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Sample records for steueralgorithmus fr laden

  1. MEMBRANE BIOTREATMENT OF VOC-LADEN AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses membrane biotreatment of air laden with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Microporous flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane contactors were used to support air-liquid mass transfer interfaces. These modules were used in a two-step process to transfer VOCs fr...

  2. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    light bending in 1919 by Eddington and others) to show that TDRs are used by scientists to resolve data conflicts. I argue that the rationality of the practices which employ TDRs can be saved if the independent support of the theories driving TDRs is construed in a particular way.......The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental...... practices are efficient in guarding against any epistemological threat posed by theory-ladenness. In this paper I show that one can generate a thesis of theory-ladenness for experimental practices from an influential New Experimentalist account. The notion I introduce for this purpose is the concept...

  3. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  4. Vicarious revenge and the death of Osama bin Laden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel; Sjöström, Arne; Liberman, Peter; Nazir, Syed Javed; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-05-01

    Three hypotheses were derived from research on vicarious revenge and tested in the context of the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011. In line with the notion that revenge aims at delivering a message (the "message hypothesis"), Study 1 shows that Americans' vengeful desires in the aftermath of 9/11 predicted a sense of justice achieved after bin Laden's death, and that this effect was mediated by perceptions that his assassination sent a message to the perpetrators to not "mess" with the United States. In line with the "blood lust hypothesis," his assassination also sparked a desire to take further revenge and to continue the "war on terror." Finally, in line with the "intent hypothesis," Study 2 shows that Americans (but not Pakistanis or Germans) considered the fact that bin Laden was killed intentionally more satisfactory than the possibility of bin Laden being killed accidentally (e.g., in an airplane crash).

  5. Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybee, M D; Miller, G H; Trebotich, D

    2005-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are becoming state-of-the-art in many significant applications including pathogen detection, continuous monitoring, and drug delivery. Numerical algorithms which can simulate flows of complex fluids within these devices are needed for their development and optimization. A method is being developed at LLNL by Trebotich et. al. [30] for simulations of DNA-laden flows in complex microscale geometries such as packed bed reactors and pillar chips. In this method an incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods, and the DNA is represented by a bead-rod polymer model. The fluid and polymer are coupled through a body force. In its current state, polymer-surface interactions are treated as elastic collisions between beads and surface, and polymer-polymer interactions are neglected. Implementation of polymer-polymer interactions is the main objective of this work. It is achieved by two methods: (1) a rigid constraint whereby rods elastically bounce off one another, and (2) a smooth potential acting between rods. In addition, a smooth potential is also implemented for the polymer-surface interactions. Background information will also be presented as well as related work by other researchers

  6. Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bybee, M D; Miller, G H; Trebotich, D

    2005-12-20

    Microfluidic devices are becoming state-of-the-art in many significant applications including pathogen detection, continuous monitoring, and drug delivery. Numerical algorithms which can simulate flows of complex fluids within these devices are needed for their development and optimization. A method is being developed at LLNL by Trebotich et. al. [30] for simulations of DNA-laden flows in complex microscale geometries such as packed bed reactors and pillar chips. In this method an incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods, and the DNA is represented by a bead-rod polymer model. The fluid and polymer are coupled through a body force. In its current state, polymer-surface interactions are treated as elastic collisions between beads and surface, and polymer-polymer interactions are neglected. Implementation of polymer-polymer interactions is the main objective of this work. It is achieved by two methods: (1) a rigid constraint whereby rods elastically bounce off one another, and (2) a smooth potential acting between rods. In addition, a smooth potential is also implemented for the polymer-surface interactions. Background information will also be presented as well as related work by other researchers.

  7. Dynamic self-organization in particle-laden channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Vreman, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    We study dynamic flow-structuring and mean-flow properties of turbulent particle-laden riser-flow at significant particle volume fractions of about 1.5%. We include particle–particle as well as particle–fluid interactions through inelastic collisions and drag forces, in a so-called four-way coupled

  8. Numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; McLaughlin, J.B.; Kontomaris, K.; Portela, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results for the behavior of particle-laden gases in a small Reynolds number vertical channel down flow. Results will be presented for the effects of particle feedback on the gas-phase turbulence and for the concentration profile of the particles. The effects of density ratio,

  9. Radiometric methods in the measurement of particle-laden flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zych, M.; Hanus, R.; Vlasák, Pavel; Jaszczur, M.; Petryka, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, August (2017), s. 491-500 ISSN 0032-5910 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : particle-laden flow * radiotracer * gamma absorption * cross-correlation * polymetallic nodules Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  10. Scaling during capillary thinning of particle-laden drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Wagoner, Brayden; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    A fundamental understanding of drop formation is crucial in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, the about-to-form drop is connected to the fluid hanging from the nozzle via a thinning filament. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids using theory, simulations, and experiments. In some of the applications however, the forming drop and hence the thinning filament may contain solid particles. The thinning dynamics of such particle-laden filaments differs radically from that of particle-free filaments. Moreover, our understanding of filament thinning in the former case is poor compared to that in the latter case despite the growing interest in pinch-off of particle-laden filaments. In this work, we go beyond similar studies and experimentally explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning by measuring both the radial and axial scalings in the neck region. The results are summarized in terms of a phase diagram of capillary thinning of particle-laden filaments.

  11. Who Should Decide How Machines Make Morally Laden Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Who should decide how a machine will decide what to do when it is driving a car, performing a medical procedure, or, more generally, when it is facing any kind of morally laden decision? More and more, machines are making complex decisions with a considerable level of autonomy. We should be much more preoccupied by this problem than we currently are. After a series of preliminary remarks, this paper will go over four possible answers to the question raised above. First, we may claim that it is the maker of a machine that gets to decide how it will behave in morally laden scenarios. Second, we may claim that the users of a machine should decide. Third, that decision may have to be made collectively or, fourth, by other machines built for this special purpose. The paper argues that each of these approaches suffers from its own shortcomings, and it concludes by showing, among other things, which approaches should be emphasized for different types of machines, situations, and/or morally laden decisions.

  12. IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

  13. Characterization of hydrogel printer for direct cell-laden scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whulanza, Yudan; Arsyan, Rendria; Saragih, Agung Shamsuddin

    2018-02-01

    The additive manufacturing technology has been massively developed since the last decade. The technology was previously known as rapid prototyping techniques that aimed to produce a prototyping product in fast and economical way. Currently, this technique is also applied to fabricate microstructure utilized in tissue engineering technology. Here, we introduce a 3D printer which using hydrogel gelatin to realize cell laden scaffold with dimension around 50-100 µm. However, in order to fabricate such a precise dimension, an optimum working parameters are required to control the physical properties of gelatin. At the end of our study, we formulated the best parameters to perform the product as we desired.

  14. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  15. Culture-Laden Imports: International Market Entry and Cultural Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice William David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates American market responses to a Spanish product that is strongly culture-laden and may violate cultural taboos. Surveys were conducted in two contrasting US universities in Arkansas and California. Contrasting student majors were also chosen: Art and Business. The product is a life-sized baby doll, designed to be breast-fed rather than bottle-fed, which highlights the benefits and normality of breast-feeding babies. Although this product is popular in its original European market, US media accounts suggested strongly negative morality-based American reactions. This study found a strong overall non-acceptance of this product in all groups, but with significant differences between groups. Results quantify the market reaction and illuminate its cultural basis by comparing responses between two culturally different regions, two contrasting college majors, different genders, and different ethnicities. In doing so, this study helps to break new ground in the international marketing of culture-laden products.

  16. Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald

    2010-03-02

    Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.

  17. Particle-laden flow from geophysical to Kolmogorov scales

    CERN Document Server

    Clercx, Herman; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of particles in a flow is of central importance in various geophysical and environmental problems. The spreading of aerosols and soot in the air, the growth and dispersion of plankton blooms in seas and oceans, or the transport of sediment in rivers, estuaries and coastal regions are striking examples. These problems are characterized by strong nonlinear coupling between several dynamical mechanisms. As a result, processes on widely different length and time scales are simultaneously of importance. The multiscale nature of this challenging field motivated the EUROMECH colloquium on particle-laden flow that was held at the University of Twente in 2006. This book contains a selection of the papers that were presented.

  18. Cell-laden hydrogels for osteochondral and cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhou; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yue, Kan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-07-15

    Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue-engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry. Particularly, advances in the development of cell-laden hydrogels have opened up new possibilities for cell therapy. In this article, we describe the problems encountered in this field and review recent progress in designing cell-hydrogel hybrid constructs for promoting the reestablishment of osteochondral/cartilage tissues. Our focus centers on the effects of hydrogel type, cell type, and growth factor delivery on achieving efficient chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. We give our perspective on developing next-generation matrices with improved physical and biological properties for osteochondral/cartilage tissue engineering. We also highlight recent advances in biomanufacturing technologies (e.g. molding, bioprinting, and assembly) for fabrication of hydrogel-based osteochondral and cartilage constructs with complex compositions and microarchitectures to mimic their native counterparts. Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue-engineered biomaterials that replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Cell-laden hydrogel systems have emerged as a promising tissue

  19. Direct Numerical Simulations of Particle-Laden Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebakumar, Anand Samuel; Premnath, Kannan; Abraham, John

    2017-11-01

    In a recent experimental study, Lau and Nathan (2014) reported that the distribution of particles in a turbulent pipe flow is strongly influenced by the Stokes number (St). At St lower than 1, particles migrate toward the wall and at St greater than 10 they tend to migrate toward the axis. It was suggested that this preferential migration of particles is due to two forces, the Saffman lift force and the turbophoretic force. Saffman lift force represents a force acting on the particle as a result of a velocity gradient across the particle when it leads or lags the fluid flow. Turbophoretic force is induced by turbulence which tends to move the particle in the direction of decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is employed to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). We find that the preferential migration is a function of particle size in addition to the St. We explain the effect of the particle size and St on the Saffman lift force and turbophoresis and present how this affects particle concentration at different conditions.

  20. Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

  1. Splash Dynamics of Falling Surfactant-Laden Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nur; Buitrago, Lewis; Pereyra, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Splashing dynamics is a common issue in oil and gas separation technology. In this study, droplet impact of various surfactant concentrations onto solid and liquid surfaces is studied experimentally using a high-speed imaging analysis. Although this area has been widely studied in the past, there is still not a good understanding of the role of surfactant over droplet impact and characterization of resulting splash dynamics. The experiments are conducted using tap water laden with anionic surfactant. The effects of system parameters on a single droplet impingement such as surfactant concentration (no surfactant, below, at and above critical micelle concentration), parent drop diameter (2-5mm), impact velocity and type of impact surface (thin and deep pool) are investigated. Image analysis technique is shown to be an effective technique for identification of coalescence to splashing transition. In addition, daughter droplets size distributions are analyzed qualitatively in the events of splashing. As expected, it is observed that the formation of secondary droplets is affected by the surfactant concentration. A summary of findings will be discussed.

  2. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  3. Finding Emotional-Laden Resources on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rasmussen Neal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some content in multimedia resources can depict or evoke certain emotions in users. The aim of Emotional Information Retrieval (EmIR and of our research is to identify knowledge about emotional-laden documents and to use these findings in a new kind of World Wide Web information service that allows users to search and browse by emotion. Our prototype, called Media EMOtion SEarch (MEMOSE, is largely based on the results of research regarding emotive music pieces, images and videos. In order to index both evoked and depicted emotions in these three media types and to make them searchable, we work with a controlled vocabulary, slide controls to adjust the emotions’ intensities, and broad folksonomies to identify and separate the correct resource-specific emotions. This separation of so-called power tags is based on a tag distribution which follows either an inverse power law (only one emotion was recognized or an inverse-logistical shape (two or three emotions were recognized. Both distributions are well known in information science. MEMOSE consists of a tool for tagging basic emotions with the help of slide controls, a processing device to separate power tags, a retrieval component consisting of a search interface (for any topic in combination with one or more emotions and a results screen. The latter shows two separately ranked lists of items for each media type (depicted and felt emotions, displaying thumbnails of resources, ranked by the mean values of intensity. In the evaluation of the MEMOSE prototype, study participants described our EmIR system as an enjoyable Web 2.0 service.

  4. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1 emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2 larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3 negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170 and late (LPC stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100. The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed.

  5. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1) emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2) larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3) negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC) on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170) and late (LPC) stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC) while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100). The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed.

  6. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical...

  7. Direct numerical simulation of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael S.

    Interaction of liquid droplets with turbulence is important in numerous applications ranging from rain formation to oil spills to spray combustion. The physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction are largely unknown, especially when compared to that of solid particles. Compared to solid particles, droplets can deform, break up, coalesce and have internal fluid circulation. The main goal of this work is to investigate using direct numerical simulation (DNS) the physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction, both for non-evaporating and evaporating droplets. To achieve this objective, we develop and couple a new pressure-correction method with the volume-of-fluid (VoF) method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation. This equation can then be solved directly using, e.g., the FFT-based parallel Poisson solver. For a 10243 mesh, our new pressure-correction method using a fast Poisson solver is ten to forty times faster than the standard pressure-correction method using multigrid. Using the coupled pressure-correction and VoF method, we perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 3130 finite-size, non-evaporating droplets of diameter approximately equal to the Taylor lengthscale and with 5% droplet volume fraction in decaying isotropic turbulence at initial Taylor-scale Reynolds number Relambda = 83. In the droplet-laden cases, we vary one of the following three parameters: the droplet Weber number based on the r.m.s. velocity of turbulence (0.1 ≤ Werms ≤ 5), the droplet- to carrier-fluid density ratio (1 ≤ rhod/rho c ≤ 100) or the droplet- to carrier-fluid viscosity ratio (1 ≤ mud/muc ≤ 100). We derive the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) equations for the two-fluid, carrier-fluid and droplet-fluid flow. These equations allow

  8. Direct-write Bioprinting of Cell-laden Methacrylated Gelatin Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz E.; Cardoso, Juliana C.; Manoharan, Vijayan; Cristino, Ana L.; Bhise, Nupura S.; Araujo, Wesleyan A.; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal E.; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of three dimensional (3D) organoids with controlled microarchitectures has been shown to enhance tissue functionality. Bioprinting can be used to precisely position cells and cell-laden materials to generate controlled tissue architecture. Therefore, it represents an exciting alternative for organ fabrication. Despite the rapid progress in the field, the development of printing processes that can be used to fabricate macroscale tissue constructs from ECM-derived hydrogels has remained a challenge. Here we report a strategy for bioprinting of photolabile cell-laden methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels. We bioprinted cell-laden GelMA at concentrations ranging from 7 to 15% with varying cell densities and found a direct correlation between printability and the hydrogel mechanical properties. Furthermore, encapsulated HepG2 cells preserved cell viability for at least 8 days following the bioprinting process. In summary, this work presents a strategy for direct-write bioprinting of a cell-laden photolabile ECM-derived hydrogel, which may find widespread application for tissue engineering, organ printing and the development of 3D drug discovery platforms. PMID:24695367

  9. Direct-write bioprinting of cell-laden methacrylated gelatin hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertassoni, Luiz E; Cardoso, Juliana C; Manoharan, Vijayan; Cristino, Ana L; Bhise, Nupura S; Araujo, Wesleyan A; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal E; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of three dimensional (3D) organoids with controlled microarchitectures has been shown to enhance tissue functionality. Bioprinting can be used to precisely position cells and cell-laden materials to generate controlled tissue architecture. Therefore, it represents an exciting alternative for organ fabrication. Despite the rapid progress in the field, the development of printing processes that can be used to fabricate macroscale tissue constructs from ECM-derived hydrogels has remained a challenge. Here we report a strategy for bioprinting of photolabile cell-laden methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels. We bioprinted cell-laden GelMA at concentrations ranging from 7 to 15% with varying cell densities and found a direct correlation between printability and the hydrogel mechanical properties. Furthermore, encapsulated HepG2 cells preserved cell viability for at least eight days following the bioprinting process. In summary, this work presents a strategy for direct-write bioprinting of a cell-laden photolabile ECM-derived hydrogel, which may find widespread application for tissue engineering, organ printing and the development of 3D drug discovery platforms. (paper)

  10. Direct-write bioprinting of cell-laden methacrylated gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz E; Cardoso, Juliana C; Manoharan, Vijayan; Cristino, Ana L; Bhise, Nupura S; Araujo, Wesleyan A; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal E; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Fabrication of three dimensional (3D) organoids with controlled microarchitectures has been shown to enhance tissue functionality. Bioprinting can be used to precisely position cells and cell-laden materials to generate controlled tissue architecture. Therefore, it represents an exciting alternative for organ fabrication. Despite the rapid progress in the field, the development of printing processes that can be used to fabricate macroscale tissue constructs from ECM-derived hydrogels has remained a challenge. Here we report a strategy for bioprinting of photolabile cell-laden methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels. We bioprinted cell-laden GelMA at concentrations ranging from 7 to 15% with varying cell densities and found a direct correlation between printability and the hydrogel mechanical properties. Furthermore, encapsulated HepG2 cells preserved cell viability for at least eight days following the bioprinting process. In summary, this work presents a strategy for direct-write bioprinting of a cell-laden photolabile ECM-derived hydrogel, which may find widespread application for tissue engineering, organ printing and the development of 3D drug discovery platforms.

  11. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  12. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  13. The early identification of anxiety-laden material with the aid of skin conductance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, H R

    1979-01-01

    Measured electrodermal responses (EDR), in the form of changes in skin conductivity, during administration of a calibration questionnaire (CQ) and a personal history questionnaire (PHQ) to each of 25 Ss. "Strong" changes were defined statistically for each S from the amplitudes of EDR evoked by the CQ. The free-floating anxiety of each S also was measured. As predicted on the grounds that questions of the PHQ were more likely than the non-personal questions of the CQ to intersect unresolved, anxiety-laden material, it was found that strong EDR evoked by the PHQ were significantly more likely to perseverate than those evoked by the CQ. Hence, the technique has potential clinical use in identifying anxiety-laden material. Free-floating anxiety did not correlate significantly with EDR data.

  14. Analysis of metal-laden water via portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Delaina; Weindorf, David C.; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Li, Bin; Koch, Jaco; Van Deventer, Piet; de Wet, Jandre; Kusi, Nana Yaw

    2018-06-01

    A rapid method for in-situ elemental composition analysis of metal-laden water would be indispensable for studying polluted water. Current analytical lab methods to determine water quality include flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (EAAS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. However only two field methods, colorimetry and absorptiometry, exist for elemental analysis of water. Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry is an effective method for elemental analysis of soil, sediment, and other matrices. However, the accuracy of PXRF is known to be affected while scanning moisture-laden soil samples. This study sought to statistically establish PXRF's predictive ability for various elements in water at different concentrations relative to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). A total of 390 metal-laden water samples collected from leaching columns of mine tailings in South Africa were analyzed via PXRF and ICP-AES. The PXRF showed differential effectiveness in elemental quantification. For the collected water samples, the best relationships between ICP and PXRF elemental data were obtained for K and Cu (R2 = 0.92). However, when scanning ICP calibration solutions with elements in isolation, PXRF results indicated near perfect agreement; Ca, K, Fe, Cu and Pb produced an R2 of 0.99 while Zn and Mn produced an R2 of 1.00. The utilization of multiple PXRF (stacked) beams produced stronger correlation to ICP relative to the use of a single beam in isolation. The results of this study demonstrated the PXRF's ability to satisfactorily predict the composition of metal-laden water as reported by ICP for several elements. Additionally this study indicated the need for a "Water Mode" calibration for the PXRF and demonstrates the potential of PXRF for future study of polluted or contaminated waters.

  15. Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levato, Riccardo; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Visser, Jetze; Malda, Jos; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting allows the fabrication of living constructs with custom-made architectures by spatially controlled deposition of multiple bioinks. This is important for the generation of tissue, such as osteochondral tissue, which displays a zonal composition in the cartilage domain supported by the underlying subchondral bone. Challenges in fabricating functional grafts of clinically relevant size include the incorporation of cues to guide specific cell differentiation and the generation of sufficient cells, which is hard to obtain with conventional cell culture techniques. A novel strategy to address these demands is to combine bioprinting with microcarrier technology. This technology allows for the extensive expansion of cells, while they form multi-cellular aggregates, and their phenotype can be controlled. In this work, living constructs were fabricated via bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-laden polylactic acid microcarriers, obtained via static culture or spinner flask expansion, were encapsulated in gelatin methacrylamide-gellan gum bioinks, and the printability of the composite material was studied. This bioprinting approach allowed for the fabrication of constructs with high cell concentration and viability. Microcarrier encapsulation improved the compressive modulus of the hydrogel constructs, facilitated cell adhesion, and supported osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix deposition by MSCs. Bilayered osteochondral models were fabricated using microcarrier-laden bioink for the bone compartment. These findings underscore the potential of this new microcarrier-based biofabrication approach for bone and osteochondral constructs. (paper)

  16. Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levato, Riccardo; Visser, Jetze; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Malda, Jos; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2014-09-01

    Bioprinting allows the fabrication of living constructs with custom-made architectures by spatially controlled deposition of multiple bioinks. This is important for the generation of tissue, such as osteochondral tissue, which displays a zonal composition in the cartilage domain supported by the underlying subchondral bone. Challenges in fabricating functional grafts of clinically relevant size include the incorporation of cues to guide specific cell differentiation and the generation of sufficient cells, which is hard to obtain with conventional cell culture techniques. A novel strategy to address these demands is to combine bioprinting with microcarrier technology. This technology allows for the extensive expansion of cells, while they form multi-cellular aggregates, and their phenotype can be controlled. In this work, living constructs were fabricated via bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-laden polylactic acid microcarriers, obtained via static culture or spinner flask expansion, were encapsulated in gelatin methacrylamide-gellan gum bioinks, and the printability of the composite material was studied. This bioprinting approach allowed for the fabrication of constructs with high cell concentration and viability. Microcarrier encapsulation improved the compressive modulus of the hydrogel constructs, facilitated cell adhesion, and supported osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix deposition by MSCs. Bilayered osteochondral models were fabricated using microcarrier-laden bioink for the bone compartment. These findings underscore the potential of this new microcarrier-based biofabrication approach for bone and osteochondral constructs.

  17. A Level-set based framework for viscous simulation of particle-laden supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pratik; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Particle-laden supersonic flows are important in natural and industrial processes, such as, volcanic eruptions, explosions, pneumatic conveyance of particle in material processing etc. Numerical study of such high-speed particle laden flows at the mesoscale calls for a numerical framework which allows simulation of supersonic flow around multiple moving solid objects. Only a few efforts have been made toward development of numerical frameworks for viscous simulation of particle-fluid interaction in supersonic flow regime. The current work presents a Cartesian grid based sharp-interface method for viscous simulations of interaction between supersonic flow with moving rigid particles. The no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the solid-fluid interfaces using a modified ghost fluid method (GFM). The current method is validated against the similarity solution of compressible boundary layer over flat-plate and benchmark numerical solution for steady supersonic flow over cylinder. Further validation is carried out against benchmark numerical results for shock induced lift-off of a cylinder in a shock tube. 3D simulation of steady supersonic flow over sphere is performed to compare the numerically obtained drag co-efficient with experimental results. A particle-resolved viscous simulation of shock interaction with a cloud of particles is performed to demonstrate that the current method is suitable for large-scale particle resolved simulations of particle-laden supersonic flows.

  18. Drug-laden 3D biodegradable label using QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jie; Liu, Ran

    2016-06-01

    Wiping out counterfeit drugs is a great task for public health care around the world. The boost of these drugs makes treatment to become potentially harmful or even lethal. In this paper, biodegradable drug-laden QR code label for anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide the non-fluorescence recognition and high capacity. It is fabricated by the laser cutting to achieve the roughness over different surface which causes the difference in the gray levels on the translucent material the QR code pattern, and the micro mold process to obtain the drug-laden biodegradable label. We screened biomaterials presenting the relevant conditions and further requirements of the package. The drug-laden microlabel is on the surface of the troches or the bottom of the capsule and can be read by a simple smartphone QR code reader application. Labeling the pill directly and decoding the information successfully means more convenient and simple operation with non-fluorescence and high capacity in contrast to the traditional methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  20. Effect of surfactant chain length on drug release kinetics from microemulsion-laden contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Desai, Ankita R; Choksi, Harsh H; Patil, Rahul J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-05-30

    The effect of surfactant chain lengths [sodium caprylate (C 8 ), Tween 20 (C 12 ), Tween 80 (C 18 )] and the molecular weight of block copolymers [Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F 127] were studied to determine the stability of the microemulsion and its effect on release kinetics from cyclosporine-loaded microemulsion-laden hydrogel contact lenses in this work. Globule size and dilution tests (transmittance) suggested that the stability of the microemulsion increases with increase in the carbon chain lengths of surfactants and the molecular weight of pluronics. The optical transmittance of direct drug-laden contact lenses [DL-100] was low due to the precipitation of hydrophobic drugs in the lenses, while in microemulsion-laden lenses, the transmittance was improved when stability of the microemulsion was achieved. The results of in vitro release kinetics revealed that drug release was sustained to a greater extent as the stability of microemulsion was improved as well. This was evident in batch PF127-T80, which showed sustained release for 15days in comparison to batch DL-100, which showed release up to 7days. An in vivo drug release study in rabbit tear fluid showed significant increase in mean residence time (MRT) and area under curve (AUC) with PF-127-T80 lenses (stable microemulsion) in comparison to PF-68-SC lenses (unstable microemulsion) and DL-100 lenses. This study revealed the correlation between the stability of microemulsion and the release kinetics of drugs from contact lenses. Thus, it was inferred that the stable microemulsion batches sustained the release of hydrophobic drugs, such as cyclosporine from contact lenses for an extended period of time without altering critical lens properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell-laden hybrid scaffold for regenerating subacute tympanic membrane perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Chul Ho, E-mail: chulsavio@hanmail.net [Department of Otolaryngology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, SeungHyun [Department of Biomechatronic Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Whi; Lee, Byeong Ha [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeongjin [Department of Biomechatronic Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, GeunHyung, E-mail: gkimbme@skku.edu [Department of Biomechatronic Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is one of the most common otology complications. To date, there has not been reported TM regeneration using bioprinted scaffold. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of bioprinted polycaprolactone/collagen/alginate-mesenchymal stem cell (PCAMSC) scaffolds for the regeneration of subacute TM perforation. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in an animal model of subacute TM perforation. In the experimental group (n = 7), bioprinted 3D PCAMSC scaffold was placed on the perforation. The control group (n = 7) were treated with polycaprolactone/collagen/alginate (PCA) scaffold. Healing time, acoustic-mechanical properties, and morphological analysis were performed by otoendoscopy, auditory brainstem response (ABR), single-point laser doppler vibrometer (LDV), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and light microscopic evaluation. The closure of the TM perforation was achieved in 100% of the experimental group vs. 72% of the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ABR threshold at all frequencies of the experimental group was recovered to the normal level compared to the control group. TM vibration velocity in the experimental group recovered similar to the normal control level. The difference are very small and they are not statistically significant below 1 kHz (p = 0.074). By OCT and light microscopic examination, regenerated TM of the experimental group showed thickened fibrous and mucosal layer. In contrast, the control group showed well regenerated but less thickened than experimental group. From these results, the cell-laden PCAMSC scaffold offers a significant advantage in the TM regeneration in a rat subacute TM perforation model. It may offer attractive opportunities in the conservative clinical treatment. - Highlights: • MSCs-laden scaffold was fabricated using a centrifugal spinning and cell-printing process. • The cell-laden scaffold showed the outstanding

  2. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell-laden hybrid scaffold for regenerating subacute tympanic membrane perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Chul Ho; Ahn, SeungHyun; Lee, Jae Whi; Lee, Byeong Ha; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is one of the most common otology complications. To date, there has not been reported TM regeneration using bioprinted scaffold. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of bioprinted polycaprolactone/collagen/alginate-mesenchymal stem cell (PCAMSC) scaffolds for the regeneration of subacute TM perforation. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in an animal model of subacute TM perforation. In the experimental group (n = 7), bioprinted 3D PCAMSC scaffold was placed on the perforation. The control group (n = 7) were treated with polycaprolactone/collagen/alginate (PCA) scaffold. Healing time, acoustic-mechanical properties, and morphological analysis were performed by otoendoscopy, auditory brainstem response (ABR), single-point laser doppler vibrometer (LDV), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and light microscopic evaluation. The closure of the TM perforation was achieved in 100% of the experimental group vs. 72% of the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ABR threshold at all frequencies of the experimental group was recovered to the normal level compared to the control group. TM vibration velocity in the experimental group recovered similar to the normal control level. The difference are very small and they are not statistically significant below 1 kHz (p = 0.074). By OCT and light microscopic examination, regenerated TM of the experimental group showed thickened fibrous and mucosal layer. In contrast, the control group showed well regenerated but less thickened than experimental group. From these results, the cell-laden PCAMSC scaffold offers a significant advantage in the TM regeneration in a rat subacute TM perforation model. It may offer attractive opportunities in the conservative clinical treatment. - Highlights: • MSCs-laden scaffold was fabricated using a centrifugal spinning and cell-printing process. • The cell-laden scaffold showed the outstanding

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  6. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; H?gg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; K?lby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- ? 5- ? 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/...

  7. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  10. Iterative feedback bio-printing-derived cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with optimal geometrical fidelity and cellular controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Ming-En; Luo, Li; Zhou, Yongyong; Si, Peijian

    2018-02-12

    For three-dimensional bio-printed cell-laden hydrogel tissue constructs, the well-designed internal porous geometry is tailored to obtain the desired structural and cellular properties. However, significant differences often exist between the designed and as-printed scaffolds because of the inherent characteristics of hydrogels and cells. In this study, an iterative feedback bio-printing (IFBP) approach based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the fabrication of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with optimal geometrical fidelity and cellular controllability was proposed. A custom-made swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system was applied to characterize the printed scaffolds quantitatively. Based on the obtained empirical linear formula from the first experimental feedback loop, we defined the most appropriate design constraints and optimized the printing process to improve the geometrical fidelity. The effectiveness of IFBP was verified from the second run using gelatin/alginate hydrogel scaffolds laden with C3A cells. The mismatch of the morphological parameters greatly decreased from 40% to within 7%, which significantly optimized the cell viability, proliferation, and morphology, as well as the representative expression of hepatocyte markers, including CYP3A4 and albumin, of the printed cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds. The demonstrated protocol paves the way for the mass fabrication of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, engineered tissues, and scaled-up applications of the 3D bio-printing technique.

  11. Spinel formation for stabilizing simulated nickel-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O

    2006-08-15

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge from commonly available Al-rich ceramic precursors was investigated and accomplished with high nickel incorporation efficiency. To simulate the process, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, corundum, kaolinite, and mullite and was sintered from 800 to 1480 degrees C. The nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O4) was confirmed as the stabilization phase for nickel and crystallized with efficiencies greater than 90% for all precursors above 1250 degrees C and 3-h sintering. The nickel-incorporation reaction pathways with these precursors were identified, and the microstructure and spinel yield were investigated as a function of sintering temperature with fixed sintering time. This study has demonstrated a promising process for forming nickel spinel to stabilize nickel-laden sludge from a wide range of inexpensive ceramic precursors, which may provide an avenue for economically blending waste metal sludges via the building industry processes to reduce the environmental hazards of toxic metals. The correlation of product textures and nickel incorporation efficiencies through selection of different precursors also provides the option of tailoring property-specific products.

  12. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-05-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  13. Contact assembly of cell-laden hollow microtubes through automated micromanipulator tip locating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huaping; Shi, Qing; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yanan; Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an automated contact assembly method to fabricate a cell-laden microtube based on accurate locating of the micromanipulator tip. Essential for delivering nutrients in thick engineered tissues, a vessel-mimetic microtube can be precisely assembled through microrobotic contact biomanipulation. The biomanipulation is a technique to spatially order and immobilize cellular targets with high precision. However, due to image occlusion during contact, it is challenging to locate the micromanipulator tip for fully automated assembly. To achieve pixel-wise tracking and locating of the tip in contact, a particle filter algorithm integrated with a determined level set model is employed here. The model ensures precise convergence of the micromanipulator’s contour during occlusion. With the converged active contour, the algorithm is able to pixel-wisely separate the micromanipulator from the low-contrast background and precisely locate the tip with error around 1 pixel (2 µ m at 4  ×  magnification). As a result, the cell-laden microtube is automatically assembled at six layers/min, which is effective enough to fabricate vessel-mimetic constructs for vascularization in tissue engineering. (paper)

  14. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-02-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  15. Influence of lubrication forces in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitri, Rohit; Peters, Frank; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Accurate numerical representation of particle-laden flows is important for fundamental understanding and optimizing the complex processes such as proppant transport in fracking. Liquid-solid flows are fundamentally different from gas-solid flows because of lower density ratios (solid to fluid) and non-negligible lubrication forces. In this interface resolved model, fluid-solid coupling is achieved by incorporating the no-slip boundary condition implicitly at particle's surfaces by means of an efficient second order ghost-cell immersed boundary method. A fixed Eulerian grid is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle-particle interactions are implemented using the soft sphere collision and sub-grid scale lubrication model. Due to the range of influence of lubrication force on a smaller scale than the grid size, it is important to implement the lubrication model accurately. In this work, different implementations of the lubrication model on particle dynamics are studied for various flow conditions. The effect of a particle surface roughness on lubrication force and the particle transport is also investigated. This study is aimed at developing a validated methodology to incorporate lubrication models in direct numerical simulation of particle laden flows. This research is supported from Grant 13CSER014 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  16. Rapid Fabrication of Cell-Laden Alginate Hydrogel 3D Structures by Micro Dip-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh Tabriz, Atabak; Mills, Christopher G; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A; Shu, Wenmiao

    2017-01-01

    Development of a simple, straightforward 3D fabrication method to culture cells in 3D, without relying on any complex fabrication methods, remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe a new technique that allows fabrication of scalable 3D cell-laden hydrogel structures easily, without complex machinery: the technique can be done using only apparatus already available in a typical cell biology laboratory. The fabrication method involves micro dip-coating of cell-laden hydrogels covering the surface of a metal bar, into the cross-linking reagents calcium chloride or barium chloride to form hollow tubular structures. This method can be used to form single layers with thickness ranging from 126 to 220 µm or multilayered tubular structures. This fabrication method uses alginate hydrogel as the primary biomaterial and a secondary biomaterial can be added depending on the desired application. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method, with survival rate over 75% immediately after fabrication and normal responsiveness of cells within these tubular structures using mouse dermal embryonic fibroblast cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells containing a tetracycline-responsive, red fluorescent protein (tHEK cells).

  17. Perfusion directed 3D mineral formation within cell-laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Stephen William; Shridhar, Shivkumar Vishnempet; Zhang, Kairui; Albrecht, Lucas; Filip, Alex; Horton, Jason; Soman, Pranav

    2018-06-08

    Despite the promise of stem cell engineering and the new advances in bioprinting technologies, one of the major challenges in the manufacturing of large scale bone tissue scaffolds is the inability to perfuse nutrients throughout thick constructs. Here, we report a scalable method to create thick, perfusable bone constructs using a combination of cell-laden hydrogels and a 3D printed sacrificial polymer. Osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were encapsulated within a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel and 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) pipes were used to create perfusable channels. A custom-built bioreactor was used to perfuse osteogenic media directly through the channels in order to induce mineral deposition which was subsequently quantified via microCT. Histological staining was used to verify mineral deposition around the perfused channels, while COMSOL modeling was used to simulate oxygen diffusion between adjacent channels. This information was used to design a scaled-up construct containing a 3D array of perfusable channels within cell-laden GelMA. Progressive matrix mineralization was observed by cells surrounding perfused channels as opposed to random mineral deposition in static constructs. MicroCT confirmed that there was a direct relationship between channel mineralization within perfused constructs and time within the bioreactor. Furthermore, the scalable method presented in this work serves as a model on how large-scale bone tissue replacement constructs could be made using commonly available 3D printers, sacrificial materials, and hydrogels. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Uncertainty quantification in Eulerian-Lagrangian models for particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Vasileios; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, Hs

    2017-11-01

    A common approach to ameliorate the computational burden in simulations of particle-laden flows is to use a point-particle based Eulerian-Lagrangian model, which traces individual particles in their Lagrangian frame and models particles as mathematical points. The particle motion is determined by Stokes drag law, which is empirically corrected for Reynolds number, Mach number and other parameters. The empirical corrections are subject to uncertainty. Treating them as random variables renders the coupled system of PDEs and ODEs stochastic. An approach to quantify the propagation of this parametric uncertainty to the particle solution variables is proposed. The approach is based on averaging of the governing equations and allows for estimation of the first moments of the quantities of interest. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed methodology of uncertainty quantification of particle-laden flows on one-dimensional linear and nonlinear Eulerian-Lagrangian systems. This research is supported by AFOSR under Grant FA9550-16-1-0008.

  19. Hydrogel-laden paper scaffold system for origami-based tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Lee, Hak Rae; Yu, Seung Jung; Han, Min-Eui; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Han, Mi-Jung; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kwon, Seong Keun; Im, Sung Gap; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we present a method for assembling biofunctionalized paper into a multiform structured scaffold system for reliable tissue regeneration using an origami-based approach. The surface of a paper was conformally modified with a poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) layer via initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by the immobilization of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and deposition of Ca(2+). This procedure ensures the formation of alginate hydrogel on the paper due to Ca(2+) diffusion. Furthermore, strong adhesion of the alginate hydrogel on the paper onto the paper substrate was achieved due to an electrostatic interaction between the alginate and PLL. The developed scaffold system was versatile and allowed area-selective cell seeding. Also, the hydrogel-laden paper could be folded freely into 3D tissue-like structures using a simple origami-based method. The cylindrically constructed paper scaffold system with chondrocytes was applied into a three-ring defect trachea in rabbits. The transplanted engineered tissues replaced the native trachea without stenosis after 4 wks. As for the custom-built scaffold system, the hydrogel-laden paper system will provide a robust and facile method for the formation of tissues mimicking native tissue constructs.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of particle and fluid velocities in particle-laden flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, D. X.; Lee, D. Y.

    2009-01-01

    For the velocity measurement in a particle-laden fluid flow, the fluid velocity and the inherently dispersed particle velocity can be analyzed by using PIV and PTV, respectively. Since the PIV result statistically represents the average displacement of all the particles in a PIV image, it is inevitable that the PIV result includes the influence of the dispersed particles' displacement if a single CCD camera is used to simultaneously measure the fluid velocity and the dispersed particle velocity. The influence of dispersed particles should be excluded before the PIV analysis in order to evaluate the fluid velocity accurately. In this study, the optimum replacement brightness of dispersed particles to minimize the false influence of dispersed particles on the PIV analysis was theoretically derived. Simulation results show that the modification of dispersed particle brightness can significantly reduce the PIV error caused by the dispersed particles. This modification method was also verified in the analysis of an actual experimental case of the particle-laden fluid flow in a triangular grooved channel

  1. Heat transfer in droplet-laden turbulent channel flow with phase transition in the presence of a thin film of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhvostova, A.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Grigoriadis, D.G.E.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, H.; Fröhlich, J.; Armenio, V.

    2018-01-01

    In the field of multiphase systems droplet-laden channel flow presents a challenging topic not only because of how turbulent flow influences the mass and heat transfer properties of droplets but also how droplets modulate the flow. In this contribution we focus on droplet-laden turbulent channel

  2. Metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in copper-laden rat: A model of Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, T.O.; Pendrak, M.L.; Anast, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Wilson's disease results in excess tissue accumulation of copper and is often complicated by skeletal and mineral abnormalities. The authors investigated vitamin D metabolism in rats fed a copper-laden diet rendering hepatic copper content comparable with that found in Wilson's disease. Injection of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D 3 ] resulted in reduced 1,25--dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] levels in copper-intoxicated rats. In vitro 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase activity was impaired in renal mitochondria from copper-intoxicated animals. Activity was also inhibited in mitochondrial from controls when copper was added to incubation media. Impaired conversion of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2 D occurs in copper intoxication and suggests that altered vitamin D metabolism is a potential factor in the development of bone and mineral abnormalities in Wilson's disease

  3. Bioprinting Using Mechanically Robust Core-Shell Cell-Laden Hydrogel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pritesh; Aied, Ahmed; Alexander, Morgan; Shakesheff, Kevin; Bennett, Andrew; Yang, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The strand material in extrusion-based bioprinting determines the microenvironments of the embedded cells and the initial mechanical properties of the constructs. One unmet challenge is the combination of optimal biological and mechanical properties in bioprinted constructs. Here, a novel bioprinting method that utilizes core-shell cell-laden strands with a mechanically robust shell and an extracellular matrix-like core has been developed. Cells encapsulated in the strands demonstrate high cell viability and tissue-like functions during cultivation. This process of bioprinting using core-shell strands with optimal biochemical and biomechanical properties represents a new strategy for fabricating functional human tissues and organs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A simple dynamic subgrid-scale model for LES of particle-laden turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, George Ilhwan; Bassenne, Maxime; Urzay, Javier; Moin, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a dynamic model for large-eddy simulations is proposed in order to describe the motion of small inertial particles in turbulent flows. The model is simple, involves no significant computational overhead, contains no adjustable parameters, and is flexible enough to be deployed in any type of flow solvers and grids, including unstructured setups. The approach is based on the use of elliptic differential filters to model the subgrid-scale velocity. The only model parameter, which is related to the nominal filter width, is determined dynamically by imposing consistency constraints on the estimated subgrid energetics. The performance of the model is tested in large-eddy simulations of homogeneous-isotropic turbulence laden with particles, where improved agreement with direct numerical simulation results is observed in the dispersed-phase statistics, including particle acceleration, local carrier-phase velocity, and preferential-concentration metrics.

  5. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  6. Engineering cartilaginous grafts using chondrocyte-laden hydrogels supported by a superficial layer of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesallati, Tariq; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    During postnatal joint development, progenitor cells that reside in the superficial region of articular cartilage first drive the rapid growth of the tissue and later help direct the formation of mature hyaline cartilage. These developmental processes may provide directions for the optimal structuring of co-cultured chondrocytes (CCs) and multipotent stromal/stem cells (MSCs) required for engineering cartilaginous tissues. The objective of this study was to engineer cartilage grafts by recapitulating aspects of joint development where a population of superficial progenitor cells drives the development of the tissue. To this end, MSCs were either self-assembled on top of CC-laden agarose gels (structured co-culture) or were mixed with CCs before being embedded in an agarose hydrogel (mixed co-culture). Porcine infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) were used as sources of progenitor cells. The DNA, sGAG and collagen content of a mixed co-culture of FPSCs and CCs was found to be lower than the combined content of two control hydrogels seeded with CCs and FPSCs only. In contrast, a mixed co-culture of BMSCs and CCs led to increased proliferation and sGAG and collagen accumulation. Of note was the finding that a structured co-culture, at the appropriate cell density, led to greater sGAG accumulation than a mixed co-culture for both MSC sources. In conclusion, assembling MSCs onto CC-laden hydrogels dramatically enhances the development of the engineered tissue, with the superficial layer of progenitor cells driving CC proliferation and cartilage ECM production, mimicking certain aspects of developing cartilage. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery.

  8. BCG vaccine powder-laden and dissolvable microneedle arrays for lesion-free vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Yan, Qinying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Mei X

    2017-06-10

    Live attenuated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) bacillus is the only licensed vaccine for tuberculosis prevention worldwide to date. It must be delivered intradermally to be effective, which causes severe skin inflammation and sometimes, permanent scars. To minimize the side effects, we developed a novel microneedle array (MNA) that could deliver live attenuated freeze-dried BCG powder into the epidermis in a painless, lesion-free, and self-applicable fashion. The MNA was fabricated with biocompatible and dissolvable hyaluronic acid with a deep cave formed in the basal portion of each microneedle, into which BCG powder could be packaged directly. Viability of BCG vaccine packaged in the caves and the mechanical strength of the powder-laden MNA did not alter significantly before and after more than two months of storage at room temperature. Following insertion of the MNA into the skin, individual microneedle shafts melted away by interstitial fluid from the epidermis and upper dermis, exposing the powder to epidermal tissues. The powder sucked interstitial fluid, dissolved slowly, and diffused into the epidermis in a day against the interstitial fluid influx. Vaccination with BCG-MNA caused no overt skin irritation, in marked contrast to intradermal vaccination that provoked severe inflammation and bruise. While causing little skin irritation, vaccination efficacy of BCG-MNAs was comparable to that of intradermal immunization whether it was evaluated by humoral or cellular immunity. This powder-laden and dissolvable MNA represents a novel technology to sufficiently deliver live attenuated vaccine powders into the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of three-dimensional porous cell-laden hydrogel for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chang Mo; Sant, Shilpa; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Zamanian, Behnam; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For tissue engineering applications, scaffolds should be porous to enable rapid nutrient and oxygen transfer while providing a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for the encapsulated cells. This dual characteristic can be achieved by fabrication of porous hydrogels that contain encapsulated cells. In this work, we developed a simple method that allows cell encapsulation and pore generation inside alginate hydrogels simultaneously. Gelatin beads of 150-300 μm diameter were used as a sacrificial porogen for generating pores within cell-laden hydrogels. Gelation of gelatin at low temperature (4 0 C) was used to form beads without chemical crosslinking and their subsequent dissolution after cell encapsulation led to generation of pores within cell-laden hydrogels. The pore size and porosity of the scaffolds were controlled by the gelatin bead size and their volume ratio, respectively. Fabricated hydrogels were characterized for their internal microarchitecture, mechanical properties and permeability. Hydrogels exhibited a high degree of porosity with increasing gelatin bead content in contrast to nonporous alginate hydrogel. Furthermore, permeability increased by two to three orders while compressive modulus decreased with increasing porosity of the scaffolds. Application of these scaffolds for tissue engineering was tested by encapsulation of hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). All the scaffolds showed similar cell viability; however, cell proliferation was enhanced under porous conditions. Furthermore, porous alginate hydrogels resulted in formation of larger spheroids and higher albumin secretion compared to nonporous conditions. These data suggest that porous alginate hydrogels may have provided a better environment for cell proliferation and albumin production. This may be due to the enhanced mass transfer of nutrients, oxygen and waste removal, which is potentially beneficial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  10. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2017-07-01

    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation. Tissue repair requires temporally controlled presentation of potent proteins. Recently, biomaterial-mediated binding (sequestration) of cell-secreted proteins has emerged as a strategy to harness the regenerative potential of naturally produced proteins, but this strategy currently only allows immediate amplification and re-delivery of these signals. The multifunctional, dynamic

  11. Michael Jackson, Bin Laden and I: functions of positive and negative, public and private flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.

  12. Putting emotions in routes: the influence of emotionally laden landmarks on spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotolo, F; Claessen, M H G; van der Ham, I J M

    2018-04-16

    The aim of this study was to assess how people memorize spatial information of emotionally laden landmarks along a route and if the emotional value of the landmarks affects the way metric and configurational properties of the route itself are represented. Three groups of participants were asked to watch a movie of a virtual walk along a route. The route could contain positive, negative, or neutral landmarks. Afterwards, participants were asked to: (a) recognize the landmarks; (b) imagine to walk distances between landmarks; (c) indicate the position of the landmarks along the route; (d) judge the length of the route; (e) draw the route. Results showed that participants who watched the route with positive landmarks were more accurate in locating the landmarks along the route and drawing the route. On the other hand, participants in the negative condition judged the route as longer than participants in the other two conditions and were less accurate in mentally reproducing distances between landmarks. The data will be interpreted in the light of the "feelings-as-information theory" by Schwarz (2010) and the most recent evidence about the effect of emotions on spatial memory. In brief, the evidence collected in this study supports the idea that spatial cognition emerges from the interaction between an organism and contextual characteristics.

  13. Managing the potential risks of using bacteria-laden water in mineral processing to protect freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue

    2013-06-18

    The minerals industry is being driven to access multiple water sources and increase water reuse to minimize freshwater withdrawal. Bacteria-laden water, such as treated effluent, has been increasingly used as an alternative to freshwater for mineral processing, in particular flotation, where conditions are favorable for bacterial growth. However, the risk posed by bacteria to flotation efficiency is poorly understood. This could be a barrier to the ongoing use of this water source. This study tested the potential of a previously published risk-based approach as a management tool to both assist mine sites in quantifying the risk from bacteria, and finding system-wide cost-effective solutions for risk mitigation. The result shows that the solution of adjusting the flotation chemical regime could only partly control the risk. The second solution of using tailings as an absorbent was shown to be effective in the laboratory in reducing bacterial concentration and thus removing the threat to flotation recovery. The best solution is likely to combine internal and external approaches, that is, inside and outside processing plants. Findings in this study contribute possible methods applicable to managing the risk from water-borne bacteria to plant operations that choose to use bacteria-containing water, when attempting to minimize freshwater use, and avoiding the undesirable consequences of increasing its use.

  14. Erosion of a grooved surface caused by impact of particle-laden flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sohyun; Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    Solid erosion can be a life-limiting process for mechanical elements in erosive environments, thus it is of practical importance in many industries such as construction, mining, and coal conversion. Erosion caused by particle-laden flow occurs through diverse mechanisms, such as cutting, plastic deformation, brittle fracture, fatigue and melting, depending on particle velocity, total particle mass and impingement angle. Among a variety of attempts to lessen erosion, here we investigate the effectiveness of millimeter-sized grooves on the surface. By experimentally measuring the erosion rates of smooth and triangular-grooved surfaces under various impingement angles, we find that erosion can be significantly reduced within a finite range of impingement angles. We show that such erosion resistance is attributed to the swirls of air within grooves and the differences in erosive strength of normal and slanted impact. In particular, erosion is mitigated when we increase the effective area under normal impact causing plastic deformation and fracture while decreasing the area under slanted impact that cuts the surface to a large degree. Our quantitative model for the erosion rate of grooved surfaces considering the foregoing effects agrees with the measurement results.

  15. A sharp interface Cartesian grid method for viscous simulation of shocked particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pratik; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    A Cartesian grid-based sharp interface method is presented for viscous simulations of shocked particle-laden flows. The moving solid-fluid interfaces are represented using level sets. A moving least-squares reconstruction is developed to apply the no-slip boundary condition at solid-fluid interfaces and to supply viscous stresses to the fluid. The algorithms developed in this paper are benchmarked against similarity solutions for the boundary layer over a fixed flat plate and against numerical solutions for moving interface problems such as shock-induced lift-off of a cylinder in a channel. The framework is extended to 3D and applied to calculate low Reynolds number steady supersonic flow over a sphere. Viscous simulation of the interaction of a particle cloud with an incident planar shock is demonstrated; the average drag on the particles and the vorticity field in the cloud are compared to the inviscid case to elucidate the effects of viscosity on momentum transfer between the particle and fluid phases. The methods developed will be useful for obtaining accurate momentum and heat transfer closure models for macro-scale shocked particulate flow applications such as blast waves and dust explosions.

  16. Self-spinning nanoparticle laden microdroplets for sensing and energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Pasumarthi, Viswanath; Chaudhuri, Joydip; Singh, Amit Kumar; Nemade, Harshal; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-03-21

    Exposure of a volatile organic vapour could set in powerful rotational motion a microdroplet composed of an aqueous salt solution loaded with metal nanoparticles. The solutal Marangoni motion on the surface originating from the sharp difference in the surface tension of water and organic vapour stimulated the strong vortices inside the droplet. The vapour sources of methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, toluene, and chloroform stimulated motions of different magnitudes could easily be correlated to the surface tension gradient on the drop surface. Interestingly, when the nanoparticle laden droplet of aqueous salt solution was connected to an external electric circuit through a pair of electrodes, an ∼85-95% reduction in the electrical resistance was observed across the spinning droplet. The extent of reduction in the resistance was found to have a correlation with the difference in the surface tension of the vapour source and the water droplet, which could be employed to distinguish the vapour sources. Remarkably, the power density of the same prototype was estimated to be around 7 μW cm(-2), which indicated the potential of the phenomenon in converting surface energy into electrical in a non-destructive manner and under ambient conditions. Theoretical analysis uncovered that the difference in the ζ-potential near the electrodes was the major reason for the voltage generation. The prototype could also detect the repeated exposure and withdrawal of vapour sources, which helped in the development of a proof-of-concept detector to sense alcohol issuing out of the human breathing system.

  17. Evaluation of cell viability and functionality in vessel-like bioprintable cell-laden tubular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Martin, James A; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-09-01

    Organ printing is a novel concept recently introduced in developing artificial three-dimensional organs to bridge the gap between transplantation needs and organ shortage. One of the major challenges is inclusion of blood-vessellike channels between layers to support cell viability, postprinting functionality in terms of nutrient transport, and waste removal. In this research, we developed a novel and effective method to print tubular channels encapsulating cells in alginate to mimic the natural vascular system. An experimental investigation into the influence on cartilage progenitor cell (CPCs) survival, and the function of printing parameters during and after the printing process were presented. CPC functionality was evaluated by checking tissue-specific genetic marker expression and extracellular matrix production. Our results demonstrated the capability of direct fabrication of cell-laden tubular channels by our newly designed coaxial nozzle assembly and revealed that the bioprinting process could induce quantifiable cell death due to changes in dispensing pressure, coaxial nozzle geometry, and biomaterial concentration. Cells were able to recover during incubation, as well as to undergo differentiation with high-level cartilage-associated gene expression. These findings may not only help optimize our system but also can be applied to biomanufacturing of 3D functional cellular tissue engineering constructs for various organ systems.

  18. Bioprinting three-dimensional cell-laden tissue constructs with controllable degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjie; Su, Xin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Kong, Bin; Sun, Wei; Mi, Shengli

    2016-04-19

    Alginate hydrogel is a popular biologically inert material that is widely used in 3D bioprinting, especially in extrusion-based printing. However, the printed cells in this hydrogel could not degrade the surrounding alginate gel matrix, causing them to remain in a poorly proliferating and non-differentiating state. Here, we report a novel study of the 3D printing of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs)/collagen/gelatin/alginate hydrogel incubated with a medium containing sodium citrate to obtain degradation-controllable cell-laden tissue constructs. The 3D-printed hydrogel network with interconnected channels and a macroporous structure was stable and achieved high cell viability (over 90%). By altering the mole ratio of sodium citrate/sodium alginate, the degradation time of the bioprinting constructs can be controlled. Cell proliferation and specific marker protein expression results also revealed that with the help of sodium citrate degradation, the printed HCECs showed a higher proliferation rate and greater cytokeratin 3(CK3) expression, indicating that this newly developed method may help to improve the alginate bioink system for the application of 3D bioprinting in tissue engineering.

  19. Experimental investigation of turbulence modulation in particle-laden coaxial jets by Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergheni, M.A. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France)]|[LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sautet, J.C.; Godard, G. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Ben Ticha, H.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-03-15

    The effect of solid particles on the flow characteristics of axisymmetric turbulent coaxial jets for two flow conditions was studied. Simultaneous measurements of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow are presented using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 to 212 {mu}m were used in this two-phase flow, the experimental results indicate a significant influence of the solid particles and the Re on the flow characteristics. The data show that the gas phase has lower mean velocity in the near-injector region and a higher mean velocity at the developed region. Near the injector at low Reynolds number (Re = 2839) the presence of the particles dampens the gas-phase turbulence, while at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) the gas-phase turbulence and the velocity fluctuation of particle-laden jets are increased. The particle velocity at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) and is lower at lower Reynolds number (Re = 2839). The slip velocity between particles and gas phase existed over the flow domain was examined. More importantly, the present experiment results suggest that, consideration of the gas characteristic length scales is insufficient to predict gas-phase turbulence modulation in gas-particle flows. (author)

  20. Positronium hydride in hydrogen-laden thermochemically reduced MgO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, R.; la Cruz, R.M. de; Pedrosa, M.A.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Thermochemical reduction of hydrogen-laden MgO single crystals at T∼2400 K results in a large concentration of both hydride (H - ) ions and anion vacancies (>10 24 m -3 ). Positron-lifetime experiments of these crystals provide evidence for bound positronium hydride states also referred to as [e + -H - ] or PsH states. The presence of the anion vacancies was found to inhibit the formation of these states. After thermally annealing out these vacancies, such that H - concentration remains intact, two long-lived components appear in the lifetime spectrum. Furthermore, these two components correlate with the presence of the H - ions. These results suggest the existence of bound [e + -H - ] states when positrons are trapped by the H - ions, and the subsequent formation of positronium (Ps) states by the dissociation of the [e + -H - ] states. From the values of the intermediate lifetime component, a value of (570±50) ps is obtained for the lifetime of the PsH state located in an anion vacancy in MgO. The longest lifetime component ∼(1--3) ns is attributed to pick-off annihilation of ortho-Ps states

  1. Positronium hydride in hydrogen-laden thermochemically reduced MgO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, R.; de La Cruz, R. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.; González, R.; Chen, Y.

    1990-04-01

    Thermochemical reduction of hydrogen-laden MgO single crystals at T~2400 K results in a large concentration of both hydride (H-) ions and anion vacancies (>1024 m-3). Positron-lifetime experiments of these crystals provide evidence for bound positronium hydride states also referred to as [e+-H-] or PsH states. The presence of the anion vacancies was found to inhibit the formation of these states. After thermally annealing out these vacancies, such that H- concentration remains intact, two long-lived components appear in the lifetime spectrum. Furthermore, these two components correlate with the presence of the H-ions. These results suggest the existence of bound [e+-H-] states when positrons are trapped by the H- ions, and the subsequent formation of positronium (Ps) states by the dissociation of the [e+-H-] states. From the values of the intermediate lifetime component, a value of (570+/-50) ps is obtained for the lifetime of the PsH state located in an anion vacancy in MgO. The longest lifetime component ~(1-3) ns is attributed to pick-off annihilation of ortho-Ps states.

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Direct Radiation Transmission in Particle-Laden Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Andrew; Villafane, Laura; Kim, Ji Hoon; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Eaton, John K.

    2017-11-01

    Direct radiation transmission in turbulent flows laden with heavy particles plays a fundamental role in systems such as clouds, spray combustors, and particle-solar-receivers. Owing to their inertia, the particles preferentially concentrate and the resulting voids and clusters lead to deviations in mean transmission from the classical Beer-Lambert law for exponential extinction. Additionally, the transmission fluctuations can exceed those of Poissonian media by an order of magnitude, which implies a gross misprediction in transmission statistics if the correlations in particle positions are neglected. On the other hand, tracking millions of particles in a turbulence simulation can be prohibitively expensive. This work presents stochastic processes as computationally cheap reduced order models for the instantaneous particle number density field and radiation transmission therein. Results from the stochastic processes are compared to Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) simulations using the particle positions obtained from the point-particle DNS of isotropic turbulence at a Taylor Reynolds number of 150. Accurate transmission statistics are predicted with respect to MCRT by matching the mean, variance, and correlation length of DNS number density fields. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-NA0002373-1 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-114747.

  3. Cloud-In-Cell modeling of shocked particle-laden flows at a ``SPARSE'' cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Soren; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    A common tool for enabling process-scale simulations of shocked particle-laden flows is Eulerian-Lagrangian Particle-Source-In-Cell (PSIC) modeling where each particle is traced in its Lagrangian frame and treated as a mathematical point. Its dynamics are governed by Stokes drag corrected for high Reynolds and Mach numbers. The computational burden is often reduced further through a ``Cloud-In-Cell'' (CIC) approach which amalgamates groups of physical particles into computational ``macro-particles''. CIC does not account for subgrid particle fluctuations, leading to erroneous predictions of cloud dynamics. A Subgrid Particle-Averaged Reynolds-Stress Equivalent (SPARSE) model is proposed that incorporates subgrid interphase velocity and temperature perturbations. A bivariate Gaussian source distribution, whose covariance captures the cloud's deformation to first order, accounts for the particles' momentum and energy influence on the carrier gas. SPARSE is validated by conducting tests on the interaction of a particle cloud with the accelerated flow behind a shock. The cloud's average dynamics and its deformation over time predicted with SPARSE converge to their counterparts computed with reference PSIC models as the number of Gaussians is increased from 1 to 16. This work was supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-16-1-0008.

  4. The effect of wall geometry in particle-laden turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdehkakha, Hoora; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden turbulent flow plays a significant role in various industrial applications, as turbulence alters the exchange of momentum and energy between particles and fluid flow. In wall-bounded flows, inhomogeneity in turbulent properties is the primary cause of turbophoresis that leads the particles toward the walls. Conversely, shear-induced lift force on the particles can become important if large scale vortical structures are present. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of geometry on fluid flows and consequently on particles transport and concentration. Direct numerical simulations combined with point particle Lagrangian tracking are performed for several geometries such as a pipe, channel, square duct, and squircle (rounded-corners duct). In non-circular ducts, anisotropic and inhomogeneous Reynolds stresses are the most influential phenomena that produce the secondary flows. It has been shown that these motions can have a significant impact on transporting momentum, vorticity, and energy from the core of the duct to the corners. The main focus of the present study is to explore the effects of near the wall structures and secondary flows on turbophoresis, lift, and particle concentration.

  5. Color associations to emotion and emotion-laden words: A collection of norms for stimulus construction and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-06-01

    Color has the ability to influence a variety of human behaviors, such as object recognition, the identification of facial expressions, and the ability to categorize stimuli as positive or negative. Researchers have started to examine the relationship between emotional words and colors, and the findings have revealed that brightness is often associated with positive emotional words and darkness with negative emotional words (e.g., Meier, Robinson, & Clore, Psychological Science, 15, 82-87, 2004). In addition, words such as anger and failure seem to be inherently associated with the color red (e.g., Kuhbandner & Pekrun). The purpose of the present study was to construct norms for positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden words and their color associations. Participants were asked to provide the first color that came to mind for a set of 160 emotional items. The results revealed that the color RED was most commonly associated with negative emotion and emotion-laden words, whereas YELLOW and WHITE were associated with positive emotion and emotion-laden words, respectively. The present work provides researchers with a large database to aid in stimulus construction and selection.

  6. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kuribayashi-Shigetomi

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF. We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  7. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF). We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  8. A PTV method based on ultrasound imaging and feature tracking in a low-concentration sediment-laden flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhimin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhao, Xiaohong; Tao, Weiliang

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to provide a particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method based on ultrasound imaging and feature-tracking in a low-concentration sediment-laden flow. A phased array probe is used to generate a 2D ultrasound image at different times. Then, the feature points are extracted to be tracked instead of the centroids of the particle image. In order to better identify the corresponding feature point, each feature is described by an oriented angle and its location. Then, a statistical interpolation procedure is used to yield the displacement vector on the desired grid point. Finally a correction procedure is adopted because the ultrasound image is sequentially acquired line by line through the field of view. A simple test experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance. The ultrasound PTV system was applied to a sediment-laden flow with a low concentration of 1‰, and the speed was up to 10 cm s-1. In comparison to optical particle image velocimetry (PIV), ultrasound imaging does not have a limitation in optical access. The feature-tracking method does not have a binarisation and segmentation procedure, which can result in overlapping particles or a serious loss of particle data. The feature-tracking algorithm improves the peak locking effect and measurement accuracy. Thus, the ultrasound PTV algorithm is a feasible alternative and is significantly more robust against gradients than the correlation-based PIV algorithms in a low-concentration sediment-laden fluid.

  9. Self-spinning nanoparticle laden microdroplets for sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Pasumarthi, Viswanath; Chaudhuri, Joydip; Singh, Amit Kumar; Nemade, Harshal; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-03-01

    Exposure of a volatile organic vapour could set in powerful rotational motion a microdroplet composed of an aqueous salt solution loaded with metal nanoparticles. The solutal Marangoni motion on the surface originating from the sharp difference in the surface tension of water and organic vapour stimulated the strong vortices inside the droplet. The vapour sources of methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, toluene, and chloroform stimulated motions of different magnitudes could easily be correlated to the surface tension gradient on the drop surface. Interestingly, when the nanoparticle laden droplet of aqueous salt solution was connected to an external electric circuit through a pair of electrodes, an ~85-95% reduction in the electrical resistance was observed across the spinning droplet. The extent of reduction in the resistance was found to have a correlation with the difference in the surface tension of the vapour source and the water droplet, which could be employed to distinguish the vapour sources. Remarkably, the power density of the same prototype was estimated to be around 7 μW cm-2, which indicated the potential of the phenomenon in converting surface energy into electrical in a non-destructive manner and under ambient conditions. Theoretical analysis uncovered that the difference in the ζ-potential near the electrodes was the major reason for the voltage generation. The prototype could also detect the repeated exposure and withdrawal of vapour sources, which helped in the development of a proof-of-concept detector to sense alcohol issuing out of the human breathing system.Exposure of a volatile organic vapour could set in powerful rotational motion a microdroplet composed of an aqueous salt solution loaded with metal nanoparticles. The solutal Marangoni motion on the surface originating from the sharp difference in the surface tension of water and organic vapour stimulated the strong vortices inside the droplet. The vapour sources of methanol, ethanol

  10. Socioemotional processing of morally-laden behavior and their consequences on others in forensic psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla L; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-06-01

    A large body of evidence supports the view that psychopathy is associated with anomalous emotional processing, reduced guilt and empathy, which are important risk factors for criminal behaviors. However, the precise nature and specificity of this atypical emotional processing is not well understood, including its relation to moral judgment. To further our understanding of the pattern of neural response to perceiving and evaluating morally-laden behavior, this study included 155 criminal male offenders with various level of psychopathy, as assessed with the Psychopathy Check List-Revised. Participants were scanned while viewing short clips depicting interactions between two individuals resulting in either interpersonal harm or interpersonal assistance. After viewing each clip, they were asked to identify the emotions of the protagonists. Inmates with high levels of psychopathy were more accurate than controls in successfully identifying the emotion of the recipient of both helpful and harmful actions. Significant hemodynamic differences were detected in the posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex when individuals with high psychopathy viewed negative versus positive scenarios moral scenarios and when they evaluated the emotional responses of the protagonists. These findings suggest that socioemotional processing abnormalities in psychopathy may be somewhat more complicated than merely a general or specific emotional deficit. Rather, situation-specific evaluations of the mental states of others, in conjunction with sensitivity to the nature of the other (victim vs. perpetrator), modulate attention to emotion-related cues. Such atypical processing likely impacts moral decision-making and behavior in psychopaths. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automatic segmentation of tumor-laden lung volumes from the LIDC database

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Walter G.

    2012-03-01

    The segmentation of the lung parenchyma is often a critical pre-processing step prior to application of computer-aided detection of lung nodules. Segmentation of the lung volume can dramatically decrease computation time and reduce the number of false positive detections by excluding from consideration extra-pulmonary tissue. However, while many algorithms are capable of adequately segmenting the healthy lung, none have been demonstrated to work reliably well on tumor-laden lungs. Of particular challenge is to preserve tumorous masses attached to the chest wall, mediastinum or major vessels. In this role, lung volume segmentation comprises an important computational step that can adversely affect the performance of the overall CAD algorithm. An automated lung volume segmentation algorithm has been developed with the goals to maximally exclude extra-pulmonary tissue while retaining all true nodules. The algorithm comprises a series of tasks including intensity thresholding, 2-D and 3-D morphological operations, 2-D and 3-D floodfilling, and snake-based clipping of nodules attached to the chest wall. It features the ability to (1) exclude trachea and bowels, (2) snip large attached nodules using snakes, (3) snip small attached nodules using dilation, (4) preserve large masses fully internal to lung volume, (5) account for basal aspects of the lung where in a 2-D slice the lower sections appear to be disconnected from main lung, and (6) achieve separation of the right and left hemi-lungs. The algorithm was developed and trained to on the first 100 datasets of the LIDC image database.

  12. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  13. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-12-21

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d.

  14. Asphaltene-laden interfaces form soft glassy layers in contraction experiments: a mechanism for coalescence blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Vincent; Rane, Jayant P; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-11-04

    In previous studies, the adsorption kinetics of asphaltenes at the water-oil interface were interpreted utilizing a Langmuir equation of state (EOS) based on droplet expansion experiments.1-3 Long-term adsorption kinetics followed random sequential adsorption (RSA) theory predictions, asymptotically reaching ∼85% limiting surface coverage, which is similar to limiting random 2D close packing of disks. To extend this work beyond this slow adsorption process, we performed rapid contractions and contraction-expansions of asphaltene-laden interfaces using the pendant drop experiment to emulate a Langmuir trough. This simulates the rapid increase in interfacial asphaltene concentration that occurs during coalescence events. For the contraction of droplets aged in asphaltene solutions, deviation from the EOS consistently occurs at a surface pressure value ∼21 mN/m corresponding to a surface coverage ∼80%. At this point droplets lose the shape required for validity of the Laplace-Young equation, indicating solidlike surface behavior. On further contraction wrinkles appear, which disappear when the droplet is held at constant volume. Surface pressure also decreases down to an equilibrium value near that measured for slow adsorption experiments. This behavior appears to be due to a transition to a glassy interface on contraction past the packing limit, followed by relaxation toward equilibrium by desorption at constant volume. This hypothesis is supported by cycling experiments around the close-packed limit where the transition to and from a solidlike state appears to be both fast and reversible, with little hysteresis. Also, the soft glass rheology model of Sollich is shown to capture previously reported shear behavior during adsorption. The results suggest that the mechanism by which asphaltenes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions is by blocking coalescence due to rapid formation of a glassy interface, in turn caused by interfacial asphaltenes rapidly increasing in

  15. Fabrication of 3D cell-laden hydrogel microstructures through photo-mold patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhetta, P; Piraino, F; Redaelli, A; Rasponi, M; Sadr, N; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Native tissues are characterized by spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) microscaled units which functionally define cells–cells and cells–extracellular matrix interactions. The ability to engineer biomimetic constructs mimicking these 3D microarchitectures is subject to the control over cell distribution and organization. In the present study we introduce a novel protocol to generate 3D cell laden hydrogel micropatterns with defined size and shape. The method, named photo-mold patterning (PMP), combines hydrogel micromolding within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps and photopolymerization through a recently introduced biocompatible ultraviolet (UVA) activated photoinitiator (VA-086). Exploiting PDMS micromolds as geometrical constraints for two methacrylated prepolymers (polyethylene glycol diacrylate and gelatin methacrylate), micrometrically resolved structures were obtained within a 3 min exposure to a low cost and commercially available UVA LED. The PMP was validated both on a continuous cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing green fluorescent protein, HUVEC GFP) and on primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HUVEC GFP and BMSCs were exposed to 1.5% w/v VA-086 and UVA light (1 W, 385 nm, distance from sample = 5 cm). Photocrosslinking conditions applied during the PMP did not negatively affect cells viability or specific metabolic activity. Quantitative analyses demonstrated the potentiality of PMP to uniformly embed viable cells within 3D microgels, creating biocompatible and favorable environments for cell proliferation and spreading during a seven days' culture. PMP can thus be considered as a promising and cost effective tool for designing spatially accurate in vitro models and, in perspective, functional constructs. (paper)

  16. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Penalty Method to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D

    2006-01-01

    We present a hybrid fluid-particle algorithm to simulate flow and transport of DNA-laden fluids in microdevices. Relevant length scales in microfluidic systems range from characteristic channel sizes of millimeters to micron scale geometric variation (e.g., post arrays) to 10 nanometers for the length of a single rod in a bead-rod polymer representation of a biological material such as DNA. The method is based on a previous fluid-particle algorithm in which long molecules are represented as a chain of connected rods, but in which the physically unrealistic behavior of rod crossing occurred. We have extended this algorithm to include screened Coulombic forces between particles by implementing a Debye-Hueckel potential acting between rods. In the method an unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with a second-order finite difference method in the interior of the Cartesian grid domain; an embedded boundary volume-of-fluid formulation is used near boundaries. The bead-rod polymer model is fully coupled to the solvent through body forces representing hydrodynamic drag and stochastic thermal fluctuations. While intrapolymer interactions are modeled by a soft potential, polymer-structure interactions are treated as perfectly elastic collisions. We demonstrate this method on flow and transport of a polymer through a post array microchannel in 2D where the polymer incorporates more realistic physical parameters of DNA, and compare to previous simulations where rods are allowed to cross. We also show that the method is capable of simulating 3D flow in a packed bed micro-column

  18. A Penalty Method to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D

    2006-10-06

    We present a hybrid fluid-particle algorithm to simulate flow and transport of DNA-laden fluids in microdevices. Relevant length scales in microfluidic systems range from characteristic channel sizes of millimeters to micron scale geometric variation (e.g., post arrays) to 10 nanometers for the length of a single rod in a bead-rod polymer representation of a biological material such as DNA. The method is based on a previous fluid-particle algorithm in which long molecules are represented as a chain of connected rods, but in which the physically unrealistic behavior of rod crossing occurred. We have extended this algorithm to include screened Coulombic forces between particles by implementing a Debye-Hueckel potential acting between rods. In the method an unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with a second-order finite difference method in the interior of the Cartesian grid domain; an embedded boundary volume-of-fluid formulation is used near boundaries. The bead-rod polymer model is fully coupled to the solvent through body forces representing hydrodynamic drag and stochastic thermal fluctuations. While intrapolymer interactions are modeled by a soft potential, polymer-structure interactions are treated as perfectly elastic collisions. We demonstrate this method on flow and transport of a polymer through a post array microchannel in 2D where the polymer incorporates more realistic physical parameters of DNA, and compare to previous simulations where rods are allowed to cross. We also show that the method is capable of simulating 3D flow in a packed bed micro-column.

  19. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    -fluid interactions in these high-speed flows special high performance techniques are required. The present work is an investigation into the applicability of magnified digital in-line holography with ultra-high-speed recording for the study of three-dimensional supersonic particle-laden flows. An optical setup...... × 10mm calibration grid and 120 μm particles on a glass plate. In the case with the calibration grid it is found that accurate determination of the depthwise position is possible. However, when applying the same technique to the particle target, significant problems are encountered. © 2012...

  20. Brief communication: The curious case of the large wood-laden flow event in the Pocuro stream (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ravazzolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large wood transported during extreme flood events can represent a relevant additional source of hazards that should be taken into account in mountain environments. However, direct observations and monitoring of large-wood transport during floods are difficult and scarce. Here we present a video of a flood characterised by multiple phases of large-wood transport, including an initial phase of wood-laden flow rarely described in the literature. Estimations of flow velocity and transported wood volume provide a good opportunity to develop models of large-wood-congested transport.

  1. The effect of increase in humidity on the size and activity distributions of radon progeny laden aerosols from hydrocarbon combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atika; Phillips, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a humidity increase on the distributions of aerosol size and activity for hydrocarbon combustion aerosols laden with radon progeny were determined. Pre-humidification aerosol conditions were 20 0 C and 35% RH. Post-humidification aerosol conditions were 37 0 C and 100% RH, intended to simulate conditions in the human respiratory tract. Using kerosene combustion aerosols, a growth factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 (standard deviation) was found for both the aerosol median diameter and the activity median diameter. (author)

  2. Investigating the dynamics of Vulcanian explosions: scaled laboratory experiments of particle-laden puffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Chojnicki, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Scaled laboratory experiments analogous to Vulcanian eruptions were conducted, producing particle-laden jets and plumes. A reservoir of a mixture of water and isopropanol plus solid particles (kaolin or Ballotini glass spheres) was pressurized and suddenly released via a rapid-release valve into a 2 ft by 2 ft by 4 ft plexiglass tank containing fresh water. The duration of the subsequent flow was limited by the potential energy associated with the pressurized fluid rather than by the available volume of fluid or by the duration of the valve opening. Particle size (4 &45 microns) and concentration (0 to 10 vol%) were varied in order to change particle settling characteristics and control bulk mixture density (960 kg m-3 to 1060 kg m-3). Water and isopropanol in varying proportions created a light interstitial fluid to simulate buoyant volcanic gases in erupted mixtures. Variations in reservoir pressure and vent size allowed exploration of controlling source parameters; total momentum injected (M) and total buoyancy injected (B). Mass flux at the vent was measured by an in-line Coriolis flowmeter sampling at 100 Hz, allowing rapidly varying M and B to be recorded. The velocity-height relationship of each experiment was measured from high-speed video footage, permitting classification into the following groups: long continuously accelerating jets; accelerating jets transitioning to plumes; and collapsing fountains which generated density currents. Field-documented Vulcanian explosions exhibit this same wide range of behavior, demonstrating that regimes obtained in the laboratory are relevant to natural systems. A generalized framework of results was defined as follows. Increasing M/B for small particles (4 microns; settling time>>experiment duration) pushes the system from collapsing fountains to low-energy plumes to high-energy, continuously accelerating jets; increasing M/B for large particles (45 microns; settling time non-dimensional groups were combined to

  3. A second-order accurate immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-07-01

    A new immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) is presented for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The immersed boundary method (IBM) recently developed by Breugem (2012) [19] is adopted in the present method, development including the retraction technique, the multi-direct forcing method and the direct account of the inertia of the fluid contained within the particles. The present IB-LBM is, however, formulated with further improvement with the implementation of the high-order Runge-Kutta schemes in the coupled fluid-particle interaction. The major challenge to implement high-order Runge-Kutta schemes in the LBM is that the flow information such as density and velocity cannot be directly obtained at a fractional time step from the LBM since the LBM only provides the flow information at an integer time step. This challenge can be, however, overcome as given in the present IB-LBM by extrapolating the flow field around particles from the known flow field at the previous integer time step. The newly calculated fluid-particle interactions from the previous fractional time steps of the current integer time step are also accounted for in the extrapolation. The IB-LBM with high-order Runge-Kutta schemes developed in this study is validated by several benchmark applications. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the IB-LBM has the capacity to resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order accuracy. The optimal retraction distances for spheres and tubes that help the method achieve the second-order accuracy are found to be around 0.30 and -0.47 times of the lattice spacing, respectively. Simulations of the Stokes flow through a simple cubic lattice of rotational spheres indicate that the lift force produced by the Magnus effect can be very significant in view of the magnitude of the drag force when the practical rotating speed of the spheres is encountered. This finding

  4. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Ling, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue. (paper)

  5. 3D bioprinting of BMSC-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds with CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Chen, Bing; Meng, Qingyuan; Liu, Sumei; Zheng, Xiongfei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Heran; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Nuo; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-12-18

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting combines biomaterials, cells and functional components into complex living tissues. Herein, we assembled function-control modules into cell-laden scaffolds using 3D bioprinting. A customized 3D printer was able to tune the microstructure of printed bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds at the micrometer scale. For example, the pore size was adjusted to 282 ± 32 μm and 363 ± 60 μm. To match the requirements of the printing nozzle, collagen microfibers with a length of 22 ± 13 μm were prepared with a high-speed crusher. Collagen microfibers bound bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with a collagen binding domain (CBD) as differentiation-control module, from which BMP2 was able to be controllably released. The differentiation behaviors of BMSCs in the printed scaffolds were compared in three microenvironments: samples without CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers in the growth medium, samples without microfibers in the osteogenic medium and samples with microfibers in the growth medium. The results indicated that BMSCs showed high cell viability (>90%) during printing; CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers induced BMSC differentiation into osteocytes within 14 days more efficiently than the osteogenic medium. Our studies suggest that these function-control modules are attractive biomaterials and have potential applications in 3D bioprinting.

  6. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent.

  7. Dynamic tensile loading improves the functional properties of mesenchymal stem cell-laden nanofiber-based fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brendon M; Shah, Roshan P; Huang, Alice H; Mauck, Robert L

    2011-05-01

    Fibrocartilaginous tissues such as the meniscus serve critical load-bearing roles, relying on arrays of collagen fibers to resist tensile loads experienced with normal activity. As these structures are frequently injured and possess limited healing capacity, there exists great demand for tissue-engineered replacements. Toward recreating the structural features of these anisotropic tissues in vitro, we employ scaffolds composed of co-aligned nanofibers that direct mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) orientation and the formation of organized extracellular matrix (ECM). Concomitant with ECM synthesis, the mechanical properties of constructs increase with free-swelling culture, but ultimately failed to achieve equivalence with meniscal fibrocartilage. As mechanical forces are essential to the development and maintenance of musculoskeletal tissues, this work examined the effect of cyclic tensile loading on MSC-laden nanofibrous constructs. We hypothesized that loading would modulate the transcriptional behavior of MSCs, spur the deposition of ECM, and lead to enhancements in construct mechanical properties compared to free-swelling controls. Fiber-aligned scaffolds were seeded with MSCs and dynamically loaded daily in tension or maintained as nonloaded controls for 4 weeks. With mechanical stimulation, fibrous gene expression increased, collagen deposition increased, and the tensile modulus increased by 16% relative to controls. These results show that dynamic tensile loading enhances the maturation of MSC-laden aligned nanofibrous constructs, suggesting that recapitulation of the structural and mechanical environment of load-bearing tissues results in increases in functional properties that can be exploited for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis and kinetic modelling of dioxin formation and emissions from power boilers firing salt-laden hog fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Wenli; Leclerc, Denys

    2007-04-01

    Both organic chlorine (e.g. PVC) and inorganic chlorides (e.g. NaCl) can be significant chlorine sources for dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) formation in combustion processes. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of high temperature salt chemistry. Its influence on PCDD/F formation in power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste is examined through the relationships between Cl2, HCl, NaCl(g) and NaCl(c). These analyses show that while HCl is a product of combustion of PVC-laden municipal solid waste, NaCl can be converted to HCl in hog fuel boilers by reactions with SO2 or alumino-silicate materials. Cl2 is a strong chlorinating agent for PCDD/F formation. HCl can be oxidized to Cl2 by O2, and Cl2 can be reduced back to HCl by SO2. The presence of sulphur at low concentrations thus enhances PCDD/F formation by increasing HCl concentrations. At high concentrations, sulphur inhibits de novo formation of PCDD/Fs through Cl2 reduction by excess SO2. The effect of NH3, CO and NOx on PCDD/F formation is also discussed. A semi-empirical kinetic model is proposed. This model considers both precursor and de novo formation mechanisms. A simplified version is used as a stack emission model. The kinetic model indicates that stack dioxin emissions will increase linearly with decreasing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency and exponentially with increasing ESP temperature.

  9. Airway cellularity, lipid laden macrophages and microbiology of gastric juice and airways in children with reflux oesophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewindon PJ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD can cause respiratory disease in children from recurrent aspiration of gastric contents. GORD can be defined in several ways and one of the most common method is presence of reflux oesophagitis. In children with GORD and respiratory disease, airway neutrophilia has been described. However, there are no prospective studies that have examined airway cellularity in children with GORD but without respiratory disease. The aims of the study were to compare (1 BAL cellularity and lipid laden macrophage index (LLMI and, (2 microbiology of BAL and gastric juices of children with GORD (G+ to those without (G-. Methods In 150 children aged Results BAL neutrophil% in G- group (n = 63 was marginally but significantly higher than that in the G+ group (n = 77, (median of 7.5 and 5 respectively, p = 0.002. Lipid laden macrophage index (LLMI, BAL percentages of lymphocyte, eosinophil and macrophage were similar between groups. Viral studies were negative in all, bacterial cultures positive in 20.7% of BALs and in 5.3% of gastric aspirates. BAL cultures did not reflect gastric aspirate cultures in all but one child. Conclusion In children without respiratory disease, GORD defined by presence of reflux oesophagitis, is not associated with BAL cellular profile or LLMI abnormality. Abnormal microbiology of the airways, when present, is not related to reflux oesophagitis and does not reflect that of gastric juices.

  10. A second-order accurate immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for particle-laden flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih, E-mail: fan.1@osu.edu

    2014-07-01

    A new immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) is presented for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The immersed boundary method (IBM) recently developed by Breugem (2012) [19] is adopted in the present method, development including the retraction technique, the multi-direct forcing method and the direct account of the inertia of the fluid contained within the particles. The present IB-LBM is, however, formulated with further improvement with the implementation of the high-order Runge–Kutta schemes in the coupled fluid–particle interaction. The major challenge to implement high-order Runge–Kutta schemes in the LBM is that the flow information such as density and velocity cannot be directly obtained at a fractional time step from the LBM since the LBM only provides the flow information at an integer time step. This challenge can be, however, overcome as given in the present IB-LBM by extrapolating the flow field around particles from the known flow field at the previous integer time step. The newly calculated fluid–particle interactions from the previous fractional time steps of the current integer time step are also accounted for in the extrapolation. The IB-LBM with high-order Runge–Kutta schemes developed in this study is validated by several benchmark applications. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the IB-LBM has the capacity to resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order accuracy. The optimal retraction distances for spheres and tubes that help the method achieve the second-order accuracy are found to be around 0.30 and −0.47 times of the lattice spacing, respectively. Simulations of the Stokes flow through a simple cubic lattice of rotational spheres indicate that the lift force produced by the Magnus effect can be very significant in view of the magnitude of the drag force when the practical rotating speed of the spheres is encountered

  11. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.; Rog, Christopher J.; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  12. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.rees@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: Brett.Robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Soil and Physical Sciences, Burns 222, P. O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); Rog, Christopher J., E-mail: cjrog@sand-creek.com [Sand Creek Consultants, Inc., P.O. Box 1512, 16 Randall Ave., Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Papritz, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.papritz@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  13. Establishing contact between cell-laden hydrogels and metallic implants with a biomimetic adhesive for cell therapy supported implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Julien; Mutschler, Angela; Dollinger, Camille; Gaudinat, Guillaume; Lavalle, Philippe; Le Houerou, Vincent; Brian McGuinness, Garrett; Engin Vrana, Nihal

    2017-12-15

    For in-dwelling implants, controlling the biological interface is a crucial parameter to promote tissue integration and prevent implant failure. For this purpose, one possibility is to facilitate the establishment of the interface with cell-laden hydrogels fixed to the implant. However, for proper functioning, the stability of the hydrogel on the implant should be ensured. Modification of implant surfaces with an adhesive represents a promising strategy to promote the adhesion of a cell-laden hydrogel on an implant. Herein, we developed a peptidic adhesive based on mussel foot protein (L-DOPA-L-lysine) 2 -L-DOPA that can be applied directly on the surface of an implant. At physiological pH, unoxidized (L-DOPA-L-lysine) 2 -L-DOPA was supposed to strongly adhere to metallic surfaces but it only formed a very thin coating (less than 1 nm). Once oxidized at physiological pH, (L-DOPA-L-lysine) 2 -L-DOPA forms an adhesive coating about 20 nm thick. In oxidized conditions, L-lysine can adhere to metallic substrates via electrostatic interaction. Oxidized L-DOPA allows the formation of a coating through self-polymerization and can react with amines so that this adhesive can be used to fix extra-cellular matrix based materials on implant surfaces through the reaction of quinones with amino groups. Hence, a stable interface between a soft gelatin hydrogel and metallic surfaces was achieved and the strength of adhesion was investigated. We have shown that the adhesive is non-cytotoxic to encapsulated cells and enabled the adhesion of gelatin soft hydrogels for 21 days on metallic substrates in liquid conditions. The adhesion properties of this anchoring peptide was quantified by a 180° peeling test with a more than 60% increase in peel strength in the presence of the adhesive. We demonstrated that by using a biomimetic adhesive, for the application of cell-laden hydrogels to metallic implant surfaces, the hydrogel/implant interface can be ensured without relying on the

  14. Preliminary results of the immobilization of highly-salt-ladened concentrate in cement-based grout: a joint DOE/CEA research effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.E.; Peyre, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.; Pitt, W.W.

    1988-10-01

    The ability of two types of cement-based matrices to immobilize highly-salt-ladened concentrate containing primarily nitrate and phosphate is examined when considering both fresh and hardened material properties. The effects of the incorporation ratio and the temperature of the feed concentrate are evaluated

  15. Particle Laden Turbulence in a Radiation Environment Using a Portable High Preformace Solver Based on the Legion Runtime System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hilario; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Soleil-X is a multi-physics solver being developed at Stanford University as a part of the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program II. Our goal is to conduct high fidelity simulations of particle laden turbulent flows in a radiation environment for solar energy receiver applications as well as to demonstrate our readiness to effectively utilize next generation Exascale machines. The novel aspect of Soleil-X is that it is built upon the Legion runtime system to enable easy portability to different parallel distributed heterogeneous architectures while also being written entirely in high-level/high-productivity languages (Ebb and Regent). An overview of the Soleil-X software architecture will be given. Results from coupled fluid flow, Lagrangian point particle tracking, and thermal radiation simulations will be presented. Performance diagnostic tools and metrics corresponding the the same cases will also be discussed. US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  16. Cell-laden hydrogel/titanium microhybrids: Site-specific cell delivery to metallic implants for improved integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Geraldine; Ozcelik, Hayriye; Haesler, Lisa; Cihova, Martina; Ciftci, Sait; Dupret-Bories, Agnes; Debry, Christian; Stelzle, Martin; Lavalle, Philippe; Vrana, Nihal Engin

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium implants are widely used in dental, orthopaedic and otorhinolaryngology fields to improve implant integration to host tissue. A possible step further to improve the integration with the host is the incorporation of autologous cells in porous titanium structures via cell-laden hydrogels. Fast gelling hydrogels have advantageous properties for in situ applications such as localisation of specific cells and growth factors at a target area without dispersion. The ability to control the cell types in different regions of an implant is important in applications where the target tissue (i) has structural heterogeneity (multiple cell types with a defined spatial configuration with respect to each other); (ii) has physical property gradients essential for its function (such as in the case of osteochondral tissue transition). Due to their near immediate gelation, such gels can also be used for site-specific modification of porous titanium structures, particularly for implants which would face different tissues at different locations. Herein, we describe a step by step design of a model system: the model cell-laden gel-containing porous titanium implants in the form of titanium microbead/hydrogel (maleimide-dextran or maleimide-PVA based) microhybrids. These systems enable the determination of the effect of titanium presence on gel properties and encapsulated cell behaviour as a miniaturized version of full-scale implants, providing a system compatible with conventional analysis methods. We used a fibroblast/vascular endothelial cell co-cultures as our model system and by utilising single microbeads we have quantified the effect of gel microenvironment (degradability, presence of RGD peptides within gel formulation) on cell behaviour and the effect of the titanium presence on cell behaviour and gel formation. Titanium presence slightly changed gel properties without hindering gel formation or affecting cell viability. Cells showed a preference to move towards

  17. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Rog, Christopher J; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rocks Whose Compositions are Determined by Flow Differentiation of Olivine- and Sulfide Droplet-Laden Magma: the Jinchuan Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E. M.; de Waal, S. A.; Xu, Z.

    2002-12-01

    The Jinchuan intrusion in western China is an elongated, deeply-dipping dyke-like body of dominantly olivine-rich ultramafic rocks of high magnesium basaltic magma. It hosts the second largest Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the world. More than 500 million tones of sulfide ore grading 1.2 percent Ni and 0.7 percent Cu occur mostly as next-textured and disseminated sulfide (pyrrhotite, pentlendite and chalcopyrite) with cumulus olivine in about half of the rocks of the intrusion. Based on different petrological zonations, the Jinchuan intrusion is further divided into three segments: eastern, central and western segments. The central segment is characterized by concentric enrichments of cumulus olivine and sulfide, whereas the eastern and western segments are characterized by the increase of both cumulus olivine and sulfide toward the footwall. The forsterite contents of fresh olivine from different segments are similar and vary between 82 and 86 mole percent. The small range of olivine compositional variation corresponds to less than 6 percent of fractional crystallization. Mass balance calculations based on sulfide solubility in basaltic magma indicate that the volume of the parental magma of the sulfide is many times larger than that which is currently represented in the intrusion. Large amounts of cumulus olivine (more than 40 weight percent) in the marginal samples and high concentrations of sulfide in the intrusion are consistent with an interpretation that the Jinchuan intrusion was formed by olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma ascending through a subvertical conduit to a higher level. Differentiation processes of the olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma varied in different parts of the conduit. Sub-vertical flow differentiation controlled the central segment of the conduit, resulting in further enrichment of olivine crystals and sulfide droplets in the conduit center. In contrast, sub-lateral flow and gravitational differentiation dominated in the eastern

  19. 3D bioprinting mesenchymal stem cell-laden construct with core-shell nanospheres for cartilage tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Boualam, Benchaa; Masood, Fahed; Flynn, Erin; Rao, Raj D.; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2018-05-01

    Cartilage tissue is prone to degradation and has little capacity for self-healing due to its avascularity. Tissue engineering, which provides artificial scaffolds to repair injured tissues, is a novel and promising strategy for cartilage repair. 3D bioprinting offers even greater potential for repairing degenerative tissue by simultaneously integrating living cells, biomaterials, and biological cues to provide a customized scaffold. With regard to cell selection, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great capacity for differentiating into a variety of cell types, including chondrocytes, and could therefore be utilized as a cartilage cell source in 3D bioprinting. In the present study, we utilize a tabletop stereolithography-based 3D bioprinter for a novel cell-laden cartilage tissue construct fabrication. Printable resin is composed of 10% gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) base, various concentrations of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), biocompatible photoinitiator, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) embedded nanospheres fabricated via a core-shell electrospraying technique. We find that the addition of PEGDA into GelMA hydrogel greatly improves the printing resolution. Compressive testing shows that modulus of the bioprinted scaffolds proportionally increases with the concentrations of PEGDA, while swelling ratio decreases with the increase of PEGDA concentration. Confocal microscopy images illustrate that the cells and nanospheres are evenly distributed throughout the entire bioprinted construct. Cells grown on 5%/10% (PEGDA/GelMA) hydrogel present the highest cell viability and proliferation rate. The TGF-β1 embedded in nanospheres can keep a sustained release up to 21 d and improve chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated MSCs. The cell-laden bioprinted cartilage constructs with TGF-β1-containing nanospheres is a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration.

  20. Assessment of particle-tracking models for dispersed particle-laden flows implemented in OpenFOAM and ANSYS FLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Greifzu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study two benchmark problems for turbulent dispersed particle-laden flow are investigated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD. How the CFD programs OpenFOAM and ANSYS FLUENT model these flows is tested and compared. The numerical results obtained with Lagrangian–Eulerian (LE point-particle (PP models for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations of the fluid flow in steady state and transient modes are compared with the experimental data available in the literature. The effect of the dispersion model on the particle motion is investigated in particular, as well as the order of coupling between the continuous carrier phase and the dispersed phase. First, a backward-facing step (BFS case is validated. As a second case, the confined bluff body (CBB is used. The simulated fluid flows correspond well with the experimental data for both test cases. The results for the dispersed solid phase reveal a good accordance between the simulation results and the experiments. It seems that particle dispersion is slightly under-predicted when ANSYS FLUENT is used, whereas the applied solver in OpenFOAM overestimates the dispersion somewhat. Only minor differences between the coupling schemes are detected due to the low volume fractions and mass loadings that are investigated. In the BFS test case the importance of the spatial dimension of the numerical model is demonstrated. Even if it is reasonable to assume a two-dimensional fluid flow structure, it is crucial to simulate the turbulent particle-laden flow with a three-dimensional model since the turbulent dispersion of the particles is three-dimensional.

  1. Microengineered 3D cell-laden thermoresponsive hydrogels for mimicking cell morphology and orientation in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellati, Amir; Fan, Chia-Ming; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Dai, Sheng; Bi, Jingxiu; Jin, Bo; Xian, Cory; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Hu

    2017-01-01

    Mimicking the zonal organization of native articular cartilage, which is essential for proper tissue functions, has remained a challenge. In this study, a thermoresponsive copolymer of chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS-g-PNIPAAm) was synthesized as a carrier of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to provide a support for their proliferation and differentiation. Microengineered three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden CS-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels with different microstripe widths were fabricated to control cellular alignment and elongation in order to mimic the superficial zone of natural cartilage. Biochemical assays showed six- and sevenfold increment in secretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and total collagen from MSCs encapsulated within the synthesized hydrogel after 28 days incubation in chondrogenic medium. Chondrogenic differentiation was also verified qualitatively by histological and immunohistochemical assessments. It was found that 75 ± 6% of cells encapsulated within 50 μm wide microstripes were aligned with an aspect ratio of 2.07 ± 0.16 at day 5, which was more organized than those observed in unpatterned constructs (12 ± 7% alignment and a shape index of 1.20 ± 0.07). The microengineered constructs mimicked the cell shape and organization in the superficial zone of cartilage whiles the unpatterned one resembled the middle zone. Our results suggest that microfabrication of 3D cell-laden thermosensitive hydrogels is a promising platform for creating biomimetic structures leading to more successful multi-zonal cartilage tissue engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 217-231. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bioengineering vascularized tissue constructs using an injectable cell-laden enzymatically crosslinked collagen hydrogel derived from dermal extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kuan-Chih; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Wu, Pei-Yun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    Tissue engineering promises to restore or replace diseased or damaged tissue by creating functional and transplantable artificial tissues. The development of artificial tissues with large dimensions that exceed the diffusion limitation will require nutrients and oxygen to be delivered via perfusion instead of diffusion alone over a short time period. One approach to perfusion is to vascularize engineered tissues, creating a de novo three-dimensional (3D) microvascular network within the tissue construct. This significantly shortens the time of in vivo anastomosis, perfusion and graft integration with the host. In this study, we aimed to develop injectable allogeneic collagen-phenolic hydroxyl (collagen-Ph) hydrogels that are capable of controlling a wide range of physicochemical properties, including stiffness, water absorption and degradability. We tested whether collagen-Ph hydrogels could support the formation of vascularized engineered tissue graft by human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vivo. First, we studied the growth of adherent ECFCs and MSCs on or in the hydrogels. To examine the potential formation of functional vascular networks in vivo, a liquid pre-polymer solution of collagen-Ph containing human ECFCs and MSCs, horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide was injected into the subcutaneous space or abdominal muscle defect of an immunodeficient mouse before gelation, to form a 3D cell-laden polymerized construct. These results showed that extensive human ECFC-lined vascular networks can be generated within 7 days, the engineered vascular density inside collagen-Ph hydrogel constructs can be manipulated through refinable mechanical properties and proteolytic degradability, and these networks can form functional anastomoses with the existing vasculature to further support the survival of host muscle tissues. Finally, optimized conditions of the cell-laden collagen

  3. Influence of complex interfacial rheology on the thermocapillary migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayan; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-02-01

    The effect of surface viscosity on the motion of a surfactant-laden droplet in the presence of a non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied, both analytically and numerically. The presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants along the droplet surface results in interfacial shear and dilatational viscosities. This, in turn, is responsible for the generation of surface-excess viscous stresses that obey the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive law for constant values of surface shear and dilatational viscosities. The present study is primarily focused on finding out how this confluence can be used to modulate droplet dynamics in the presence of Marangoni stress induced by nonuniform distribution of surfactants and temperature along the droplet surface, by exploiting an intricate interplay of the respective forcing parameters influencing the interfacial stresses. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and thermal convection, the steady-state migration velocity of a non-deformable spherical droplet, placed at the centerline of an imposed unbounded Poiseuille flow, is obtained for the limiting case when the surfactant transport along the interface is dominated by surface diffusion. Our analysis proves that the droplet migration velocity is unaffected by the shear viscosity whereas the dilatational viscosity has a significant effect on the same. The surface viscous effects always retard the migration of a surfactant-laden droplet when the temperature in the far-field increases in the direction of the imposed flow although the droplet always migrates towards the hotter region. On the contrary, if a large temperature gradient is applied in a direction opposite to that of the imposed flow, the direction of droplet migration gets reversed. However, for a sufficiently high value of dilatational surface viscosity, the direction of droplet migration reverses. For the limiting case in which the surfactant transport along the droplet surface is dominated by surface convection, on

  4. Stiffness-Independent Highly Efficient On-Chip Extraction of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Microcapsules from Oil Emulsion into Aqueous Solution by Dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haishui; Sun, Mingrui; Heisler-Taylor, Tyler; Kiourti, Asimina; Volakis, John; Lafyatis, Gregory; He, Xiaoming

    2015-10-28

    A dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based method achieves highly efficient on-chip extraction of cell-laden microcapsules of any stiffness from oil into aqueous solution. The hydrogel microcapsules can be extracted into the aqueous solution by DEP and interfacial tension forces with no trapped oil, while the encapsulated cells are free from electrical damage due to the Faraday cage effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-03-31

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes.

  6. The effect of non-uniform mass loading on the linear, temporal development of particle-laden shear layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatore, Giacomo [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Universita di Pisa, Pisa 56122 (Italy); Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@mail.sdsu.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, San Diego State University, San Diego, 92182 California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The effect of non-uniformity in bulk particle mass loading on the linear development of a particle-laden shear layer is analyzed by means of a stochastic Eulerian-Eulerian model. From the set of governing equations of the two-fluid model, a modified Rayleigh equation is derived that governs the linear growth of a spatially periodic disturbance. Eigenvalues for this Rayleigh equation are determined numerically using proper conditions at the co-flowing gas and particle interface locations. For the first time, it is shown that non-uniform loading of small-inertia particles (Stokes number (St) <0.2) may destabilize the inviscid mixing layer development as compared to the pure-gas flow. The destabilization is triggered by an energy transfer rate that globally flows from the particle phase to the gas phase. For intermediate St (1 < St < 10), a maximum stabilizing effect is computed, while at larger St, two unstable modes may coexist. The growth rate computations from linear stability analysis are verified numerically through simulations based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) model based on the inviscid Euler equations and a point particle model. The growth rates found in numerical experiments using the EL method are in very good agreement with growth rates from the linear stability analysis and validate the destabilizing effect induced by the presence of particles with low St.

  7. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Dehghanian, Changiz; Kosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  8. Three-dimensional printing of stem cell-laden hydrogels submerged in a hydrophobic high-density fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela F; Blaeser, Andreas; Weber, Michael; Fischer, Horst; Jäkel, Jörg; Neuss, Sabine; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, bioprinting technologies have begun providing important tissue engineering strategies for regenerative medicine and organ transplantation. The major drawback of past approaches has been poor or inadequate material-printing device and substrate combinations, as well as the relatively small size of the printed construct. Here, we hypothesise that cell-laden hydrogels can be printed when submerged in perfluorotributylamine (C 12 F 27 N), a hydrophobic high-density fluid, and that these cells placed within three-dimensional constructs remain viable allowing for cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrix. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG-63 cells were encapsulated into agarose hydrogels, and subsequently printed in high aspect ratio in three dimensional structures that were supported in high density fluorocarbon. Three-dimensional structures with various shapes and sizes were manufactured and remained stable for more than six months. Live/dead and DAPI stainings showed viable cells 24 h after the printing process, as well as after 21 days in culture. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses after 14 and 21 days revealed viable cells with marked matrix production and signs of proliferation. The compressive strength values of the printed gels consequently increased during the two weeks in culture, revealing encouraging results for future applications in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  9. Performance evaluation of two protective treatments on salt-laden limestones and marble after natural and artificial weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Barbara; Pinna, Daniela; Porcinai, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Salt crystallization is a major damage factor in stone weathering, and the application of inappropriate protective products may amplify its effects. This research focuses on the evaluation of two protective products' performance (organic polydimethylsiloxane and inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH4)2(COO)2·H2O) in the case of a salt load from behind. Experimental laboratory simulations based on salt crystallization cycles and natural weathering in an urban area were carried out. The effects were monitored over time, applying different methods: weight loss evaluation, colorimetric and water absorption by capillarity measurements, stereomicroscope observations, FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed minor impact exerted on the short term on stones, particularly those treated with the water repellent, by atmospheric agents compared to salt crystallization. Lithotypes with low salt load (Gioia marble) underwent minor changes than the heavily salt-laden limestones (Lecce and Ançã stones), which were dramatically damaged when treated with polysiloxane. The results suggest that the ammonium oxalate treatment should be preferred to polysiloxane in the presence of soluble salts, even after desalination procedures which might not completely remove them. In addition, the neo-formed calcium oxalate seemed to effectively protect the stone, improving its resistance against salt crystallization without occluding the pores and limiting the superficial erosion caused by atmospheric agents.

  10. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  11. Reynolds number and settling velocity influence for finite-release particle-laden gravity currents in a basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.

  12. Prediction of a Densely Loaded Particle-Laden Jet using a Euler-Lagrange Dense Spray Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakseresht, Pedram; Apte, Sourabh V.

    2017-11-01

    Modeling of a dense spray regime using an Euler-Lagrange discrete-element approach is challenging because of local high volume loading. A subgrid cluster of droplets can lead to locally high void fractions for the disperse phase. Under these conditions, spatio-temporal changes in the carrier phase volume fractions, which are commonly neglected in spray simulations in an Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling model, could become important. Accounting for the carrier phase volume fraction variations, leads to zero-Mach number, variable density governing equations. Using pressure-based solvers, this gives rise to a source term in the pressure Poisson equation and a non-divergence free velocity field. To test the validity and predictive capability of such an approach, a round jet laden with solid particles is investigated using Direct Numerical Simulation and compared with available experimental data for different loadings. Various volume fractions spanning from dilute to dense regimes are investigated with and without taking into account the volume displacement effects. The predictions of the two approaches are compared and analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the dense spray model. Financial support was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  13. Microbial activities in hydrocarbon-laden wastewaters: Impact on diesel fuel stability and the biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Duncan, Kathleen E; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Davidova, Irene; Yakimov, Michail M; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-20

    Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation not only diminishes fuel quality, but also exacerbates the biocorrosion of the metallic infrastructure. While successional events in marine microbial ecosystems impacted by petroleum are well documented, far less is known about the response of communities chronically exposed to hydrocarbons. Shipboard oily wastewater was used to assess the biotransformation of different diesel fuels and their propensity to impact carbon steel corrosion. When amended with sulfate and an F76 military diesel fuel, the sulfate removal rate in the assay mixtures was elevated (26.8μM/d) relative to incubations receiving a hydroprocessed biofuel (16.1μM/d) or a fuel-unamended control (17.8μM/d). Microbial community analysis revealed the predominance of Anaerolineae and Deltaproteobacteria in F76-amended incubations, in contrast to the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the original wastewater. The dominant Smithella-like sequences suggested the potential for syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism. The general corrosion rate was relatively low (0.83 - 1.29±0.12mpy) and independent of the particular fuel, but pitting corrosion was more pronounced in F76-amended incubations. Desulfovibrionaceae constituted 50-77% of the sessile organisms on carbon steel coupons. Thus, chronically exposed microflora in oily wastewater were differentially acclimated to the syntrophic metabolism of traditional hydrocarbons but tended to resist isoalkane-laden biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Peptide-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles with promoted bioactivity and osteo-differentiation ability for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuyuan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Mengke; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-07-01

    Combination of mesoporous silica materials and bioactive factors is a promising niche-mimetic solution as a hybrid bone substitution for bone tissue engineering. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible silica-based nanoparticles with abundant mesoporous structure, and incorporated bone-forming peptide (BFP) derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) into the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a slow-release system for osteogenic factor delivery. The chemical characterization demonstrates that the small osteogenic peptide is encapsulated in the mesoporous successfully, and the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms suggest that the peptide encapsulation has no influence on mesoporous structure of MSNs. In the cell experiment, the peptide-laden MSNs (p-MSNs) show higher MG-63 cell proliferation, spreading and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the bare MSNs, indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. Simultaneously, the osteogenesis-related proteins expression and calcium mineral deposition disclose enhanced osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under the stimulation of the p-MSNs, confirming that BFP released from MSNs could significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, especially at 500μg/mL of p-MSNs concentration. The peptide-modified MSNs with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation make it a potential candidate as bioactive material for bone repairing, bone regeneration, and bio-implant coating applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microcystis aeruginosa-laden water treatment using enhanced coagulation by persulfate/Fe(II), ozone and permanganate: Comparison of the simultaneous and successive oxidant dosing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Qu, Fangshu; Chen, Wei; Liang, Heng; Wang, Tianyu; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Yu, Huarong; Li, Guibai; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-15

    In this study, the application of enhanced coagulation with persulfate/Fe(II), permanganate and ozone for Microcystis-laden water treatment was investigated. Two oxidant dosage strategies were compared in terms of the organic removal performance: a simultaneous dosing strategy (SiDS) and a successive dosing strategy (SuDS). To optimize the oxidant species, oxidant doses and oxidant dosage strategy, the zeta potential, floc size and dimension fraction, potassium release and organic removal efficiency during the coagulation of algae-laden water were systematically investigated and comprehensively discussed. Ozonation causes most severe cell lysis and reduces organic removal efficiency because it releases intracellular organics. Moreover, ozonation can cause the release of odor compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin (GSM). With increasing doses, the performance of pollutant removal by coagulation enhanced by persulfate/Fe(II) or permanganate did not noticeably improve, which suggests that a low dosage of persulfate/Fe(II) and permanganate is the optimal strategy to enhance coagulation of Microcystis-laden water. The SiDS performs better than the SuDS because more Microcystis cell lysis occurs and less DOC is removed when oxidants are added before the coagulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bio-reduction of free and laden perchlorate by the pure and mixed perchlorate reducing bacteria: Considering the pH and coexisting nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanan; Wang, Ziyang; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu; Ren, Zhongfei

    2018-08-01

    Pure bacteria cell (Azospira sp. KJ) and mixed perchlorate reducing bacteria (MPRB) were employed for decomposing the free perchlorate in water as well as the laden perchlorate on surface of quaternary ammonium wheat residuals (QAWR). Results indicated that perchlorate was decomposed by the Azospira sp. KJ prior to nitrate while MPRB was just the reverse. Bio-reduction of laden perchlorate by Azospira sp. KJ was optimal at pH 8.0. In contrast, bio-reduction of laden perchlorate by MPRB was optimal at pH 7.0. Generally, the rate of perchlorate reduction was controlled by the enzyme activity of PRB. In addition, perchlorate recovery (26.0 mg/g) onto bio-regenerated QAWR by MPRB was observed with a small decrease as compared with that (31.1 mg/g) by Azospira sp. KJ at first 48 h. Basically, this study is expected to offer some different ideas on bio-regeneration of perchlorate-saturated adsorbents using biological process, which may provide the economically alternative to conventional methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Forest canopy structural controls over throughfall affect soil microbial community structure in an epiphyte-laden maritime oak stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Schrom, J. O.; Wu, T.; Reichard, J. S.; Kan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying spatiotemporal influences on soil microbial community (SMC) structure is critical to understanding of patterns in nutrient cycling and related ecological services. Since forest canopy structure alters the spatiotemporal patterning of precipitation water and solute supplies to soils (via the "throughfall" mechanism), is it possible changes in SMC structure variability could arise from modifications in canopy elements? Our study investigates this question by monitoring throughfall water and dissolved ion supply to soils beneath a continuum of canopy structure: from a large gap (0% cover) to heavy Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) canopy (>90% cover). Throughfall water supply diminished with increasing canopy cover, yet increased washoff/leaching of Na+, Cl-, PO43-, and SO42- from the canopy to the soils (p < 0.01). Presence of T. usneoides diminished throughfall NO3-, but enhanced NH4+, concentrations supplied to subcanopy soils. The mineral soil horizon (0-10 cm) from canopy gaps, bare canopy, and T. usneoides-laden canopy significantly differed (p < 0.05) in soil chemistry parameters (pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, CEC). PCR-DGGE banding patterns beneath similar canopy covers (experiencing similar throughfall dynamics) also produced high similarities per ANalyses Of SIMilarity (ANO-SIM), and clustered together when analyzed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Correlation analysis of DGGE banding patterns, throughfall dynamics, and soil chemistry yielded significant correlations (p < 0.05) between fungal communities and soil chemical properties significantly differing between canopy cover types (pH: r2 = 0.50; H+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.48; Ca2+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.43). Bacterial community structure correlated with throughfall NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ concentrations (r2 = 0.37, p = 0.16). These results suggest that modifications of forest canopy structures are capable of affecting mineral-soil horizon SMC structure via the throughfall mechanism when

  19. Influence of nutrients on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor degrading sulfate-laden organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, S K; Tare, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of the nutrients iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and molybdenum (Mo) on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor metabolizing synthetic sulfate-laden organics at varying operating conditions during a period of 540 days. A bench-scale model of a UASB reactor was operated at a temperature of 35 degrees C for a chemical oxygen demand-to-sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio of 8.59 to 2.0, a sulfate loading rate of 0.54 to 1.88 kg SO4(2-)/m3 x d, and an organic loading rate of 1.9 to 5.75 kg COD/m3 x d. Biomass was characterized in terms of total methanogenic activity, acetate-utilizing methanogenic activity, total sulfidogenic activity, acetate-utilizing sulfidogenic activity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nickel and cobalt limitation appears to affect the activity of hydrogen-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (HMPB) significantly without having an appreciable effect on the activity of acetate-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (AMPB). Nickel and cobalt supplementation resulted in increased availability and, consequently, restoration of biomass activity and process performance. Iron limitation and sulfidogenic conditions resulted in the growth of low-density, hollow, fragile granules that washed out, causing process instability and performance deterioration. Iron and cobalt supplementation indicated significant stimulation of AMPB with slight inhibition of HMPB. Examination of biomass through SEM indicated a population shift with dominance of sarcina-type organisms and the formation of hollow granules. Granule disintegration was observed toward the end of the study.

  20. Effect of settling particles on the stability of a particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronin, S. A.; Osiptsov, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The stability of a viscous particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel in the presence of the gravity force is studied. The flow is described using a two-fluid "dusty-gas" model with negligibly small volume fraction of fines and two-way coupling of the phases. Two different profiles of the particle number density in the main flow are considered: homogeneous and non-homogeneous in the form of two layers symmetric about the channel axis. The novel element of the linear-stability problem formulation is a particle velocity slip in the main flow caused by the gravity-induced settling of the dispersed phase. The eigenvalue problem for a linearized system of governing equations is solved using the orthonormalization and QZ algorithms. For a uniform particle number density distribution, it is found that there exists a domain in the plane of Froude and Stokes numbers, in which the two-phase flow in a vertical channel is stable for an arbitrary Reynolds number. This stability domain corresponds to relatively small-inertia particles and large velocity-slip in the main flow. In contrast to the flow with a uniform particle number density distribution, the stratified dusty-gas flow in a vertical channel is unstable over a wide range of governing parameters. The instability at small Reynolds numbers is determined by the gravitational mode characterized by small wavenumbers (long-wave instability), while at larger Reynolds numbers the instability is dominated by the shear mode with the time-amplification factor larger than that of the gravitational mode. The results of the study can be used for optimization of a large number of technological processes, including those in riser reactors, pneumatic conveying in pipeline systems, hydraulic fracturing, and well cementing.

  1. Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions.

  2. Inductive charging of electric cars. A techno-economic assessment; Induktives Laden von Elektromobilen. Eine techno-oekonomische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraven, Sebastian; Kley, Fabian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Politik und Energie Systeme

    2010-07-01

    Most concepts for charging of electric vehicles are based on cables that must be plugged in and out. In case of frequent charging or short-term charging, however, this may be impractical, and an inductive (cableless) solution would be preferable. The contribution attempts to analyze if inductive power transmission is technically feasible in electric vehicles, and in what areas it will be economically attractive to users. To begin with, the two charging technologies are presented and compared. This is followed by a cost assessment. It is found that the inductive technology involves significant additional cost, so it cannot be expected to spread quickly. In certain conditions, however, it may be applicable as a niche technology in certain commercial applications, e.g. taxis. (orig.) [German] In den bisher diskutierten Konzepten zur Ladung von Elektrofahrzeugen ist die kabelgebundene (konduktive) Ladung vorherrschend, bei der der Nutzer das Kabel zur Ladung ein- bzw. wieder ausstecken muss. Haeufige Ladevorgaenge und insbesondere Kurzladungen lassen jedoch dieses Ein- und Ausstecken neben der reduzierten Reichweite des Elektrofahrzeugs unpraktisch in der Nutzung erscheinen. Demgegenueber bietet die induktive (kabellose) Energieuebertragung das Laden ohne erforderlichen Nutzereingriff. Der vorliegende Artikel versucht die Fragen zu beantworten, ob ein Einsatz der induktiven Energieuebertragung bereits technisch zur Ladung von Elektrofahrzeugen realisierbar ist, und in welchen Bereichen diese eine wirtschaftlich attraktive Loesung fuer den Nutzer darstellt. Dazu werden zunaechst die Ladetechnologien vor- und technisch gegenuebergestellt. Auf Basis einer Kostenbetrachtung ist auch ein oekonomischer Vergleich der beiden Ladetechnologien moeglich. Es zeigt sich, dass aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht aufgrund signifikanter Mehrkosten vorlaeufig kein weitverbreiteter Einsatz der induktiven Technik zu erwarten ist. Unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen ergibt sich aber ein begrenztes

  3. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    -fluid interactions in these high-speed flows special high performance techniques are required. The present work is an investigation into the applicability of magnified digital in-line holography with ultra-high-speed recording for the study of three-dimensional supersonic particle-laden flows. An optical setup...... × 10mm calibration grid and 120 μm particles on a glass plate. In the case with the calibration grid it is found that accurate determination of the depthwise position is possible. However, when applying the same technique to the particle target, significant problems are encountered....

  4. Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed. (paper)

  5. Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed.

  6. Start-up performance and granular sludge features of an improved external circulating anaerobic reactor for algae-laden water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yaqin; Lu, Xiwu

    2017-09-01

    The microbial characteristics of granular sludge during the rapid start of an enhanced external circulating anaerobic reactor were studied to improve algae-laden water treatment efficiency. Results showed that algae laden water was effectively removed after about 35 d, and the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and algal toxin were around 85% and 92%, respectively. Simultaneously, the gas generation rate was around 380 mL/gCOD. The microbial community structure in the granular sludge of the reactor was complicated, and dominated by coccus and filamentous bacteria. Methanosphaera , Methanolinea , Thermogymnomonas , Methanoregula , Methanomethylovorans , and Methanosaeta were the major microorganisms in the granular sludge. The activities of protease and coenzyme F 420 were high in the granular sludge. The intermittent stirring device and the reverse-flow system were further found to overcome the disadvantage of the floating and crusting of cyanobacteria inside the reactor. Meanwhile, the effect of mass transfer inside the reactor can be accelerated to help give the reactor a rapid start.

  7. Hydro-morphodynamic modelling of a volcano-induced sediment-laden outburst flood at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, M.; Wright, N.; Sleigh, P. A.; Carrivick, J.; Staines, K.

    2013-12-01

    Outburst floods are one of the most catastrophic natural hazards for populations and infrastructure. Such high-magnitude sudden onset floods generally comprise of an advancing intense kinematic water wave that can induce considerable sediment transport. The exploration and investigation of sediment-laden outburst floods cannot be limited solely to water flow but must also include the flood-induced sediment transport. Understanding the complex flow-bed interaction process in large (field) scale outburst floods is still limited, not least due to a lack of well-constrained field data, but also because consensus on appropriate modelling schemes has yet to be decided. In recent years, attention has focussed on the numerical models capable of describing the process of erosion, transport and deposition in such flows and they are now at a point at which they provide useful quantitative data. Although the "exact" measure of bed change is still unattainable the numerical models enhance and improve insights into large outburst flood events. In this study, a volcano-induced jökulhlaup or glacial outburst flood (GLOF) at Sólheimajökull, Iceland is reproduced by novel 2D hydro-morphodynamic model that considers both bedload and suspended load based on shallow water theory. The simulation of sediment-laden outburst flood is shown to perform well, with further insights into the flow-bed interaction behaviour obtained from the modelling output. These results are beneficial to flood risk management and hazard prevention and mitigation. In summary, the modelling outputs show that (1) the quantity of bed erosion and deposition are sensitive to the sediment gain size, yet, the influences are not so significant when considering flow discharge; (2) finer resolution of topography increases the computational time significantly yet the results are not affected correspondingly; (3) the bed changes simulated by the present model achieves reasonably good agreement with those by the

  8. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W; Emami, K; Wu, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  9. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Emami, K; Wu, H, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: weisun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Radiation Biophysics Lab, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77586 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  10. Engineering zonal cartilaginous tissue by modulating oxygen levels and mechanical cues through the depth of infrapatellar fat pad stem cell laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; O'Reilly, Adam R; Thorpe, Stephen D; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Engineering tissues with a structure and spatial composition mimicking those of native articular cartilage (AC) remains a challenge. This study examined if infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) can be used to engineer cartilage grafts with a bulk composition and a spatial distribution of matrix similar to the native tissue. In an attempt to mimic the oxygen gradients and mechanical environment within AC, FPSC-laden hydrogels (either 2 mm or 4 mm in height) were confined to half of their thickness and/or subjected to dynamic compression (DC). Confining FPSC-laden hydrogels was predicted to accentuate the gradient in oxygen tension through the depth of the constructs (higher in the top and lower in the bottom), leading to enhanced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen synthesis in 2 mm high tissues. When subjected to DC alone, both GAG and collagen accumulation increased within 2 mm high unconfined constructs. Furthermore, the dynamic modulus of constructs increased from 0.96 MPa to 1.45 MPa following the application of DC. There was no synergistic benefit of coupling confinement and DC on overall levels of matrix accumulation; however in all constructs, irrespective of their height, the combination of these boundary conditions led to the development of engineered tissues that spatially best resembled native AC. The superficial region of these constructs mimicked that of native tissue, staining weakly for GAG, strongly for type II collagen, and in 4 mm high tissues more intensely for proteoglycan 4 (lubricin). This study demonstrated that FPSCs respond to joint-like environmental conditions by producing cartilage tissues mimicking native AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O.; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions. PMID:28771634

  12. Pretreatment of algae-laden and manganese-containing waters by oxidation-assisted coagulation: Effects of oxidation on algal cell viability and manganese precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jr-Lin; Hua, Lap-Cuong; Wu, Yuting; Huang, Chihpin

    2016-02-01

    Preoxidation is manipulated to improve performance of algae and soluble manganese (Mn) removal by coagulation-sedimentation for water treatment plants (WTPs) when large amount of soluble Mn presents in algae-laden waters. This study aimed to investigate the effects of preoxidation on the performance of coagulation-sedimentation for the simultaneous removal of algae and soluble Mn, including ionic and complexed Mn. NaOCl, ClO2, and KMnO4 were used to pretreat such algae-laden and Mn containing waters. The variation of algal cell viability, residual cell counts, and concentrations of Mn species prior to and after coagulation-sedimentation step were investigated. Results show that NaOCl dosing was effective in reducing the viability of algae, but precipitated little Mn. ClO2 dosing had a strongest ability to lower algae viability and oxidize ionic and complexed soluble Mn, where KMnO4 dosing oxidized ionic and complexed Mn instead of reducing the viability of cells. Preoxidation by NaOCl only improved the algae removal by sedimentation, whereas most of soluble Mn still remained. On the other hand, ClO2 preoxidation substantially improved the performance of coagulation-sedimentation for simultaneous removal of algae and soluble Mn. Furthermore, KMnO4 preoxidation did improve the removal of algae by sedimentation, but left significant residual Mn in the supernatant. Images from FlowCAM showed changes in aspect ratio (AR) and transparency of algae-Mn flocs during oxidation-assisted coagulation, and indicates that an effective oxidation can improve the removal of most compact algae-Mn flocs by sedimentation. It suggests that an effective preoxidation for reducing algal cell viability and the concentration of soluble Mn is a crucial step for upgrading the performance of coagulation-sedimentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  14. Can Harry Potter still put a spell on us in a second language? An fMRI study on reading emotion-laden literature in late bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

    2015-02-01

    In this fMRI study we contrasted emotional responses to literary reading in late bilinguals' first or second language. German participants with adequate English proficiency in their second language (L2) English read short text passages from Harry Potter books characterized by a "negative" or "positive" versus "neutral" emotional valence manipulation. Previous studies have suggested that given sufficient L2 proficiency, neural substrates involved in L1 versus L2 do not differ (Fabbro, 2001). On the other hand, the question of attenuated emotionality of L2 language processing is still an open debate (see Conrad, Recio, & Jacobs, 2011). Our results revealed a set of neural structures involved in the processing of emotion-laden literature, including emotion-related amygdala and a set of lateral prefrontal, anterior temporal, and temporo-parietal regions associated with discourse comprehension, high-level semantic integration, and Theory-of-Mind processing. Yet, consistent with post-scan emotion ratings of text passages, factorial fMRI analyses revealed stronger hemodynamic responses to "happy" than to "neutral" in bilateral amygdala and the left precentral cortex that were restricted to L1 reading. Furthermore, multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) demonstrated better classifiability of differential patterns of brain activity elicited by passages of different emotional content in L1 than in L2 for the whole brain level. Overall, our results suggest that reading emotion-laden texts in our native language provides a stronger and more differentiated emotional experience than reading in a second language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Realizing high-rate sulfur reduction under sulfate-rich conditions in a biological sulfide production system to treat metal-laden wastewater deficient in organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng

    2017-12-22

    Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ± 9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ± 10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Manipulation and control of instabilities for surfactant-laden liquid film flowing down an inclined plane using a deformable solid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Dharmendra S.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed the linear stability of surfactant-laden liquid film with a free surface flowing down an inclined plane under the action of gravity when the inclined plane is coated with a deformable solid layer. For a flow past a rigid incline and in the presence of inertia, the gas-liquid (GL) interface is prone to the free surface instability and the presence of surfactant is known to stabilize the free surface mode when the Marangoni number increases above a critical value. The rigid surface configuration also admits a surfactant induced Marangoni mode which remains stable for film flows with a free surface. This Marangoni mode was observed to become unstable for a surfactant covered film flow past a flexible inclined plane in a creeping flow limit when the wall is made sufficiently deformable. In view of these observations, we investigate the following two aspects. First, what is the effect of inertia on Marangoni mode instability induced by wall deformability? Second, and more importantly, whether it is possible to use a deformable solid coating to obtain stable flow for the surfactant covered film for cases when the Marangoni number is below the critical value required for stabilization of free surface instability. In order to explore the first question, we continued the growth rates for the Marangoni mode from the creeping flow limit to finite Reynolds numbers (Re) and observed that while the increase in Reynolds number has a small stabilizing effect on growth rates, the Marangoni mode still remains unstable for finite Reynolds numbers as long as the wall is sufficiently deformable. The Marangoni mode remains the dominant mode for zero and small Reynolds numbers until the GL mode also becomes unstable with the increase in Re. Thus, for a given set of parameters and beyond a critical Re, there is an exchange of dominant mode of instability from the Marangoni to free surface GL mode. With respect to the second important aspect, our results clearly demonstrate

  17. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: budgets of Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritselis, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re b = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10 −5 ) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10 −5 ). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually control the

  18. A Novel Murine Model of Established Staphylococcal Bone Infection in the Presence of a Fracture Fixation Plate to Study Therapies Utilizing Antibiotic-laden Spacers after Revision Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Kates, Stephen L.; Awad, Hani A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice are the small animal model of choice in biomedical research due to the low cost and availability of genetically engineered lines. However, the devices utilized in current mouse models of implant-associated bone infection have been limited to intramedullary or trans-cortical pins, which are not amenable to treatments involving extensive debridement of a full-thickness bone loss and placement of a segmental antibiotic spacer. To overcome these limitations, we developed a clinically faithful model that utilizes a locking fracture fixation plate to enable debridement of an infected segmental bone defect (full-thickness osteotomy) during a revision surgery, and investigated the therapeutic effects of placing an antibiotic-laden spacer in the segmental bone defect. To first determine the ideal time point for revision following infection, a 0.7 mm osteotomy in the femoral mid-shaft was stabilized with a radiolucent PEEK fixation plate. The defect was inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus, and the infection was monitored over 14 days by bioluminescent imaging (BLI). Osteolysis and reactive bone formation were assessed by X-ray and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The active bacterial infection peaked by 5 days post-inoculation, however the stability of the implant fixation became compromised by 10–14 days post-inoculation due to osteolysis around the screws. Thus, day 7 was defined as the ideal time point to perform the revision surgery. During the revision surgery, the infected tissue was debrided and the osteotomy was widened to 3 mm to place a poly-methyl methacrylate spacer, with or without vancomycin. Half of the groups also received systemic vancomycin for the remaining 21 days of the study. The viable bacteria remaining at the end of the study were measured using colony forming unit assays. Volumetric bone changes (osteolysis and reactive bone formation) were directly measured using micro-CT image analysis. Mice that were treated with

  19. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: models of terms in the Reynolds stress budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dritselis, Chris D, E-mail: dritseli@mie.uth.gr [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)

    2017-04-15

    In the first part of this study (Dritselis 2016 Fluid Dyn. Res. 48 015507), the Reynolds stress budgets were evaluated through point-particle direct numerical simulations (pp-DNSs) for the particle-laden turbulent flow in a vertical channel with two- and four-way coupling effects. Here several turbulence models are assessed by direct comparison of the particle contribution terms to the budgets, the dissipation rate, the pressure-strain rate, and the transport rate with the model expressions using the pp-DNS data. It is found that the models of the particle sources to the equations of fluid turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate cannot represent correctly the physics of the complex interaction between turbulence and particles. A relatively poor performance of the pressure-strain term models is revealed in the particulate flows, while the algebraic models for the dissipation rate of the fluid turbulence kinetic energy and the transport rate terms can adequately reproduce the main trends due to the presence of particles. Further work is generally needed to improve the models in order to account properly for the momentum exchange between the two phases and the effects of particle inertia, gravity and inter-particle collisions. (paper)

  1. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: models of terms in the Reynolds stress budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritselis, Chris D

    2017-01-01

    In the first part of this study (Dritselis 2016 Fluid Dyn. Res. 48 015507), the Reynolds stress budgets were evaluated through point-particle direct numerical simulations (pp-DNSs) for the particle-laden turbulent flow in a vertical channel with two- and four-way coupling effects. Here several turbulence models are assessed by direct comparison of the particle contribution terms to the budgets, the dissipation rate, the pressure-strain rate, and the transport rate with the model expressions using the pp-DNS data. It is found that the models of the particle sources to the equations of fluid turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate cannot represent correctly the physics of the complex interaction between turbulence and particles. A relatively poor performance of the pressure-strain term models is revealed in the particulate flows, while the algebraic models for the dissipation rate of the fluid turbulence kinetic energy and the transport rate terms can adequately reproduce the main trends due to the presence of particles. Further work is generally needed to improve the models in order to account properly for the momentum exchange between the two phases and the effects of particle inertia, gravity and inter-particle collisions. (paper)

  2. Microfluidic-enhanced 3D bioprinting of aligned myoblast-laden hydrogels leads to functionally organized myofibers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marco; Testa, Stefano; Mozetic, Pamela; Barbetta, Andrea; Fuoco, Claudia; Fornetti, Ersilia; Tamiro, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Trombetta, Marcella; Castagnoli, Luisa; Seliktar, Dror; Garstecki, Piotr; Cesareni, Gianni; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers. After 3-5 days of culture, the encapsulated myoblasts started migrating and fusing, forming multinucleated myotubes within the 3D bioprinted fibers. The obtained myotubes showed high degree of alignment along the direction of hydrogel fiber deposition, further revealing maturation, sarcomerogenesis, and functionality. Following subcutaneous implantation in the back of immunocompromised mice, bioprinted constructs generated organized artificial muscle tissue in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that our microfluidic printing head allows to design three dimensional multi-cellular assemblies with an exquisite compartmentalization of the encapsulated cells. Our results demonstrate an enhanced myogenic differentiation with the formation of parallel aligned long-range myotubes. The approach that we report here represents a robust and valid candidate for the fabrication of macroscopic artificial muscle to scale up skeletal muscle tissue engineering for human clinical application. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Dynamics in the Concentration, Flux, and Optical Properties of Tree-derived Dissolved Organic Matter (Tree-DOM) in an Epiphyte-laden Oak-cedar Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitetree, A.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Wagner, S.; Guillemette, F.; Lewis, J.; Silva, L.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow pathway typically begin in streams or soils, neglecting the initial enrichment of rainfall with DOM during contact with plant canopies. However, rain water can gather significant amounts of tree-derived DOM (tree-DOM) when it drains from the canopy, as throughfall, and down the stem, as stemflow. We examined the temporal variability of event-scale tree-DOM concentrations, yield, and optical (light absorbance and fluorescence) characteristics from an epiphyte-laden Quercus virginiana-Juniperus virginiana forest on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia (USA). All tree-DOM fluxes were highly enriched compared to rainfall and epiphytes further increased concentrations. Stemflow DOC concentrations were greater than throughfall across study species, yet larger throughfall water yields produced greater DOC yields versus stemflow. Tree-DOM optical characteristics indicate it is aromatic-rich with FDOM dominated by humic-like fluorescence, containing 10-20% protein-like (tryptophan-like) fluorescence. Storm size was the only storm condition that strongly correlated with tree-DOM concentration and flux; however, throughfall and stemflow optical characteristics varied little across a wide range of storm conditions (from low magnitude events to intense tropical storms). Annual tree-DOM yields from the study forest (0.8-46 g-C m-2 yr-1) compared well to other yields along the rainfall-to- discharge flow pathway, exceeding DOM yields from some river watersheds.

  4. Microvesicles released from fat-laden cells promote activation of hepatocellular NLRP3 inflammasome: A pro-inflammatory link between lipotoxicity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cannito

    Full Text Available Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is a major form of chronic liver disease in the general population in relation to its high prevalence among overweight/obese individuals and patients with diabetes type II or metabolic syndrome. NAFLD can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis and end-stage of liver disease but mechanisms involved are still incompletely characterized. Within the mechanisms proposed to mediate the progression of NAFLD, lipotoxicity is believed to play a major role. In the present study we provide data suggesting that microvesicles (MVs released by fat-laden cells undergoing lipotoxicity can activate NLRP3 inflammasome following internalization by either cells of hepatocellular origin or macrophages. Inflammasome activation involves NF-kB-mediated up-regulation of NLRP3, pro-caspase-1 and pro-Interleukin-1, then inflammasome complex formation and Caspase-1 activation leading finally to an increased release of IL-1β. Since the release of MVs from lipotoxic cells and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome have been reported to occur in vivo in either clinical or experimental NASH, these data suggest a novel rational link between lipotoxicity and increased inflammatory response.

  5. Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2014-02-01

    A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 (2-)/Al3 (+) mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 10(5) to 20 × 10(5) Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r=0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L(-1)), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L(-1) +20 mg L(-1)). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

  6. Temporal Dynamics in the Concentration, Flux, and Optical Properties of Tree-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in an Epiphyte-Laden Oak-Cedar Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Wagner, Sasha; Guillemette, François; Whitetree, Ansley; Lewis, Julius; Silva, Leticia; Stubbins, Aron

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow pathway typically begin in streams or soils, neglecting the initial enrichment of rainfall with DOM during contact with plant canopies. However, rain water can gather significant amounts of tree-derived DOM (tree-DOM) when it drains from the canopy, as throughfall, and down the stem, as stemflow. We examined the temporal variability of event-scale tree-DOM concentrations, yield, and optical (light absorbance and fluorescence) characteristics from an epiphyte-laden Quercus virginiana-Juniperus virginiana forest on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia (USA). All tree-DOM fluxes were highly enriched in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to rainfall, and epiphytes further increased concentrations. Stemflow DOC concentrations were greater than throughfall across study species, yet larger throughfall water yields produced greater DOC yields versus stemflow. Tree-DOM optical characteristics indicate it is aromatic-rich with fluorescent DOM dominated by humic-like fluorescence, containing 10-20% protein-like (tryptophan-like) fluorescence. Storm size was the only storm condition that strongly correlated with tree-DOM concentration and flux; however, throughfall and stemflow optical characteristics varied little across a wide range of storm conditions (from low magnitude events to intense tropical storms). Annual tree-DOM yields from the study forest (0.8-46 g C m-2 yr-1) were similar to other yields from discrete down-gradient fluxes (litter leachates, soil leachates, and stream discharge) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow path.

  7. Turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air-bubbles clustered near the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehal, D.; Métrailler, D.; Reboux, S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results of a turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air bubbles clustered near the wall (maximum void fraction of α = 8% at y+ ˜ 20). The bubbles were fully resolved using the level set approach built within the CFD/CMFD code TransAT. The fluid properties (air and water) were kept real, including density, viscosity, and surface tension coefficient. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the bubbles on near-wall turbulence, paving the way towards convective wall-boiling flow studies. The interactions between the gas bubbles and the water stream were studied through an in-depth analysis of the turbulence statistics. The near-wall flow is overall affected by the bubbles, which act like roughness elements during the early phase, prior to their departure from the wall. The average profiles are clearly altered by the bubbles dynamics near the wall, which somewhat contrasts with the findings from similar studies [J. Lu and G. Tryggvason, "Dynamics of nearly spherical bubbles in a turbulent channel upflow," J. Fluid Mech. 732, 166 (2013)], most probably because the bubbles were introduced uniformly in the flow and not concentrated at the wall. The shape of the bubbles measured as the apparent to initial diameter ratio is found to change by a factor of at least two, in particular at the later stages when the bubbles burst out from the boundary layer. The clustering of the bubbles seems to be primarily localized in the zone populated by high-speed streaks and independent of their size. More importantly, the bubbly flow seems to differ from the single-phase flow in terms of turbulent stress distribution and energy exchange, in which all the stress components seem to be increased in the region very close to the wall, by up to 40%. The decay in the energy spectra near the wall was found to be significantly slower for the bubbly flow than for a single-phase flow, which

  8. [Early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Guo, Liang

    2017-03-25

    To discuss the curative effect of the early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect. From December 2013 to January 2015, 36 cases of lower limb open comminuted fractures complicated with bone defects were treated by the vancomycin ALBC combined with the external fixation support, including 26 males and 10 females with an average age of 38.0 years old ranging from 19 to 65 years old. The included cases were all open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defects with different degree of soft tissue injuries. Among them, 25 cases were tibial fractures, 11 cases were femoral fractures. The radiographs indicated a presence of bone defects, which ranged from 3.0 to 6.1 cm with an average of 4.0 cm. The Gustilo classification of open fractures:24 cases were type IIIA, 12 cases were typr IIIB. The percentage of wound infection, bone grafting time, fracture healing time and postoperative joint function of lower limb were observed. The function of injured limbs was evaluated at 1 month after the clinical healing of fracture based on Paley evaluation criterion. All cases were followed up for 3 to 24 months with an average of (6.0±3.0) months. The wound surface was healed well, neither bone infections nor unhealed bone defects were presented. The reoperation of bone grafting was done at 6 weeks after the patients received an early treatment with ALBC, some of them were postponed to 8 weeks till the approximate healing of fractures, the treatment course lasted for 4 to 8 months with an average of(5.5±1.5) months. According to Paley and other grading evaluations of bone and function, there were 27 cases as excellent, 5 cases as good, 3 cases as ordinary. The ALBC combined with external fixation support was an effective method for early treatment to treat the traumatic lower limb open fractures complicated with bone defects. This method

  9. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sozzi

    Full Text Available The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A and low pH (Protocol B environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such

  10. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  11. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  12. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timounay Yousra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  13. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  14. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using ''in vivo'' and ''in vitro'' analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose models. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, B.; Gallo, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Lioy, P.J.; Tate, R.

    1998-01-01

    'The authors hypotheses are: (1) the more closely the synthetic, in vitro, extractant mimics the extraction properties of the human digestive bio-fluids, the more accurate will be the estimate of an internal dose; (2) performance can be evaluated by in vivo studies with a rat model and quantitative examination of a mass balance, calculation and dose estimates from model simulations for the in vitro and in vivo system; and (3) the concentration of the elements Pb, Cd, Cr and selected Radionuclides present in the bioavailable fraction obtained with a synthetic extraction system will be a better indicator of contaminant ingestion from a contaminated soil because it represents the portion of the mass which can yield exposure, uptake and then the internal dose to an individual. As of April 15, 1998, they have made significant progress in the development of a unified approach to the examination of bioavailability and bioaccessibility of elemental contamination of soils for the ingestion route of exposure. This includes the initial characterization of the soil, in vitro measurements of bioaccessibility, and in vivo measurements of bioavailability. They have identified the basic chemical and microbiological characteristics of waste laden soils. These have been used to prioritize the soils for potential mobility of the trace elements present in the soil. Subsequently they have employed a mass balance technique, which for the first time tracked the movement and distribution of elements through an in vitro or in vivo experimental protocol to define the bioaccessible and the bioavailable fractions of digested soil. The basic mass balance equation for the in vitro system is: MT = MSGJ + MIJ + MR. where MT is the total mass extractable by a specific method, MSGJ, is the mass extracted by the saliva and the gastric juices, MIJ is the mass extracted by the intestinal fluid, and MR is the unextractable portion of the initial mass. The above is based upon the use of a synthetic

  15. 75 FR 5320 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ..., identified by FR 4004, FR MSD-4, FR MSD-5, FR G-FIN, or FR G-FINW, by any of the following methods: Agency... form number: FR MSD-4 and FR MSD-5. OMB control number: 7100-0100 and 7100-0101. Frequency: On occasion... dealers. Estimated annual reporting hours: FR MSD-4, 48 hours; and FR MSD-5, 36 hours. Estimated average...

  16. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the... through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, installed. Propeller blades reworked to Hamilton Sundstrand Service...

  17. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  18. Membrane Biotreatment of VOC-Laden Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peretti, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...%, depending primarily on air contact time. Octanol was used as the stripping fluid because of its low vapor pressure and water solubility, its high partitioning of VOCs from air, and its compatibility...

  19. 75 FR 62333 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the regulatory... that the 247F propeller blades, P/N 817370-1, S/Ns FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, manufactured since January 1999, might also have...

  20. 76 FR 7101 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ..., except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the regulatory evaluation, any comments received... blades part number (P/N) 817370-1, S/Ns FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, before December 31, 2010. We determined that those S/N...

  1. 75 FR 19973 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Municipal Securities Dealer. Agency form number: FR MSD-4 and FR MSD-5. OMB control number: 7100-0100 and... activities as municipal securities dealers. Estimated annual reporting hours: FR MSD-4, 48 hours; and FR MSD-5, 36 hours. Estimated average hours per response: FR MSD-4, 1 hour; and FR MSD- 5, 0.25 hours...

  2. 75 FR 14131 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... electronically through an online application system at http://www.broadbandusa.gov . (75 FR at 3805). NTIA... March 26, 2010. (75 FR 10464, Mar. 8, 2010). NTIA announces this extension in the Application Closing...

  3. 77 FR 7968 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Regulation Sequence No. Title Identifier No. 392 Non-Federal Oil and Gas 1024-AD78 Rights. National Park.... Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/12 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact... anaconda, and Beni anaconda. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite ANPRM 01/31/08 73 FR 5784 ANPRM Comment Period...

  4. 76 FR 40052 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... for Infusion Pumps. 165 Food Labeling: Nutrition 0910-AG56 Labeling for Food Sold in Vending Machines. 166 Food Labeling: Nutrition 0910-AG57 Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009). Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/14/10 75 FR 40867...

  5. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Maritime Communications ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in the Maritime Radio..., 2010 (75 FR 5241) to ensure that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  7. Knowledge Preservation and Data Collection on FR in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Donghui

    2013-01-01

    China has established the knowledge preservation and data collection system on FR preliminary and some data has been used to design new fast reactor, such as CFR600. • The best way to preserve FR knowledge is to construct a real fast reactor. All of the FR member countries should push FR commercialization forward together. • The agency could push the FR data collaboration based on some necessary roles

  8. Energy-saving measures in the electrocar. Pt. 1 and 2. 1. Energy-optimized recuperative braking. 2. Energy-optimized charging of traction batteries; Energiesparmassnahmen am Elektroauto. T. 1 und 2. T. 1: Energieoptimiertes rekuperatives Bremsen. T. 2: Energieoptimiertes Laden von Traktionsbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetting, G.; Willer, B.; Knorr, R.

    2001-07-01

    The first part of the research project was titled ''energy-optimized recuperative braking''. In this part, several braking strategies, especially those for use in electro vehicles which in addition to the mechanical brakes of the vehicle also incorporate the electrical drive into the brake system were compared with the support of a simulation model and evaluated. The paper reports both on the simulation model used and on the possibilities of saving energy which can be achieved using the various braking strategies for differing driving cycles. In the second part of the research project, ''energy-optimized charging of traction batteries'', possible methods of charging traction batteries of electro vehicles are shown and assessed with regard to the battery efficiency under various conditions of application. [German] In dem unter der Ueberschrift 'Energieoptimiertes rekuperatives Bremsen' laufenden ersten Teil des Forschungsvorhabens wurden verschiedene und speziell fuer den Einsatz im Elektrofahrzeug entworfene Bremsstrategien, die neben den mechanischen Bremsen des Fahrzeugs auch den elektrischen Antrieb in das Bremssystem einbeziehen, mit Hilfe eines Simulationsmodells verglichen und bewertet. Im Bericht werden sowohl das verwendete Simulationsmodell erlaeutert als auch die energetischen Einsparmoeglichkeiten, die sich mit den verschiedenen Bremsstrategien fuer unterschiedliche Fahrzyklen erzielen lassen, aufgezeigt. Im zweiten Teil des Forschungsvorhabens ('Energieoptimiertes Laden von Traktionsbatterien') wurden moegliche Ladeverfahren fuer Traktionsbatterien von Elektrofahrzeugen aufgezeigt und hinsichtlich des Batteriewirkungsgrades bei unterschiedlichen Einsatzbedingungen beurteilt. In die Untersuchungen waren Blei-, NiMH-, NaNiCl{sub 2}- und Lithium-Batterien eingeschlossen. (orig.)

  9. 78 FR 59723 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... to prevent regulator tampering. 9. The air spray manifold will consist of a schedule 80 steel pipe.... The mine will exhaust dust-laden air from the booth into a local exhaust ventilation system or duct...

  10. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. OSHA subsequently made several minor revisions to the standard (37 FR... explosives; storing ammonium nitrate; and storing small arms ammunition, small arms primers, and small arms..., which is extremely widespread, causes lung disease, silicosis and lung cancer. Terminating the...

  11. SN 2012fr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Burns, Christopher R.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr, which exploded in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1365. These precise high-cadence light curves provide a dense coverage of the flux evolution from -12 to +140 days with respect to the epo...

  12. Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System (FR-KOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Livio

    2013-01-01

    FR-KOS Web-portal general concepts: FR-KOS web-portal is an integrated and unique solution for knowledge preservation, retrieval and management in fast reactor (FR) knowledge domain; The exploitation of the FR-KOS provides an effective and flexible tool to access FR knowledge repositories. The dynamic and interactive process of searching information is guided by structures that are based on the FR Taxonomy; FR-KOS can be extended to other types of reactor and technologies, such as PWR, WWER, BWR, CANDU, etc. In addition can also be utilized in other information management process such as the preservation of nuclear accidents knowledg;. FR-KOS addresses needs in non-structured knowledge preservation for both embarking countries and countries with established nuclear power; FR-KOS repositories contain more that 50.000 samples of technical and scientific publications, including full text documents in different languages (English, German, French and eventually in Russian)

  13. 78 FR 47024 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Readiness). Department of Education......... Office of the Under Executive Director, DB130022 4/3/2013... Kaplan, Acting Director. [FR Doc. 2013-18607 Filed 8-1-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6325-39-P ...

  14. 78 FR 24785 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Spring, Logan Branch Watershed), Spring Township, Centre County, Pa. Application for surface water...: April 19, 2013. Paul O. Swartz, Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2013-09887 Filed 4-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  15. Biomass Pyrolysis in DNS of Turbulent Particle-Laden Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Fröhlich, Jochen; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is important for co-firing in coal power plants thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Modeling the combustion of biomass involves various physical and chemical processes, which take place successively and even simultaneously [1, 2]. An important step in biomass combustion is pyrolysis, in which

  16. Electrical safety in flammable gas/vapor laden atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Korver, WOE

    1992-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of electrical system installation within areas where flammable gases and liquids are handled and processed. The accurate hazard evaluation of flammability risks associated with chemical and petrochemical locations is critical in determining the point at which the costs of electrical equipment and installation are balanced with explosion safety requirements. The book offers the most current code requirements along with tables and illustrations as analytic tools. Environmental characteristics are covered in Section 1 along with recommended electrical ins

  17. Solar battery charging; Sonne in den Akku laden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Martin

    2012-01-30

    Swiss battery producer Leclanche intends serial production of lithium ion cells for storage of renewable energy. A production facility at Kehl, Germany, is currently under construction. Schueco International KG is one of the first customers.

  18. Transpiring purging access probe for particulate laden or hazardous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOsdol, John G

    2013-12-03

    An access probe for remote-sensing access through a viewing port, viewing volume, and access port into a vessel. The physical boundary around the viewing volume is partially formed by a porous sleeve lying between the viewing volume and a fluid conduit. In a first mode of operation, a fluid supplied to the fluid conduit encounters the porous sleeve and flows through the porous material to maintain the viewing volume free of ash or other matter. When additional fluid force is needed to clear the viewing volume, the pressure of the fluid flow is increased sufficiently to slidably translate the porous sleeve, greatly increasing the flow into the viewing volume. The porous sleeve is returned to position by an actuating spring. The access probe thereby provides for alternate modes of operation based on the pressure of an actuating fluid.

  19. Exorcising the Ghost - or Spectres of Bin Laden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Torsten Arni Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The article examines Zero Dark Thirty as a narrative treatment of a traumatic moment of crisis. The article proposes perspectives on a narrative logic and the means by which this logic is executed. It does so by using Derrida’s notion of spectrality as demonstrated in his readings of Shakespeare’s...... Hamlet as well as his analysis of archival spectrality (Derrida, 2006 and Derrida, 1995). This Derridean perspective allows us to see the movie as an attempt to confront the horrors of crisis and bring the ensuing disequilibrium back into balance. This process, however, entails a complicated negotiation...

  20. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  1. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Kassamakov, Ivan; Ehlers, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The developments in printing technologies allow fabrication of micron-size nano-layered delivery systems to personal specifications. In this study we fabricated layered polymer structures for drug-delivery into a microfluidic channel and aimed to interferometrically assure their topography...

  2. On Words: Clausewitz, Bin Laden, and Public Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddock, Ellen K

    2002-01-01

    As the events of September 11, 2001 crashed down on millions of Twin Towers and Pentagons on every television and information medium worldwide, the American psyche suffered feelings of shock, sorrow, fear, and anger...

  3. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. S.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion.

  4. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T S; Majdalani, J

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion

  5. Fully stratified particle-laden flow in horizontal circular pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Kysela, Bohuš; Chára, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-185 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse-grained slurry * flow structure * liquid local velocity * particle velocity * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014

  6. Target Lagrangian kinematic simulation for particle-laden flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S; Lightstone, M F; Tullis, S

    2016-09-01

    The target Lagrangian kinematic simulation method was motivated as a stochastic Lagrangian particle model that better synthesizes turbulence structure, relative to stochastic separated flow models. By this method, the trajectories of particles are constructed according to synthetic turbulent-like fields, which conform to a target Lagrangian integral timescale. In addition to recovering the expected Lagrangian properties of fluid tracers, this method is shown to reproduce the crossing trajectories and continuity effects, in agreement with an experimental benchmark.

  7. Turbulence modulation in dilute particle-laden flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Lightstone, M. F.; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    augmentation of the carrier phase turbulence is expected, and small particles, for which attenuation is expected. The new model is derived directly from the balance equations of fluid flow and represents a combination of the so-called standard and consistent approaches. The performance of the new model......A new particle source term to account for the effect of particles on the turbulence equations based on the Euler/Lagrange approach is introduced and compared with existing models and experimental data. Three different sizes of particles are considered to cover the range of large particles, where...

  8. 78 FR 40778 - Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... information. ADDRESSES: Mayflower Renaissance Hotel Washington, 1127 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington DC 20036..., 2013. Diane Janosek, Chief Legal Officer, Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. [FR Doc. 2013...

  9. 75 FR 4408 - Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., pharmaceutical companies, health care delivery organizations, agricultural producers, consumer groups, and other...: January 20, 2010. Tanja Popovic, Chief Science Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR...

  10. 75 FR 30003 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... and title, by any of the following methods: * Federal Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov..., 2006; 71 FR 35342) and OPM/GOVT-5, Recruiting, Examining, and Placement Records (June 19, 2006; 71 FR...

  11. 78 FR 37565 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Living Treasures Wild 77 FR 68809; November January 22, 2013. Animal Park. 16, 2012. 88777A Wild Wonders... 70457; November January 11, 2013. 26, 2012. 713600 Kingdom Of The Mammals. 77 FR 70457; November January... International Center 78 FR 12777; February April 11, 2013. For The Preservation 25, 2013. Of Wild Animals...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  13. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... other financial statements submitted to the securities holding company's current consolidated supervisor... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial...

  14. 75 FR 50763 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... competitors of the Federal Reserve Board. The data from the surveys primarily are used to determine the... and Salary Surveys. Agency form number: FR 29a,b. OMB control number: 7100-0290. Frequency: FR 29a, annually; FR 29b, on occasion. Reporters: Employers considered competitors for Federal Reserve employees...

  15. 78 FR 30327 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    .... Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date Endangered Species 65816A Lewis Henderson........ 77... FR 24510; April 24, June 1, 2012. 2012. 69106A Lewis Henderson........ 77 FR 24510; April 24, June 1... 11, 2012. 2012. 213382 Virginia Safari Park & 77 FR 26779; May 7, July 21, 2012. Preservation Center...

  16. 75 FR 81349 - Change to the Reporting Date for Certain Data Elements Required Under the Mandatory Reporting of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... facilities. Ammonia Manufacturing 325311 Anhydrous and aqueous ammonia manufacturing facilities. Cement Production 327310 Portland Cement manufacturing plants. Electronics Manufacturing 334111 Microcomputers.... Ammonia Manufacturing......... G 74 FR 56260, Revised 11-24- 2010. Cement Production H 74 FR 56260, 75 FR...

  17. 75 FR 57690 - Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... general guidelines issued by OMB. OMB's guidelines were published at 67 FR 8452 (February 22, 2002), and DOE's guidelines were published at 67 FR 62446 (October 7, 2002). DOE has reviewed today's rule under... products. (5) Environmentally preferable and energy efficient electronics including desktop computers...

  18. 78 FR 44275 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Rights. National Park Service--Completed Actions Regulation Sequence No. Title Identifier No. 200 Winter.... Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/13 Final Action 05/00/14 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required...: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 10/00/14 Final Action 10/00/14 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes...

  19. 76 FR 50881 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... required scale tests. Those documents defined ``limited seasonal basis'' incorrectly. This document... 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485) and on April 4, 2011 (76 FR 18348), concerning required scale tests. Those...

  20. 78 FR 1570 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Deregulatory Priorities. Gregory H. Woods, General Counsel. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy--Proposed... Action 10/01/12 77 FR 59719 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Stephen Witkowski, Phone: 202 586-7463, Email: stephen[email protected] . RIN: 1904-AB90 [FR Doc. 2012-31497...

  1. ionFR: Ionospheric Faraday rotation [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomayor-Beltran, C.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Markoff, S.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    IonFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be

  2. 76 FR 58300 - Affirmative Decisions on Petitions for Modification Granted in Whole or in Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This Federal Register... Affected: 30 CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Docket Number: M-2009-005-C. FR Notice: 74 FR 23747 (May 20... CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Docket Number: M-2009-006-C. FR Notice: 74 FR 23748 (May 20, 2009...

  3. 75 FR 66762 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... and Salary Surveys. Agency form number: FR 29a,b. OMB control number: 7100-0290. Frequency: FR 29a, annually; FR 29b, on occasion. Reporters: Employers considered competitors for Federal Reserve employees... Institutions Reforms, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) agencies \\1\\ conduct the FR 29a survey...

  4. Future dynamics in f(R) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Andrade, V.C. de; Maia, C.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2015-01-01

    The f(R) gravity theories provide an alternative way to explain the current cosmic acceleration without invoking a dark energy matter component used in the cosmological modeling in the framework of general relativity. However, the freedom in the choice of the functional forms of f(R) gives rise to the problem of the degeneracy among these gravity theories on theoretical and (or) observational grounds. In this paper we examine the question as to whether the future dynamics can be used to break the degeneracy between f(R) gravity theories by investigating the dynamics of spatially homogeneous and isotropic dust flat models in two f(R) gravity theories, namely the well known f(R) = R+αR n gravity and another byAviles et al., whose motivation comes from the cosmographic approach to f(R) gravity. We perform a detailed numerical study of the dynamics of these theories taking into account the recent constraints on the cosmological parameters made by the Planck Collaboration. We demonstrate that besides being useful for discriminating between these two f(R) gravity theories, the future dynamics technique can also be used to determine the finite-time behavior as well as the fate of the Universe in the framework of these f(R) gravity theories. There also emerges from our analysis the result that one still can have a dust flat FLRWsolution with a big rip, if gravity is governed by f(R) = R+αR n . We also show that FLRW dust solutions with f'' < 0 do not necessarily lead to singularities. (orig.)

  5. Comparative design study of FR plants with various coolants. 1. Studies on Na coolant FR, Pb-Bi coolant FR, gas coolant FR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomura, Mamoru; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Hori, Toru; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kida, Masanori; Kasai, Shigeo; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2001-01-01

    In Phase I of the Feasibility Studies on the Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle System, plant designs on FR were performed with various coolants. This report describes the plant designs on FR with sodium, lead-bismuth, CO 2 gas and He gas coolants. A construction cost of 0.2 million yen/kWe was set up as a design goal. The result is as follows: The sodium reactor has a capability to obtain the goal, and lead-bismuth and gas reactors may satisfy the goal with further improvements. (author)

  6. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services..., 2010. Sandra Paylor-Sanders, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2010... Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION...

  7. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2012-13044 Filed 5-30-12; 8:45 am...: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  8. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C). This calculation will be effective as of the due... to rely on tentative fourth quarter financial statements in developing its capital plan and suggested... rule applies only to bank holding companies with $50 billion or more of total consolidated assets...

  9. 76 FR 35351 - Capital Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... reflected on the bank holding company's consolidated financial statement for bank holding companies (FR Y-9C... distribution (the proposal or proposed rule).\\1\\ During the years leading up to the recent financial crisis... times of economic and financial stress. The proposal is intended to address such practices, building...

  10. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  11. 75 FR 7150 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ....3, 515.21, and 520.3--Request for Extension of Time. Contact Person for More Information: Rachel Dickon, Assistant Secretary, (202) 523-5725. Rachel Dickon, Assistant Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010-3063 Filed...

  12. Geschichtswissenschaftliche Perspektiven der Frühneuzeitforschung

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhardt, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geschichtswissenschaftliche Perspektiven der Frühneuzeitforschung. - In: Macht und Recht / Ulrich Lappenküper ... (Hrsg.). - Paderborn u.a. : Schöningh, 2010. - S. 33-51. - (Otto-von-Bismarck-Stiftung: Wissenschaftliche Reihe ; 13)

  13. 75 FR 9725 - Free Annual File Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... activities of companies that attempt to trick people into buying something that they are entitled by Federal... maintain the file disclosure for future reference. 74 FR at 52917- 918. Cf. Franchise Rule, 16 CFR 436.6(b...

  14. 78 FR 62311 - Leif Erikson Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... our Nordic-American heritage, the Congress, by joint resolution (Public Law 88-566) approved on... thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24501 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  15. 76 FR 17459 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... available in alternate formats to accommodate visual and hearing impairments. Individuals who have a disability and need an accommodation to attend the meeting may notify Katherine Ward, at (202) 295-1500 or FR...

  16. Servants of Peitho: Pindar fr.122

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Pippin Burnett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pindar's skolion fr.122 need not concern temple prostitutes of Aphrodite, but is rather a sympotic celebration of a private person's donation of prostitutes for the enjoyment of a party of men of Corinth.

  17. 75 FR 33355 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    .... 2. Consider and act on revisions to the LSC Accounting Guide for LSC Recipients. 3. Public comment.... Batie, Corporate Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010-14171 Filed 6-9-10; 4:15 pm] BILLING CODE 7050-01-P ...

  18. 76 FR 48874 - Notice of Meetings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Advisory Committees (Advisory Committee for Women's Services, and the Tribal Technical Advisory Committee... Workplace Programs, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. [FR Doc. 2011-20026 Filed 8-8...

  19. 78 FR 1832 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... be free and open to the public. If you require a translator or interpreter, please notify the... the agency Web site at: www.csb.gov . Dated: January 7, 2013. Rafael Moure-Eraso, Chairperson. [FR Doc...

  20. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI), 12350 Research Parkway, Orlando... Orlando, Orlando, FL. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations. [FR Doc. 2010-29753 Filed 11...

  1. 78 FR 44247 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... published previously a final rule establishing energy conservation standards for ice-cream freezers, self... and to add a test for measuring ice maker energy use. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/13...

  2. 78 FR 69097 - Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Michael Etzinger, Executive Officer and Director, Office of Management, Technology and Operations. Janine... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-27423 Filed 11-15-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  3. 76 FR 56724 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Town of Clarkstown. Hackensack River confluence. At the upstream side of +248 +247 Little Tor Road... Emergency Management Agency. [FR Doc. 2011-23413 Filed 9-13-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 9110-12-P ...

  4. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Radioactive materials, Veterans, Vietnam. Approved: June 6, 2012. Robert C. McFetridge, Direc tor, Regulation... distinct type''. [FR Doc. 2012-14108 Filed 6-8-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 8320-01-P ...

  5. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of OMB Approval of Information Collection. SUMMARY... collection, Rail Depreciation Studies. See 78 FR 18676 (Mar. 27, 2013). This collection, codified at 49 CFR...

  6. 75 FR 12564 - Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Privacy Act and Freedom of Information Act, by any party who submits a written request for a copy of such.... University. 225854 Tom S. Smith, Brigham 74 FR 57702; November February 18, 2010 Young University. 9, 2009...

  7. 75 FR 42470 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ..., Greeley, Harlan, Hayes, Holt, Howard, Keya Paha, Knox, Lincoln, Logan, Loup, Madison, Mcpherson, Morrill... and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-17778 Filed...

  8. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-1582 Filed 1-26-10...

  9. 76 FR 4266 - New Mexico Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Requirements, Permit Eligibility, definitions of Ownership and Control, the AVS, Alternative Enforcement (65 FR 79582); and October 28, 1994, Use of the AVS in Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Permit Approval...

  10. Geodesic congruences in the Palatini f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojai, Fatimah; Shojai, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri's equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also, we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri's equation.

  11. 76 FR 12271 - Human Reliability Program: Identification of Reviewing Official

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... federalism implications. Agencies are required to examine the constitutional and statutory authority...) of Executive Order 12988, ``Civil Justice Reform'' (61 FR 4729, February 7, 1996), imposes on Federal...

  12. Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)

    2016-02-15

    The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.

  13. f(R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra [Presidency University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Chakraborty, Subenoy [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    The scalar-tensor f(R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f(R) gravity formalism. These f(R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R) = R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat. (orig.)

  14. 76 FR 33806 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Only): Alabama: Limestone, Madison. Tennessee: Bedford, Franklin, Giles, Marshall, Moore. All other... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-14274...

  15. 75 FR 51119 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Loans): Madison, Mason, Rowan. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kentucky: Bath... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc...

  16. 76 FR 35937 - New York Disaster #NY-00105

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, Madison, Niagara, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, Steuben, Tioga, Ulster, Warren... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc...

  17. 77 FR 68076 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... preserve the environmental benefits provided by CAIR, North Carolina v. EPA, 550 F.3d 1176, 1178 (DC Cir... CSR 19. See 71 FR 64468 (November 2, 2006) (approving NSR program into the SIP) and 77 FR 63736...

  18. 76 FR 36879 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Treatment Subcategories for Radioactively Contaminated Cadmium-, Mercury-, and Silver- Containing Batteries..., 1998 (63 FR 28556) Land Disposal Restrictions Phase IV; Hazardous Soils Treatment Standards and..., October 22, 1998 (63 FR 56710) Hazardous Remediation Waste Management Requirements (HWIR-Media), Checklist...

  19. 78 FR 11858 - Applications for New Awards; Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486), and corrected on May 12, 2011 (76 FR 27637). Arts includes music... baseline outcome measurement is compared with a post treatment measure, the treatment would then be stopped...

  20. 75 FR 6151 - Chartering and Field of Membership for Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... the terms ``rural district'' and ``in danger of insolvency'' for emergency merger purposes. 74 FR... the term ``in danger of insolvency'' for emergency merger purposes. 74 FR 68722 (December 29, 2009...

  1. 78 FR 27058 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Approval of Section 110...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... and Fuels (69 FR 38958); and (4) EPA's Locomotive and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines rule (73 FR... Products Group IV (Miscellaneous Metal Products Coatings, Plastic Parts Coatings, Auto and Light-Duty Truck...

  2. 77 FR 62150 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Approval of Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ....34 Standard of 10/23/01 66 FR 53661 05/15/91 Performance for Existing Pneumatic Rubber Tire... Abbreviations and 11/19/02 67 FR 69688 05/15/02 Acronyms. 1.04 Performance Tests... 10/23/01 66 FR 53660 11/19... 10/23/01 66 FR 53660 06/13/79 Requirements. Reg 6--Standards of Performance for Existing Affected...

  3. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 × 10 8 yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 × 10 37 W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  4. 78 FR 6107 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Derivatives Market Activity (FR 3036; OMB No. 7100-0285). The FR 2436 collects similar data on the outstanding... of Foreign Exchange and Derivative Market Activity. Agency form number: FR 3036. OMB control number... and derivatives market and dealers. Estimated annual reporting hours: Turnover Survey, 2,275 hours...

  5. 78 FR 47412 - Tyson D. Quy, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Green, Jr., M.D., 59 FR 51,453 (DEA 1994); David E. Trawick, D.D.S., 53 FR 5,326 (DEA 1988). Here, the...) (ten years); Norman Alpert, M.D., 58 FR 67,420, 67,421 (DEA 1993) (seven years). Here, the conditions...

  6. 75 FR 58305 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Revised Format for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... monoxide, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead, Nitrogen dioxide... 60735 Sec. 6. 7/31/2009 11/20/2009, 74 FR 60197 Sec. 3. 1-2 Definitions 9/26/1980 11/5/1981, 46 FR 54943.../2009, 74 FR 52891.... Paragraph (c). and Marion Cos. 2009 Chicago Hydrocarbon Control Strategy..... 8...

  7. 77 FR 59244 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of Currently-Approved Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... September 30, 1998 (63 FR 52192). Pursuant to this authority, the BTS, now part of the Research and... transferred the responsibility for the F&OS program from BTS to FMCSA (69 FR 51009). On August 10, 2006 (71 FR... financial and statistical reporting regulations of BTS formerly located in chapter XI of title 49 CFR to...

  8. 77 FR 24762 - Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... instruction standards. Refer to Hyundai Motor Company (74 FR 9125, March 2, 209); Ford Motor Company (73 FR 11462, March 3, 2008); Mazda North America Operations (73 FR 11464, March 3, 2008); Ford Motor Company...-0176; Notice 2] Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  9. f(R) gravity and chameleon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Bruck, Carsten van de; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze f(R) modifications of Einstein's gravity as dark energy models in the light of their connection with chameleon theories. Formulated as scalar-tensor theories, the f(R) theories imply the existence of a strong coupling of the scalar field to matter. This would violate all experimental gravitational tests on deviations from Newton's law. Fortunately, the existence of a matter dependent mass and a thin-shell effect allows one to alleviate these constraints. The thin-shell condition also implies strong restrictions on the cosmological dynamics of the f(R) theories. As a consequence, we find that the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to be extremely close to -1 in the recent past. We also examine the potential effects of f(R) theories in the context of the Eoet-wash experiments. We show that the requirement of a thin shell for the test bodies is not enough to guarantee a null result on deviations from Newton's law. As long as dark energy accounts for a sizeable fraction of the total energy density of the Universe, the constraints that we deduce also forbid any measurable deviation of the dark energy equation of state from -1. All in all, we find that both cosmological and laboratory tests imply that f(R) models are almost coincident with a ΛCDM model at the background level.

  10. 77 FR 67816 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... complements the triennial Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity (FR 3036; OMB No. 7100... Derivative Market Activity. Agency form number: FR 3036. OMB control number: 7100-0285. Frequency: One-time... derivatives market and dealers. Estimated annual reporting hours: Turnover Survey, 2,275 hours; Outstandings...

  11. 78 FR 71565 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of Business Liaison Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development... amending the Notice published at 78 FR 48855, August 12, 2013, regarding the Secretarial Infrastructure..., Trade Program Assistant. [FR Doc. 2013-28579 Filed 11-27-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-FP-P ...

  12. Le developpement de Limacella glioderma (Fr.) R. Maire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, A.F.M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the development of Limacella guttata (Fr.) Konrad & Maublanc with that of L. glioderma (Fr.) R. Maire shows clearly that the latter is of a more primitive type. This conclusion is based on the following observations: a. Limacella guttata has a pileocarpic development: the first

  13. 78 FR 38976 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ...)). Abstract: The Federal Reserve proposes to implement the mandatory Report of Selected Money Market Rates (FR... used in the analysis of current money market conditions. The FR 2420 would collect data for three.... Excluded from Eurodollar transactions are: Demand deposits (as defined on the Schedule E of the Call Report...

  14. 76 FR 73604 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Defense. Deletion: K890.12 Identity Management (IDM) (March 18, 2010, 75 FR 13090). Reason: Due to policy... (SAAM) project (formerly known as Identity Management). [FR Doc. 2011-30698 Filed 11-28-11; 8:45 am... Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria...

  15. 76 FR 65653 - New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... current within their review cycle, there are also multiple standards in different phases of the review... Rock Plants NN 04/16/1982 (47FR16589) 10/17/2000 3 4 (65FR61760) Polymeric Coating of Supporting VVV 09... whether review of a particular NSPS is necessary during the review cycle. A listing of any NSPS for which...

  16. 75 FR 63181 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... recordkeeping requirement for brokers and dealers to document the purpose of their loans secured by margin stock.... The purpose statements, FR U-1 and FR G-3, are recordkeeping requirements for brokers and dealers... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY...

  17. 78 FR 48932 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... make corresponding revisions to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Holding Companies (FR Y-9C... Parent Company Only Financial Statements for Holding Companies (FR Y-9SP). DATES: Comments must be... the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC), have approved the publication for...

  18. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  19. Computing the Fréchet distance between folded polygons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook IV, A.F.; Driemel, A.; Sherette, J.; Wenk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Computing the Fréchet distance for surfaces is a surprisingly hard problem and the only known polynomial-time algorithm is limited to computing it between flat surfaces. We study the problem of computing the Fréchet distance for a class of non-flat surfaces called folded polygons. We present a

  20. 77 FR 26777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... not operate to the disadvantage of the endangered species, and (3) The granted permit would be..., 2012. 64654A Double Springs 77 FR 6816; March 14, 2012. Partnership Ltd. February 9, 2012. 64656A Double Springs 77 FR 6816; March 14, 2012. Partnership Ltd. February 9, 2012. 64723A Larry Friesenhahn...

  1. 75 FR 47797 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Officer, Department of Defense. Deletion: S330.40 CAHS System name: Employee Assistance Program Records (August 27, 1999; 64 FR 46889). Reason: This collection is covered under the existing DHHS/FOH EAP Privacy notice 09-90-0010, entitled ``Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Records, HHS/OS/ASAM/OHR.'' [FR Doc. 2010...

  2. 78 FR 34120 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., 2012 October 22, 2012. 73893A A.C. Ranch 77 FR 46514; August 3, September 27, 2012. 2012. 75535A Dub...; August 3, September 27, 2012. 2012. 75592A Dub Wallace Ranch LLC..... 77 FR 46514; August 3, September 27...

  3. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f(R) cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f(R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f(R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f(R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f(R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f(R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  4. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f(R) cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Lahore Campus, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f(R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f(R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f(R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f(R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f(R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  5. Spectroscopy of high spin states in sup(211,212,213)Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Hubel, H.; Poletti, A.R.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Gerl, J.; Davie, R.F.; Poletti, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    The level structures of 211 Fr, 212 Fr and 213 Fr have been observed to high spins, approx. 28(h/2π) (and excitation energies approx. 8 MeV) using a variety of gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques. The structure of these nuclides is discussed in terms of couplings of single particle states through empirical shell model calculations. Good agreement with experiment is obtained. In 212 Fr and 213 Fr core-excited configurations are required to explain the properties of the highest states. A number of long lived states were observed in each nucleus some of which decay by by enhanced E3 transitions. The E3 transition strengths are discussed

  6. Multidimensional evaluation on FR cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai; Fujii, Sumio; Takakuma, Katsuyuki; Katoh, Atsushi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Ohtaki, Akira; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    This report explains some results of the multidimensional evaluation on various fast reactor cycle system concepts from an interim report of the 2nd phase of ''Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle System''. This method is designed to give more objective and more quantitative evaluations to clarify commercialized system candidate concepts. Here we brief current evaluation method from the five viewpoints of safety, economy, environment, resource and non-proliferation, with some trial evaluation results for some cycles consist of promising technologies in reactor, core and fuel, reprocessing and fuel manufacture. Moreover, we describe FR cycle deployment scenarios which describe advantages and disadvantages of the cycles from the viewpoints of uranium resource and radioactive waste based on long-term nuclear material mass flow analyses and advantages of the deployment of FR cycle itself from the viewpoints of the comparison with alternative power supplies as well as cost and benefit. (author)

  7. Alpha decay 225 Ac → 221Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, K. Ya.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Malov, L.A.; Fominykh, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.V.; Chumin, V.G.; Jakushev, E.A.; Kudrya, S.A.; Sergienko, V.A.; Malikov, Sh.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Considerable attention has been given to nuclei with A = 220 - 230 recently. In this region there occurs transition from the spherical to the deformed nuclear shape, which gives rise to some specific features in the nuclear structure. In particular, negative parity levels with low excitation energies have been found in even-even nuclei from this region [1, 2]. One of the nuclei allowing experimental investigation of the above properties is 221 Fr. The nuclide 221 Fr is from the region of isotopes which does not include stable nuclei and thus it cannot be studied in several-nucleon transfer reactions. In addition, the neutron excess in this nucleus makes it impossible to study the nucleus in reactions with heavy ions. Experimental information on the 221 Fr level structure can only be gained from investigation of the 225 Ac (T 1/2 = 10 days) alpha decay or the 221 Rn (T 1/2 = 25 min) beta decay. In the latter case the possibilities of the investigation are restricted by difficulties in making of 221 Rn sources. Therefore, most information on the structure and properties of 221 Fr is derived from investigation of the 225 Ac α -decay [3]. In-depth investigation of ( α - γ )- coincidences at the 225 Ac decay is carried out. Twenty-one new weak γ - rays are found; 18 γ-rays earlier ascribed to the 225 Ac decay are not confirmed. The quantitative analysis of the ( α - γ )- coincidences makes it possible to find the intensity of 221 Fr levels by the decay and multipolarities of five weak γ -transitions. The conversion electron spectrum is investigated in the range of 5 † 24 keV with a high (some 20 eV) energy resolution. A new M1 type 10.6-keV γ-transition is found. The proposed 225 Ac decay scheme includes 31 excited 221 Fr states. Parities are established for 16 of them. Possible spin values are proposed for 221 Fr levels. Properties of excited 221 Fr states are satisfactorily described by the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model without the

  8. Robust approach to f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaime, Luisa G.; Patino, Leonardo; Salgado, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We consider metric f(R) theories of gravity without mapping them to their scalar-tensor counterpart, but using the Ricci scalar itself as an ''extra'' degree of freedom. This approach avoids then the introduction of a scalar-field potential that might be ill defined (not single valued). In order to explicitly show the usefulness of this method, we focus on static and spherically symmetric spacetimes and deal with the recent controversy about the existence of extended relativistic objects in certain class of f(R) models.

  9. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    .... 04/1994. Haha Cyanea Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 10305; 03/ hamatiflora ssp. 04/1994. carlsonii. Haha Cyanea shipmanii. Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 10305; 03/ 04/1994. Asplenium-leaved...

  10. 75 FR 30915 - Computer Matching Program Between the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... FR 29275 (June 19, 2009), and last amended at 75 FR (April 27, 2010). e. Inclusive dates of the...:30 p.m., Monday through Friday (except holidays). Please call (202) 461-4902 for an appointment...

  11. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ...: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department of State, Telephone... FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR...

  12. f(R) gravity cosmology in scalar degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Umananda Dev; Deka, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    The models of f(R) gravity belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as the manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. f(R) gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by explicit redefinition of model's variable. Here we report about the study of the features of cosmological parameters and hence the cosmological evolution using the scalar degree of freedom of the f(R) = ξR n gravity model in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background

  13. 75 FR 21685 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish...-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be... days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-9531 Filed 4-23-10; 8:45 am...

  14. 75 FR 36451 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... send an e-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection... within 60 days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-15449 Filed 6-24-10; 8...

  15. 75 FR 21370 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be addressed to Patricia A.... Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-9435 Filed 4-22-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7905-01-P ...

  16. 75 FR 41557 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish...) 751-3363 or send an e-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information... received within 60 days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, RRB Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-17368 Filed 7...

  17. 78 FR 63970 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2013-0035] Proposed Collection..., 2013. Aaron Siegel, Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. [FR Doc... obtain a copy of the proposal and associated collection instruments, please write to the US Army Public...

  18. 77 FR 54903 - Proposed collection; comment request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... (619) 553-7335. Title; Associated Form; and OMB Number: Prospective Department of Defense Studies of US... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2012-HA-0100] Proposed collection... 31, 2012. Aaron Siegel, Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. [FR...

  19. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) IDs. Another commenter requested that if TSA intends to limit... obtain SIDA IDs were not included in the fee models for this rulemaking because STAs for holders of SIDA... FR 51854. Comment: One commenter appreciated TSA's recognition that the STAs performed under the SIDA...

  20. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...: Base Supply Center, National Maritime Intelligence Center/Office of Naval Intelligence, 4251 Suitland... Activity: Dept. of the Navy, Office Of Naval Intelligence, Washington, DC. Barry S. Lineback, Director, Business Operations. [FR Doc. 2012-7006 Filed 3-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6353-01-P ...

  1. 76 FR 38143 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ..., Solar Energy Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. [FR Doc. 2011-16307... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION...

  2. 77 FR 27055 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID number EPA-HQ- OAR-2011-0344, online at www.regulations.gov... Nonhazardous Secondary Materials (NHSM) rule on the standards, 76 FR 15456 (Mar. 21, 2011), which rule had the..., whether submitted electronically or in paper, will be made available for public viewing online at www...

  3. 76 FR 16277 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... electric system. Blackstart units are essential to restart generation and restore power to the grid in the... Standard EOP-007-0. \\2\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, 72 FR... = $5,894,624. Title: Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System. Action: FERC 725A...

  4. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Used Throughout This Statement of Basis and Purpose ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and codified at 16 CFR 436. ``ANPR'' refers to the.../bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original...

  5. 77 FR 32496 - Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... . For additional information please contact Paloma Adams-Allen at (202) 712-4378 or [email protected] . Dated: May 29, 2012. Paloma Adams-Allen, ACVFA Executive Director (A). [FR Doc. 2012-13351 Filed 5-31-12...

  6. 78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ..., by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States do..., in accordance with Public Law 107-51, the flag of the United States will be flown at half- staff at.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24498 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  7. 78 FR 69133 - Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances..., California 94085, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered... Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-27486 Filed 11-15-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  8. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  9. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  10. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214, -232 and -233 airplanes; and Model A321-211, - 213, and -231 airplanes. This AD... Service Information Airbus requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 63270, October 16, 2012) to reflect...

  11. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... commodities. In addition, a high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method... Executive Order Reviews This final rule establishes tolerances under section 408(d) of FFDCA in response to... types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR...

  12. 75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry... Order Reviews This final rule establishes tolerances under section 408(d) of FFDCA in response to a... actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735...

  13. 75 FR 3171 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order... Street, Baldwyn, MS 38824. City of Tupelo Maps are available for inspection at the Planning Department... Maps are available for inspection at City Hall, 120 Miner Avenue West, Ladysmith, WI 54848...

  14. 76 FR 53903 - Delegation of Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Delegation of Authorities Notice is hereby given that I... Delegations of Authority, last published at 55 FR 9363 (March 13, 1990). Title I--Quality, Affordable Health... the Public Health Service Act. The delegation includes, but does not limit the authority to, directing...

  15. 78 FR 18594 - Delegation of Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Delegation of Authorities Notice is hereby given that I... Delegations of Authority, last published at 55 FR 9363 (March 13, 1990). Affordable Care Act Title I--Quality... Programs. This delegation of authorities excludes the authority to issue regulations and to submit reports...

  16. 78 FR 1708 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... and Sale of Securities Through Crowdfunding Under Section 4(6) of the Securities Act of 1933. 534... Rule Stage 533. Rules Governing the Offer and Sale of Securities Through Crowdfunding Under Section 4(6... securities through crowdfunding under new section 4(6) of the Securities Act. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite...

  17. 77 FR 71833 - Tribal Consultation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Relationship and Tribal Self- Determination B. Open Communications and Respect for Cultural Values and... viewed online in their entirety at: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO...-Government Relationship and Tribal Self-Determination One commenter recommended editing this section to...

  18. 76 FR 47055 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... (ERP) AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service... 12, 2004, at 69 FR 60541 requiring all borrowers to maintain an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that... major natural or manmade disaster or other causes. This ERP requirement was not entirely new to the...

  19. 76 FR 79226 - Notice of Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Fran Teel, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Mail Suite 2U74, National Aeronautics and Space... or copies of the information collection instrument(s) and instructions should be directed to Fran... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Fran Teel, NASA PRA Clearance Officer. [FR...

  20. 75 FR 9589 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    .... Respondents to this information collection request are typically the general public to include private... Energy homepage. DOE Directives, Regulations, and Standards Portal, http://www.directives.doe.gov/forms..., Director, Office of Procurement and Assistance Management, Department of Energy. [FR Doc. 2010-4371 Filed 3...

  1. 78 FR 663 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...] Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide..., ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' The guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use by holders of licenses in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (76 FR...

  2. 77 FR 31486 - Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in Nat'l Mining Ass'n v. Kempthorne... Federal VER regulations promulgated by OSM on December 17, 1999 (64 FR 70766-70838). Nat'l Mining Ass'n v...

  3. 75 FR 43491 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ....-10:30 a.m., Wednesday July 21, 2010. Changes to Meeting: Meeting postponed. For a recorded message containing the latest agenda information, call (301) 504-7948. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact..., Bethesda, MD 20814 (301) 504-7923. Dated: July 21, 2010. . Todd A. Stevenson, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010...

  4. 77 FR 27007 - Inland Waterways Navigation Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... inches, suitable for copying and electronic filing. If you submit them by mail and would like to know... to limit wake damage to vessels and shore structures (see 60 FR 35701-01). Because the Detroit River... that limiting speed south of the D33 stationary light is not necessary to prevent wake damage or to...

  5. 78 FR 15876 - Activation of Ice Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...-0675; Amendment No. 121-363] RIN 2120-AJ43 Activation of Ice Protection AGENCY: Federal Aviation... On August 22, 2011, the FAA published a final rule entitled, ``Activation of Ice Protection,'' (76 FR... protection system. The FAA inadvertently wrote the amendatory language incorrectly to say that we were...

  6. Alpha decay 225Ac→221Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrya, S.A.; Sergienko, V.A.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malikov, Sh.R.; Malov, L.A.; Fominykh, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.V.; Chumin, V.G.; Yakushev, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    In-depth investigation of (α-γ)-coincidences at the 225 Ac decay is carried out. Twenty-one new weak γ-rays are found; 18 γ-rays earlier ascribed to the 225 Ac decay are not confirmed. The quantitative analysis of the (α-γ)-coincidences makes it possible to find the intensity of population of 221 Fr levels by the α decay and multipolarities of five weak γ-transitions. The conversion electron spectrum is investigated in the range of 5-24 keV with a high (some 20 eV) energy resolution. A new M1 type 10.6-keV γ-transition is found. The proposed 225 Ac decay scheme includes 31 excited 221 Fr states. Parities are established for 16 of them. Possible spin values are proposed for 221 Fr levels. Properties of excited 221 Fr states are satisfactorily described by the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model without the assumption of static octupole deformation

  7. 75 FR 81832 - Technical Service Provider Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 652 Technical Service... as of Jan. 1, 2010, on page 565, in Sec. 652.2, the first definition for ``Technical service'' is removed. [FR Doc. 2010-32945 Filed 12-28-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1505-01-D ...

  8. 78 FR 22545 - Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Harriette H. Charbonneau, Director of Human Resources, Federal Maritime... prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more performance review boards. The board shall..., Managing Director 15. Austin L. Schmitt, Director, Strategic Planning and Regulatory Review [FR Doc. 2013...

  9. 78 FR 32991 - Connect America Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., 2013. The full text of this document is available for public inspection during regular business hours.... Introduction 1. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011, the Commission... the USF/ICC Transformation Order, an unsubsidized competitor in areas where the price cap carrier will...

  10. 78 FR 70881 - Connect America Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... this document is available for inspection and copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference.../Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2013/db1031/DA-13-2115A1.pdf . I. Introduction 1. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 78 FR 38227, June 26, 2013, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission...

  11. 77 FR 15933 - Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... to these regulations based on the comments. FSA is making a minor amendment to the definition of... key decision making for the entity and could be the ones making the important decisions regarding... interim rule (75 FR 54005-54016) on September 3, 2010, to add CL loan making and servicing provisions to...

  12. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... new petrochemical facility in Mexico. The financed amount associated with the U.S. export contract... its products primarily within Mexico, and also to the U.S., Central America, and South America... in the Federal Register. Angela Mariana Freyre, Senior Vice President and General Counsel. [FR Doc...

  13. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  14. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... regulated under subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The purpose of these proposed revisions is to ensure that the recycling regulations, as implemented, encourage reclamation in a way that... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (76 FR 44094). The purpose of these proposed revisions is to ensure...

  15. 76 FR 23502 - Fee-Generating Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1609 Fee-Generating Cases AGENCY: Legal Services... on fee-generating cases to clarify that it applies only to LSC and private non-LSC funds. DATES: This... fee-generating cases to clarify that it applies only to LSC and private non-LSC funds. 76 FR 6381. On...

  16. 75 FR 75187 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange.... Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010-30407 Filed 11-30-10; 4:15 pm] BILLING CODE 8011-01-P ...

  17. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-14] Cooperative Share Loan... comments on the subject proposal. New guidance for cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA...

  18. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... published a document in the Federal Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests... the last sentence of paragraph (a) to read as follows: Sec. 201.72 Scales; testing of. (a...

  19. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... apply to international inbound cargo. \\2\\ 74 FR 47672. The IFR provides detailed information on TSA's... Chain Management Professionals, Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport... use in other countries for international inbound cargo. TSA Response: TSA is working closely with its...

  20. 76 FR 1402 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ..., Washington, DC 20425. Briefing Agenda This briefing is open to the public. Topic: Gender and the Wage Gap I... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of cancelled meeting. SUMMARY: On December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76395), the U.S. Commission on...

  1. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  2. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  3. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    .... Contracting Activity: DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY TROOP SUPPORT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Coverage: C-List for 100% of the requirement of the Department of Defense, as aggregated by the Defense Logistics Agency Troop... ARMY, W071 ENDIST KANSAS CITY, KANSAS CITY, MO. Barry S. Lineback, Director, Business Operations. [FR...

  4. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... access to capital for small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this... (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to revise several...

  5. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  6. 78 FR 3041 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... marital relationships. The circumstances requiring an applicant to submit documentary evidence of marriage are prescribed in 20 CFR 219.30. In the absence of documentary evidence, the RRB needs to determine if..., Chief of Information Resources Management. [FR Doc. 2013-00613 Filed 1-14-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7905...

  7. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Logistics Support Detachment, Undisclosed Location*, Ft. Belvoir, VA. NPA: MVLE, Inc., Springfield, VA. Contracting Activity: Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA.... Lineback, Director, Business Operations. [FR Doc. 2013-29139 Filed 12-5-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6353-01-P ...

  8. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the second section 5.1 is removed. [FR Doc. 2011-8328 Filed 4-5-11; 8:45 am...

  9. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to..., Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC...

  10. 77 FR 18767 - Boating Infrastructure Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the availability of the grants themselves as well as the jobs created to construct facilities... satisfaction. The Service published the BIG final rule in the Federal Register [66 FR 5282] on January 18, 2001... also state the consequences of unauthorized use. Section 86.78 How must I treat program income? This...

  11. 78 FR 72537 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... record retention timeframes for audit and tax purposes. Parallel amendments are made in the final rule to... of its financial statements by a licensed certified public accountant. \\12\\ 73 FR 79312 (Dec. 29... information, including the CUSO's legal name; tax identification number (e.g., EIN); address; telephone number...

  12. 78 FR 68480 - National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... business, as follows: Date and Time: Monday, November 18, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. EST. Subject Matter: Consideration of nominations for honorary awards. Status: Closed. This meeting will be held by teleconference... 22230. Telephone: (703) 292-7000. Ann Bushmiller, NSB Senior Legal Counsel. [FR Doc. 2013-27199 Filed 11...

  13. 76 FR 22625 - Reporting of Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...) Accessing the Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html ; or (3... violations, threat information or criminal activities, vulnerabilities and intelligence was put in place...://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/print.pl/oes/2009/may/naics2_48-49.htm and http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpid1012.pdf...

  14. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  15. 77 FR 4999 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG From the Department of Energy Clothes Washer Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ..., 2011)); (76 FR 79666 (Dec. 22, 2011)) and Samsung (76 FR 13169 (Mar. 10, 2011)); 76 FR 50207 (Aug. 12... consideration of all the material that was submitted by LG, the waivers granted to Whirlpool, GE, Samsung and... clothes washer products for compliance, marketing, or other purposes only to the extent that such products...

  16. 78 FR 55225 - Determination of Attainment for the Chico Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine Particle Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...); and 75 FR 27944 (May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction, California area). Thus EPA has established that, under... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); Is not a...

  17. 75 FR 60281 - National Public Lands Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    .... Every September, thousands of Americans volunteer their time and talents to protect our parks, national... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-24646 Filed 9-28-10; 11:15 am] Billing code...

  18. 78 FR 73683 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... injustice to stand denies itself the full talents and contributions of individuals with disabilities. I was.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-29397 Filed 12-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  19. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., treaties and regulations, advocacy, and talent and education. Public Participation: The meeting will be... Secretary for Manufacturing, Acting. [FR Doc. 2010-12814 Filed 5-27-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-DR-P ...

  20. 77 FR 13571 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... be deleted. A0210-130 DALO Laundry Accounting Files (April 12, 1999, 64 FR 17641). Reason: The... schedule; therefore, the system of records notice can be deleted. A0600-8-104g AHRC Career Management...

  1. 78 FR 7852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... license from New York. Isaias Gomez Mr. Gomez, 54, has had ITDM since 2009. His endocrinologist examined..., Associate Administrator for Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-02268 Filed 2-1-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...

  2. 77 FR 9632 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    .... Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite..., payroll office and payroll records, including automated payroll systems.'' * * * * * [FR Doc. 2012-3720...

  3. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... registrants requesting to make statements is greater than can be reasonably accommodated during the meeting... meeting. Man K. Cho, Acting Director, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries. [FR Doc. 2011-10149...

  4. 76 FR 24538 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... with the motor starter for electric motors on motor-operated valves. This method would ensure that the..., Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2011-10561 Filed 4-29-11; 8:45 am...

  5. 75 FR 42453 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... to the public, with attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need..., Director, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2010-17813 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  6. 77 FR 22332 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... meeting will be open to the public with attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to... Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2012-8919 Filed 4-12-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  7. 78 FR 19497 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to..., Program Analyst, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-07419 Filed 3-29-13; 8:45 am...

  8. 77 FR 59202 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to... Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2012-23624 Filed 9-25-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  9. 78 FR 15932 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... implemented new requirements under Amendment 16 for establishing acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual..., Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer. [FR Doc. 2013-05720 Filed 3-12-13; 8:45 am...

  10. 76 FR 25692 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...: 169094N. Name : Trans Port Agencies, Inc. Address: 1790 Yardley-Langhorne Road, Suite 202, Yardley, PA... Certification and Licensing. [FR Doc. 2011-10932 Filed 5-4-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6730-01-P ...

  11. 78 FR 62313 - General Pulaski Memorial Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 11, 2013, as General Pulaski Memorial Day. I...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24502 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  12. 78 FR 66611 - National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 2013 as National Alzheimer's...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26670 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  13. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... fisheries, including Columbia River fisheries issues, the NOAA Habitat Blueprint, and the Council's.... Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc...

  14. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  15. 75 FR 29211 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no...-0320P). 21, 2009; Rock Kaumo, Mayor, City of Springs Daily Rock Springs, 212 D Rocket[dash]Miner. Street...

  16. 75 FR 7956 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order... Springs, 212 D Rocket Miner. Street, Rock Springs, WY 82901. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No...

  17. 78 FR 76190 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Pennington, Chief Financial Officer. [FR Doc. 2013-29769 Filed 12-13-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-06-P ... transportation pathways and the important role these sectors of transportation play in the overall national...

  18. 78 FR 77553 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...-3520. Issued in Washington, DC, on December 3, 2013. Rebecca Pennington, Chief Financial Officer. [FR... role these sectors of transportation play in the overall national economy, FRA is requesting OMB to...

  19. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  20. 78 FR 56899 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Office of Blood Research and Review... Associate Commissioner for Special Medical Programs. [FR Doc. 2013-22423 Filed 9-13-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  1. 77 FR 19052 - Actions Taken at March 15, 2012, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ....900 mgd (peak day). 2. Project Sponsor and Facility: Empire Kosher Poultry, Inc., Walker Township.... Dated: March 23, 2012. Thomas W. Beauduy, Deputy Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2012-7528 Filed 3-28-12; 8...

  2. 75 FR 67145 - Sunshine Notice: Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... public 10:15 a.m.) 1. Reports 2. Finance Project--Democratic Republic of Congo 3. Approval of September.... Connie M. Downs, Corporate Secretary, Overseas Private Investment Corporation. [FR Doc. 2010-27632 Filed...

  3. 77 FR 70875 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ..., Department of State; Kevin P. O'Keefe, Director, Office of Plans, Policy, and Analysis, Bureau of Political...-Greenfield, Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Human Resources, Department of State. [FR...

  4. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-2011-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and requested comments from the public (76 FR...

  5. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... (1992), raised the revenue classification level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to..., William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2012-13938...

  6. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... (1992) raised the revenue classification level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to... the Board, William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc...

  7. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to $250 million (1991 dollars), effective... Board, William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2011...

  8. 78 FR 56837 - 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ..., liquefied gases, and compressed gases that have been approved for maritime transportation in bulk, and that... Commercial Regulations and Standards, U.S. Coast Guard. [FR Doc. 2013-22412 Filed 9-13-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  9. 76 FR 54740 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Meeting; 2. Review and provide feedback regarding the Draft Terms of Reference (TOR) for the upcoming... Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2011-22453 Filed 9-1-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510...

  10. 77 FR 2342 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA, Next Gen Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... approval of September 29, 2011 meeting summary/ NACSC TORs Revisions Chairman's Report--Chairman Barger..., Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-540 Filed 1-13-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ...

  11. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    .... ADDRESSES: First floor conference room, Glenn Olds Hall, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska. FOR... public. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. [FR Doc. 2013-21569...

  12. 75 FR 61998 - Programs for Specific Positions and Examinations (Miscellaneous)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... professional responsibility. However, on July 18, 2008, OPM published an interim rule, at 73 FR 41235... require as to lawyers serving as ALJs.'' OPM is considering whether the licensure requirement for...

  13. 78 FR 14287 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... by Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) and is covered by DFAS Systems of Records Notice T5500b, Integrated Garnishment System (IGS) (September 19, 2012, 77 FR 58106). Paper records previously...

  14. 78 FR 23252 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... Address: Giralda Farms, Madison Avenue, Madison, NJ 07940. Date Revoked: March 29, 2013. Reason: Failed to... maintain a valid bond. James A. Nussbaumer, Deputy Director, Bureau of Certification and Licensing. [FR Doc...

  15. 76 FR 56857 - New York Disaster Number NY-00108

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): New York: Herkimer, Madison, Oneida All other information in the...) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-23428 Filed 9-13-11; 8...

  16. 76 FR 54521 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ..., Broadwater, Carter, Chouteau, Fallon, Flathead, Golden Valley, Madison, Park, Phillips, Pondera, Powell... 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-22419 Filed 8-31...

  17. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee; Disaster Number TN-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., Johnson, Lake, Madison, Mcminn, Mcnairy, Monroe, Rhea, Shelby, Weakley. All other information in the...) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-14163 Filed 6-7-11; 8:45...

  18. 75 FR 34960 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... the Federal Register at 75 FR 32341. The reference to the Docket No. ITA- 2010-XXXX, which is provided... ``Docket No. ITA-2010-XXXX'' to read ``Docket No. ITA-2010-0002.'' Furthermore, in the same paragraph, that...

  19. 75 FR 81247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Control Records system of records is also covered by the Defense Finance and Accounting System T7330a... Defense Finance and Accounting System T7332, Defense Debt Management System (February 17, 2009, 74 FR 7665...

  20. 76 FR 67246 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... the legal status of the petition or its final disposition. DATES: Comments on this petition must... developing oil fields located in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. [FR Doc. 2011-28145 Filed 10-28-11; 8:45 am...

  1. 76 FR 45648 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... petitioner requests relief from the single-failure requirement for uncontrolled high-thrust failures as they may affect a limited flight envelope of the Gulfstream Model G280 airplane. [FR Doc. 2011-19221 Filed...

  2. 75 FR 79049 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... opened in transit. This guide also incorporates suggestions for ensuring that TIDs are properly applied..., Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2010-31729 Filed 12-16-10; 8:45 am...

  3. 76 FR 39812 - Modoc County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Coordinator, Stephen Riley at (530) 233-8705. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The business meeting on July 11, 2011... meeting. Dated: June 23, 2011. Kimberly H. Anderson, Forest Supervisor. [FR Doc. 2011-17022 Filed 7-6-11...

  4. 78 FR 53732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... the identity of the Principal Investigator from Dr. Lorrie Rea to Michael Rehberg. The permit was amended on July 12, 2012 (77 FR 38587), to include: manual restraint of pups in the eastern Distinct...

  5. 75 FR 43494 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... number and title, by any of the following methods: Federal Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov... Personnel Records (June 19, 2006; 71 FR 35356) and OPM Gov-5, Recruiting, Examining, and Placement Records...

  6. 76 FR 52322 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... number and title, by any of the following methods: * Federal Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations... duplicative of OPM/GOVT-5 Recruiting, Examining, and Placement Records (June 19, 2006, 71 FR 35351), and can...

  7. Clustering of galaxies with f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Hameeda, Mir; Pourhassan, Behnam; Salzano, Vincenzo; Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2018-02-01

    Based on thermodynamics, we discuss the galactic clustering of expanding Universe by assuming the gravitational interaction through the modified Newton's potential given by f(R) gravity. We compute the corrected N-particle partition function analytically. The corrected partition function leads to more exact equations of state of the system. By assuming that the system follows quasi-equilibrium, we derive the exact distribution function that exhibits the f(R) correction. Moreover, we evaluate the critical temperature and discuss the stability of the system. We observe the effects of correction of f(R) gravity on the power-law behaviour of particle-particle correlation function also. In order to check the feasibility of an f(R) gravity approach to the clustering of galaxies, we compare our results with an observational galaxy cluster catalogue.

  8. 75 FR 72719 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... result of implementing Idaho's PSD/NSR rules will be consistent with EPA's position on the Federal 2002... its NSR rules (Boise-Ada County CO, 67 FR 65713 (October 28, 2002; eff. December 27, 2002); Ada County...

  9. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS... 17, 2013. Rex A. Barnes, Associate Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. [FR Doc. 2013-24818... / Wednesday, October 23, 2013 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 63158

  10. 75 FR 69459 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Technologies LLC., 11400 Burnet Road, Suite 4010, Austin, Texas 78758, made application by renewal to the Drug...). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, (40 FR 43745...

  11. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul, E-mail: antognini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: bird@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  12. On the 221 Rn → 221 Fr decay scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, K.Ya.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Samatov, Zh.K.; Fominykh, V.I.; Chumin, V.G.; Kudrya, S.A.; Sergienko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigating the 221 Rnβ - - decay and the 225 Ac α-decay are compared. It is shown that 221 Fr levels at 145.9 and 393.2 keV are excited at the 221 Rn decay. Intensities and reduced probabilities of the β - - decay to the 221 Fr levels are determined. A conclusion is drawn that the parity of the 221 Rn ground state is positive

  13. Possible antigravity regions in F(R) theory?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya Avenue, 60, 634061, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-03-07

    We construct an F(R) gravity theory corresponding to the Weyl invariant two scalar field theory. We investigate whether such F(R) gravity can have the antigravity regions where the Weyl curvature invariant does not diverge at the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. It is revealed that the divergence cannot be evaded completely but can be much milder than that in the original Weyl invariant two scalar field theory.

  14. Holographic dark energy and f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, A [Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saaidi, Kh, E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: agha35484@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the corresponding relation between f(R) gravity and holographic dark energy. We introduce a type of energy density from f(R) that has the same role as holographic dark energy. We obtain the differential equation that specifies the evolution of the introduced energy density parameter based on a varying gravitational constant. We discover the relation for the equation of state parameter for low redshifts that contains varying G correction.

  15. Extension of loop quantum gravity to f(R) theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ma, Yongge

    2011-04-29

    The four-dimensional metric f(R) theories of gravity are cast into connection-dynamical formalism with real su(2) connections as configuration variables. Through this formalism, the classical metric f(R) theories are quantized by extending the loop quantization scheme of general relativity. Our results imply that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of loop quantum gravity is valid not only for general relativity but also for a rather general class of four-dimensional metric theories of gravity.

  16. Possible antigravity regions in F(R) theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2014-03-01

    We construct an F(R) gravity theory corresponding to the Weyl invariant two scalar field theory. We investigate whether such F(R) gravity can have the antigravity regions where the Weyl curvature invariant does not diverge at the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. It is revealed that the divergence cannot be evaded completely but can be much milder than that in the original Weyl invariant two scalar field theory.

  17. Possible antigravity regions in F(R) theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We construct an F(R) gravity theory corresponding to the Weyl invariant two scalar field theory. We investigate whether such F(R) gravity can have the antigravity regions where the Weyl curvature invariant does not diverge at the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. It is revealed that the divergence cannot be evaded completely but can be much milder than that in the original Weyl invariant two scalar field theory.

  18. Japanese FR Deployment Scenario Study after the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki; Ohtaki, Akira; Mukaida, Kyoko; Abe, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • The results revealed a need for the implementation of reprocessing and development of FR from the view point of reducing waste, etc. in the medium to long term. • JAEA’s contribution to international cooperation and standardization focusing on the enhancement of safety and reduction of the radioactive waste burden will be increasingly important in current situation. • JAEA intend to continue to build and propose FR deployment scenarios and identify their characteristics

  19. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. I. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the method and the implementation of a cosmological simulation of a class of metric-variation f(R) models that accelerate the cosmological expansion without a cosmological constant and evade solar-system bounds of small-field deviations to general relativity. Such simulations are shown to reduce to solving a nonlinear Poisson equation for the scalar degree of freedom introduced by the f(R) modifications. We detail the method to efficiently solve the nonlinear Poisson equation by using a Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme coupled with the multigrid method to accelerate the convergence. The simulations are shown to satisfy tests comparing the simulated outcome to analytical solutions for simple situations, and the dynamics of the simulations are tested with orbital and Zeldovich collapse tests. Finally, we present several static and dynamical simulations using realistic cosmological parameters to highlight the differences between standard physics and f(R) physics. In general, we find that the f(R) modifications result in stronger gravitational attraction that enhances the dark matter power spectrum by ∼20% for large but observationally allowed f(R) modifications. A more detailed study of the nonlinear f(R) effects on the power spectrum are presented in a companion paper.

  20. 78 FR 17108 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Revised Format for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...), EPA revised the procedures for IBR'ing Federally-approved SIPs, as a result of consultations between... Violations--Notices 9/8/93 2/22/95, 60 FR 9778 132 Criminal Penalty 11/13/94 10/24/95, 60 FR 54439 133 Civil............ Regulatory Actions & Civil 9/21/95 2/26/97, 62 FR 8624......... Penalties. 400-240......... Criminal...

  1. 76 FR 27904 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact... ``Qualified observer'' defined 9/26/1980 11/5/1981, 46 FR 54943. 1-2-62.1 ``Quench car'' defined 6/11/1993 6/15/1995, 60 FR 31412. 1-2-63 Quenching 9/26/1980 11/5/1981, 46 FR 54943. 1-2-63.1 ``Quench reservoir...

  2. Validation and Verification (V and V) Testing on Midscale Flame Resistant (FR) Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    materials . The results demonstrated that the Midscale test is a quick and cost-effective method for evaluation of FR performance of design features...standard and novel FR materials and design configurations during fire engulfment. Details of the test method and its development can be found in the...employed in the FRACU is a ripstop fabric blend of 65% FR rayon, 25% para- aramid and 10% nylon. The iCVC material is Nylon/Cotton/Nomex. All three

  3. 77 FR 17463 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... Clearance Division, Privacy, Information and Records Management Services, Office of Management. [FR Doc...

  4. 77 FR 59597 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... Division, Privacy, Information and Records Management Services, Office of Management. [FR Doc. 2012-23849...

  5. 77 FR 32612 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Postsecondary Education; Assessing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... Clearance Division, Privacy, Information and Records Management Services, Office of Management. [FR Doc...

  6. 75 FR 23797 - Proposed Information Collection; Assessment of the Business Requirements and Benefits of Enhanced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...-9445. Dated: April 27, 2010. Bruce K. Quirk, Land Remote Sensing Program Coordinator. [FR Doc. 2010..., bridges, coastlines, rivers, forests and other landscape characteristics. These data provide an...

  7. 75 FR 34201 - Meeting Notice-Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... House Conference Center, 726 Jackson Place, Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Drew Dawson... 11, 2010. Jeffrey P. Michael, Associate Administrator for Research and Program Development. [FR Doc...

  8. 75 FR 6112 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Georgia: Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...) Incinerators........ 6/15/98 12/2/99, 64 FR 67491 391-3-1-.02(2)(d) Fuel-burning 1/17/79 9/18/79, 44 FR 54047...-.02(2)(aa) VOC Emissions from 1/9/91 10/13/92, 57 FR 46780 Wire Coating. 391-3-1-.02(2)(bb) Petroleum...)(lll) NOX Emissions from 2/16/00 7/10/01, 66 FR 35906 Fuel-burning Equipment. 391-3-1-.02(2)(mmm) NOX...

  9. 78 FR 956 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Information Officer including: (1) Provides organizational development, investment control, budget formulation... 77 FR 65694-65698 dated October 30, 2012). This notice reflects organizational changes to the Health...

  10. 78 FR 69703 - 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction Surveys; Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-102] 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction Surveys; Physical Inspection Pilot Program...

  11. 75 FR 12792 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...., 209 & 301 W. Pierce, & 524 & 600 Huntington, Council Bluffs, 10000160 MASSACHUSETTS Franklin County... following resources: WEST VIRGINIA Jefferson County Beverley, 1 Burns Farm Rd., Charles Town, 87000486 [FR...

  12. Vanhan Suomen arkistot : arkiven från Gamla Finland / Kari Takiainen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarkiainen, Kari, 1938-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vanhan Suomen arkistot: arkiven från Gamla Finland, toimittaneet Eljas Orman, Jyrki Paaskoski, Arkistolaitoksen yleiluettelo VI, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden seuran toimituksia, 1385 (Porvoo 2012), 400 lk.

  13. Investigation of octupole deformations in the Fr217 nucleus by yrast spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulne, S.

    1988-01-01

    The spectroscopic characteristics of the yrast levels of Fr217 are determined. The level scheme up to a value of J = (39/2 + ) for angular momentum and parity is established. The production of the Fr217 nucleus in a heavy ion collision reaction was only possible by using a radioactive Pb210 target. The method for preparing the target is described. The Fr217 nucleus belongs to the category of nuclei showing octupole effects. Mass A = 217 seems to be the lower limit of the region where these effects occur [fr

  14. Watermelon germplasm lines USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 tolerant to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two improved germplasm lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) designated USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 were released in 2012 by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Wechter et al. 2012). These lines are each highly uniform for growth characteri...

  15. Chronische Polyarthritis (Früharthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machold K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Akkumulation von Knorpel- und Knochenschäden, wie sie für chronisch-destruktive Arthritisformen typisch ist, kann durch frühzeitige Intervention mit wirksamen Medikamenten verzögert oder verhindert werden. Voraussetzung ist die rechtzeitige Übernahme der Betreuung gefährdeter Patienten durch einen in der speziellen rheumatologischen Diagnostik und Therapie bewanderten Arzt. Dieser muß das gesamte Repertoire der Arthritistherapie (Medikamente, ergotherapeutische und physiotherapeutische Maßnahmen, Patientenaufklärung etc. entsprechend dem „State of the Art“ beherrschen. In den letzten Jahren erfolgte in vielen Ländern die Etablierung von Spezialeinrichtungen für Patienten mit früher Arthritis. Die an diesen Patienten gewonnenen Erkenntnisse deuten darauf hin, daß die „kritische Periode“, innerhalb derer eine chronische Arthritis möglicherweise reversibel ist, bei 6 bis 12 Wochen liegt.

  16. f(R) constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    The previously introduced class of two-parametric phenomenological inflationary models in general relativity in which the slow-roll assumption is replaced by the more general, constant-roll condition is generalized to the case of f(R) gravity. A simple constant-roll condition is defined in the original Jordan frame, and exact expressions for a scalaron potential in the Einstein frame, for a function f(R) (in the parametric form) and for inflationary dynamics are obtained. The region of the model parameters permitted by the latest observational constraints on the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial metric perturbations generated during inflation is determined. (orig.)

  17. 78 FR 30861 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    .... Briefing Agenda--9:30 a.m.-3:00 p.m. This briefing is open to the public. Topic: Protecting the Civil... Commissioners VI. Adjourn Briefing Meeting Agenda--3:00 p.m. I. Approval of Agenda II. Results of Notational... Chief, Regional Programs Coordination Unit. [FR Doc. 2013-12389 Filed 5-21-13; 11:15 am] BILLING CODE...

  18. 75 FR 24880 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    .... ACTION: Notice of meeting. Date and Time: Friday, May 14, 2010; 11 a.m. EDT. Place: 624 9th St., NW... Status of Title IX Project--Some of the discussion of this agenda item may be held in closed session. IV.... Dated: May 4, 2010. David Blackwood, General Counsel. [FR Doc. 2010-10891 Filed 5-4-10; 4:15 pm] BILLING...

  19. Inductive charging. Preparations for serial production; Induktives Laden. Vorbereitungen fuer den Serieneinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoettle, Markus

    2012-08-15

    Inductive charging is still an exotic technology and is viewed only as a long-term alternative to cable charging if any, but this may be sooner than expected. First serial applications may be ready for launching by 2015. Until then, standards must be developed that take account of all relevant safety aspects. Draft standards describe so-called rules of application defined by potential manufacturers and customers under the leadership of association of the electrotechnical, electronic and information industry (Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e.V.) ATZ elektronik presents an excerpt. (orig.)

  20. Correlated Components of Ongoing EEG Point to Emotionally Laden Attention – A Possible Marker of Engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P.; Sajda, Paul; Dias, Joao; Parra, Lucas C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging suggests that cortical hemodynamic responses coincide in different subjects experiencing a common naturalistic stimulus. Here we utilize neural responses in the electroencephalogram (EEG) evoked by multiple presentations of short film clips to index brain states marked by high levels of correlation within and across subjects. We formulate a novel signal decomposition method which extracts maximally correlated signal components from multiple EEG records. The resulting components capture correlations down to a one-second time resolution, thus revealing that peak correlations of neural activity across viewings can occur in remarkable correspondence with arousing moments of the film. Moreover, a significant reduction in neural correlation occurs upon a second viewing of the film or when the narrative is disrupted by presenting its scenes scrambled in time. We also probe oscillatory brain activity during periods of heightened correlation, and observe during such times a significant increase in the theta band for a frontal component and reductions in the alpha and beta frequency bands for parietal and occipital components. Low-resolution EEG tomography of these components suggests that the correlated neural activity is consistent with sources in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. Put together, these results suggest that the observed synchrony reflects attention- and emotion-modulated cortical processing which may be decoded with high temporal resolution by extracting maximally correlated components of neural activity. PMID:22623915

  1. Correlated components of ongoing EEG point to emotionally laden attention - a possible marker of engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Sajda, Paul; Dias, Joao; Parra, Lucas C

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging suggests that cortical hemodynamic responses coincide in different subjects experiencing a common naturalistic stimulus. Here we utilize neural responses in the electroencephalogram (EEG) evoked by multiple presentations of short film clips to index brain states marked by high levels of correlation within and across subjects. We formulate a novel signal decomposition method which extracts maximally correlated signal components from multiple EEG records. The resulting components capture correlations down to a one-second time resolution, thus revealing that peak correlations of neural activity across viewings can occur in remarkable correspondence with arousing moments of the film. Moreover, a significant reduction in neural correlation occurs upon a second viewing of the film or when the narrative is disrupted by presenting its scenes scrambled in time. We also probe oscillatory brain activity during periods of heightened correlation, and observe during such times a significant increase in the theta band for a frontal component and reductions in the alpha and beta frequency bands for parietal and occipital components. Low-resolution EEG tomography of these components suggests that the correlated neural activity is consistent with sources in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. Put together, these results suggest that the observed synchrony reflects attention- and emotion-modulated cortical processing which may be decoded with high temporal resolution by extracting maximally correlated components of neural activity.

  2. Interphasial energy transfer and particle dissipation in particle-laden wall turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, L.; Andersson, H.I.; Gillissen, J.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of mechanical energy between solid spherical particles and a Newtonian carrier fluid has been explored in two-way coupled direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow. The inertial particles have been treated as individual point particles in a Lagrangian framework and their

  3. Digital microfabrication of user-defined 3D microstructures in cell-laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Pranav; Chung, Peter H; Zhang, A Ping; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-11-01

    Complex 3D interfacial arrangements of cells are found in several in vivo biosystems such as blood vasculature, renal glomeruli, and intestinal villi. Current tissue engineering techniques fail to develop suitable 3D microenvironments to evaluate the concurrent effects of complex topography and cell encapsulation. There is a need to develop new fabrication approaches that control cell density and distribution within complex 3D features. In this work, we present a dynamic projection printing process that allows rapid construction of complex 3D structures using custom-defined computer-aided-design (CAD) files. Gelatin-methacrylate (GelMA) constructs featuring user-defined spiral, pyramid, flower, and dome micro-geometries were fabricated with and without encapsulated cells. Encapsulated cells demonstrate good cell viability across all geometries both on the scaffold surface and internal to the structures. Cells respond to geometric cues individually as well as collectively throughout the larger-scale patterns. Time-lapse observations also reveal the dynamic nature of mechanical interactions between cells and micro-geometry. When compared to conventional cell-seeding, cell encapsulation within complex 3D patterned scaffolds provides long-term control over proliferation, cell morphology, and geometric guidance. Overall, this biofabrication technique offers a flexible platform to evaluate cell interactions with complex 3D micro-features, with the ability to scale-up towards high-throughput screening platforms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Direct numerical simulation of particle laden flow in a human airway bifurcation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou, Fotos S.; Sznitman, Josué; Kassinos, Stavros C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anatomically realistic model of a human airway bifurcation is constructed. • Direct numerical simulations are used to study laminar and turbulent airflow. • Aerosol deposition in the bifurcation is studied with lagrangian particle tracking. • Carinal vortices forming during steady expiration are reported for the first time. • Stokes number determines deposition differences between inspiration and expiration. - Abstract: During the delivery of inhaled medicines, and depending on the size distribution of the particles in the formulation, airway bifurcations are areas of preferential deposition. Previous studies of laminar flow through airway bifurcations point to an interplay of inertial and centrifugal forces that leads to rich flow phenomena and controls particle deposition patterns. However, recent computational studies have shown that the airflow in the upper human airways is turbulent during much of the respiratory cycle. The question of how the presence of turbulence modifies these effects remains open. In this study, we perform for the first time Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulent flow through a single human airway bifurcation model, emulating steady prolonged inspiration and expiration. We use the rich information obtained from the DNS in order to identify key structures in the flow field and scrutinize their role in determining deposition patterns in the bifurcation. We find that the vortical structures present in the bifurcation during expiration differ from those identified during inspiration. While Dean vortices are present in both cases, a set of three dimensional “carinal vortices” are identified only during expiration. A set of laminar simulations in the same geometries, but at lower Reynolds numbers, allow us to identify key differences in aerosol deposition patterns between laminar and turbulent respiration. We also report deposition fractions for representative Stokes numbers for both laminar and turbulent conditions. Given the suspected role of external mechanical stress on the airway epithelium in determining mucus clearance and chronic disease development, here we report wall shear stress distributions for both the turbulent and laminar cases. Finally, we also perform Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations for the same configuration in order to asses their performance as compared to DNS. We find that LES and RANS perform well and that they are able to capture the key characteristics of the flow field. The agreement between DNS and RANS holds true only for the mean flow field, which is primarily influenced by curvature effects.

  5. Electrochemical disinfection of bacteria-laden water using antimony-doped tin-tungsten-oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Saloumeh; Asadishad, Bahareh; Omanovic, Sasha; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2017-12-01

    Electrochemical disinfection has been shown to be an efficient method with a shortrequired contact time for treatment of drinking water supplies, industrial raw water supplies, liquid foodstuffs, and wastewater effluents. In the present work, the electrochemical disinfection of saline water contaminated with bacteria was investigated in chloride-containing solutions using Sb-doped Sn 80% -W 20% -oxide anodes. The influence of current density, bacterial load, initial chloride concentration, solution pH, and the type of bacteria (E. coli D21, E. coli O157:H7, and E. faecalis) on disinfection efficacy was systematically examined. The impact of natural organic matter and a radical scavenger on the disinfection process was also examined. The electrochemical system was highly effective in bacterial inactivation for a 0.1 M NaCl solution contaminated with ∼10 7  CFU/mL bacteria by applying a current density ≥1 mA/cm 2 through the cell.100% inactivation of E. coli D21 was achieved with a contact time of less than 60 s and power consumption of 48 Wh/m 3 , by applying a current density of 6 mA/cm 2 in a 0.1 M NaCl solution contaminated with ∼10 7 CFU/mL. Reactive chlorine species as well as reactive oxygen species (e.g. hydroxyl radicals) generated in situ during the electrochemical process were determined to be responsible for inactivation of bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Equilibrium-eulerian les model for turbulent poly-dispersed particle-laden flow

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    An efficient Eulerian method for poly-dispersed particles in turbulent flows is implemented, verified and validated for a channel flow. The approach couples a mixture model with a quadrature-based moment method for the particle size distribution in a LES framework, augmented by an approximate deconvolution method to reconstructs the unfiltered velocity. The particle velocity conditioned on particle size is calculated with an equilibrium model, valid for low Stokes numbers. A population balance equation is solved with the direct quadrature method of moments, that efficiently represents the continuous particle size distribution. In this first study particulate processes are not considered and the capability of the model to properly describe particle transport is investigated for a turbulent channel flow. First, single-phase LES are validated through comparison with DNS. Then predictions for the two-phase system, with particles characterised by Stokes numbers ranging from 0.2 to 5, are compared with Lagrangian DNS in terms of particle velocity and accumulation at the walls. Since this phenomenon (turbophoresis) is driven by turbulent fluctuations and depends strongly on the particle Stokes number, the approximation of the particle size distribution, the choice of the sub-grid scale model and the use of an approximate deconvolution method are important to obtain good results. Our method can be considered as a fast and efficient alternative to classical Lagrangian methods or Eulerian multi-fluid models in which poly-dispersity is usually neglected.

  7. GPU acceleration of Eulerian-Lagrangian particle-laden turbulent flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Sweet, James; Thain, Douglas

    2017-11-01

    The Lagrangian point-particle approximation is a popular numerical technique for representing dispersed phases whose properties can substantially deviate from the local fluid. In many cases, particularly in the limit of one-way coupled systems, large numbers of particles are desired; this may be either because many physical particles are present (e.g. LES of an entire cloud), or because the use of many particles increases statistical convergence (e.g. high-order statistics). Solving the trajectories of very large numbers of particles can be problematic in traditional MPI implementations, however, and this study reports the benefits of using graphical processing units (GPUs) to integrate the particle equations of motion while preserving the original MPI version of the Eulerian flow solver. It is found that GPU acceleration becomes cost effective around one million particles, and performance enhancements of up to 15x can be achieved when O(108) particles are computed on the GPU rather than the CPU cluster. Optimizations and limitations will be discussed, as will prospects for expanding to two- and four-way coupled systems. ONR Grant No. N00014-16-1-2472.

  8. Stability of an unsupported multi-layer surfactant laden liquid curtain under gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, D.

    2015-11-07

    The industrial process of curtain coating has long been an important method in coating applications, by which a thin liquid curtain is formed to impinge upon a moving substrate, due to its highly lucrative advantage of being able to coat multiple layers simultaneously. We investigate the linear stability of an unsupported two-layer liquid curtain, which has insoluble surfactants in both liquids, which are widely used in industry to increase the stability of the curtain. We formulate the governing equations, simplified by making a thin film approximation, from which we obtain equations describing the steady-state profiles. We then examine the response of the curtain to small perturbations about this steady state to identify conditions under which the curtain is unstable, finding the addition of surfactants stabilizes the curtain. Our results are then compared to experimental data, showing a favourable trend and thereby extending the works of Brown (J Fluid Mech 10:297–305, 1960) and Dyson et al. (J Eng Math 64:237–250, 2009).

  9. Interfacial deflection and jetting of a paramagnetic particle-laden fluid: theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of experiments and mathematical analysis of the deformation of a free surface by an aggregate of magnetic particles. The system we study is differentiated from ferrofluid systems because it contains regions rich with magnetic material as well as regions of negligible magnetic content. In our experiments, the magnetic force from a spherical permanent magnet collects magnetic particles to a liquid-air interface, and deforms the free surface to form a hump. The hump is composed of magnetic and non-magnetic regions due to the particle collection. When the magnet distance falls below a threshold value, we observe the transition of the hump to a jet. The mathematical model we develop, which consists of a numerical solution and an asymptotic approximation, captures the shape of the liquid-air interface during the deformation stage and a scaling prediction for the critical magnet distance for the hump to become a jet. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Engineering bone regeneration with novel cell-laden hydrogel microfiber-injectable calcium phosphate scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhang, Chi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Ping, E-mail: dentistping@gmail.com [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Lin [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); VIP Integrated Department, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130011 (China); Bao, Chunyun [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Weir, Michael D.; Reynolds, Mark A. [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Ren, Ke [Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, School of Dentistry, Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: lzhaonf@126.com [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); and others

    2017-06-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering is promising to create living functional tissues for bone regeneration. The implanted cells should be evenly distributed in the scaffold, be fast-released to the defect and maintain high viability in order to actively participate in the regenerative process. Herein, we report an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold containing cell-encapsulating hydrogel microfibers with desirable degradability that could deliver cells in a timely manner and maintain cell viability. Microfibers were synthesized using partially-oxidized alginate with various concentrations (0–0.8%) of fibrinogen to optimize the degradation rate of the alginate-fibrin microfibers (Alg-Fb MF). A fibrin concentration of 0.4% in Alg-Fb MF resulted in the greatest enhancement of cell migration, release and proliferation. Interestingly, a significant amount of cell–cell contact along the long-axis of the microfibers was established in Alg-0.4%Fb MF as early as day 2. The injectable tissue engineered construct for bone reconstruct was fabricated by mixing the fast-degradable Alg-0.4%Fb MF with CPC paste at 1:1 volume ratio. In vitro study showed that cells re-collected from the construct maintained good viability and osteogenic potentials. In vivo study demonstrated that the hBMSC-encapsulated CPC-MF tissue engineered construct displayed a robust capacity for bone regeneration. At 12 weeks after implantation, osseous bridge in the rat mandibular defect was observed in CPC-MF-hBMSCs group with a new bone area fraction of (42.1 ± 7.8) % in the defects, which was > 3-fold that of the control group. The novel tissue-engineered construct presents an excellent prospect for a wide range of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Microfibers protected cells during CPC mixing and injection, and supported the viability, migration and differentiation of encapsulated cells. • Cells re-collected from the construct maintained good viability and osteogenic potentials. • Cell-encapsulated CPC microfiber tissue engineered construct displayed a robust capacity for bone regeneration.

  11. Equilibrium-eulerian les model for turbulent poly-dispersed particle-laden flow

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Marchisio, Daniele Luca; Chidambaram, Narayanan; Fox, Rodney O.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient Eulerian method for poly-dispersed particles in turbulent flows is implemented, verified and validated for a channel flow. The approach couples a mixture model with a quadrature-based moment method for the particle size distribution in a LES framework, augmented by an approximate deconvolution method to reconstructs the unfiltered velocity. The particle velocity conditioned on particle size is calculated with an equilibrium model, valid for low Stokes numbers. A population balance equation is solved with the direct quadrature method of moments, that efficiently represents the continuous particle size distribution. In this first study particulate processes are not considered and the capability of the model to properly describe particle transport is investigated for a turbulent channel flow. First, single-phase LES are validated through comparison with DNS. Then predictions for the two-phase system, with particles characterised by Stokes numbers ranging from 0.2 to 5, are compared with Lagrangian DNS in terms of particle velocity and accumulation at the walls. Since this phenomenon (turbophoresis) is driven by turbulent fluctuations and depends strongly on the particle Stokes number, the approximation of the particle size distribution, the choice of the sub-grid scale model and the use of an approximate deconvolution method are important to obtain good results. Our method can be considered as a fast and efficient alternative to classical Lagrangian methods or Eulerian multi-fluid models in which poly-dispersity is usually neglected.

  12. Hybrid fs/ps CARS for Sooting and Particle-laden Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Kathryn N. Gabet; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Kearney, Sean P.

    2015-12-01

    We report the application of ultrafast rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for temperature and relative oxygen concentration measurements in the plume emanating from a burning aluminized ammonium perchlorate propellant strand. Combustion of these metal-based propellants is a particularly hostile environment for laserbased diagnostics, with intense background luminosity, scattering and beam obstruction from hot metal particles that can be as large as several hundred microns in diameter. CARS spectra that were previously obtained using nanosecond pulsed lasers in an aluminumparticle- seeded flame are examined and are determined to be severely impacted by nonresonant background, presumably as a result of the plasma formed by particulateenhanced laser-induced breakdown. Introduction of fs/ps laser pulses enables CARS detection at reduced pulse energies, decreasing the likelihood of breakdown, while simultaneously providing time-gated elimination of any nonresonant background interference. Temperature probability densities and temperature/oxygen correlations were constructed from ensembles of several thousand single-laser-shot measurements from the fs/ps rotational CARS measurement volume positioned within 3 mm or less of the burning propellant surface. Preliminary results in canonical flames are presented using a hybrid fs/ps vibrational CARS system to demonstrate our progress towards acquiring vibrational CARS measurements for more accurate temperatures in the very high temperature propellant burns.

  13. Elastin Based Cell-laden Injectable Hydrogels with Tunable Gelation, Mechanical and Biodegradation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Ali; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Wei, Hua; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valtchev, Peter; Weiss, Anthony S.; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels made from extracellular matrix proteins such as elastin show great promise for various biomedical applications. Use of cytotoxic reagents, fixed gelling behavior, and lack of mechanical strength in these hydrogels are the main associated drawbacks. The aim of this study was to develop highly cytocompatible and injectable elastin-based hydrogels with alterable gelation characteristics, favorable mechanical properties and structural stability for load bearing applications. A thermoresponsive copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-polylactide-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether methacrylate, was functionalized with succinimide ester groups by incorporating N-acryloxysuccinimide monomer. These ester groups were exploited to covalently bond this polymer, denoted as PNPHO, to different proteins with primary amine groups such as α-elastin in aqueous media. The incorporation of elastin through covalent bond formation with PNPHO promotes the structural stability, mechanical properties and live cell proliferation within the structure of hydrogels. Our results demonstrated that elastin-co-PNPHO solutions were injectable through fine gauge needles and converted to hydrogels in situ at 37 °C in the absence of any crosslinking reagent. By altering PNPHO content, the gelling time of these hydrogels can be finely tuned within the range of 2 to 15 min to ensure compatibility with surgical requirements. In addition, these hydrogels exhibited compression moduli in the range of 40 to 145 kPa, which are substantially higher than those of previously developed elastin-based hydrogels. These hydrogels were highly stable in the physiological environment with the evidence of 10 wt% mass loss in 30 days of incubation in a simulated environment. This class of hydrogels is in vivo bioabsorbable due to the gradual increase of the lower critical solution temperature of the copolymer to above 37 °C due to the cleavage of polylactide from the PNPHO copolymer. Moreover, our results demonstrated that more than 80% of cells encapsulated in these hydrogels remained viable, and the number of encapsulated cells increased for at least 5 days. These unique properties mark elastin-co-PNHPO hydrogels as favorable candidates for a broad range of tissue engineering applications. PMID:24731705

  14. Engineering bone regeneration with novel cell-laden hydrogel microfiber-injectable calcium phosphate scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Ping; Wang, Lin; Bao, Chunyun; Weir, Michael D.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Ren, Ke; Zhao, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering is promising to create living functional tissues for bone regeneration. The implanted cells should be evenly distributed in the scaffold, be fast-released to the defect and maintain high viability in order to actively participate in the regenerative process. Herein, we report an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold containing cell-encapsulating hydrogel microfibers with desirable degradability that could deliver cells in a timely manner and maintain cell viability. Microfibers were synthesized using partially-oxidized alginate with various concentrations (0–0.8%) of fibrinogen to optimize the degradation rate of the alginate-fibrin microfibers (Alg-Fb MF). A fibrin concentration of 0.4% in Alg-Fb MF resulted in the greatest enhancement of cell migration, release and proliferation. Interestingly, a significant amount of cell–cell contact along the long-axis of the microfibers was established in Alg-0.4%Fb MF as early as day 2. The injectable tissue engineered construct for bone reconstruct was fabricated by mixing the fast-degradable Alg-0.4%Fb MF with CPC paste at 1:1 volume ratio. In vitro study showed that cells re-collected from the construct maintained good viability and osteogenic potentials. In vivo study demonstrated that the hBMSC-encapsulated CPC-MF tissue engineered construct displayed a robust capacity for bone regeneration. At 12 weeks after implantation, osseous bridge in the rat mandibular defect was observed in CPC-MF-hBMSCs group with a new bone area fraction of (42.1 ± 7.8) % in the defects, which was > 3-fold that of the control group. The novel tissue-engineered construct presents an excellent prospect for a wide range of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Microfibers protected cells during CPC mixing and injection, and supported the viability, migration and differentiation of encapsulated cells. • Cells re-collected from the construct maintained good viability and osteogenic potentials. • Cell-encapsulated CPC microfiber tissue engineered construct displayed a robust capacity for bone regeneration.

  15. Water circulation in non-isothermal droplet-laden turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Simos, T.; Psihoyios, G.; Tsitouras, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapor. An incompressible flow formulation is applied for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow with a warm and a cold wall. Compared

  16. Child Custody Evaluations: A Rational Process for an Emotion-Laden Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Charles P.; Jenson, Gust, III

    1984-01-01

    Presents a consultation model that can serve to diminish the destructive impact of the adversarial process in child custody decisions. The process and procedures described are consonant with what most state statutes suggest as criteria for consideration in custody decisions and promote the best interests of the children. (JAC)

  17. DEMOLISHING A COLD-WAR-ERA FULE-STORAGE BASIN SUPERSTRUCTURE LADEN WITH ASBESTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.; STEVENS, J.M.; DAGAN, E.B.; ORGILL, T.K.; GREEN, M.A.; LARSON, C.H.; ZINSLI, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The K East (KE) Basin facilities are located near the north end of the Hanford Site's 100 K area. The facilities were built in 1950 as part of the KE Reactor complex and constructed within 400 meters of the Columbia River, which is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest and by volume the fourth largest river in the United States. The basin, located adjacent to the reactor, was used for the underwater storage of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged from the reactor. The basin was covered by a superstructure comprising steel columns and beams, concrete, and cement asbestos board (CAB) siding. The project's mission was to complete demolition of the structure over the KE Basin within six months of turnover from facility deactivation activities. The demolition project team applied open-air demolition techniques to bring the facility to slab-on-grade. Several innovative techniques were used to control contamination and maintain contamination control within the confines of the demolition exclusion zone. The techniques, which focused on a defense-in-depth approach, included spraying fixatives on interior and exterior surfaces before demolition began; applying fixatives during the demolition; misting using a fine spray of water during demolition; and demolishing the facility systematically. Another innovative approach that made demolition easier was to demolish the building with the non-friable CAB remaining in place. The CAB siding covered the exterior of the building and portions of the interior walls, and was an integral part of the multiple-layered roof. The project evaluated the risks involved in removing the CAB material in a radiologically contaminated environment and determined that radiological dose rates and exposure to radiological contamination and industrial hazards would be significantly reduced by using heavy equipment to remove the CAB during demolition. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without spreading contamination (radiological or asbestos) demonstrates that contaminated structures can be torn down successfully using similar open-air demolition techniques

  18. Applicability of MIEX(®)DOC process for organics removal from NOM laden water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinska, Anna M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Bilyk, Andrzej; Molczan, Marek

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of ion exchange process for organics removal from Douro River surface water at the intake of Lever water treatment plant using magnetized ion exchange resin MIEX®. Qualitative analysis of the natural organic matter present in the surface water and prediction of its amenability to removal in conventional coagulation process were assessed. Results obtained in MIEX®DOC process kinetic batch experiments allowed determination of ion exchange efficiency in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbing organics, and true color removal. The data were compared with the efficiencies of the conventional unit processes for organics removal at Lever WTP. MIEX®DOC process revealed to be more efficient in DOC removal than conventional treatment achieving the efficiencies in the range of 61-91 %, lowering disinfection by-products formation potential of the water. DOC removal efficiency at Lever WTP depends largely on the raw water quality and ranges from 28 % for water of moderated quality to 89 % of significantly deteriorated quality. In this work, MIEX®DOC process was also used as a reference method for the determination of contribution of anionic fraction to dissolved organic matter and selectivity of the unit processes at Lever WTP for its removal.

  19. 3D-printed microfluidic chips with patterned, cell-laden hydrogel constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Ersoy, Fulya; Emadi, Sharareh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers potential to fabricate high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of microfluidic devices as a promising alternative to traditional techniques which enables efficient design iterations in the development stage. In this study, we demonstrate a single-step fabrication of a 3D transparent microfluidic chip using two alternative techniques: a stereolithography-based desktop 3D printer and a two-step fabrication using an industrial 3D printer based on polyjet technology. This method, compared to conventional fabrication using relatively expensive materials and labor-intensive processes, presents a low-cost, rapid prototyping technique to print functional 3D microfluidic chips. We enhance the capabilities of 3D-printed microfluidic devices by coupling 3D cell encapsulation and spatial patterning within photocrosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). The platform presented here serves as a 3D culture environment for long-term cell culture and growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the ability to print complex 3D microfluidic channels to create predictable and controllable fluid flow regimes. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of 3D-printed microfluidic chips as controllable 3D cell culture environments, advancing the applicability of 3D printing to engineering physiological systems for future applications in bioengineering.

  20. Hybrid fs/ps CARS for Sooting and Particle-laden Flames [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Kathryn N. Gabet; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Kearney, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the application of ultrafast rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for temperature and relative oxygen concentration measurements in the plume emanating from a burning aluminized ammonium perchlorate propellant strand. Combustion of these metal-based propellants is a particularly hostile environment for laserbased diagnostics, with intense background luminosity, scattering and beam obstruction from hot metal particles that can be as large as several hundred microns in diameter. CARS spectra that were previously obtained using nanosecond pulsed lasers in an aluminumparticle- seeded flame are examined and are determined to be severely impacted by nonresonant background, presumably as a result of the plasma formed by particulateenhanced laser-induced breakdown. Introduction of fs/ps laser pulses enables CARS detection at reduced pulse energies, decreasing the likelihood of breakdown, while simultaneously providing time-gated elimination of any nonresonant background interference. Temperature probability densities and temperature/oxygen correlations were constructed from ensembles of several thousand single-laser-shot measurements from the fs/ps rotational CARS measurement volume positioned within 3 mm or less of the burning propellant surface. Preliminary results in canonical flames are presented using a hybrid fs/ps vibrational CARS system to demonstrate our progress towards acquiring vibrational CARS measurements for more accurate temperatures in the very high temperature propellant burns.

  1. Gelatin methacrylamide hydrogel with graphene nanoplatelets for neural cell-laden 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Zhu; Harris, Brent T; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Nervous system is extremely complex which leads to rare regrowth of nerves once injury or disease occurs. Advanced 3D bioprinting strategy, which could simultaneously deposit biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components in a layer-by-layer manner, may be a promising solution to address neural damages. Here we presented a printable nano-bioink composed of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), neural stem cells, and bioactive graphene nanoplatelets to target nerve tissue regeneration in the assist of stereolithography based 3D bioprinting technique. We found the resultant GelMA hydrogel has a higher compressive modulus with an increase of GelMA concentration. The porous GelMA hydrogel can provide a biocompatible microenvironment for the survival and growth of neural stem cells. The cells encapsulated in the hydrogel presented good cell viability at the low GelMA concentration. Printed neural construct exhibited well-defined architecture and homogenous cell distribution. In addition, neural stem cells showed neuron differentiation and neurites elongation within the printed construct after two weeks of culture. These findings indicate the 3D bioprinted neural construct has great potential for neural tissue regeneration.

  2. Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levato, Riccardo; Visser, Jetze; Planell, Josep a; Engel, Elisabeth; Malda, Jos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461099; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel a

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting allows the fabrication of living constructs with custom-made architectures by spatially controlled deposition of multiple bioinks. This is important for the generation of tissue, such as osteochondral tissue, which displays a zonal composition in the cartilage domain supported by the

  3. Three-dimensional bioprinting is not only about cell-laden structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Xing, Tian-Long; Yin, Rui-Xue; Shi, Yong; Yang, Shi-Mo; Zhang, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we focused on a few obstacles that hinder three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process in tissue engineering. One of the obstacles is the bioinks used to deliver cells. Hydrogels are the most widely used bioink materials; however, they aremechanically weak in nature and cannot meet the requirements for supporting structures, especially when the tissues, such as cartilage, require extracellular matrix to be mechanically strong. Secondly and more importantly, tissue regeneration is not only about building all the components in a way that mimics the structures of living tissues, but also about how to make the constructs function normally in the long term. One of the key issues is sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply to the engineered living constructs. The other is to coordinate the interplays between cells, bioactive agents and extracellular matrix in a natural way. This article reviews the approaches to improve the mechanical strength of hydrogels and their suitability for 3D bioprinting; moreover, the key issues of multiple cell lines coprinting with multiple growth factors, vascularization within engineered living constructs etc. were also reviewed.

  4. Charging since midnight. Study on the electromobility; Laden ab Mitternacht. Studie zur Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Six million electric cars will 2030 be on German roads. For this the local power generation system not needs to be extended, how the comprehensive study of a team around the Julic scientist Jochen Linssen shows.

  5. Effects of aerodynamic particle interaction in turbulent non-dilute particle-laden flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Fuchs, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Aerodynamic four-way coupling models are necessary to handle two-phase flows with a dispersed phase in regimes in which the particles are neither dilute enough to neglect particle interaction nor dense enough to bring the mixture to equilibrium. We include an aerodynamic particle interaction model...... levels in the flow then decrease. The impact of the stochastic particle description on the four-way coupling model is shown to be relatively small. If particles are also allowed to break up according to a wave breakup model, the particles become polydisperse. An ad hoc model for handling polydisperse...

  6. Osama bin Laden - elus või siiski ammu surnud? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    USA on terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda juhti Osama bin Ladenit jahitud juba kaheksa aastat, kuid tulemusteta. Vandenõuteoreetikute arvates on ta ammu surnud, kuid USA Luure Keskagentuuri juhi arvates varjab ta end Pakistanis

  7. Osama bin Laden võib olla uues piiramisrõngas / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Briti ajakirjanduse andmeil on suudetud tuvastada bin Ladeni asukoht. 1993. aastal CIA peakorteri ees kaks USA luureagenti tapnud pakistanlase Mir Aimal Kasi ja bin Ladeni tagaotsimisest. Vt. samas: Taliban kogub uut jõudu

  8. Values and Objectivity in Science: Value-Ladenness, Pluralism and the Epistemic Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Martin

    2013-10-01

    My intention is to cast light on the characteristics of epistemic or fundamental research (in contrast to application-oriented research). I contrast a Baconian notion of objectivity, expressing a correspondence of the views of scientists to the facts, with a pluralist notion, involving a critical debate between conflicting approaches. These conflicts include substantive hypotheses or theories but extend to values as well. I claim that a plurality of epistemic values serves to accomplish a non-Baconian form of objectivity that is apt to preserve most of the intuitions tied to the objectivity of science. For instance, pluralism is the only way to cope with the challenge of preference bias. Furthermore, the plurality of epistemic values cannot be substantially reduced by exploring the empirical success of scientific theories distinguished in light of particular such values. However, in addition to pluralism at the level of theories and value-commitments alike, scientific research is also characterized by a joint striving for consensus which I trace back to a shared epistemic attitude. This attitude manifests itself, e.g., in the willingness of scientists to subject their claims to empirical scrutiny and to respect rational argument. This shared epistemic attitude is embodied in rules adopted by the scientific community concerning general principles of dealing with knowledge claims. My contention is that pluralism and consensus formation can be brought into harmony by placing them at different levels of consideration: at the level of scientific reasoning and at the level of social conventions regarding how to deal with claims put forward within the scientific community.

  9. Three-dimensional bioprinting is not only about cell-laden structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focused on a few obstacles that hinder three-dimensional (3D bioprinting process in tissue engineering. One of the obstacles is the bioinks used to deliver cells. Hydrogels are the most widely used bioink materials; however, they are mechanically weak in nature and cannot meet the requirements for supporting structures, especially when the tissues, such as cartilage, require extracellular matrix to be mechanically strong. Secondly and more importantly, tissue regeneration is not only about building all the components in a way that mimics the structures of living tissues, but also about how to make the constructs function normally in the long term. One of the key issues is sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply to the engineered living constructs. The other is to coordinate the interplays between cells, bioactive agents and extracellular matrix in a natural way. This article reviews the approaches to improve the mechanical strength of hydrogels and their suitability for 3D bioprinting; moreover, the key issues of multiple cell lines coprinting with multiple growth factors, vascularization within engineered living constructs etc. were also reviewed.

  10. Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: An ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Junlong Luo, Xiumin Du , Edward J. N. Stupple, Xiao Xiao, Lei Jia , Qinglin Zhang ,

    2012-01-01

    Belief-bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual process theories of be...

  11. "I'm Not Really Afraid of Osama Bin Laden!" Fear of Terrorism in Dutch Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; van Eijk, Sandra; van Dongen, Marit

    2008-01-01

    We examined to what extent children in The Netherlands are affected by the threat of terrorism. For this purpose, a sample of school children living in Rotterdam or adjacent satellites (N = 216) completed a fear survey that included a number of terrorism-related items, and were confronted with ambiguous vignettes to measure threat-related…

  12. The osteoinductive potential of printable, cell-laden hydrogel-ceramic composites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, N.E.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Helm, Y.J. van der; Alblas, J.; Dhert, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels used as injectables or in organ printing often lack the appropriate stimuli to direct osteogenic differentiation of embedded multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), resulting in limited bone formation in these matrices. Addition of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles to the printing mixture is

  13. Potential effects of salt-laden cooling air in the ALMR RVACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Gordon, B.M.; Baston, V.F.; Steigerwald, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) concept has a totally passive safety-related decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the 471 MWt modular reactor to the atmosphere or ambient air by natural convection heat transfer. The system has no active components, requires no operator action to initiate, and thus is totally passive. The effects of operation of the RVACS in coastal environments where the air has high concentrations of air-borne sea-salt have been addressed. The potential for corrosion of the carbon steel and RVACS related structures have been evaluated and it was concluded that corrosion is not a problem. (author)

  14. Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Mustafa M.

    2017-01-05

    We describe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer (TBL). For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed velocity field. Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. This code is parallelized based on standard message passing interface (MPI) protocol and is designed for distributed-memory machines. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of particles in very large-scale simulations. The solver is validated using the well know result of Taylor-Green vortex case. A large-scale sandstorm case is simulated and the altitude variations of number density along with its fluctuations are quantified.

  15. Development of a two-phase SPH model for sediment laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huabin; Yu, Xiping; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    A SPH model based on a general formulation for solid-fluid two-phase flows is proposed for suspended sediment motion in free surface flows. The water and the sediment are treated as two miscible fluids, and the multi-fluid system is discretized by a single set of SPH particles, which move with the water velocity and carry properties of the two phases. Large eddy simulation (LES) is introduced to deal with the turbulence effect, and the widely used Smagorinsky model is modified to take into account the influence of sediment particles on the turbulence. The drag force is accurately formulated by including the hindered settling effect. In the model, the water is assumed to be weakly compressible while the sediment is incompressible, and a new equation of state is proposed for the pressure in the sediment-water mixture. Dynamic boundary condition is employed to treat wall boundaries, and a new strategy of Shepard filtering is adopted to damp the pressure oscillation. The developed two-phase SPH model is validated by comparing the numerical results with analytical solutions for idealized cases of still water containing both neutrally buoyant and naturally settling sand and for plane Poiseuille flows carrying neutrally buoyant particles, and is then applied to sand dumping from a line source into a water tank, where the sand cloud settles with a response of the free water surface. It is shown that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data as well as the empirical formulas. The characteristics of the settling sand cloud, the pressure field, and the flow vortices are studied. The motion of the free water surface is also discussed. The proposed two-phase SPH model is proven to be effective for numerical simulation of sand dumping into waters.

  16. Emotionally laden impulsivity interacts with affect in predicting addictive use of online sexual activity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Aline; Deleuze, Jory; Canale, Natale; Billieux, Joël

    2018-01-01

    The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N=182; age, M=29.17, SD = 9.34), building upon a theoretically driven model that distinguishes the various facets of impulsivity. Results showed that negative urgency (an impulsivity trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in negative emotional states) and negative affect interact in predicting addictive OSA use. These results highlight the pivotal role played by negative urgency and negative affect in addictive OSA use, supporting the relevance of psychological interventions that focus on improving emotional regulation (e.g., to reduce negative affect and learn healthier coping strategies) to mitigate excessive use of OSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DNS of spark ignition and edge flame propagation in turbulent droplet-laden mixing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neophytou, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A parametric study of forced ignition at the mixing layer between air and air carrying fine monosized fuel droplets is done through one-step chemistry direct numerical simulations to determine the influence of the size and volatility of the droplets, the spark location, the droplet-air mixing layer initial thickness and the turbulence intensity on the ignition success and the subsequent flame propagation. The propagation is analyzed in terms of edge flame displacement speed, which has not been studied before for turbulent edge spray flames. Spark ignition successfully resulted in a tribrachial flame if enough fuel vapour was available at the spark location, which occurred when the local droplet number density was high. Ignition was achieved even when the spark was offset from the spray, on the air side, due to the diffusion of heat from the spark, provided droplets evaporated rapidly. Large kernels were obtained by sparking close to the spray, since fuel was more readily available. At long times after the spark, for all flames studied, the probability density function of the displacement speed was wide, with a mean value in the range 0.55-0.75S{sub L}, with S{sub L} the laminar burning velocity of a stoichiometric gaseous premixed flame. This value is close to the mean displacement speed in turbulent edge flames with gaseous fuel. The displacement speed was negatively correlated with curvature. The detrimental effect of curvature was attenuated with a large initial kernel and by increasing the thickness of the mixing layer. The mixing layer was thicker when evaporation was slow and the turbulence intensity higher. However, high turbulence intensity also distorted the kernel which could lead to high values of curvature. The edge flame reaction component increased when the maximum temperature coincided with the stoichiometric contour. The results are consistent with the limited available experimental evidence and provide insights into the processes associated with ignition of practical spray flames. (author)

  18. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  19. Anomalous frequency-dependent ionic conductivity of lesion-laden human-brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Fallah, Aria; Vinters, Harry V.; Mathern, Gary W.

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of lesions on our four-electrode measurements of the ionic conductivity of (˜1 cm3) samples of human brain excised from patients undergoing pediatric epilepsy surgery. For most (˜94%) samples, the low-frequency ionic conductivity rises upon increasing the applied frequency. We attributed this behavior to the long-range (˜0.4 mm) diffusion of solvated sodium cations before encountering intrinsic impenetrable blockages such as cell membranes, blood vessels, and cell walls. By contrast, the low-frequency ionic conductivity of some (˜6%) brain-tissue samples falls with increasing applied frequency. We attribute this unusual frequency-dependence to the electric-field induced liberation of sodium cations from traps introduced by the unusually severe pathology observed in samples from these patients. Thus, the anomalous frequency-dependence of the ionic conductivity indicates trap-producing brain lesions.

  20. Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Mustafa M.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed

  1. WITHDRAWN: Droplet-laden flows and vapour production in large-scale evaporating liquid fuel cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.; Heidari, A.; Macchi, M.; Volkov, K.; Wen, J.

    2017-06-01

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

  2. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  3. "Touch It Lightly": Israeli Students' Construction of Pedagogical Paradigms about an Emotionally Laden Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David L.; Cohen, Hindy

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators are increasingly being called upon to deal with emotionally charged topics, which include natural and manmade disasters, war, terror, death, and other traumatic events. At our teachers college, we prepare students to deal with a challenging issue, memory of the Holocaust, through a series of activities and workshops…

  4. "i'm not really afraid of Osama Bin Laden!" fear of terrorism in dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); S. van Eijk (Sandra); M. Dongen (Marit)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined to what extent children in The Netherlands are affected by the threat of terrorism. For this purpose, a sample of school children living in Rotterdam or adjacent satellites (N = 216) completed a fear survey that included a number of terrorism-related items, and were

  5. Purple perilla extracts allay ER stress in lipid-laden macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Hye Park

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that excess lipids, hypoxic stress and other inflammatory signals can stimulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in metabolic diseases. However, the pathophysiological importance and the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unknown. The current study investigated that 50 ng/ml oxidized LDL promoted unfolded protein response (UPR and ER stress in J774A1 murine macrophages, which was blocked by extracts (PPE of purple Perilla frutescens, a plant of the mint family Lamiaceae. The ER stressor tunicamycin was employed as a positive control. Treating 1-10 µg/ml oxidized LDL for 24 h elicited lipotoxic apoptosis in macrophages with obvious nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, which was inhibited by PPE. Tunicamycin and oxidized LDL activated and induced the UPR components of activating transcription factor 6 and ER resident chaperone BiP/Grp78 in temporal manners and such effects were blocked by ≥5 µg/ml PPE. In addition, PPE suppressed the enhanced mRNA transcription and splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 by tunicamycin and oxidized LDL. The protein induction and nuclear translocation of XBP1 were deterred in PPE-treated macrophages under ER stress. The induction of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 was abolished by the ER stressor in activated macrophages. The protein induction of ABCA1 and ICAM1 but not SR-B1 was retrieved by adding 10 µg/ml PPE to cells. These results demonstrate that PPE inhibited lipotoxic apoptosis and demoted the induction and activation of UPR components in macrophages. PPE restored normal proteostasis in activated macrophages oxidized LDL. Therefore, PPE was a potent agent antagonizing macrophage ER stress due to lipotoxic signals associated with atherosclerosis.

  6. Large eddy simulation modeling of particle-laden flows in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesky, S.; Giometto, M. G.; Chamecki, M.; Lehning, M.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    The transport, deposition, and erosion of heavy particles over complex terrain in the atmospheric boundary layer is an important process for hydrology, air quality forecasting, biology, and geomorphology. However, in situ observations can be challenging in complex terrain due to spatial heterogeneity. Furthermore, there is a need to develop numerical tools that can accurately represent the physics of these multiphase flows over complex surfaces. We present a new numerical approach to accurately model the transport and deposition of heavy particles in complex terrain using large eddy simulation (LES). Particle transport is represented through solution of the advection-diffusion equation including terms that represent gravitational settling and inertia. The particle conservation equation is discretized in a cut-cell finite volume framework in order to accurately enforce mass conservation. Simulation results will be validated with experimental data, and numerical considerations required to enforce boundary conditions at the surface will be discussed. Applications will be presented in the context of snow deposition and transport, as well as urban dispersion.

  7. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden density currents with adaptive, discontinuous finite elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.

  8. Profiling and study of interfacial tension laden with crude lipid extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude lipid extract plant based namely SPLIP and PULIP are being introduced in this research as a potential surfactant with phospholipid and glycolipid components which playing an important role at the oil/water interface. Since the interaction between the components give a significant impact on the interfaces, the aim of ...

  9. A highly accurate boundary integral equation method for surfactant-laden drops in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgentone, Chiara; Tornberg, Anna-Karin

    2018-05-01

    The presence of surfactants alters the dynamics of viscous drops immersed in an ambient viscous fluid. This is specifically true at small scales, such as in applications of droplet based microfluidics, where the interface dynamics become of increased importance. At such small scales, viscous forces dominate and inertial effects are often negligible. Considering Stokes flow, a numerical method based on a boundary integral formulation is presented for simulating 3D drops covered by an insoluble surfactant. The method is able to simulate drops with different viscosities and close interactions, automatically controlling the time step size and maintaining high accuracy also when substantial drop deformation appears. To achieve this, the drop surfaces as well as the surfactant concentration on each surface are represented by spherical harmonics expansions. A novel reparameterization method is introduced to ensure a high-quality representation of the drops also under deformation, specialized quadrature methods for singular and nearly singular integrals that appear in the formulation are evoked and the adaptive time stepping scheme for the coupled drop and surfactant evolution is designed with a preconditioned implicit treatment of the surfactant diffusion.

  10. A Hard Constraint Algorithm to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D

    2006-08-01

    We present a new method for particle interactions in polymer models of DNA. The DNA is represented by a bead-rod polymer model and is fully-coupled to the fluid. The main objective in this work is to implement short-range forces to properly model polymer-polymer and polymer-surface interactions, specifically, rod-rod and rod-surface uncrossing. Our new method is based on a rigid constraint algorithm whereby rods elastically bounce off one another to prevent crossing, similar to our previous algorithm used to model polymer-surface interactions. We compare this model to a classical (smooth) potential which acts as a repulsive force between rods, and rods and surfaces.

  11. Radiation Effects in Hydrogen-Laden Porous Water Ice Films: Implications for Interstellar Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ujjwal; Baragiola, Raul; Mitchell, Emma; Shi, Jianming

    H _{2} is the dominant gas in the dense clouds of the interstellar medium (ISM). At densities of 10 (5) cm (-3) , an H _{2} molecule arrives at the surface of a 0.1 mum-sized, ice-covered dust grain once every few seconds [1]. At 10 K, H _{2} can diffuse into the pores of the ice mantle and adsorb at high-energy binding sites, loading the ice with hydrogen over the lifetime of the cloud. These icy grains are also impacted by galactic cosmic rays and stellar winds (in clouds with embedded protostar). Based on the available cosmic proton flux spectrum [2], we estimate a small impact rate of nearly 1 hit per year on a 0.1 μm sized grain, or 10 (-7) times the impact frequency of the neutral H _{2}. The energy deposited by such impacts can release the adsorbed H _{2} into the gas phase (impact desorption or sputtering). Recently, we have reported on a new process of ion-induced enhanced adsorption, where molecules from the gas phase are incorporated into the film when irradiation is performed in the presence of ambient gas [3]. The interplay between ion-induced ejection and adsorption can be important in determining the gas-solid balance in the ISM. To understand the effects of cosmic rays/stellar winds impacts on interstellar ice immersed in H _{2} gas, we have performed irradiation of porous amorphous ice films loaded with H _{2} through co-deposition or adsorption following growth. The irradiations were performed with 100 keV H (+) using fluxes of 10 (10) -10 (12) H (+) cm (-2) s (-1) at 7 K, in presence of ambient H _{2} at pressures ranging from 10 (-5) to 10 (-8) Torr. Our initial results show a net loss in adsorbed H _{2} during irradiation, from competing ion-induced ejection and adsorption. The H _{2} loss per ion decreases exponentially with fluence, with a cross-section of 10 (-13) cm (2) . In addition to hydrogen removal, irradiation also leads to trapping of H _{2} in the ice film, from closing of the pores during irradiation [4]. As a result, 2.6 percent H _{2} molar remains trapped in the ice even upon removal of ambient gas-phase H _{2}, and is stable to 170 K, where the ice film desorbs. We will describe the dependence of net loss of adsorbed hydrogen on important parameters such as ice film thickness and the ratio of ion flux (f) to H _{2} flux (F _{H}). Both fluxes are higher by orders of magnitude than interstellar values. However, the information obtained from these experiments, especially the behavior in the limit of low flux (f Journal, 1983. 275: p. 391-404. 3.Shi, J., B.D. Teolis, and R.A. Baragiola, Irradiation-enhanced adsorption and trapping of O2 on nanoporous water ice. Physical Review B, 2009. 79(23): p. 235422. 4.Raut, U., et al., Compaction of microporous amorphous solid water by ion irradiation. Journal of Chemical Physics, 2007. 126(24): p. 244511.

  12. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes used in remediation of industrial wastewater laden with recalcitrant pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Rawindran, H.; Sinnathambi, C. M.; Lim, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Due to the scarcity of water, it has become a necessity to improve the quality of wastewater that is discharged into the environment. Conventional wastewater treatment can be either a physical, chemical, and/or biological processes, or in some cases a combination of these operations. The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to eliminate nutrients, solids, and organic compounds from effluents. Current wastewater treatment technologies are deemed ineffective in the complete removal of pollutants, particularly organic matter. In many cases, these organic compounds are resistant to conventional treatment methods, thus creating the necessity for tertiary treatment. Advanced oxidation process (AOP), constitutes as a promising treatment technology for the management of wastewater. AOPs are characterised by a common chemical feature, where they utilize the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals for achieving complete mineralization of the organic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water. This paper delineates advanced oxidation processes currently used for the remediation of water and wastewater. It also provides the cost estimation of installing and running an AOP system. The costs are separated into three categories: capital, operational, and operating & maintenance.

  13. Interfacial deflection and jetting of a paramagnetic particle-laden fluid: theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Scott S. H.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Li, Zhenzhen; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of experiments and mathematical analysis of the deformation of a free surface by an aggregate of magnetic particles. The system we study is differentiated from ferrofluid systems because it contains regions rich with magnetic

  14. Fundamental Combustion Processes of Particle-Laden Shear Flows in Solid Fuel Ramjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    iclIs can be used together to generate better performances. A new Zec ,,nique has recently been developed in which boron particles are coated with...34 Final Rept., AEDC-R-76-158, July 1, 1975-Sept. 30, 1976. 6. Peters , C. E., Phares, W. J., "Analytical Model of Supersonic, Turbulent, Near-Wake Flows

  15. Simulation and Visualization of Flows Laden with Cylindrical Nanoparticles in a Mixing Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of cylindrical particles in a mixing layer is studied using the pseudospectral method and discrete particle model. The effect of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio on the mixing and orientation distribution of cylindrical particles is analyzed. The results show that the rollup of mixing layer drives the particles to the edge of the vortex by centrifugal force. The cylindrical particles with the small Stokes number almost follow fluid streamlines and are mixed thoroughly, while those with the large Stokes number, centrifugalized and accumulated at the edge of the vortex, are poorly mixed. The mixing degree of particles becomes worse as the particle aspect ratio increases. The cylindrical particles would change their orientation under two torques and rotate around their axis of revolution aligned to the vorticity direction when the shear rate is low, while aligning on the flow-gradient plane beyond a critical shear rate value. More particles are oriented with the flow direction, and this phenomenon becomes more obvious with the decrease of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio.

  16. Two-way coupled simulation of a flow laden with metallic particulates in overexpanded TIC nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfegh, Abouzar; Shams, Mehrzad; Ebrahimi, Reza; Farnia, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of non-reacting dilute gas-solid flow in a truncated ideal contour nozzle with consideration of external stream interactions is performed. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach involving a two-way momentum and thermal coupling between gas and particles phases is also adopted. Of interests are to investigate the effects of particles diameter and mass flow fraction on the flow pattern, Mach number, pressure and temperature contours and their distributions along the nozzle centerline and wall. The main goal is to determine the separation point quantitatively when the particles characteristics change. Particles sample trajectories are illustrated throughout the flow field and a qualitative discussion on the way that physical properties of the nozzle exit flow and particles trajectories oscillate is prepared. The existence of solid particulates delays the separation prominently in the cases studied. The bigger particles and the higher particles mass flow fractions respectively advance and delay the separation occurrence. The particles trajectories oscillate when they expose to the crisscrossing (or diamond-shape) shock waves generated outside the nozzle to approach the exit jet conditions to the ambient. The simulation code is validated and verified, respectively, against a one-phase 2D convergent-divergent nozzle flow and a two-phase Jet Propulsion Laboratory nozzle flow, and acceptable agreements are achieved.

  17. Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments

  18. Disentangling the f(R). Duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Westphal, Alexander; Pedro, Francisco G.; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by UV realisations of Starobinsky-like inflation models, we study generic exponential plateau-like potentials to understand whether an exact f(R)-formulation may still be obtained when the asymptotic shift-symmetry of the potential is broken for larger field values. Potentials which break the shift symmetry with rising exponentials at large field values only allow for corresponding f(R)-descriptions with a leading order term R n with 1 2 -term survives as part of a series expansion of the function f(R) and thus cannot maintain a plateau for all field values. We further find a lean and instructive way to obtain a function f(R) describing m 2 φ 2 -inflation which breaks the shift symmetry with a monomial, and corresponds to effectively logarithmic corrections to an R+R 2 model. These examples emphasise that higher order terms in f(R)-theory may not be neglected if they are present at all. Additionally, we relate the function f(R) corresponding to chaotic inflation to a more general Jordan frame set-up. In addition, we consider f(R)-duals of two given UV examples, both from supergravity and string theory. Finally, we outline the CMB phenomenology of these models which show effects of power suppression at low-l.

  19. Keys to evaluating and comparing FR fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, M. [Westex Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Exposure to electric arc flashes can result in the ignition of clothing, and can kill people at distances of 10 feet. This article discussed recent standards and regulations passed to ensure that employees working on or near energized electrical equipment use protective clothing made of flame resistant (FR) fabrics. The codes will require companies to comply with CSA Standard Z462 and determine which protective garments and FR fabrics are available. Employers will also be required to perform flash hazard analyses in order to determine the potential energy of hazards. Flash hazard analyses are typically performed by calculating the potential incident energy of equipment. Protective clothing is required to meet corresponding hazard risk categories. The ASTM F1506 Standard was developed to provide minimum specifications for protective clothing. The standard requires that the fabric used in protective garments must be resistant to arc flashes of varying energy levels. Many companies are simplifying compliance to the standards by implementing uniform programs that meet the highest requirements of the Standards. Arc flash suits are then made available for tasks involving higher energy level equipment. It was concluded that it is important to identify potential hazards and obtain industry consensus standards before investing in FR protective clothing. 2 figs.

  20. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.