33); (c) the recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention rates; (d) and characteristics of patients associated with being prescribed recommended interventions. The (a) standardized prevalence of FMS in 2007 was 0.05% in men and 0.4% in women. (b) 51.9% of the patients with prevalent FMS had a comorbid depression in 2007 (88.2% female). (c) 66% of FMS patients received the recommended pharmacological treatment, 59% physical therapy, 6.1% cognitive-behavioural therapy and 3.4% a combination of these (multi-component therapy, MCT). (d) One year increase in age was associated with a 3% decrease in the predicted odds of receiving MCT (95%, CI 0.95-0.99). The current data indicate an FMS-prevalence that differs from epidemiological surveys and screenings, probably due to methodological differences. Especially females with comorbid depression are affected. The likelihood of receiving MCT is not associated with gender, but with younger age. Yet, the findings seem to indicate insufficient and inadequate treatment, but FMS warrants more research. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio

    2012-03-01

    The keynote address of 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society examined the known and the still to be known on drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The nominee of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture gave an account of his career achievements particularly on the domain of chronically instrumented animals for assessing cardiovascular safety. The value of Safety Pharmacology resides in the benefits delivered to Pharma organizations, regulators, payers and patients. Meticulous due diligence concerning compliance of Safety Pharmacology studies to best practices is an effective means to ensure that equally stringent safety criteria are applied to both in-licensed and in-house compounds. Innovative technologies of great potential for Safety Pharmacology presented at the meeting are organs on chips (lung, heart, intestine) displaying mechanical and biochemical features of native organs, electrical field potential (MEA) or impedance (xCELLigence Cardio) measurements in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for unveiling cardiac electrophysiological and mechanical liabilities, functional human airway epithelium (MucilAir™) preparations with unique 1-year shelf-life for acute and chronic in vitro evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. Custom-designed in silico and in vitro assay platforms defining the receptorome space occupied by chemical entities facilitate, throughout the drug discovery phase, the selection of candidates with optimized safety profile on organ function. These approaches can now be complemented by advanced computational analysis allowing the identification of compounds with receptorome, or clinically adverse effect profiles, similar to those of the drug candidate under scrutiny for extending the safety assessment to potential liability targets not captured by classical approaches. Nonclinical data supporting safety can be quite reassuring for drugs with a discovered signal of risk. However, for marketing authorization

  10. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical

  11. Sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension : a review of population-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A; Paes, A.H.P.; Seidell, J C; Bakker, A

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize all available literature on sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension with respect to the percentage of hypertensive patients treated pharmacologically and the selection of antihypertensive drugs. The influences of the calendar period, age, definition

  12. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  13. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General.... In response to feedback during the April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and...

  14. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General..., 2011, the committee will discuss current strategies for FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Science...

  15. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) on the regulatory challenges of drug-induced phospholipidosis (excessive...

  16. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... continuous manufacturing for pharmaceutical products. Speakers from the Agency, academia, and industry will...

  17. Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light ...

  18. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  19. Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carum copticum L. commonly known as “Ajwain” is cultivated in many regions of the world including Iran and India, states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Traditionally, C. copticum has been used in the past for various therapeutic effects including bloating, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and loss of appetite. It has other health benefits such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic effects. This plant contains different important components such as carbohydrates, glucosides, saponins and phenolic compounds (carvacrol, volatile oils (thymol, terpiene, paracymene and beta-pinene, protein, fat, fiber, and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nicotinic acid (niacin. In the previous studies, several pharmacological effects were shown for C. copticum. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of the plant were reviewed.

  20. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  1. Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects of the Vas Deferens - an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stewart Koslov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vas deferens, a muscular conduit conveying spermatozoa from the epididymis to the urethra, has been used as a model tissue for smooth muscle pharmacological and physiological advancements. Many drugs, notably α-adrenergic antagonists, have effects on contractility and thus normal ejaculation, incurring significant side effects for patients that may interfere with compliance. A more thorough understanding of the innervation and neurotransmitter pharmacology of the vas has indicated that this is a highly complex structure and a model for co-transmission at the synapse. Recent models have shown clinical scenarios that alter the vas contraction. This review covers structure, receptors, neurotransmitters, smooth muscle physiology, and clinical implications of the vas deferens.

  2. Pharmacological Bypass of Cockayne Syndrome B Function in Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth abnormalities, premature aging, and photosensitivity. Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB affects neuronal gene expression and differentiation, so we attempted to bypass its function by expressing downstream target genes. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9, a key component of the machinery controlling neurotrophin release, bypasses the need for CSB in neuritogenesis. Importantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptic modulation, and pharmacological mimics such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and amitriptyline can compensate for CSB deficiency in cell models of neuronal differentiation as well. SYT9 and BDNF are downregulated in CS patient brain tissue, further indicating that sub-optimal neurotrophin signaling underlies neurological defects in CS. In addition to shedding light on cellular mechanisms underlying CS and pointing to future avenues for pharmacological intervention, these data suggest an important role for SYT9 in neuronal differentiation.

  3. Supercapacitive transport of pharmacologic agents using nanoporous gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Pierson, Bonnie E; Ha, Cindy M; Wu, Chung-An Max; Narayan, Roger J; Robinson, David B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, nanoporous gold supercapacitors were produced by electrochemical dealloying of gold-silver alloy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed completion of the dealloying process and generation of a porous gold material with approximately 10 nm diameter pores. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of the nanoporous gold electrodes indicated that these materials exhibited supercapacitor behavior. The storage capacity of the electrodes measured by chronoamperometry was approximately 3 mC at 200 mV. Electrochemical storage and voltage-controlled delivery of two model pharmacologic agents, benzylammonium and salicylic acid, was demonstrated. These results suggest that capacitance-based storage and delivery of pharmacologic agents may serve as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods.

  4. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  5. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  6. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils from Cedrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.

  7. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  8. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  9. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  10. An overview on Phyllanthus emblica: phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirazodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phyllanthus emblica L. (Phyllanthaceae, commonly known as Indian gooseberry, is an endemic plant to the tropical and subtropical areas in china, India and Thailand. The plant is extensively used in Chinese, Ayurveda, and traditional Persian medicine (TPM. In addition, there are numerous reports on pharmacological and clinical activities of gooseberry in current medicine. The present review was performed to compile the phytochemical and pharmacological data on P. emblica in order to draw a window for further research.  Methods: Databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect and PubMed were searched for the term “P. emblica” up to 1st September, 2017. Papers concerning pharmacology and phytochemistry of the plant were gathered and analyzed. On the contrary, agriculture and genetic contents were excluded. Results: Over all, 80 papers were selected. The herb revealed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, larvicidal, anti-asthmatic, antiulcer, anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumor, anti-genotoxicity, anti-microbial, anticholinergic, antispasmodic, gastroprotective, anti-plasmodia, and antinociceptive activities as well as antidote effect against certain elements. The fruits are also useful in brain and gastrointestinal diseases and can be beneficial in hearth protection. Remarkably, many of those properties have been mentioned in TPM manuscripts.  Conclusion: Despite numerous pharmacological activities for P. emblica, there is still a gap between the in vivo and human studies which should be covered by more comprehensive and complementary studies. Many compounds have been isolated and elucidated from this plant which can be good candidates for various related activities and also as new natural medicaments in novel drug discovery.

  11. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanak Salari; Mahdi Yousefi; Masoumeh Salari

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop ...

  12. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  13. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  14. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Lele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930′s, and Vakhil′s historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda′s concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda′s aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  15. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae, also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This review summarizes selected scientific evidence on phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of M. vulgare over the past 48 years (1968 to 2016. The work reported on M. vulgare was reviewed from various sources like books, internet source i.e. google search engine, pubmed, sciencedirect and chemical abstract. The exhaustive literature was studied and critical analysis was done according to their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of M. vulgare have been reported the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and volatile oils (0.05%. The aerial parts contain marrubiin, together with ursolic acid and choline. Pharmacological activities like, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-hepatotoxic activity have been reported. M. vulgare has therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, liver disorders, pain, cardiovascular, gastric and diabetic conditions. Aerial parts of M. vulgare is a good source of labdane type diterpene especially marrubiin which is present in high concentrations. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore clinical efficacy, toxicity and to explore the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites like diterpenes, phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides of M. vulgare. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6

  16. Pharmacological treatment of refugees with trauma-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a systematic review of published treatment outcome studies on PTSD and depression among refugees. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Most studies focused on the use of antidepressants. Included studies differed widely in method and quality....... The majority were observational studies and case studies. Small sample sizes limited the statistical power. Few studies reported effect sizes, confidence intervals, and statistical significance of findings. No specific pharmacological treatment for PTSD among refugees can be recommended on the basis...

  17. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrouas, Camille; Taudon, Nicolas; Bun, Sok-Siya; Baghdikian, Beatrice; Bory, Sothavireak; Parzy, Daniel; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2014-07-03

    Stephania rotunda Lour. (Menispermaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant that is grown in Southeast Asia. The stems, leaves, and tubers have been used in the Cambodian, Lao, Indian and Vietnamese folk medicine systems for years to treat a wide range of ailments, including asthma, headache, fever, and diarrhoea. To provide an up-to-date, comprehensive overview and analysis of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda for its potential benefits in human health, as well as to assess the scientific evidence of traditional use and provide a basis for future research directions. Peer-reviewed articles on Stephania rotunda were acquired via an electronic search of the major scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). Data were collected from scientific journals, theses, and books. The traditional uses of Stephania rotunda were recorded in countries throughout Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and India). Different parts of Stephania rotunda were used in traditional medicine to treat about twenty health disorders. Phytochemical analyses identified forty alkaloids. The roots primarily contain l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), whereas the tubers contain cepharanthine and xylopinine. Furthermore, the chemical composition differs from one region to another and according to the harvest period. The alkaloids exhibited approximately ten different pharmacological activities. The main pharmacological activities of Stephania rotunda alkaloids are antiplasmodial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects. Sinomenine, cepharanthine, and l-stepholidine are the most promising components and have been tested in humans. The pharmacokinetic parameters have been studied for seven compounds, including the three most promising compounds. The toxicity has been evaluated for liriodenine, roemerine, cycleanine, l-tetrahydropalmatine, and oxostephanine. Stephania rotunda is traditionally used for the treatment of a wide range of

  18. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  19. The main directions of pharmacological correction of radioinduced scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskaya, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Results of clinical and experimental research on pharmacological correction of radiationinduced sclerosis were summarized. Efficiency of prophylaxis main trends and drug therapy was analyzed. Application of specific pharmaceuticals (preparations directly affecting certain chains of collagen metabolism) and nonspecific pharmaceuticals (preparations of indirect affect on collagen metabolism) was given. Further research of specific pharmaceuticals was shown to be expedient. Analysis of nonspecific pharmaceuticals used in complex therapy revealed problems in evaluating their efficiency at various stages of sclerosis development

  20. Status of Undergraduate Pharmacology Laboratories in Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Norman L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    U.S. colleges of pharmacy were surveyed in 1976 to determine whether a trend exists in continuing, discontinuing, or restructuring laboratory time in pharmaceutical education. Data regarding core undergraduate pharmacology courses, undergraduate pharmacology laboratory status, and pharmacology faculty are presented. (LBH)

  1. The Genus Spilanthes Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulraj, Jayaraj; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Palpu, Pushpangadan

    2013-01-01

    Spilanthes spp. are popular, over-the-counter remedies; they are sold over the internet under various names and are widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures. This review will summarize the important reports on the ethnopharmacology, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties as described in the literature from recent years (1920 to 2013). Spilanthes spp. are used for more than 60 types of disorders. They are reported to contain a number of biologically active phytochemicals, although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented; only a few of these species have been investigated for their chemical and biological activities. The studies are carried out mainly on Spilanthes extracts and a few metabolites substantiate the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Well-conducted pharmacological studies are still needed for several traditional indications, and the mechanisms of action by which the plant extracts and the active compounds exert their pharmacological effects remain to be studied. They are predominantly used as extracts in personal care products, traditional medicines, and the pharmaceutical and culinary areas. Suggestions are made regarding some of the possible mechanisms of action as to how the known compounds may exert their biological activity. PMID:24454346

  2. Lippia citrodora: a review on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lippia citrodora commonly known as lemon verbena is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, native to western South America. With its antioxidant effects, it is mostly used in folk medicine to treat anti-inflammatory diseases, and diseases associated with oxidative stress. This review has presented a summary on L. citordora’s phytochemistry and its pharmacological activities. It will also discuss gaps and challenges needed to be solved. Methods: Electronic database including Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 1973 and 2017 regarding the phytochemistry and biological activities of L. citodora. Results: Traditional uses of this plant were specially related to coagulation system, digestive system and brain. Phytochemical investigations identified flavonoids, terpenes, iridois, lignins, phenylethanoid, as the main components of the plant. Antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antinociceptive, anti hyperpropulsive, sedative, anticolitis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antihyperalgesic, and anticancer properties were among the pharmacological activities of L. citriodora. The plant extract and essential oil had also demonstrated high antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of L. citrodora. The data reviewed here revealed that this plant is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases specially inflammatory diseases and neurological dysfunctions. Future human studies are needed for further confirmation of the therapeutic activities of L. citriodora.

  3. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Salari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop insights into the causes and treatments of chronic constipation, relevant review articles that were published on the Pubmed, Cochrane database, and Embase websites, were examined. The outputs of these studies indicated that high daily intake of fibers and fluids in addition to regular exercise can be very helpful in avoiding and treating constipation. The pharmacological treatments that are administered to treat this disease typically increase the water content of the bowel lumen, and this leads to more regular bowel movements. Novel drugs have been introduced to treat constipation, and many of these are now subject to formal research studies. Since constipation can facilitate the development of other gastrointestinal diseases, it is important that we develop an understanding the therapeutic treatments that are available with the intention of identifying which of these may represent the most effective method for treating this disease. With that objective in mind, this review was undertaken to review the clinical effectiveness of the different pharmacological treatments that are employed to treat or prevent constipation.

  5. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  6. Review of the chemistry and pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor

    2014-03-01

    Naphthoquinone is a class of phenolic compounds derived from naphthalene. 7-Methyljuglone (7-MJ) is a naphthoquinone also known as ramentaceone or 6-Methyl-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-,1,4-naphtoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione. This compound is a biologically active naphtoquinone, with a molecular weight of 188 g/mol mostly isolated in the genus Diospyros and Euclea. This review was aimed at providing available chemically and pharmacological data on 7-MJ. The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-knowledge and Scifinder. 7-MJ was reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. The hemi-synthesis of the compound have been described. The present review pooled out together the knowledge on 7-MJ, and can serve as the start point for future research and valorization accomplishments.

  7. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  8. Metabolites of alectinib in human: their identification and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Sato-Nakai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolites (M4 and M1b in plasma and four metabolites (M4, M6, M1a and M1b in faeces were detected through the human ADME study following a single oral administration of [14C]alectinib, a small-molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, to healthy subjects. In the present study, M1a and M1b, which chemical structures had not been identified prior to the human ADME study, were identified as isomers of a carboxylate metabolite oxidatively cleaved at the morpholine ring. In faeces, M4 and M1b were the main metabolites, which shows that the biotransformation to M4 and M1b represents two main metabolic pathways for alectinib. In plasma, M4 was a major metabolite and M1b was a minor metabolite. The contribution to in vivo pharmacological activity of these circulating metabolites was assessed from their in vitro pharmacological activity and plasma protein binding. M4 had a similar cancer cell growth inhibitory activity and plasma protein binding to that of alectinib, suggesting its contribution to the antitumor activity of alectinib, whereas the pharmacological activity of M1b was insignificant.

  9. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus-castus extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Berger, D; Hoberg, E; Sticher, O; Schaffner, W

    2000-10-01

    The pharmacological effects of ethanolic Vitex agnus-castus fruit-extracts (especially Ze 440) and various extract fractions of different polarities were evaluated both by radioligand binding studies and by superfusion experiments. A relative potent binding inhibition was observed for dopamine D2 and opioid (micro and kappa subtype) receptors with IC50 values of the native extract between 20 and 70 mg/mL. Binding, neither to the histamine H1, benzodiazepine and OFQ receptor, nor to the binding-site of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, was significantly inhibited. The lipophilic fractions contained the diterpenes rotun-difuran and 6beta,7beta-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-labda-8,14-dien . They exhibited inhibitory actions on dopamine D2 receptor binding. While binding inhibition to mu and kappa opioid receptors was most pronounced in lipophilic fractions, binding to delta opioid receptors was inhibited mainly by a aqueous fraction. Standardised Ze 440 extracts of different batches were of constant pharmacological quality according to their potential to inhibit the binding to D2 receptors. In superfusion experiments, the aqueous fraction of a methanolic extract inhibited the release of acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the potent D2 receptor antagonist spiperone antagonised the effect of the extract suggesting a dopaminergic action mediated by D2 receptor activation. Our results indicate a dopaminergic effect of Vitex agnus-castus extracts and suggest additional pharmacological actions via opioid receptors.

  10. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Bai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN – the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts’ experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  12. How Can Synergism of Traditional Medicines Benefit from Network Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Cui, Heying; Liu, Guancheng; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Piao, Guangchun

    2017-07-07

    Many prescriptions of traditional medicines (TMs), whose efficacy has been tested in clinical practice, have great therapeutic value and represent an excellent resource for drug discovery. Research into single compounds of TMs, such as artemisinin from Artemisia annua L., has achieved great success; however, it has become evident that a TM prescription (which frequently contains various herbs or other components) has a synergistic effect in effecting a cure or reducing toxicity. Network pharmacology targets biological networks and analyzes the links among drugs, targets, and diseases in those networks. Comprehensive, systematic research into network pharmacology is consistent with the perspective of holisticity, which is a main characteristic of many TMs. By means of network pharmacology, research has demonstrated that many a TM show a synergistic effect by acting at different levels on multiple targets and pathways. This approach effectively bridges the gap between modern medicine and TM, and it greatly facilitates studies into the synergistic actions of TMs. There are different kinds of synergistic effects with TMs, such as synergy among herbs, effective parts, and pure compounds; however, for various reasons, new drug discovery should at present focus on synergy among pure compounds.

  13. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  14. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  15. The pharmacology of neurokinin receptors in addiction: prospects for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandweiss AJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander J Sandweiss, Todd W VanderahDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Addiction is a chronic disorder in which consumption of a substance or a habitual behavior becomes compulsive and often recurrent, despite adverse consequences. Substance p (SP is an undecapeptide and was the first neuropeptide of the neurokinin family to be discovered. The subsequent decades of research after its discovery implicated SP and its neurokinin relatives as neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of the reward pathway. Here, we review the neurokinin literature, giving a brief historical perspective of neurokinin pharmacology, localization in various brain regions involved in addictive behaviors, and the functional aspects of neurokinin pharmacology in relation to reward in preclinical models of addiction that have shaped the rational drug design of neurokinin antagonists that could translate into human research. Finally, we will cover the clinical investigations using neurokinin antagonists and discuss their potential as a therapy for drug abuse.Keywords: reward, substance p, alcohol, morphine, cocaine, dopamine

  16. Pharmacological therapy for analgesia and sedation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K J S; Hall, R W

    2006-11-01

    Rapid advances have been made in the use of pharmacological analgesia and sedation for newborns requiring neonatal intensive care. Practical considerations for the use of systemic analgesics (opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, other drugs), local and topical anaesthetics, and sedative or anaesthetic agents (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, other drugs) are summarised using an evidence-based medicine approach, while avoiding mention of the underlying basic physiology or pharmacology. These developments have inspired more humane approaches to neonatal intensive care. Despite these advances, little is known about the clinical effectiveness, immediate toxicity, effects on special patient populations, or long-term effects after neonatal exposure to analgesics or sedatives. The desired or adverse effects of drug combinations, interactions with non-pharmacological interventions or use for specific conditions also remain unknown. Despite the huge gaps in our knowledge, preliminary evidence for the use of neonatal analgesia and sedation is available, but must be combined with a clear definition of clinical goals, continuous physiological monitoring, evaluation of side effects or tolerance, and consideration of long-term clinical outcomes.

  17. Amphetamine, past and present--a pharmacological and clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-06-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine's diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine's distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed.

  18. Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine’s diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine’s distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed. PMID:23539642

  19. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari Jr., Ilio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil studies with native medicinal plants are usually performed using non-domesticated plants and as a result the genetic variability of wild species could express different levels of active principles changing their therapeutic effect. Based on that, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that extract of different half- sib families Cordia verbenacea (DC, widely used as medicinal plant in Brazil, have different efficacy in the Total Growth Inhibition (TGI of 5 different human tumor cell lines. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA follow by Tuckey test and a heritability estimation of the plant families was performed. The results showed that TGI are different for each plant family according with each human tumor cell line. For instance, extracts obtained from families 3,11 and 12 were more effective to inhibit the U-251 and Ht-29 cell lines compared to the other families, while extracts obtained from the family 32 was more effective against thethe PC-3 line. The heritability coefficient indicated that plant population selection could promote a genetic improvement related to its active principle and their pharmacological effect and could provide the identification of the best families according to their pharmacological efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that the domestication of a wild medicinal plant should be better monitored by its pharmacological effect.

  1. Genotipificación de HLA-B en pacientes colombianos afectados por el síndrome Stevens-Johnson y la Necrólisis Epidérmica Tóxica

    OpenAIRE

    León Ruiz, Maria Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Las reacciones alérgicas a medicamentos cutáneas severas (RAM) como el Síndrome Stevens Johnson (SJS) y la Necrólisis Epidérmica Tóxica (NET),caracterizadas por exantema, erosión de la piel y las membranas mucosas, flictenas, desprendimiento de la piel secundario a la muerte de queratinocitos y compromiso ocular. Son infrecuentes en la población pero con elevada morbi-mortalidad, se presentan luego de la administración de diferentes fármacos. En Asia se ha asociado el alelo HLA-B*15:02 como m...

  2. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Man; Liu, Jiu-Shi; Wang, Min; Cao, Ting-Ting; Qi, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2018-06-12

    Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge. The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis. Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are

  3. Stability of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops from chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome dry eye compared to non-autoimmune dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Lertrit, Patcharee; Liammongkolkul, Sompong; Prabhasawat, Pinnita

    2011-09-01

    To compare the concentrations of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops (ASE) prepared from sera of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients with dry eyes to those prepared from non-autoimmune dry eye controls and to study the stability of the epitheliotrophic factors in different storage conditions. Twenty-percent ASE were prepared from 10 chronic SJS patients with dry eyes and 10 age-matched non-autoimmune dry eye controls. The concentrations of major epitheliotrophic factors comprising epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2), and fibronectin in those ASE preparations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after different storage conditions: at 4 °C for 1 week and 1 month; and at -20 °C for 1, 3 and 6 months. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of EGF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and fibronectin in 20% ASE between the SJS and control groups (EGF: 176.9 ± 40.9 vs. 185.5 ± 36.9 pg/mL, TGF-β1: 9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 9.5 ± 1.9 ng/mL, TGF-β2: 55.3 ± 30.0 vs. 63.91 ± 45.6 pg/mL and fibronectin: 70.5 ± 20.2 vs. 62.2 ± 21.3 µg/mL, respectively). These factors were stable at 4 °C for up to 1 month. Storage at -20 °C for up to 6 months resulted in a slight decrease in TGF-β1 (SJS: from 9.5-8.4 ng/mL, p dry eye patients, and that ASE should be sufficiently stable for up to 6 months, if stored properly at -20 °C.

  4. Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects of a Low Amount of Alcohol Drinking on Outcome Valuation and Risk Perception in Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Tsurugizawa

    Full Text Available The high-dose, alcohol-induced influences on risk perception and loss aversion depend on sex. On the other hand, low-dose alcohol has less effect on risky behavior. However, the effect of low-dose alcohol on subjective valuation of gain or loss and also the effect of placebo (expectancy of alcohol on risk perception have not been fully investigated. We investigated the effects of low-dose alcohol (0.02 g/100 ml blood alcohol concentration and placebo effects on subjective risk perception and subjective valuation of uncertain gain and loss in females and males. Participants in the control group and the placebo group were served alcohol-free, wine-flavored beverage and participants of alcohol group were served wine (14% alcohol. The placebo group was not informed that the drink was not alcohol but the control group was informed. Then paper-pencil tasks for subjective risk perception and valuation of gain or loss were performed 45 min after drinking the beverage. The participants were asked to draw the line on a 180 mm scale for each question. The placebo effects as well as the low-dose alcohol effects were observed in subjective valuations of gain or loss. Except for effect of beverages, a gender difference was also observed for subjective likelihood. The females estimated a low-probability loss as more likely and estimated a high-probability gain as less likely than did the males. From the Stevens' law fitting analysis, the placebo, not alcohol, significantly induced the psychophysical effect of the subjective valuation of gain or loss. These results indicate that the psychological effects of expectancy of alcohol (placebo could be a major factor in changing the subjective valuation of gain or loss over the pharmacological effects of a small amount of alcohol (like a glass of wine. Furthermore, these results also indicate that gender differences should be taken into account when investigating pharmacological or psychological effect on decision-making.

  5. An Interview with Steven Millhauser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Février

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Février : I would like to begin this interview with a question about architecture. Images of architecture appear frequently in your fiction, from Martin Dressler to more recent collections like Dangerous Laughter. In that collection’s “thirteen stories,” we find a tower reaching all the way to heaven, a life-size replica of a town so precise that even the “levels of salt in the saltshakers” match those of the original town, and a series of outwardly expanding domes—covering a house, f...

  6. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  7. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; van Hensbergen, Larissa; Jacobs, Lotte; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Given the reported high rates of medication errors, especially in elderly patients, we hypothesized that current curricula do not devote enough time to the teaching of geriatric pharmacology. This review explores the quantity and nature of geriatric pharmacology education in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula for health professionals. METHODS Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched (from 1 January 2000 to 11 January 2011), using the terms ‘pharmacology’ and ‘education’ in combination. Articles describing content or evaluation of pharmacology education for health professionals were included. Education in general and geriatric pharmacology was compared. RESULTS Articles on general pharmacology education (252) and geriatric pharmacology education (39) were included. The number of publications on education in general pharmacology, but not geriatric pharmacology, has increased over the last 10 years. Articles on undergraduate and postgraduate education for 12 different health disciplines were identified. A median of 24 h (from 15 min to 4956 h) devoted to pharmacology education and 2 h (1–935 h) devoted to geriatric pharmacology were reported. Of the articles on education in geriatric pharmacology, 61.5% evaluated the teaching provided, mostly student satisfaction with the course. The strength of findings was low. Similar educational interventions were not identified, and evaluation studies were not replicated. CONCLUSIONS Recently, interest in pharmacology education has increased, possibly because of the high rate of medication errors and the recognized importance of evidence-based medical education. Nevertheless, courses on geriatric pharmacology have not been evaluated thoroughly and none can be recommended for use in training programmes. Suggestions for improvements in education in general and geriatric pharmacology are given. PMID:22416832

  8. Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubneide Barreto Silva Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Trial registration: NCT01389128. [Gallo RBS, Santana LS, Marcolin AC, Duarte G, Quintana SM (2018 Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 33–40

  9. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors...

  10. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  11. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

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    Opeyemi C Banjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  12. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT

  13. Pharmacological treatment of tic disorders and Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Schoenefeld, Katja; Buse, Judith; Bender, Stephan; Ehrlich, Stefan; Münchau, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    The present review gives an overview of current pharmacological treatment options of tic disorders and Tourette Syndrome (TS). After a short summary on phenomenology, clinical course and comorbid conditions we review indications for pharmacological treatment in detail. Unfortunately, standardized and large enough drug trials in TS patients fulfilling evidence based medicine standards are still scarce. Treatment decisions are often guided by individual needs and personal experience of treating clinicians. The present recommendations for pharmacological tic treatment are therefore based on both scientific evidence and expert opinion. As first-line treatment of tics risperidone (best evidence level for atypical antipsychotics) or tiapride (largest clinical experience in Europe and low rate of adverse reactions) are recommended. Aripiprazole (still limited but promising data with low risk for adverse reactions) and pimozide (best evidence of the typical antipsychotics) are agents of second choice. In TS patients with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) atomoxetine, stimulants or clonidine should be considered, or, if tics are severe, a combination of stimulants and risperidone. When mild to moderate tics are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression or anxiety sulpiride monotherapy can be helpful. In more severe cases the combination of risperidone and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor should be given. In summary, further studies, particularly randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials including larger and/or more homogenous patient groups over longer periods are urgently needed to enhance the scientific basis for drug treatment in tic disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  15. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  16. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Apomorphine and piribedil in rats: biochemical and pharmacologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, R F; Poignant, J C; Barbeau, A

    1975-01-01

    We studied the biochemical and pharmacologic modes of action of piribedil and apomorphine in the rat. Although both drugs have many points in common, they are also different in many of their manifestations. Apomorphine causes high-intensity, short-duration stereotyped behavior; it is distributed within the brain in uneven fashion, the striatum being the area of lowest concentration as measured by fluorometry. Direct stereotactic injection within the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, and particularly the tuberculum olfactorium, produced constant intense responses. All effects of apomorphine can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol, a beta blocker, only reduces aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. Finally, L-5-HTP tends to reduce aggression, ferocity, and to a lesser extent stereotypy; MIF or piribedil, as well as reserpine, potentiates the stereotyped behaviors induced by apomorphine, whereas L-DOPA usually decreases them. Piribedil, on the other hand, causes low-intensity, long-duration stereotyped behavior. It is distributed within the brain almost uniformly. Most effects of piribedil can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol blocks only aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. On the other hand, clonidine, an alpha-receptor agonist, blocks stereotyped behaviors induced by piribedil but markedly increases aggression, ferocity, and motor activity. L-5-HTP and L-DOPA have little effect on piribedil-induced manifestations. Reserpine decreases piribedil stereotypy. The main metabolite of piribedil, S 584, had no clear-cut pharmacologic action in our hands at the dosage used. It is concluded that both apomorphine and piribedil produce stereotyped behavior by modifying the physiologic balance between mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. The other actions of apomorphine and piribedil upon aggression, ferocity, and motor activity are not always in parallel and depend probably on the fact that piribedil is less

  18. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejada Maria-Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacological treatment with placebo or other treatment in individuals with diagnosis of FXS syndrome and assessed the efficacy and/or safety of the treatments. Studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases using the terms fragile X and treatment. Risk of bias of the studies was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Results The search identified 276 potential articles and 14 studies satisfied inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 studies on folic acid (9 with crossover design, only 1 of them with good methodological quality and low risk of bias did not find in general significant improvements. A small sample size trial assessed dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD and found some improvements in those taking methylphenidate, but the length of follow-up was too short. Two studies on L-acetylcarnitine, showed positive effects and no side effects in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD. Finally, one study on patients with an additional diagnosis of autism assessed ampakine compound CX516 and found no significant differences between treatment and placebo. Regarding safety, none of the studies that assessed that area found relevant side effects, but the number of patients included was too small to detect side effects with low incidence. Conclusion Currently there is no robust evidence to support recommendations on pharmacological treatments in patients with

  19. Cardiovascular outcomes after pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Douglas S; Husain, Mansoor; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Iwanochko, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    While pharmacologic stress single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is used for noninvasive evaluation of patients who are unable to perform treadmill exercise, its impact on net reclassification improvement (NRI) of prognosis is unknown. We evaluated the prognostic value of pharmacologic stress MPI for prediction of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 year at a single-center, university-based laboratory. We examined continuous and categorical NRI of pharmacologic SPECT-MPI for prediction of outcomes beyond clinical factors alone. Six thousand two hundred forty patients (median age 66 years [IQR 56-74], 3466 men) were studied and followed for 5963 person-years. SPECT-MPI variables associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI included summed stress score, stress ST-shift, and post-stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%. Compared to a clinical model which included age, sex, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and medications, model χ(2) (210.5 vs. 281.9, P statistic (0.74 vs. 0.78, P stress score, stress ST-shift and stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction). SPECT-MPI predictors increased continuous NRI by 49.4% (P 3% annualized risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI, yielded a 15.0% improvement in NRI (95% CI 7.6%-27.6%, P stress MPI substantially improved net reclassification of cardiovascular death or MI risk beyond that afforded by clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics (e.g. eye blinking, shoulder shrugging, etc. and at least one vocal/phonic tic (e.g. grunting or sniffing. The clinical picture of patients with Tourette syndrome is often complicated by tic-related behavioural problems and associated psychopathology. The pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is poorly understood, however converging evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests abnormalities within the fronto-striatal pathways. The pharmacological management of the tic symptoms focuses on the dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways and aims to improve the health-related quality of life of patients.