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Sample records for stethoscopes

  1. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable.

  2. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Digital stethoscope: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, Supreeya; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognized as the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. About one-third of global mortality is attributable to CVD. In addition to clinical presentation, specific clinical exam findings can assist in treating and preventing CVD. CVD may initially manifest as pulmonary pathology, and thus, accurate cardiopulmonary auscultation is paramount to establishing accurate diagnosis. One of the most powerful tools available to physicians is the stethoscope. The stethoscope first emerged in the year 1818, invented by a French physician, René Laennec. Since then, the initial modest monaural wooden tube has evolved into a sophisticated digital device. This paper provides an analysis of the evolution of the stethoscope as well as highlights the advancement made by the modern digital stethoscope including the application of this tool in advancing care for patients suffering from CVD. PMID:29379321

  4. The stethoscope: some preliminary investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsby, P; Parry, G; Smith, D

    2003-01-01

    Textbooks, clinicians, and medical teachers differ as to whether the stethoscope bell or diaphragm should be used for auscultating respiratory sounds at the chest wall. Logic and our results suggest that stethoscope diaphragms are more appropriate. PMID:14707247

  5. The electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuang; Tan, Ru San; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Wang, Chao; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Zhong, Liang

    2015-07-10

    Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

  6. Digital stethoscope: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup S

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supreeya Swarup,1 Amgad N Makaryus1,2 1Department of Cardiology, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, 2Department of Cardiology, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, Hempstead, NY, USA Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is recognized as the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. About one-third of global mortality is attributable to CVD. In addition to clinical presentation, specific clinical exam findings can assist in treating and preventing CVD. CVD may initially manifest as pulmonary pathology, and thus, accurate cardiopulmonary auscultation is paramount to establishing accurate diagnosis. One of the most powerful tools available to physicians is the stethoscope. The stethoscope first emerged in the year 1818, invented by a French physician, René Laennec. Since then, the initial modest monaural wooden tube has evolved into a sophisticated digital device. This paper provides an analysis of the evolution of the stethoscope as well as highlights the advancement made by the modern digital stethoscope including the application of this tool in advancing care for patients suffering from CVD. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, physical exam, diagnosis, treatment

  7. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.

  8. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal stethoscope. 884.2900 Section 884.2900 Food... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart... conventional stethoscopes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  9. Stethoscope Cleaning During Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Ghazi Wahla; Ahmad, Nina; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in two community teaching hospitals to better understand clinicians' beliefs and practices related to cleaning of their stethoscopes. The study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2016. Among the total 358 responses received, 45%, 40%, 10% and 5% were from attending physicians, medical students, nurses, and resident physicians, respectively. Although the majority of the respondents (76%) frequently used a stethoscope at work, and almost all (93%) believed that stethoscopes can be involved in pathogen transmission, only 29% of participants reported cleaning their stethoscopes after every use. Hospitals should include stethoscope cleaning into their overall infection prevention efforts. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-05.asp].

  10. Can education influence stethoscope hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, Jürgen L; Merchant, Naseema; Lin, Shin; Gupta, Shaili

    2017-07-01

    The importance of stethoscope hygiene has been demonstrated in prior studies, and is acknowledged by guidelines, yet it is rarely done. We implemented a pilot project consisting of provider education, reminder flyers and provision of cleaning supplies at the start of clinical rotations for housestaff, medical students, and attending physicians. Hand hygiene rates did not change significantly with rates between 58% and 63% while stethoscope hygiene remained at zero. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1930 Stethoscope head. (a) Identification. A stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath, and...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1875 - Stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope. 870.1875 Section 870.1875 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1875 Stethoscope. (a) Manual stethoscope—(1) Identification. A manual stethoscope is a mechanical device used to project the sounds associated with the heart...

  14. In defense of the stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Raymond Lh

    2008-03-01

    The stethoscope is widely considered to be an unreliable instrument. Many studies document the significant observer variability in its use. Numerous other diagnostic tools are available that are generally regarded to provide more reliable diagnostic information. Some even argue that teaching of the ancient art should be de-emphasized in medical schools. Yet auscultation with an acoustic stethoscope can provide important, even life-saving, information. The purpose of this article is to present evidence that supports the use of the stethoscope in clinical medicine. The argument for the stethoscope will be made by presenting relevant investigations, including clinical studies acknowledged to meet the criteria of evidence-based medicine. It will focus on studies that have employed computerized acoustic technology to correlate lung sounds with disease states. This technology has advanced in recent years, which has stimulated a resurgence of interest in auscultation. Numerous studies have been done that utilized objective methods that circumvented the problem of observer variability. There is now a good deal of scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that lung sounds contain information that is clinically useful. This technology also allows this information to be collected more efficiently than previously possible. Advances in educational technology have made it possible to impart information on auscultation much more easily than was possible in the past. Contrary to predictions, the stethoscope is not likely to be relegated to the museum shelf in the near future. Computer technology is making it an even more useful clinical instrument.

  15. Improving stethoscope disinfection at a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Justin; Zhou, Jing; Graham, Dionne A; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Sandora, Thomas J

    2013-11-01

    Stethoscopes are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and pose a risk for transmission of infections, but few clinicians disinfect their stethoscope after every use. We sought to improve stethoscope disinfection rates among pediatric healthcare providers by providing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders to disinfect stethoscopes. Prospective intervention study. Inpatient units and emergency department of a major pediatric hospital. Physicians and nurses with high anticipated stethoscope use. Baskets filled with alcohol prep pads and a sticker reminding providers to regularly disinfect stethoscopes were installed outside of patient rooms. Healthcare providers' stethoscope disinfection behaviors were directly observed before and after the intervention. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify independent predictors of stethoscope disinfection. Two hundred twenty-six observations were made in the preintervention period and 261 in the postintervention period (83% were of physicians). Stethoscope disinfection compliance increased significantly from a baseline of 34% to 59% postintervention (P stethoscope disinfection supplies and visible reminders outside of patient rooms significantly increased stethoscope disinfection rates among physicians and nurses at a children's hospital. This simple intervention could be replicated at other healthcare facilities. Future research should assess the impact on patient infections.

  16. New Stethoscope With Extensible Diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Tsunekazu; Shimizu, Masashi; Muratake, Torakazu; Mayuzumi, Syuichi

    2016-08-25

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of the common suspended diaphragm stethoscope (SDS) with a new extensible diaphragm stethoscope (EDS) for low-frequency heart sounds. The EDS was developed by using an ethylene propylene diene monomer diaphragm. The results showed that the EDS enhanced both the volume and quality of low-frequency heart sounds, and improved the ability of examiners to auscultate such heart sounds. Based on the results of the sound analysis, the EDS is more efficient than the SDS. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2047-2049).

  17. The bicentennial of the stethoscope: a reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVID, LILIANA; DUMITRASCU, DAN L.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Two hundred years ago Laennec, a young French physician discovered the stethoscope, in order to improve the lung auscultation. The stethoscope became the emblematic appendix of the physicians. Nurses use it also to monitor patients and medical students are proud to use it. We critically review the significance of the stethoscope 200 years after its discovery. Methods Pertinent literature was searched on PubMed and Google about the stethoscope, using also other terms: auscultation, Laennec, medical education, clinical diagnosis. Data were collected in a narrative review. Results Two centuries after its invention, the stethoscope still remains a major tool in the hands of healthcare professionals. It is routinely used by medical doctors and has become a mark of their status. Nurses use it also to monitor heart rate and blood pressure. Medical students get familiarized to use it during the medical faculty. Patients perceive the stethoscope as an important symbol of the medical profession. Conclusions Two hundred years ago the stethoscope was invented by Laennec. Despite the advent of X rays, CT, ECG, echocardiography and more recently of the electronic stethoscope, the classical stethoscope invented by Laennec still has its major role in the representation of healthcare providers and is a major utility in clinical diagnosis. PMID:28781536

  18. Stethoscopes with hearing aid use: Case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Regina Tangerino de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Description for using stethoscopes adapted to hearing aids. Aim: To describe the adaptation of HAs to stethoscopes used by 2 students in the health field with bilateral hearing impairment. Case reports: Two subjects with hearing loss had their stethoscopes coupled to HAs because of the individual requirements of their professions (healthcare to perform auscultation. Conclusion: The improvement was measured in situ, and satisfaction was evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. The use of a stethoscope coupled to an HA allowed students with hearing loss to perform auscultation.

  19. Stethoscopes with hearing aid use: Case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Regina Tangerino de Souza; Zambonato, Ticiana Cristina de Souza; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Description for using stethoscopes adapted to hearing aids. Aim: To describe the adaptation of HAs to stethoscopes used by 2 students in the health field with bilateral hearing impairment. Case reports: Two subjects with hearing loss had their stethoscopes coupled to HAs because of the individual requirements of their professions (healthcare) to perform auscultation. Conclusion: The improvement was measured in situ, and satisfaction was evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. The use of a stethoscope coupled to an HA allowed students with hearing loss to perform auscultation. PMID:25992000

  20. Prototype electronic stethoscope vs. conventional stethoscope for auscultation of heart sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmenson, Daniel A; Heath, Janae K; Ball, Stephanie A; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Baker, Elisabeth M; Yeh, Daniel D; Bittner, Edward A; Eikermann, Matthias; Lee, Jarone

    2014-08-01

    In an effort to decrease the spread of hospital-acquired infections, many hospitals currently use disposable plastic stethoscopes in patient rooms. As an alternative, this study examines a prototype electronic stethoscope that does not break the isolation barrier between clinician and patient and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of the stethoscope exam. This study aimed to investigate whether the new prototype electronic stethoscope improved auscultation of heart sounds compared to the standard conventional isolation stethoscope. In a controlled, non-blinded, cross-over study, clinicians were randomized to identify heart sounds with both the prototype electronic stethoscope and a conventional stethoscope. The primary outcome was the score on a 10-question heart sound identification test. In total, 41 clinicians completed the study. Subjects performed significantly better in the identification of heart sounds when using the prototype electronic stethoscope (median = 9 [7-10] vs. 8 [6-9] points, p value prototype electronic stethoscope. Clinicians using a new prototype electronic stethoscope achieved greater accuracy in identification of heart sounds and also universally favoured the new device, compared to the conventional stethoscope.

  1. AN APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIER STETHOSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper KAÇAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic stethoscopes are one of the important medical devices which affects the self-diagnostic or remote diagnostic in medical area. Rather the general stethoscopes, electronic ones increases the sound amplitude and quality. By filtering ambient noise, they can be used for advance analysis of heart or lung related diseases.

  2. Development of digital stethoscope for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhe, Aparna; Sodhi, Isha; Warrier, Jyothi; Sinha, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    The stethoscope is a medical acoustic device which is used to auscultate internal body sounds, mainly the heart and lungs. A digital stethoscope overcomes the limitations of a conventional stethoscope as the sound data is transformed into electrical signals which can be amplified, stored, replayed and, more importantly, sent for an expert opinion, making it very useful in telemedicine. With the above in view, a low cost digital stethoscope has been developed which is interfaceble with mobile communication devices. In this instrument sounds from various locations can be captured with the help of an electret condenser microphone. Captured sound is filtered, amplified and processed digitally using an adaptive line enhancement technique to obtain audible and distinct heart sounds.

  3. The stethoscope - A 200th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, Henrik; Norn, Svend

    René T.H. Laënnec was the man who designed the first monaural instrument for mediate auscultation. The invention became a medical breakthrough. An instrument capable of enhancing the subtle sounds created by the human heart and lungs. This evolutionary instrument also had the benefit of decreasing the oftentim s too direct bodily contact between the doctor and the patient. Laënnec carefully described the different sounds created by the human organs and attempted to link them to the post mortem findings. Even though many doctors were enthusiastic regarding this new medical breakthrough, the stethoscope also had its opponents, but John Forbes' English translation of Laënnec's De l'auscultation midiate as well as William Stokes' treatise on the use of the stethoscope spread the news to the medical world. In Denmark the stethoscope was introduced by Oluf Lundt Bang, S.M. Trier and E. Hornemann. The next step forward was the develop- ment of the binaural stethoscope by G.P. Camman in New York. The Littmann Electronic Stethoscope (3M Health Care) created by David Littmann is considered the leading product globally in this medical field. Digitization, ultrasound and Doppler effect, as well as 2D and 3D printing, are evidence of an on-going evolution within this field of medical equipment as we get ready to celebrate the stethoscopes 200th anniversary.

  4. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical...

  5. What's growing on General Practitioner's stethoscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, A; Cargnelutti, M; Tassinari, F; Bizzarro, A; Cordio, G; Carletti, S; Maccarini, L; Pelissero, G

    2016-01-01

    Non-critical medical devices, as stethoscopes, have long been considered as vectors in microorganisms' transmission. Cleaning standards for non-critical medical equipment are often unclear. This study was designed to assess the attitude of General Practitioners (GPs) towards cleaning their stethoscope and the degree of microbiological contamination of doctor's instrument in outpatient setting. Observational, crossover study. A structured questionnaire was administered to GPs to test their knowledge about medical instrument's cleanliness recommendations and the surface of the diaphragm of their stethoscopes was analyzed for bacteriological isolates using mass spectrometry technique. Most of GPs declared they don't know cleaning recommendations for non-critical medical devices and a relevant bacterial growth was identified on the majority of the stethoscopes' membranes. Almost all microbiological isolates resulted typically found in cutaneous flora. We can't state that the GP's stethoscopes feature a risk of transmission for microbiological pathogens; anyway, because of the level of contamination we observed, cleaning recommendations to disinfect instruments on a regular basis should be better indicated.

  6. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  7. On stethoscope design: a challenge for biomedical circuit designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A W

    2001-01-01

    Most clinicians learned the art and science of auscultation using an acoustic stethoscope. While many models of electronic stethoscopes have been marketed over the years, none of them seem to do a very good job of emulating the most common forms of acoustic stethoscopes available. This paper is an appeal to biomedical circuit designers to learn more about the acoustics of commonly used stethoscopes and to develop an appropriate group of circuits which would emulate them much like music synthesizers can emulate almost any musical instrument. The implications are for creative designers to move toward a rational and acceptable design for both personal physician use and for telemedicine.

  8. Remote optical stethoscope and optomyography sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Mark; Polani, Sagi; Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Ruiz-Rivas Onses, Joaquin; Sanz Sabater, Martin; Shatsky, Max; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we present the usage of photonic remote laser based device for sensing nano-vibrations for detection of muscle contraction and fatigue, eye movements and in-vivo estimation of glucose concentration. The same concept is also used to realize a remote optical stethoscope. The advantage of doing the measurements from a distance is in preventing passage of infections as in the case of optical stethoscope or in the capability to monitor e.g. sleep quality without disturbing the patient. The remote monitoring of glucose concentration in the blood stream and the capability to perform opto-myography for the Messer muscles (chewing) is very useful for nutrition and weight control. The optical configuration for sensing the nano-vibrations is based upon analyzing the statistics of the secondary speckle patterns reflected from various tissues along the body of the subjects. Experimental results present the preliminary capability of the proposed configuration for the above mentioned applications.

  9. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  10. Stethoscope Hygiene: Practice and Attitude of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Radovanovic, Sanja; Maric, Gorica; Rancic, Biljana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and attitude of medical students towards cleaning their stethoscopes. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the first week of December 2013. The study included 771 students (397 in their fourth and 374 in their sixth year) from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students before the start of compulsory lessons in classrooms. 317 of the 397 fourth-year students (79.8%) and 306 of the 374 sixth-year students (81.9%) cleaned their stethoscope. The stethoscope diaphragm was most commonly cleaned, while the flexible tubing was the least commonly cleaned area, mainly using ethyl alcohol-based agents. The strongest positive attitude was observed for the statement 'It is important that my stethoscope is clean' (4.3 out of 5.0). A positive correlation (Spearman's x03C1; = 0.105) was observed between a higher frequency of cleaning and the stronger positive notion that a stethoscope should be cleaned. A considerably high proportion of the students studied had ever cleaned their stethoscopes. Based on the students' responses, it would be useful to implement instructions on stethoscope hygiene in the regular practical curriculum with the aim of applying stethoscope disinfection in daily work. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparison of stethoscope bell and diaphragm, and of stethoscope tube length, for clinical blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant.

  12. Infrasonic Stethoscope for Monitoring Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An infrasonic stethoscope for monitoring physiological processes of a patient includes a microphone capable of detecting acoustic signals in the audible frequency bandwidth and in the infrasonic bandwidth (0.03 to 1000 Hertz), a body coupler attached to the body at a first opening in the microphone, a flexible tube attached to the body at a second opening in the microphone, and an earpiece attached to the flexible tube. The body coupler is capable of engagement with a patient to transmit sounds from the person, to the microphone and then to the earpiece.

  13. Predictors of stethoscope disinfection among pediatric health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jeanette; Sethi, Rosh K V; Zaghi, Justin; Ziniel, Sonja I; Sandora, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    Stethoscopes are contaminated with bacteria, but predictors of stethoscope disinfection frequency are unknown. We sought to describe health care provider stethoscope disinfection attitudes and practices and determine predictors of frequent disinfection. We used an anonymous online survey of nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians at a pediatric hospital. We assessed frequency and methods of disinfection, perceptions of contamination, and barriers to disinfection. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of disinfecting after every use. One thousand four hundred one respondents completed the survey: 76% believed that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes, but only 24% reported disinfecting after every use. In multivariate analyses, belief that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes significantly increased the odds of disinfection after every use (odds ratio [OR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-3.06]). The odds of disinfection after every use were significantly decreased in those who perceived the following barriers: lack of time (OR, 0.31 [95% CI: 0.18-0.54]), lack of access to disinfection material (OR, 0.41 [95% CI: 0.29-0.57]), or lack of visual reminders to disinfect (OR, 0.22 [95% CI: 0.14-0.34]). Only a minority of pediatric health care providers reported disinfecting their stethoscopes after every use. Increasing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders in health care facilities may improve stethoscope disinfection practices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial copper alloys decreased bacteria on stethoscope surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; Tuuri, Rachel E; Dharsee, Arif; Attaway, Hubert H; Fairey, Sarah E; Borg, Keith T; Salgado, Cassandra D; Hirsch, Bruce E

    2017-06-01

    Stethoscopes may serve as vehicles for transmission of bacteria among patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial copper surfaces to reduce the bacterial concentration associated with stethoscope surfaces. A structured prospective trial involving 21 health care providers was conducted at a pediatric emergency division (ED) (n = 14) and an adult medical intensive care unit located in tertiary care facilities (n = 7). Four surfaces common to a stethoscope and a facsimile instrument fabricated from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-registered antimicrobial copper alloys (AMCus) were assessed for total aerobic colony counts (ACCs), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci for 90 days. The mean ACCs collectively recovered from all stethoscope surfaces fabricated from the AMCus were found to carry significantly lower concentrations of bacteria (pediatric ED, 11.7 vs 127.1 colony forming units [CFU]/cm 2 , P stethoscopes was the most heavily burdened surface; mean concentrations exceeded the health care-associated infection acquisition concentration (5 CFU/cm 2 ) by at least 25×, supporting that the stethoscope warrants consideration in plans mitigating microbial cross-transmission during patient care. Stethoscope surfaces fabricated with AMCus were consistently found to harbor fewer bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In flight auscultation: comparison of electronic and conventional stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtier, Jean P; Fontaine, Emmamuelle; Coste, Sébastien; Ramsang, Solange; Schiano, Patrick; Viaggi, Marie; Libert, Nicolas; Durand, Xavier; Chargari, Cyrus; Borne, Marc

    2011-10-01

    The ability to auscultate during air medical transport is compromised by high ambient noise levels. The aim of this study was to assess the capabilities of a traditional and an amplified stethoscope (which is expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and breath sounds during medical transport in a Falcon 50 plane. A prospective, double-blind, randomized study was performed. We tested 1 model of traditional stethoscope (Littman cardiology III) and 1 model of amplified stethoscope (Littman 3100). We studied heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard Falcon 50 (medically configured). For each, the quality of auscultation was described using a numeric rating scale (ranging from 0 to 10, with 0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 corresponding to "I hear perfectly"). Comparisons were accomplished using a t test for paired values. A total of 32 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 5.8 ± 1.5 and 6.4 ± 1.9, respectively, for the traditional and amplified stethoscope (P = .018). For lung sounds, quality of auscultation was estimated at 3.3 ± 2.4 for traditional stethoscope and at 3.7 ± 2.9 for amplified stethoscope (P = .15). Practicians in Falcon 50 are more able to hear cardiac sounds with an amplified than with a traditional stethoscope, whereas there is no significant difference concerning breath sounds auscultation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Auscultation in flight: comparison of conventional and electronic stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtier, J P; Libert, N; Clapson, P; Tazarourte, K; Borne, M; Grasser, L; Debien, B; Auroy, Y

    2011-01-01

    The ability to auscultate during air medical transport is compromised by high ambient-noise levels. The aim of this study was to assess the capabilities of a traditional and an electronic stethoscope (which is expected to amplify sounds and reduce ambient noise) to assess heart and breath sounds during medical transport in a Boeing C135. We tested one model of a traditional stethoscope (3MTM Littmann Cardiology IIITM) and one model of an electronic stethoscope (3MTM Littmann Stethoscope Model 3000). We studied heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard a medically configured C135. For each device, the quality of auscultation was described using a visual rating scale (ranging from 0 to 100 mm, 0 corresponding to "I hear nothing," 100 to "I hear perfectly"). Comparisons were accomplished using a t-test for paired values. A total of 36 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the visual rating scale was 53 ± 24 and 85 ± 11 mm, respectively, for the traditional and electronic stethoscope (paired t-test: P = .0024). For lung sounds, quality of auscultation was estimated at 27 ± 17 mm for traditional stethoscope and 68 ± 13 for electronic stethoscope (paired t-test: P = .0003). The electronic stethoscope was considered to be better than the standard model for hearing heart and lung sounds. Flight practitioners involved in air medical evacuation in the C135 aircraft are better able to practice auscultation with this electronic stethoscope than with a traditional one. Copyright © 2011 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of Heavy Stethoscope Contamination Following a Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Clément; Schneider, Alexis; Longtin, Yves; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND The degree of bacterial contamination of stethoscopes can vary significantly following a physical examination. OBJECTIVE To conduct a prospective study to investigate the impact of various environmental and patient characteristics on stethoscope contamination. METHODS Following a standardized examination, the levels of bacterial contamination of 4 regions of the physicians' hands and 2 sections of the stethoscopes, and the presence of different pathogenic bacteria, were assessed. Predictors of heavy stethoscope contamination were identified through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 392 surfaces were sampled following examination of 56 patients. The microorganisms most frequently recovered from hands and stethoscopes were Enterococcus spp. (29% and 20%, respectively) and Enterobacteriaceae (16% and 7%, respectively). Staphylococcus aureus (either methicillin susceptible or resistant), extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii were recovered from 4%-9% of the samples from either hands or stethoscopes. There was a correlation between the likelihood of recovering these pathogens from the stethoscopes vs from the physicians' hands (ρ=0.79; P=.04). The level of patient's skin contamination was an independent predictor of contamination of the stethoscope diaphragm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.001; P=.007) and tube (aOR, 1.001; P=.003). Male sex (aOR, 28.24; P=.01) and reception of a bed bath (aOR, 7.52; P=.048) were also independently associated with heavy tube contamination. CONCLUSIONS Stethoscope contamination following a single physical examination is not negligible and is associated with the level of contamination of the patient's skin. Prevention of pathogen dissemination is needed. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:673-679.

  18. Stethoscopes as potential intrahospital carriers of pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Murguía, Alejandro; León-Lara, Ximena; Muñoz, Juan M; Macías, Alejandro E; Alvarez, José A

    2014-01-01

    Stethoscopes can take part in the transmission of health care-associated infections. We cultured 112 stethoscopes by direct imprint on blood agar to estimate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Forty-eight (47%) produced 50 potentially pathogenic microorganisms; from these, 43 (86%) were Staphylococcus aureus, of which 18 (42%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We concluded that stethoscopes should be considered as potential fomites and must be disinfected routinely before and after each patient contact. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital stethoscope system: the feasibility of cardiac auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Młyńczak, Marcel; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The application of the digital stethoscope system is a new tendency in methods of cardiac auscultation. Heart sounds, generated by the fluctuations of blood velocity and vibrations of muscle structure, are an important signal in the primary diagnosis of heart diseases. Since the XIXs century for physical examination an analog stethoscope was used, but the development of microelectronics enable the construction of digital stethoscopes which started modern phonocardiography. The typical hardware of the system could be divided into analog and digital parts, respectively. The first one consists of microphone and pre-amplifier. The second one contains a microcontroller with peripherals for data saving and transmission. Usually the specialized software is applied for the signal acquisition and digital signal processing (filtering, spectral analysis and others). This paper presents an overview of methods used in cardiac auscultation and expected developing path in the future. It also contains the description of our digital stethoscope system, which is planned to be used in poliphysiographical studies.

  20. The stethoscope in the Emergency Department: a vector of infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, S.; Moreno, A.; Green, K.; Villar, J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether microorganisms can be isolated from the membranes of stethoscopes used by clinicians and nurses, and to analyse whether or not the degree of bacterial colonization could be reduced with different cleaning methods. We designed a transversal before-after study in which 122 stethoscopes were examined. Coagulase negative staphylococci (which are also potentially pathogenic microorganisms) were isolated together with 13 other potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including S. aureus, Acinetobacter sp. and Enterobacter agglomerans. The most effective antiseptic was propyl alcohol. Analysis of the cleaning habits of the Emergency Department (ED) staff, showed that 45% cleaned the stethoscope annually or never. The isolation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms suggests that the stethoscope must be considered as a potential vector of infection not only in the ED but also in other hospital wards and out-patient clinics. PMID:10813148

  1. Right and left ventricular performance by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, T.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Kozuka, T.

    1983-01-01

    Right and left ventricular performance by Nuclear Stethoscope using Kr-81m and Tc-99m-RBC were performed. And physiological and pharmacological interventions were also investigated for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases (CAD)

  2. Factors influencing stethoscope cleanliness among clinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C; Hryhorskyj, L; Skinner, J

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to identify current stethoscope hygiene habits and attitudes in a UK medical school setting. Students completed a questionnaire using Likert-scale questions and free-text answers. A total of 308 questionnaires were completed from a potential 750 students (41%); 22.4% of respondents had never cleaned their stethoscope and only 3.9% cleaned their stethoscope after every patient. Significant correlations were identified between cleaning frequency and: others acting as role models (P = 0.001), students having confidence in how to clean stethoscopes (P = 0.001), and students thinking cleaning was important (P = 0.01), thereby highlighting inadequate education and role models as potential problems. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an Amplifier for Electronic Stethoscope System and Heart Sound Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. J.; Kang, D. K. [Chongju University, Chongju (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    The conventional stethoscope can not store its stethoscopic sounds. Therefore a doctor diagnoses a patient with instantaneous stethoscopic sounds at that time, and he can not remember the state of the patient's stethoscopic sounds on the next. This prevent accurate and objective diagnosis. If the electronic stethoscope, which can store the stethoscopic sound, is developed, the auscultation will be greatly improved. This study describes an amplifier for electronic stethoscope system that can extract heart sounds of fetus as well as adult and allow us hear and record the sounds. Using the developed stethoscopic amplifier, clean heart sounds of fetus and adult can be heard in noisy environment, such as a consultation room of a university hospital, a laboratory of a university. Surprisingly, the heart sound of a 22-week fetus was heard through the developed electronic stethoscope. Pitch detection experiments using the detected heart sounds showed that the signal represents distinct periodicity. It can be expected that the developed electronic stethoscope can substitute for conventional stethoscopes and if proper analysis method for the stethoscopic signal is developed, a good electronic stethoscope system can be produced. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The stethoscope and healthcare-associated infection: a snake in the grass or innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, N; Fenelon, L

    2015-09-01

    There is a concern that stethoscopes may transmit infectious agents which could result in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). The aim of this review was to evaluate the available literature as to the role of the stethoscope in the development of HCAI. A literature search was conducted across several databases for relevant studies and reports. Stethoscopes were consistently shown to harbour bacteria. The mean rate of stethoscope contamination across 28 studies was 85% (range: 47-100%). The majority of bacteria isolated were deemed to be non-pathogenic. The most frequently isolated organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The mean level of contamination was in excess of the French Normalization standard for cleanliness (which equates to stethoscopes included: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Clostridium difficile. There was evidence that bacteria can transfer from the skin of the patient to the stethoscope and from the stethoscope to the skin. However, studies were not designed to detect a correlation between stethoscope contamination and subsequent HCAI. Surveys assessing cleaning practices revealed a suboptimal commitment to stethoscope disinfection among doctors and medical students. The optimum method for stethoscope cleaning has not been defined, although alcohol-based disinfectants are effective in reducing bacterial contamination. In conclusion, a link between contaminated stethoscopes and HCAI has not yet been confirmed, but transfer of bacteria between skin and stethoscope has been shown. The available information would suggest that stethoscopes should be decontaminated between patients. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study of electronic stethoscopes for cardiac auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C; Pereira, D; Ferreira-Coimbra, J; Portugues, J; Gama, V; Coimbra, M

    2017-07-01

    There are several electronic stethoscopes available on the market today, with a very high potential for healthcare namely telemedicine, assisted decision and education. However, there are no recent comparatives studies published about the recording quality of auscultation sounds. In this study we aim to: a) define a ranking, according to experts opinion of 6 of the most relevant electronic stethoscopes on the market today; b) verify if there are any relations between a stethoscope's performance and the type of pathology present; c) analyze if some pathologies are more easily identified than others when using electronic auscultation. Our methodology consisted in creating two study groups: the first group included 18 cardiologists and cardiology house officers, acting as the gold standard of this work. The second included 30 medical students. Using a database of heart sounds recorded in real hospital environments, we applied questionnaires to observers from each group. The first group listened to 60 cardiac auscultations recorded by the 6 stethoscopes, and each one was asked to identify the pathological sound present: aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation or normal. The second group was asked to choose, between two auscultation recordings, using as criteria the best sound quality for the identification of pathological sounds. Results include a total of 1080 evaluations, in which 72% of cases were correctly diagnosed. A detailed breakdown of these results is presented in this paper. As conclusions, results showed that the impact of the differences between stethoscopes is very small, given that we did not find statistically significant differences between all pairs of stethoscopes. Normal sounds showed to be easier to identify than pathological sounds, but we did not find differences between stethoscopes in this identification.

  6. Heart sounds analysis via esophageal stethoscope system in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Bae, Jin Ho; Kwon, Eun Jung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Shin, Ji-Yun; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Gyeong-Deuk; Kim, Myoung hwan

    2013-10-01

    Esophageal stethoscope is less invasive and easy to handling. And it gives a lot of information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of blood pressure and heart sound as measured by esophageal stethoscope. Four male beagles weighing 10 to 12 kg were selected as experimental subjects. After general anesthesia, the esophageal stethoscope was inserted. After connecting the microphone, the heart sounds were visualized and recorded through a self-developed equipment and program. The amplitudes of S1 and S2 were monitored real-time to examine changes as the blood pressure increased and decreased. The relationship between the ratios of S1 to S2 (S1/S2) and changes in blood pressure due to ephedrine was evaluated. The same experiment was performed with different concentration of isoflurane. From S1 and S2 in the inotropics experiment, a high correlation appeared with change in blood pressure in S1. The relationship between S1/S2 and change in blood pressure showed a positive correlation in each experimental subject. In the volatile anesthetics experiment, the heart sounds decreased as MAC increased. Heart sounds were analyzed successfully with the esophageal stethoscope through the self-developed program and equipment. A proportional change in heart sounds was confirmed when blood pressure was changed using inotropics or volatile anesthetics. The esophageal stethoscope can achieve the closest proximity to the heart to hear sounds in a non-invasive manner.

  7. Cardiovascular Sound and the Stethoscope, 1816 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Harold N.

    1963-01-01

    Cardiovascular sound escaped attention until Laennec invented and demonstrated the usefulness of the stethoscope. Accuracy of diagnosis using cardiovascular sounds as clues increased with improvement in knowledge of the physiology of circulation. Nearly all currently acceptable clinicopathological correlations were established by physicians who used the simplest of stethoscopes or listened with the bare ear. Certain refinements followed the use of modern methods which afford greater precision in timing cardiovascular sounds. These methods contribute to educating the human ear, so that those advantages may be applied which accrue from auscultation, plus the method of writing quantitative symbols to describe what is heard, by focusing the sense of hearing on each segment of the cardiac cycle in turn. By the year 2016, electronic systems of collecting and analyzing data about the cardiovascular system may render the stethoscope obsolete. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8 PMID:13987676

  8. [Stethoscope or staphyloscope?: Potential vector in nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúniga, Andrés; Mañalich, Jaime; Cortés, Rosario

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a problem worldwide. In our country, the estimated incidence of HCAI is 70,000 per year. This results in an increase in the average length of hospital stay by 10 days per patient, an estimated annual cost of US $ 70 million and an overstay of 700 thousand bed days a year. For over 30 years stethoscopes have been considered as potential HCAI vectors, since pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains adhere and colonize them. These organisms can be transmitted between patients if the instruments are not sanitized. Several studies conclude that disinfecting the stethoscope with isopropyl alcohol eliminates up to 99% of bacteria. Simple, economic measures such as implementation of guidelines for stethoscope disinfection are a clear opportunity for preventing infections.

  9. What's growing on your stethoscope? (And what you can do about it).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ariel; Schroeder, Maryellen A; D'Amico, Frank

    2009-08-01

    Studies have shown that rubbing alcohol pads on stethoscope diaphragms can reduce bacterial colonization, but alcohol pads are used infrequently used and not always available. We conducted a prospective, single-blinded study to investigate whether simultaneously scrubbing hands and stethoscope head with alcohol-based hand foam would significantly reduce bacterial counts on the stethoscope. Using their own stethoscope, participants imprinted the stethoscope head onto a chocolate agar plate, then used alcohol-based hand foam to cleanse their hands while simultaneously rubbing the stethoscope head. Once the stethoscope heads were dry, the participants imprinted their stethoscope heads onto a second plate. After 48 hours' incubation, we determined the bacterial counts for the prewash and post-wash plates, and compared the 2. We analyzed a total of 184 cultures (from 92 stethoscopes). Both the mean (28 prewash vs 3 post-wash, P=.001) and median (11 prewash vs 1 post-wash, P=.001) colony counts were significantly greater before being cleansed. Three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonies were identified in the prewash period; all were destroyed by the foam. The estimated number of hand washes needed to prevent 1 MRSA colony is 31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-89). Simultaneously using hand foam to clean hands and stethoscope heads reduces bacterial counts on stethoscopes. Further research is needed to determine whether this intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infection.

  10. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-08-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function.

  11. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function. (orig.) [de

  12. Direct Signal-to-Noise Quality Comparison between an Electronic and Conventional Stethoscope aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Ebert, Doug; Bauer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of heart, lung, and bowel sounds is routinely performed with the use of a stethoscope to help detect a broad range of medical conditions. Stethoscope acquired information is even more valuable in a resource limited environments such as the International Space Station (ISS) where additional testing is not available. The high ambient noise level aboard the ISS poses a specific challenge to auscultation by stethoscope. An electronic stethoscope's ambient noise-reduction, greater sound amplification, recording capabilities, and sound visualization software may be an advantage to a conventional stethoscope in this environment. Methods: A single operator rated signal-to-noise quality from a conventional stethoscope (Littman 2218BE) and an electronic stethoscope (Litmann 3200). Borborygmi, pulmonic, and cardiac sound quality was ranked with both stethoscopes. Signal-to-noise rankings were preformed on a 1 to 10 subjective scale with 1 being inaudible, 6 the expected quality in an emergency department, 8 the expected quality in a clinic, and 10 the clearest possible quality. Testing took place in the Japanese Pressurized Module (JPM), Unity (Node 2), Destiny (US Lab), Tranquility (Node 3), and the Cupola of the International Space Station. All examinations were conducted at a single point in time. Results: The electronic stethoscope's performance ranked higher than the conventional stethoscope for each body sound in all modules tested. The electronic stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 7 and 10 in all modules tested. In comparison, the traditional stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 4 and 7. The signal to noise ratio of borborygmi showed the biggest difference between stethoscopes. In the modules tested, the auscultation of borborygmi was rated between 5 and 7 by the conventional stethoscope and consistently 10 by the electronic stethoscope. Discussion: This stethoscope comparison was limited to a single operator. However, we

  13. Contamination monitor as a nuclear stethoscope for community nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Sharma, S.K.; Sharma, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    A portable contamination monitor has been modified for use as an in vivo counting probe. The evaluation by physical parameters and clinical studies shows its suitability for a variety of diagnostic studies. The correlation equations for thyroid uptake measurement have been worked out for whole range of values. Its use as a versatile nuclear stethoscope is envisaged. (author)

  14. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  15. Bacteriological assessment of stethoscopes used by healthcare workers in a tertiary care centre of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sangita; Sapkota, Lokendra Bahadur

    2017-07-28

    Stethoscope is a medical device universally used by health care workers. Stethoscope may transmit pathogens among patients and health care workers if it is not disinfected. The objective of this study was to, determine the level of stethoscope contamination used by health care workers, survey the practices of disinfecting the stethoscope, identify various microorganisms and assess their role as potential pathogens and determine the effectiveness of 70% ethanol as a disinfecting agent. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the department of Microbiology, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Nepal. Stethoscopes of 122 health care workers from different departments were included in this study. Out of a total 122 diaphragms, 88 (72.1%) were colonized. Only 71 (58.1%) bells and 152 earpieces (66.2%) were contaminated. Micrococcus and coagulase negative staphylococci were predominantly isolated species. The contamination was lowest among stethoscopes cleaned after touching every patient (11.5%) and the difference is statistically significant (P stethoscopes cleaned everyday (P stethoscope showed growth with decreased number of colonies after disinfecting the stethoscopes with 70% ethanol. Thus, demonstrating the effectiveness of disinfection.

  16. Effectiveness of alcohol gelin stethoscopes disinfection contaminated with methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Alves Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although widely used, little attention has been given to basic-care in handling and disinfection of stethoscopes. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is frequently found and a major risk for hospitalized patients. Alcohol gel contains properties admittedly effective to exterminate germs that are frequently involved in infections. This study aims to verify the effectiveness of alcohol gel in stethoscopes disinfection contaminated with MRSA used by healthcare professionals of a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro State. Methods: Health care professionals were selected randomly from August to November 2012, and collected samples with sterile swab of 105 stethoscopes before and after cleaning with alcohol gel 70% and performed cultures and bacterial identification. Results: Bacterial contamination was present in 87 (82.85% of the analyzed stethoscopes. Gram positive bacteria were identified in 76 (72.38%. S. aureus was present in 7.61% of stethoscopes and MRSA in 87.5% of them. After using the alcohol gel, there was a reduction of 71,44% of the general bacterial contamination and MRSA elimination of 100% of the analyzed stethoscopes. Conclusion: One should improve care in cleaning of stethoscopes due to the risk of carrying pathogenic bacteria involved in hospital infections. The alcohol gel showed to be adequate for disinfection of stethoscopes contaminated with MRSA. KEYWORDS: Stethoscopes. Contamination. Ethanol. Disinfection. Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Decontamination of stethoscope membranes with chlorhexidine: Should it be recommended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, José A; Ruíz, Susana R; Mosqueda, Juan L; León, Ximena; Arreguín, Virginia; Macías, Alejandro E; Macias, Juan H

    2016-11-01

    To determine differences in the recontamination of stethoscope membranes after cleaning with chlorhexidine, triclosan, or alcohol. Experimental, controlled, blinded trial to determine differences in the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes. Membranes were cultured by direct imprint after disinfection with 70% isopropyl alcohol, 1% triclosan, or 1% chlorhexidine and normal use for 4 hours. As a baseline and an immediate effect control, bacterial load of membranes without disinfection and after 1 minute of disinfection with isopropyl alcohol was determined as well. Three hundred seventy cultures of in-use stethoscopes were taken, 74 from each arm. In the baseline arm the median growth was 10 CFU (interquartile range [IQR], 32-42 CFU); meanwhile, in the isopropyl alcohol immediate-effect arm it was 0 CFU (IQR, 0-0 CFU). In the arms cultured after 4 hours, a median growth of 8 CFU (IQR, 1-28 CFU) in the isopropyl alcohol arm, 4 CFU (IQR, 0-17 CFU) in the triclosan arm, and 0 CFU (IQR, 0-1 CFU) in the chlorhexidine arm were seen. No significant differences were observed between the bacterial load of the chlorhexidine arm (after 4 hours of use) and that of the isopropyl alcohol arm (after 1 minute without use) (Z= 2.41; P > .05). Chlorhexidine can inhibit recontamination of stethoscope membranes and its use could help avoid cross-infection. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating a Hand Held computer and Stethoscope into a Fetal Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Soltani, Mitra

    2009-01-01

    This article presents procedures for modifying a hand held computer or personal digital assistant (PDA) into a versatile device functioning as an electronic stethoscope for fetal monitoring. Along with functioning as an electronic stethoscope, a PDA can provide a useful information source for a medical trainee. Feedback from medical students, residents and interns suggests the device is well accepted by medical trainees. PMID:20165517

  19. Cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with stethoscope cleaning among medical practitioners in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, O

    2012-07-01

    Stethoscope diaphragms are frequently colonized by bacteria. This cross-sectional study described the frequency and factors associated with reporting ever cleaning stethoscopes among 408 medical students and doctors at a medical college and 2 teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A minority of the respondents (37.7%) reported having ever cleaned their stethoscope. Following normal clinical use, wiping with a dry cloth was the most frequently reported method of cleaning (53.2%). After contamination of the diaphragm with blood or secretions, cleaning with an alcoholic swab was the most common method (64.3%). In univariate and multivariate analyses, history of receiving information on stethoscope cleaning, utilization of personal stethoscope at last use and affiliation with internal medicine department were factors strongly associated with ever cleaning of stethoscope. Future research for improving stethoscope cleaning practices should explore educational interventions aimed at health care professionals.

  20. Improved auscultation skills in paramedic students using a modified stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin L; Lecat, Paul J; Haller, Nairmeen A; Williams, Carolyn J; Martin, Scott W; Carney, John A; Pakiela, John A

    2012-12-01

    The Ventriloscope® (Lecat's SimplySim, Tallmadge, OH) is a modified stethoscope used as a simulation training device for auscultation. To test the effectiveness of the Ventriloscope as a training device in teaching heart and lung auscultatory findings to paramedic students. A prospective, single-hospital study conducted in a paramedic-teaching program. The standard teaching group learned heart and lung sounds via audiocassette recordings and lecture, whereas the intervention group utilized the modified stethoscope in conjunction with patient volunteers. Study subjects took a pre-test, post-test, and a follow-up test to measure recognition of heart and lung sounds. The intervention group included 22 paramedic students and the standard group included 18 paramedic students. Pre-test scores did not differ using two-sample t-tests (standard group: t [16]=-1.63, p=0.12) and (intervention group: t [20]=-1.17, p=0.26). Improvement in pre-test to post-test scores was noted within each group (standard: t [17]=2.43, p=0.03; intervention: t [21]=4.81, p<0.0001). Follow-up scores for the standard group were not different from pre-test scores of 16.06 (t [17]=0.94, p=0.36). However, follow-up scores for the intervention group significantly improved from their respective pre-test score of 16.05 (t [21]=2.63, p=0.02). Simulation training using a modified stethoscope in conjunction with standardized patients allows for realistic learning of heart and lung sounds. This technique of simulation training achieved proficiency and better retention of heart and lung sounds in a safe teaching environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of heart rate variability with an electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Haroon; Naggar, Isaac; Oniyuke, Francisca; Palomeque, Mercy; Chokshi, Priya; Salciccioli, Louis; Stewart, Mark; Lazar, Jason M

    2013-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is widely used to characterize cardiac autonomic function by measuring beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate. Decreased HRV has been found predictive of worse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. HRV is determined from time intervals between QRS complexes recorded by electrocardiography (ECG) for several minutes to 24 h. Although cardiac auscultation with a stethoscope is performed routinely on patients, the human ear cannot detect heart sound time intervals. The electronic stethoscope digitally processes heart sounds, from which cardiac time intervals can be obtained. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of obtaining HRV from electronically recorded heart sounds. We prospectively studied 50 subjects with and without CV risk factors/disease and simultaneously recorded single lead ECG and heart sounds for 2 min. Time and frequency measures of HRV were calculated from R-R and S1-S1 intervals and were compared using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). The majority of the indices were strongly correlated (ICC 0.73-1.0), while the remaining indices were moderately correlated (ICC 0.56-0.63). In conclusion, we found HRV measures determined from S1-S1 are in agreement with those determined by single lead ECG, and we demonstrate and discuss differences in the measures in detail. In addition to characterizing cardiac murmurs and time intervals, the electronic stethoscope holds promise as a convenient low-cost tool to determine HRV in the hospital and outpatient settings as a practical extension of the physical examination.

  2. Examination of staphylococcal stethoscope contamination in the emergency department (pilot) study (EXSSCITED pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Patrick H P; Worster, Andrew; Srigley, Jocelyn A; Main, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus-contaminated stethoscopes belonging to emergency department (ED) staff and to identify the proportion of these that were Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of bacterial cultures from 100 ED staff members' stethoscopes at three EDs. Study participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Fifty-four specimens grew coagulase-negative staphylococci and one grew methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. No MRSA was cultured. Only 8% of participants, all of whom were nurses, reported cleaning their stethoscope before or after each patient assessment. Alcohol-based wipes were most commonly used to clean stethoscopes. A lack of time, being too busy, and forgetfulness were the most frequently reported reasons for not cleaning the stethoscope in the ED. This study indicates that although stethoscope contamination rates in these EDs are high, the prevalence of S. aureus or MRSA on stethoscopes is low.

  3. Digital stethoscope as an innovative tool on the teaching of auscultatory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Reis, Jader Costa dos; Simões, Luciana Silveira; Moura, Eduardo Cardoso de; Rodrigues, Gustavo Amarante; Athayde, Carolina Cunto de; Machado, Hugo Lima; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal

    2013-02-01

    Physical cardiovascular examination, particularly cardiac auscultation, is one of the most difficult clinical skills for students during their medical training. Studies suggest that the use of technologies such as digital stethoscope increase the accuracy of clinical examination, however, its impact on the teaching of cardiac auscultation for undergraduate students of medicine is not known. The objective is to demonstrate the usefulness of the digital stethoscope compared to traditional methods as a tool in the teaching of auscultatory skills. nterventional, longitudinal, controlled, unicenter and randomized study. Thirty-eight medicine students were enrolled for a cardiovascular semiology course lasting eight weeks. The course program included lectures and bedside practice in Cardiology wards. In the practical lessons, the students were randomized into two groups: 1) (n = 21) digital stethoscope (Littmann® Model 3200, 3M); and 2) (n = 17) conventional stethoscopes. A pre-training evaluation was conducted through a test using the software Heart Sounds®, which was repeated after the course. The average scores were compared by paired T test and unpaired T test. It is observed that, at the end of the course, there was a significantly greater improvement in the group that used the digital stethoscope (51.9%) compared to the group using the conventional stethoscope (29.5%). Short-term interventions for cardiac semiology teaching are able to contribute significantly to improving proficiency in the identification of heart sounds. The use of digital stethoscope proved to be a positive factor in teaching these skills.

  4. Ultrasound and stethoscope as tools in medical education and practice: considerations for the archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakoya FA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Francis A Fakoya, Maira du Plessis, Ikechi B Gbenimacho Department of Anatomical Sciences, St George’s University School of Medicine, St George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Objectives: In recent years, the use and portability of ultrasound has threatened the utility of the stethoscope, with many debating and even advocating its replacement. The authors set out to assess opinions in this regard among faculty within a medical school and specifically within an anatomy department where ultrasound is incorporated into the curriculum from the first term. Methods: A debate was elicited during a biweekly Anatomy Journal Club session and was centered on three published papers presented. Several questions were raised regarding the possible replacement of stethoscope – the value of early exposure to students as well as how ultrasound and stethoscope should be considered by physicians, students, and teachers.Results: The general consensus was that the stethoscope should not be replaced but should be used in conjunction with emerging portable ultrasound. Caution was given that technology could “overcomplicate” diagnosis and lead to increased tests resulting in increased cost of care. In terms of exposing students to ultrasound, just as the stethoscope requires practice to use effectively, so does the ultrasound and should be introduced as early on as possible. As is the case with the stethoscope, students may not initially appreciate all the finer details on ultrasound; however, continual use would improve skill. Conclusion: The stethoscope should always remain part of the physical examination and ­ultrasound should be used in addition to, not replacement of. As technology advances the need for apprenticeship, training increases and students of the medical profession should be exposed to these technologies as early as possible. Hence, it is not yet time to archive the stethoscope. Perhaps never. Keywords: ultrasound technology

  5. Soft stethoscope for detecting asthma wheeze in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsiu; Huang, Shi-Ing; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2013-06-06

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children's asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC) algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old) were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.

  6. [Computer-aided Diagnosis and New Electronic Stethoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Pi, Xitian; Ao, Yilu; Wang, Zi

    2017-05-30

    Auscultation is an important method in early-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and respiratory system disease. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis of new electronic auscultation system. It has developed an electronic stethoscope based on condenser microphone and the relevant intelligent analysis software. It has implemented many functions that combined with Bluetooth, OLED, SD card storage technologies, such as real-time heart and lung sounds auscultation in three modes, recording and playback, auscultation volume control, wireless transmission. The intelligent analysis software based on PC computer utilizes C# programming language and adopts SQL Server as the background database. It has realized play and waveform display of the auscultation sound. By calculating the heart rate, extracting the characteristic parameters of T1, T2, T12, T11, it can analyze whether the heart sound is normal, and then generate diagnosis report. Finally the auscultation sound and diagnosis report can be sent to mailbox of other doctors, which can carry out remote diagnosis. The whole system has features of fully function, high portability, good user experience, and it is beneficial to promote the use of electronic stethoscope in the hospital, at the same time, the system can also be applied to auscultate teaching and other occasions.

  7. Soft Stethoscope for Detecting Asthma Wheeze in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children’s asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.

  8. Validation of an effective, low cost, Free/open access 3D-printed stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlosky, Alexander; Glauche, Jennifer; Chambers, Spencer; Al-Alawi, Mahmoud; Yanev, Kliment

    2018-01-01

    The modern acoustic stethoscope is a useful clinical tool used to detect subtle, pathological changes in cardiac, pulmonary and vascular sounds. Currently, brand-name stethoscopes are expensive despite limited innovations in design or fabrication in recent decades. Consequently, the high cost of high quality, brand name models serves as a barrier to clinicians practicing in various settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In this publication, we describe the design and validation of a low-cost open-access (Free/Libre) 3D-printed stethoscope which is comparable to the Littmann Cardiology III for use in low-access clinics. PMID:29538426

  9. A New Stethoscope Design with Unique Characteristics and Development in Medical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanifar, M; Haghani, M; Ghadimi Moghadam, A; Ghadimi Moghadam, A K

    2018-03-01

    As regards the significant role of stethoscopes in the diagnosis of congenital and adventitious heart diseases and prevention of irreparable complications of these diseases, the quality of hearing sound of these stethoscopes by a physician has a significant impact on the disease diagnosis. This device plays an important role in the early diagnosis of congenital heart and respiratory diseases and provides this feasibility since birth. Also, the importance of this device performance in the diagnosis of heart, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases at different age periods is not a secret. This new invented device, in comparison to a variety of available stethoscopes in the field of diagnosis, is capable of hearing the sound of a very high quality and cancelling the noise of sound that sometimes leads to wrong diagnosis or misdiagnosis. This new invented stethoscope is approved by cardiologists, lung and Infectious disease specialists as well as being registered under No. 78382 in Patent Islamic Republic of Iran.

  10. A New Stethoscope Design with Unique Characteristics and Development in Medical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanifar, M.; Haghani, M.; Ghadimi Moghadam, A.; Ghadimi Moghadam, A.K.

    2018-01-01

    As regards the significant role of stethoscopes in the diagnosis of congenital and adventitious heart diseases and prevention of irreparable complications of these diseases, the quality of hearing sound of these stethoscopes by a physician has a significant impact on the disease diagnosis. This device plays an important role in the early diagnosis of congenital heart and respiratory diseases and provides this feasibility since birth. Also, the importance of this device performance in the diagnosis of heart, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases at different age periods is not a secret. This new invented device, in comparison to a variety of available stethoscopes in the field of diagnosis, is capable of hearing the sound of a very high quality and cancelling the noise of sound that sometimes leads to wrong diagnosis or misdiagnosis. This new invented stethoscope is approved by cardiologists, lung and Infectious disease specialists as well as being registered under No. 78382 in Patent Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:29732350

  11. A Dual-Mode Noise-Immune Stethoscope for Use in Noisy Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houtsma, Adrianus J; Curry, Ian P; Sewell, John M; Bernhard, William N

    2006-01-01

    In combat casualty and civilian environments, an unmet need exists for a stethoscope that can hear heart and especially breathing sounds while inside helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, or ambulances...

  12. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction in pediatric patients using the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, R.L.; Rabinovitch, M.; Rosenthal, A.; Pitt, B.

    1984-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was measured in 25 patients, aged 2 weeks to 20 years (mean 8.6 years), using a portable nonimaging scintillation stethoscope. Technically satisfactory studies were obtained in 23 patients. LVEF was validated by cineangiography in 19 patients and by standard gated blood pool scintigraphy in 4. EF measured by the nuclear stethoscope correlated well with values obtained by cineangiography or scintigraphy over a wide range of EF values (18 to 79%). In children younger than 5 years (n . 11), the correlation was less satisfactory than in those older than 5 years. Although modifications in the instrument and further clinical trials with the stethoscope are needed before the device becomes clinically useful to pediatric cardiologists, our data indicate that the nuclear stethoscope can provide reliable assessment of LVEF in pediatric patients

  13. Ultrasound and stethoscope as tools in medical education and practice: considerations for the archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoya, Francis A; du Plessis, Maira; Gbenimacho, Ikechi B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, the use and portability of ultrasound has threatened the utility of the stethoscope, with many debating and even advocating its replacement. The authors set out to assess opinions in this regard among faculty within a medical school and specifically within an anatomy department where ultrasound is incorporated into the curriculum from the first term. Methods A debate was elicited during a biweekly Anatomy Journal Club session and was centered on three published papers presented. Several questions were raised regarding the possible replacement of stethoscope – the value of early exposure to students as well as how ultrasound and stethoscope should be considered by physicians, students, and teachers. Results The general consensus was that the stethoscope should not be replaced but should be used in conjunction with emerging portable ultrasound. Caution was given that technology could “overcomplicate” diagnosis and lead to increased tests resulting in increased cost of care. In terms of exposing students to ultrasound, just as the stethoscope requires practice to use effectively, so does the ultrasound and should be introduced as early on as possible. As is the case with the stethoscope, students may not initially appreciate all the finer details on ultrasound; however, continual use would improve skill. Conclusion The stethoscope should always remain part of the physical examination and ultrasound should be used in addition to, not replacement of. As technology advances the need for apprenticeship, training increases and students of the medical profession should be exposed to these technologies as early as possible. Hence, it is not yet time to archive the stethoscope. Perhaps never. PMID:27471420

  14. The two types of stethoscope systems for respiration system diagnostics of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashkin, Vladimir; Achimova, Elena

    2003-12-01

    An acoustic multimode fiber optic sensors for medical diagnostics based upon the shutter principle has been elaborated with semiconductor laser diode as light source. The construction and the method of component preparation are described. Other type of stethoscope is electrical one. Both stethoscopes are four channels. The kinetics and dynamic vibrations and sounds of the human body can be detected, acquired and then processing by personal computer for medical diagnostics.

  15. The potential role of stethoscopes as a source of nosocomial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases can be transmitted in various ways . Indirect transmission or vehicle-borne transmission of infection can occur through various agents like instruments, utensils, water, or food. In hospital settings, transmission of infection through contaminated medical devices is always a possibility. Stethoscope is the symbol of health professionals. However, the diaphragm and bells of the stethoscopes have been shown to harbor pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms. Aims: 1 To determine the degree of contamination of stethoscopes used by clinicians and nurses. 2 To identify various microbes from such contaminated stethoscopes and to assess their role as potential pathogens. 3 To determine the effectiveness of 70% ethanol as a disinfecting agent. Materials and Methods: Stethoscopes of 50 healthcare workers from different departments were included in the study. Bacteriological cultures of the samples were done on blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Organisms were identified by conventional phenotypic methods. Antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST of the microorganisms was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: Average number of colonies on each stethoscope was 30 . Pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter species, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus species, and Aspergillus fumigatus were identified. Among the potential pathogenic organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated. Numbers of colonies were highest among the stethoscopes sampled from surgery ward and Medical Intensive Care Unit MICU. Conclusion: Stethoscopes harbor potential pathogens capable of surviving on their surfaces. Despite their best intentions, health professionals can act as a vector for transmission of disease. Disinfecting procedures may be necessary between consecutive patients. Attention to simple preventive strategies can reduce the disease transmission rate.

  16. Use of 90% ethanol to decontaminate stethoscopes in resource limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Raghubanshi, Bijendra Raj; Sapkota, Supriya; Adhikari, Arjab; Dutta, Aman; Bhattarai, Utsuk; Bhandari, Rastriyata

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. Methods A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm wer...

  17. In-flight auscultation during medical air evacuation: comparison between traditional and amplified stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuelle; Coste, Sébastien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Klein, Céline; Lefort, Hugues; Leclerc, Thomas; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Briche, Frédérique; Jost, Daniel; Maurin, Olga; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a traditional stethoscope versus an electronically amplified one (expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and respiratory sounds during medical transport. It was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized performed study. One traditional stethoscope (Littmann Cardiology III; 3M, St Paul, MN) and 1 electronically amplified stethoscope (Littmann 3200, 3M) were used for our tests. Heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard a medically configured Falcon 50 aircrafts were studied. The quality of auscultation was ranged using a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 to "I hear perfectly"). Data collected were compared using a t-test for paired values. A total of 40 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 4.53 ± 1.91 and 7.18 ± 1.88 for the traditional and amplified stethoscope, respectively (paired t-test: P auscultation was estimated at 3.1 ± 1.95 for a traditional stethoscope and 5.10 ± 2.13 for the amplified one (paired t-test: P < .0001). This study showed that practitioners would be better helped in hearing cardiac and respiratory sounds with an electronically amplified stethoscope than with a traditional one during air medical transport in a medically configured Falcon 50 aircraft. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new UV-LED device for automatic disinfection of stethoscope membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Gabriele; Burgassi, Sandra; Messina, Daniele; Montagnani, Valerio; Cevenini, Gabriele

    2015-10-01

    Stethoscopes are widely used by doctors and nurses. Poor stethoscope hygiene is a potential source of nosocomial infection. This study aimed to propose an innovative solution, based on the latest advances in ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), for disinfecting stethoscope membranes automatically and efficiently. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis were sown on 28 stethoscope membranes and then transferred to Petri dishes. Treatment involved illuminating exposed Petri dishes with a UVC LED for 1 minute. For each microbe, the number of colony-forming units (cfu) at 36°C was compared in control and treated dishes using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess percent reductions in bacteria. Statistical significance was set at 99%. A significant reduction in cfu counts after UV treatment (P  .01). The stethoscope, symbol of medicine and health care professionals, has been demonstrated to be a carrier of microorganisms. The treatment technique was effective and efficient in disinfecting the membranes. These promising results represent a step forward toward eliminating stethoscope membrane contamination with an innovative approach. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerobic Bacteria in the Diaphragmatic Portion of Stethoscope of Medical Professionals of Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bham, G; Bhandari, J; Neupane, M R; Dawadi, R; Pradhan, P

    2015-01-01

    Hospital environment is a reservoir of wide varieties of microorganisms which are frequently reported colonizing in medical equipment. Stethoscopes are essential tools and of universal use in the medical profession, which might be a source of spreading nosocomial infections. This research project was conducted with an aim to assess the presence of aerobic bacteria in the stethoscope of the medical doctors working at Patan Hospital and students of Patan Academy of Health Sciences. It is a cross sectional study based on structured questionnaire and sample assessment from the stethoscope of doctors and students of Patan Hospital and Patan Academy of Health Sciences. The stethescopes used by the doctors of five major departments of Patan Hospital and students of clinical years were included in this study. Total of 99 stethoscope owned by different level of professionals (positions) and different departments were examined for bacterial contamination. Out of them, 36 were found to be considerably contaminated. Single strain of bacteria was grown from a single stethoscope. Among them 34 were Gram positive and remaining were Gram negative. Out of 34 gram postive bacteria, 29 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, six were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and remaining were Gram positive bacilli. There is presence of aerobic bacteria in diaphragmatic portion of stethoscope of medical professional of which the gram positives were the commonest.

  20. Vibro-acoustic model of a piezoelectric-based stethoscope for chest sound measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G; Rajamani, R; Erdman, A

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of noise and vibration on chest sound measurements with a piezoelectric stethoscope. Two types of vibrations, namely inputs through the patient chest and disturbances from the physician, influence the acoustic measurement. The goal of this work is to develop a model to understand the propagation of these vibrational noises through the stethoscope and to the piezoelectric sensing element. Using the model, methods to reduce the influence of disturbances acting on the stethoscope from the physician handling the device are explored.A multi-DOF rigid body vibration model consisting of discrete connected components is developed for the piezoelectric stethoscope. Using a two-port lumped parameter model, the mechanical vibrations are related to the resulting electrical signal. The parameterized state space model is experimentally validated and its parameters are identified by using a thorax simulator and vibration shaker. Based on predictions from the model, the introduction of vibration isolation to reduce the influence of physician noise on the transducer is then pursued. It is shown that direct vibration isolation between the transducer and the rest of the stethoscope structure leads to a reduction in coupling with the patient’s chest. However, if isolation is instead introduced between the transducer housing and the rest of the stethoscope, then vibration isolation from the physician is achieved with far less reduction in patient coupling. Experimental results are presented to study the influence of the proposed design changes and confirm the predicted model behavior. (paper)

  1. Vibro-acoustic model of a piezoelectric-based stethoscope for chest sound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G.; Rajamani, R.; Erdman, A.

    2015-09-01

    This article focuses on the influence of noise and vibration on chest sound measurements with a piezoelectric stethoscope. Two types of vibrations, namely inputs through the patient chest and disturbances from the physician, influence the acoustic measurement. The goal of this work is to develop a model to understand the propagation of these vibrational noises through the stethoscope and to the piezoelectric sensing element. Using the model, methods to reduce the influence of disturbances acting on the stethoscope from the physician handling the device are explored. A multi-DOF rigid body vibration model consisting of discrete connected components is developed for the piezoelectric stethoscope. Using a two-port lumped parameter model, the mechanical vibrations are related to the resulting electrical signal. The parameterized state space model is experimentally validated and its parameters are identified by using a thorax simulator and vibration shaker. Based on predictions from the model, the introduction of vibration isolation to reduce the influence of physician noise on the transducer is then pursued. It is shown that direct vibration isolation between the transducer and the rest of the stethoscope structure leads to a reduction in coupling with the patient’s chest. However, if isolation is instead introduced between the transducer housing and the rest of the stethoscope, then vibration isolation from the physician is achieved with far less reduction in patient coupling. Experimental results are presented to study the influence of the proposed design changes and confirm the predicted model behavior.

  2. Stethoscope versus point-of-care ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Behzat; Ünlüer, Erden E; Akyol, Pinar Y; Karagöz, Arif; Bayata, Mehmet S; Akoğlu, Haldun; Oyar, Orhan; Dalli, Ayşe; Topal, Fatih E

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine the accuracies of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) and stethoscopes as part of the physical examinations of patients with dyspnea. Three emergency medicine specialists in each of two groups of ultrasound and stethoscope performers underwent didactic and hands-on training on PoCUS and stethoscope usage. All the patients enrolled were randomized to one of two predetermined PoCUS or stethoscope groups. The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography was higher than that of the stethoscope in the diagnoses of heart failure (90 vs. 86%, 1.00 vs. 0.89, and 5.00 vs. 4.92, respectively) and pneumonia (90 vs. 86.7%, 0.75 vs. 0.73, and 16.50 vs. 13.82, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the utility parameters of these modalities in these diagnoses. Although some authors argue that it is time to abandon the 'archaic tools' of past centuries, we believe that it is too early to discontinue the use of the stethoscope.

  3. Bacterial contamination of stethoscope chest pieces and the effect of daily cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Hansen, B; Hanel, R

    2013-01-01

    Stethoscopes are a potential source of nosocomial infection for hospitalized humans, a phenomenon not previously studied in companion animals. To determine if daily cleaning of stethoscope chest pieces reduces bacterial contamination between cleanings. Client-owned dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. In phase 1, bacterial cultures were obtained from the chest pieces of 10 participant stethoscopes once weekly for 3 weeks. In phase 2, stethoscopes were cleaned daily and 2 culture samples were obtained once weekly, immediately before and after cleaning with 70% isopropyl alcohol, for 3 weeks. Daily cleaning eliminated bacteria immediately after each cleaning (P = .004), but did not reduce the rate of positive cultures obtained before cleaning in phase 2. Cultures were positive for 20/30 (67%) samples during phase 1 and 18/30 (60%) obtained before daily cleaning during phase 2. Recovered organisms included normal skin flora, agents of opportunistic infections, and potential pathogens. The only genus that was repeatedly recovered from the same stethoscope for 2 or more consecutive weeks was Bacillus sp. Daily cleaning was highly effective at removing bacteria, but provided no reduction in precleaning contamination. Cleaning stethoscopes after use on dogs or cats infected with pathogenic bacteria and before use on immunocompromised animals should be considered. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Evaluation of left ventricular function by nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, T [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1981-03-01

    The Nuclear Stethoscope (N.S.) is a unique cardiac probe system that provides a precise, rapid, noninvasive method to directly quantify ventricular functions at the bedside or actual beat-to-beat or composite beat basis. The accuracy and validity of N.S. were studied in 42 patients with cardiac diseases in comparison with camera-computer EF. The N.S. EF was well correlated with camera-computer EF (r = 0.82). In this study, clinical application of N.S. was as follows. 1. Beat-to-beat left ventricular volume response for evaluation of arrythmia (atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular conduction, bigemy et al.) 2. exercise study by handgrip and ergometer. EF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary arteries diseases from normal subjects.

  5. Evaluation of left ventricular function by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Stethoscope (N.S.) is a unique cardiac probe system that provides a precise, rapid, noninvasive method to directly quantify ventricular functions at the bedside or actual beat-to-beat or composite beat basis. The accuracy and validity of N.S. were studied in 42 patients with cardiac diseases in comparison with camera-computer EF. The N.S. EF was well correlated with camera-computer EF (r = 0.82). In this study, clinical application of N.S. was as follows. 1. Beat-to-beat left ventricular volume response for evaluation of arrythmia (atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular conduction, bigemy et al.) 2. exercise study by handgrip and ergometer. EF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary arteries diseases from normal subjects. (author)

  6. Brief report: pulmonary auscultation in the operating room: a prospective randomized blinded trial comparing electronic and conventional stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clement; Falzone, Elisabeth; Verret, Catherine; Pasquier, Pierre; Leclerc, Thomas; Donat, Nicolas; Jost, Daniel; Mérat, Stephane; Maurice, Guillaume de Saint; Lenoir, Bernard; Auroy, Yves; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    We compared the subjective quality of pulmonary auscultation between 2 acoustic stethoscopes (Holtex Ideal® and Littmann Cardiology III®) and an electronic stethoscope (Littmann 3200®) in the operating room. A prospective double-blind randomized study with an evaluation during mechanical ventilation was performed in 100 patients. After each examination, the listeners using a numeric scale (0-10) rated the quality of auscultation. Auscultation quality was compared in patients among stethoscopes with a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with random intercept (operator effect), adjusted on significant factors in univariate analysis. A significant difference was defined as P auscultation were performed. The quality of auscultation was rated 8.2 ± 1.6 for the electronic stethoscope, 7.4 ± 1.8 for the Littmann Cardiology III, and 4.6 ± 1.8 for the Holtex Ideal. Compared with Holtex Ideal, auscultation quality was significantly higher with other stethoscopes (P auscultation quality was significantly higher with Littmann 3200 electronic stethoscope (β = 0.9 [95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.3]). An electronic stethoscope can provide a better quality of pulmonary auscultation than acoustic stethoscopes in the operating room, yet with a magnitude of improvement marginally higher than that provided with a high performance acoustic stethoscope. Whether this can translate into a clinically relevant benefit requires further studies.

  7. Are Simulation Stethoscopes a Useful Adjunct for Emergency Residents' Training on High-fidelity Mannequins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Steven J; Beeson, Michael S; Fire, Frank L

    2013-05-01

    Emergency medicine residents use simulation training for many reasons, such as gaining experience with critically ill patients and becoming familiar with disease processes. Residents frequently criticize simulation training using current high-fidelity mannequins due to the poor quality of physical exam findings present, such as auscultatory findings, as it may lead them down an alternate diagnostic or therapeutic pathway. Recently wireless remote programmed stethoscopes (simulation stethoscopes) have been developed that allow wireless transmission of any sound to a stethoscope receiver, which improves the fidelity of a physical examination and the simulation case. Following institutional review committee approval, 14 PGY1-3 emergency medicine residents were assessed during 2 simulation-based cases using pre-defined scoring anchors on multiple actions, such as communication skills and treatment decisions (Appendix 1). Each case involved a patient presenting with dyspnea requiring management based off physical examination findings. One case was a patient with exacerbation of heart failure, while the other was a patient with a tension pneumothorax. Each resident was randomized into a case associated with the simulation stethoscope. Following the cases residents were asked to fill out an evaluation questionnaire. Residents perceived the most realistic physical exam findings on those associated with the case using the simulation stethoscope (13/14, 93%). Residents also preferred the simulation stethoscope as an adjunct to the case (13/14, 93%), and they rated the simulation stethoscope case to have significantly more realistic auscultatory findings (4.4/5 vs. 3.0/5 difference of means 1.4, p=0.0007). Average scores of residents were significantly better in the simulation stethoscope-associated case (2.5/3 vs. 2.3/3 difference of means 0.2, p=0.04). There was no considerable difference in the total time taken per case. A simulation stethoscope may be a useful adjunct to

  8. Are Simulation Stethoscopes a Useful Adjunct for Emergency Residents' Training on High-Fidelity Mannequins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Warrington

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine residents use simulation training for many reasons, such as gaining experience with critically ill patients and becoming familiar with disease processes. Residents frequently criticize simulation training using current high-fidelity mannequins due to the poor quality of physical exam findings present, such as auscultatory findings, as it may lead them down an alternate diagnostic or therapeutic pathway. Recently wireless remote programmed stethoscopes (simulation stethoscopes have been developed that allow wireless transmission of any sound to a stethoscope receiver, which improves the fidelity of a physical examination and the simulation case. Methods: Following institutional review committee approval, 14 PGY1-3 emergency medicine residents were assessed during 2 simulation-based cases using pre-defined scoring anchors on multiple actions, such as communication skills and treatment decisions (Appendix 1. Each case involved a patient presenting with dyspnea requiring management based off physical examination findings. One case was a patient with exacerbation of heart failure, while the other was a patient with a tension pneumothorax. Each resident was randomized into a case associated with the simulation stethoscope. Following the cases residents were asked to fill out an evaluation questionnaire. Results: Residents perceived the most realistic physical exam findings on those associated with the case using the simulation stethoscope (13/14, 93%. Residents also preferred the simulation stethoscope as an adjunct to the case (13/14, 93%, and they rated the simulation stethoscope case to have significantly more realistic auscultatory findings (4.4/5 vs. 3.0/5 difference of means 1.4, P = 0.0007. Average scores of residents were significantly better in the simulation stethoscope-associated case (2.5/3 vs. 2.3/3 difference of means 0.2, P = 0.04. There was no considerable difference in the total time taken per case

  9. Assessment of the background count to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction with a nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Mayumi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki; Itoh, Haruki; Taniguchi, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: 1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, 2) Cut-off level at 75%, and 3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author)

  10. Assessment of the background count to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction with a nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Mayumi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Itoh, Haruki; Taniguchi, Koichi

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: (1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, (2) Cut-off level at 75%, and (3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author).

  11. Does the Position or Contact Pressure of the Stethoscope Make Any Difference to Clinical Blood Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP. PMID:25546675

  12. Does the position or contact pressure of the stethoscope make any difference to clinical blood pressure measurements: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP.

  13. Stethoscope disinfection campaign in a Nigerian teaching hospital:results of a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie J; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D; Nwakpu, Kingsley O; Nnabu, Richard C; Ugwuoru, Cletus D; Prasopa-Plaizier, Nittita

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to assess the impact of a stethoscope disinfection sensitization campaign among doctors and nurses in a Nigerian teaching hospital. The design was a before-and-after study. Pre-program measurements were used to provide a baseline against which the post-program results were compared. Interventions that promoted compliance with stethoscope disinfection practice that were implemented included training and education on stethoscope disinfection and introduction of 70% isopropyl alcohol disinfectant at points-of-care places. Microbiological assessment of stethoscopes used by health workers was conducted after the intervention and the outcome was compared with the pilot study results. After the intervention, of the 89 stethoscopes screened, 18 (20.2%) were contaminated with bacterial agents. A higher prevalence of stethoscope contamination was observed among stethoscopes from the intensive care unit (66.7%), the VIP unit (50%), and the antenatal unit (37.5%). The main isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44.4%) and Escherichia coli (50%). The antibiotic sensitivity assessment indicated that the bacterial isolates were resistant to nearly all the antibiotics tested. All the 89 health workers whose stethoscopes were screened after the intervention admitted to cleaning their stethoscopes after seeing each patient, representing a compliance rate of 100%, unlike the 15% compliance at the pilot phase. The baseline stethoscope contamination rate was 78.5% versus 20.2% post-intervention. Training and education and introduction of alcohol-based disinfectants inexpensive but very effective methods to improve stethoscope disinfection compliance among health workers in low-income settings.

  14. A visual stethoscope to detect the position of the tracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiromi; Suzuki, Akira; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Makino, Hiroshi; Sanjo, Yoshimitsu; Nakai, Takayoshi; Shiraishi, Yoshito; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito

    2009-12-01

    Advancing a tracheal tube into the bronchus produces unilateral breath sounds. We created a Visual Stethoscope that allows real-time fast Fourier transformation of the sound signal and 3-dimensional (frequency-amplitude-time) color rendering of the results on a personal computer with simultaneous processing of 2 individual sound signals. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Visual Stethoscope can detect bronchial intubation in comparison with auscultation. After induction of general anesthesia, the trachea was intubated with a tracheal tube. The distance from the incisors to the carina was measured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. While the anesthesiologist advanced the tracheal tube from the trachea to the bronchus, another anesthesiologist auscultated breath sounds to detect changes of the breath sounds and/or disappearance of bilateral breath sounds for every 1 cm that the tracheal tube was advanced. Two precordial stethoscopes placed at the left and right sides of the chest were used to record breath sounds simultaneously. Subsequently, at a later date, we randomly entered the recorded breath sounds into the Visual Stethoscope. The same anesthesiologist observed the visualized breath sounds on the personal computer screen processed by the Visual Stethoscope to examine changes of breath sounds and/or disappearance of bilateral breath sound. We compared the decision made based on auscultation with that made based on the results of the visualized breath sounds using the Visual Stethoscope. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study. When irregular breath sounds were auscultated, the tip of the tracheal tube was located at 0.6 +/- 1.2 cm on the bronchial side of the carina. Using the Visual Stethoscope, when there were any changes of the shape of the visualized breath sound, the tube was located at 0.4 +/- 0.8 cm on the tracheal side of the carina (P Stethoscope (not significant). During advancement of the tracheal tube, alterations of the shape of the

  15. Stethoscopes as a source of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail; Secrest, Janet; Schreeder, Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Stethoscopes are potential vectors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The purpose of this project was to determine the presence of MRSA on the diaphragms of personal and unit stethoscopes within a hospital setting before and after cleaning with alcohol prep pads. The sample consisted of 141 personal and unit stethoscopes in adult medical-surgical and intensive care units of a large university hospital in the Southeast. Each stethoscope was cultured once before cleaning and once after cleaning. Cultures were obtained using sterile swabs and inoculated on a selective medium for MRSA. Bacterial growth was noted in the precleaning group, but no MRSA colonies were detected. The postcleaning group had no bacterial growth. There was not enough data to statistically support that isopropyl alcohol is effective in decreasing bacterial counts; however, these findings suggest that current disinfection guidelines are effective in preventing MRSA colonization on stethoscopes in this setting. Copyright © 2012 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical evaluation of stethoscope-guided inflation of tracheal tube cuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R D C; Hirsch, N P

    2011-11-01

    Tracheal tube cuffs are commonly inflated to pressures exceeding the recommended upper limit of 30 cmH(2)O. We evaluated whether a stethoscope-guided method of cuff inflation results in pressures within the recommended range. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two methods of cuff inflation. In the standard 'just seal' group, air was introduced into the tracheal cuff until the audible leak at the mouth disappeared. In the stethoscope-guided group, air was introduced into the cuff until a change from harsh to soft breath sounds occurred, whilst listening with a stethoscope bell placed over the thyroid cartilage. Twenty-five patients were recruited to each group. The median (IQR [range]) cuff pressure in the 'just seal' group was 34 (28-40 [18-49]) cmH(2)O, and in the stethoscope-guided group was 20 (20-26 [16-28]) cmH(2)O, p stethoscope-guided method of tracheal tube cuff inflation is a novel, simple technique that reliably results in acceptable tracheal cuff pressures. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. An alternative noninvasive technique for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms: stethoscope-guided compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Duyuler, Serkan; Kalayci, Süleyman; Türker, Pinar; Sahan, Ekrem; Maden, Orhan; Selçuk, Mehmet Timur

    2013-06-01

    latrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm is a well-known vascular access site complication. Many invasive and noninvasive techniques have been proposed for the management of this relatively common complication. In this study, we aimed to evaluate efficiency and safety of stethoscope-guided compression as a novel noninvasive technique in the femoral pseudoaneurysm treatment. We prospectively included 29 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of femoral pseudoaneurysm who underwent coronary angiography. Patients with a clinical suspicion of femoral pseudoaneurysm were referred to colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation. The adult (large) side of the stethoscope was used to determine the location where the bruit was best heard. Then compression with the paediatric (small) side of the stethoscope was applied until the bruit could no longer be heard and compression was maintained for at least two sessions. Once the bruit disappeared, a 12-hour bed rest with external elastic compression was advised to the patients, in order to prevent disintegration of newly formed thrombosis. Mean pseudoaneurysm size was 1.7 +/- 0.4 cmx 3.0 +/- 0.9 cm and the mean duration of compression was 36.2 +/- 8.5 minutes.Twenty-six (89.6%) of these 29 patients were successfully treated with stethoscope-guided compression. In 18 patients (62%), the pseuodoaneurysms were successfully closed after 2 sessions of 15-minute compression. No severe complication was observed. Stethoscope-guided compression of femoral pseudoaneurysms is a safe and effective novel technique which requires less equipment and expertise than other contemporary methods.

  18. Bacterial contamination and stethoscope disinfection practices: a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Danish Ahmed; Aman, Aiysha; Muhammad Mubeen, Syed; Shah, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Stethoscopes routinely used for clinical examination of patients may potentially transfer micro-organisms and cause iatrogenic infections. This study was undertaken to detect the presence of microorganisms on stethoscopes used clinically in hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan and to ascertain the infection control practices of healthcare workers (HCWs). In a cross-sectional study, 118 samples were collected from public and private institutions. Samples were tested for the presence and sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms. Microorganisms were found on diaphragms of 33/64 (51.6%) and 19/57 (33.3%) stethoscopes in public and private sector hospitals, respectively. Methycillin resistance was identified in all staphylococcally contaminated samples. Only 33 (18%) respondents reported cleaning their stethoscopes regularly. We highlight the need for more and better on-the-job routines for decontaminating stethoscopes among HCWs in Karachi.

  19. Digital stethoscopes compared to standard auscultation for detecting abnormal paediatric breath sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevat, Ajay C; Kalirajah, Anaath; Roseby, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to objectively describe the audiological characteristics of wheeze and crackles in children by using digital stethoscope (DS) auscultation, as well as assess concordance between standard auscultation and two different DS devices in their ability to detect pathological breath sounds. Twenty children were auscultated by a paediatric consultant doctor and digitally recorded using the Littman™ 3200 Digital Electronic Stethoscope and a Clinicloud™ DS with smart device. Using spectrographic analysis, we found those with clinically described wheeze had prominent periodic waveform segments spanning expiration for a period of 0.03-1.2 s at frequencies of 100-1050 Hz, and occasionally spanning shorter inspiratory segments; paediatric crackles were brief discontinuous sounds with a distinguishing waveform. There was moderate concordance with respect to wheeze detection between digital and standard binaural stethoscopes, and 100% concordance for crackle detection. Importantly, DS devices were more sensitive than clinician auscultation in detecting wheeze in our study. Objective definition of audio characteristics of abnormal paediatric breath sounds was achieved using DS technology. We demonstrated superiority of our DS method compared to traditional auscultation for detection of wheeze. What is Known: • The audiological characteristics of abnormal breath sounds have been well-described in adult populations but not in children. • Inter-observer agreement for detection of pathological breath sounds using standard auscultation has been shown to be poor, but the clinical value of now easily available digital stethoscopes has not been sufficiently examined. What is New: • Digital stethoscopes can objectively define the nature of pathological breath sounds such as wheeze and crackles in children. • Paediatric wheeze was better detected by digital stethoscopes than by standard auscultation performed by an expert paediatric clinician.

  20. Can we measure the ankle-brachial index using only a stethoscope? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, G A L; Mandil, A; Nascimento, B R; Arantes, B D; Bittencourt, J C; Falqueto, E B; Ribeiro, A L

    2009-02-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an excellent method for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) when it is performed with Doppler. However, this device is not always available for primary care physicians. The ABI measured with stethoscope is an easy alternative approach, but have not been proved to be useful. To assess the accuracy of the ABI measured using a stethoscope comparatively to that of the current eligible method for the diagnosis of PAD, the Doppler ABI, and describe the characteristics of this new approach. We conducted a diagnostic study of ABI measured with a stethoscope and a Doppler probe and compared the results. Eighty-eight patients were accessed by both methods. Mean stethoscope ABI, 1.01 +/- 0.15, and mean Doppler ABI, 1.03 +/- 0.20, (P = 0.047) displayed a good correlation. Measurements of stethoscope ABI diagnostic accuracy in recognizing a Doppler ABI are described. The comparison of this data with the current gold standard method results gave a sensitivity of 71.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41.9-91.6] and specificity of 91.0% (95% CI, 81.5-96.6), with predictive positive value of 62.5% (95% CI, 38.6-81.5) and negative predictive value of 93.8% (95% CI, 85.2-97.6). The study accuracy was 87.7%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.895 (95% CI, 0.804-0.986, P stethoscope ABI is a useful method to detect PAD and it may be suitable for its screening in the primary care setting.

  1. iStethoscope: a demonstration of the use of mobile devices for auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    iStethoscope Pro is the first piece of software (an "App") produced for iOS devices, which enabled users to exploit their smartphones, music players, or tablets as stethoscopes. The software exploits the built-in microphone (and supports externally added microphones) and performs real-time amplification and filtering to enable heart sounds to be heard with high fidelity. The software also enables the heart sounds to be recorded, analyzed using a spectrogram, and to be transmitted to others via e-mail. This chapter describes the motivation, functionality, and results from this work.

  2. The reproducibility and variability of sequential left ventricular ejection fraction measurements by the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Chinori; Hayashi, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the reproducibility and variability of sequential left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements by the nuclear stethoscope in 72 patients. The group as a whole demonstrated excellent reproducibility (r = 0.96). However, repeat LVEF measurements by the nuclear stethoscope at 5-minute interval showed around 9 % absolute difference, at 95 % confidence levels, from one measurement to the next. The finding indicates that a change in LVEF greater than 9 % is necessary for determining an acute effect of an intervention in individual cases. (author)

  3. The efficacy of stethoscope placement when not in use: traditional versus “cool”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, William B.; Hanley, Anthony J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the “cool” or circumcervical placement of the stethoscope when not in use is as efficacious as the traditional placement in terms of transfer time to the functional position. Methods Measurement of time taken by 100 health care professionals in each group to transfer stethoscope to functional position. Results and interpretation The cool group was much slower than the traditional group, despite their younger years. This wasted time could translate into a substantial financial burden on Canada's health care system. PMID:11138413

  4. Cardiac auscultation training of medical students: a comparison of electronic sensor-based and acoustic stethoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyte, Henning; Jensen, Torstein; Gjesdal, Knut

    2005-01-01

    Background To determine whether the use of an electronic, sensor based stethoscope affects the cardiac auscultation skills of undergraduate medical students. Methods Forty eight third year medical students were randomized to use either an electronic stethoscope, or a conventional acoustic stethoscope during clinical auscultation training. After a training period of four months, cardiac auscultation skills were evaluated using four patients with different cardiac murmurs. Two experienced cardiologists determined correct answers. The students completed a questionnaire for each patient. The thirteen questions were weighted according to their relative importance, and a correct answer was credited from one to six points. Results No difference in mean score was found between the two groups (p = 0.65). Grading and characterisation of murmurs and, if present, report of non existing murmurs were also rated. None of these yielded any significant differences between the groups. Conclusion Whether an electronic or a conventional stethoscope was used during training and testing did not affect the students' performance on a cardiac auscultation test. PMID:15882458

  5. Use of 90% ethanol to decontaminate stethoscopes in resource limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Raj Raghubanshi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. Methods A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm were taken before and after cleaning with one of the cleaning agent. Colony forming units (CFU count and organism identification was done by a blinded investigator. CFU before and after cleaning were compared using Wilcoxon signed–rank test. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the decrease in CFU count between the cleaning agents. Results About 30% of the stethoscopes harbored potential pathogens. Significant reduction in CFU was observed with both IPA (Wilcoxon signed–rank test, P value 0.05. Conclusions Both 90% ethanol and IPA are equally effective in decontaminating the diaphragm of stethoscope. Selection of agent should be done on the basis of cost and availability.

  6. Bronchial intubation could be detected by the visual stethoscope techniques in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuro; Suzuki, Akira; Mimuro, Soichiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Sato, Shigehito

    2012-12-01

    We created a system that allows the visualization of breath sounds (visual stethoscope). We compared the visual stethoscope technique with auscultation for the detection of bronchial intubation in pediatric patients. In the auscultation group, an anesthesiologist advanced the tracheal tube, while another anesthesiologist auscultated bilateral breath sounds to detect the change and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. In the visualization group, the stethoscope was used to detect changes in breath sounds and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. The distance from the edge of the mouth to the carina was measured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Forty pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. At the point at which irregular breath sounds were auscultated, the tracheal tube was located at 0.5 ± 0.8 cm on the bronchial side from the carina. When a detectable change of shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was located 0.1 ± 1.2 cm on the bronchial side (not significant). At the point at which unilateral breath sounds were auscultated or a unilateral shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was 1.5 ± 0.8 or 1.2 ± 1.0 cm on the bronchial side, respectively (not significant). The visual stethoscope allowed to display the left and the right lung sound simultaneously and detected changes of breath sounds and unilateral breath sound as a tracheal tube was advanced. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Stethoscope: A platform for interactive visual analysis of query execution plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSearching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools oer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and

  8. Stethoscope: a platform for interactive visual analysis of query execution plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.

    2012-01-01

    Searching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools offer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and ana- lyze

  9. Cardiac auscultation training of medical students: a comparison of electronic sensor-based and acoustic stethoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Torstein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the use of an electronic, sensor based stethoscope affects the cardiac auscultation skills of undergraduate medical students. Methods Forty eight third year medical students were randomized to use either an electronic stethoscope, or a conventional acoustic stethoscope during clinical auscultation training. After a training period of four months, cardiac auscultation skills were evaluated using four patients with different cardiac murmurs. Two experienced cardiologists determined correct answers. The students completed a questionnaire for each patient. The thirteen questions were weighted according to their relative importance, and a correct answer was credited from one to six points. Results No difference in mean score was found between the two groups (p = 0.65. Grading and characterisation of murmurs and, if present, report of non existing murmurs were also rated. None of these yielded any significant differences between the groups. Conclusion Whether an electronic or a conventional stethoscope was used during training and testing did not affect the students' performance on a cardiac auscultation test.

  10. Development and Assessment of a Dual-Mode, Noise-Immune Stethoscope for Combat Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ineffective in a combat environment. The noise-immune stethoscope was developed specifically to overcome the noise encountered on evacuation platforms...animals in group A will receive a progressive pneumothorax. With the animals in the dorsal recumbent position, local anesthesia ( Lidocaine 0.5 mg

  11. Use of 90% ethanol to decontaminate stethoscopes in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubanshi, Bijendra Raj; Sapkota, Supriya; Adhikari, Arjab; Dutta, Aman; Bhattarai, Utsuk; Bhandari, Rastriyata

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm were taken before and after cleaning with one of the cleaning agent. Colony forming units (CFU) count and organism identification was done by a blinded investigator. CFU before and after cleaning were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the decrease in CFU count between the cleaning agents. About 30% of the stethoscopes harbored potential pathogens. Significant reduction in CFU was observed with both IPA (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P value Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P value test; U = 1357, P value >0.05). Both 90% ethanol and IPA are equally effective in decontaminating the diaphragm of stethoscope. Selection of agent should be done on the basis of cost and availability.

  12. Feasibility of an electronic stethoscope system for monitoring neonatal bowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jasmine; Hill, Krista M; Adrezin, Ronald S; Alba, Jorge; Curry, Raquel; Campagna, Eric; Fernandes, Cecilia; Lamba, Vineet; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2013-09-01

    Bowel dysfunction remains a major problem in neonates. Traditional auscultation of bowel sounds as a diagnostic aid in neonatal gastrointestinal complications is limited by skill and inability to document and reassess. Consequently, we built a unique prototype to investigate the feasibility of an electronic monitoring system for continuous assessment of bowel sounds. We attained approval by the Institutional Review Boards for the investigational study to test our system. The system incorporated a prototype stethoscope head with a built-in microphone connected to a digital recorder. Recordings made over extended periods were evaluated for quality. We also considered the acoustic environment of the hospital, where the stethoscope was used. The stethoscope head was attached to the abdomen with a hydrogel patch designed especially for this purpose. We used the system to obtain recordings from eight healthy, full-term babies. A scoring system was used to determine loudness, clarity, and ease of recognition comparing it to the traditional stethoscope. The recording duration was initially two hours and was increased to a maximum of eight hours. Median duration of attachment was three hours (3.75, 2.68). Based on the scoring, the bowel sound recording was perceived to be as loud and clear in sound reproduction as a traditional stethoscope. We determined that room noise and other noises were significant forms of interference in the recordings, which at times prevented analysis. However, no sound quality drift was noted in the recordings and no patient discomfort was noted. Minimal erythema was observed over the fixation site which subsided within one hour. We demonstrated the long-term recording of infant bowel sounds. Our contributions included a prototype stethoscope head, which was affixed using a specially designed hydrogel adhesive patch. Such a recording can be reviewed and reassessed, which is new technology and an improvement over current practice. The use of this

  13. Acoustic Emission Stethoscope - Measurements with Acoustic Emission on Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krystof Kryniski [AaF Infrastructure, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    A remote ultrasonic stethoscope, designed on mobile devices to help a maintenance team in diagnosing drive train problems, has been demonstrated. By implementing an acoustic emission technology, the operating conditions of wind turbines have been assessed by trending techniques and ultrasonic acoustic emission converted into audible sound. The new approach has been developed and tested and compared to other monitoring techniques. Acoustic emission has generally been shown to provide a number of advantages over vibration and shock pulse methods because the system is operating in a substantially higher frequency range (100 kHz) and therefore it is more immune to operation of surrounding machines and components. Quick attenuation of ultrasonic propagation waves in the drive-train structure helps to pin-point the origin of any fault as the signals are sharper and more pronounced. Further, with the intensity measurements a direction of the source of ultrasonic energy can be identified. Using a high frequency thus makes the method suitable for measuring local effects and to determine local defects since the disturbing signals from other parts are damped. Recently developed programmable sensors capable of processing signals onboard, producing quality outputs with extremely low noise-to-signal ratio, have been used. It is discussed how the new approach can lower the cost of a wind-turbine monitoring system, while at the same time making it simple and more reliable, see Appendix A. The method has been tested on rotating parts of wind-turbines, including traditionally difficult areas such as low speed main bearings and planetary gearboxes. The method developed in the project was designed to see physical processes such as friction, impacts and metal removal, occurring when machinery degrades, can be detected and notified with the developed notification system. Apart from reporting the status and displaying the changes of the pre-defined parameters or symptoms, the system has

  14. Performance evaluation of heart sound cancellation in FPGA hardware implementation for electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Maneetien, Nopadon; Wang, Chi-Jo; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of the hardware circuit for electronic stethoscopes with heart sound cancellation capabilities using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The adaptive line enhancer (ALE) was adopted as the filtering methodology to reduce heart sound attributes from the breath sounds obtained via the electronic stethoscope pickup. FPGAs were utilized to implement the ALE functions in hardware to achieve near real-time breath sound processing. We believe that such an implementation is unprecedented and crucial toward a truly useful, standalone medical device in outpatient clinic settings. The implementation evaluation with one Altera cyclone II-EP2C70F89 shows that the proposed ALE used 45% resources of the chip. Experiments with the proposed prototype were made using DE2-70 emulation board with recorded body signals obtained from online medical archives. Clear suppressions were observed in our experiments from both the frequency domain and time domain perspectives.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Heart Sound Cancellation in FPGA Hardware Implementation for Electronic Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tang Chao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and evaluation of the hardware circuit for electronic stethoscopes with heart sound cancellation capabilities using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. The adaptive line enhancer (ALE was adopted as the filtering methodology to reduce heart sound attributes from the breath sounds obtained via the electronic stethoscope pickup. FPGAs were utilized to implement the ALE functions in hardware to achieve near real-time breath sound processing. We believe that such an implementation is unprecedented and crucial toward a truly useful, standalone medical device in outpatient clinic settings. The implementation evaluation with one Altera cyclone II–EP2C70F89 shows that the proposed ALE used 45% resources of the chip. Experiments with the proposed prototype were made using DE2-70 emulation board with recorded body signals obtained from online medical archives. Clear suppressions were observed in our experiments from both the frequency domain and time domain perspectives.

  16. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillman Lawrence M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century.

  17. Measurement of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle with the isotope stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marving, J.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Jensen, G. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Glostrup (Denmark))

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction was performed in 21 patients by two observers with the Nuclear Stethoscope, a new, mobile, non-imaging single probe equipment. sup 99mTc was used for erythrocyte-labelling. Measurements were carried out in two different ways: beat-to-beat mode (i.e. for individual beats or a few beats at a time) and by ventricular function mode (i.e. for a composite beat, registered over a preselected period of time). There was good correlation between the two Nuclear Stethoscope modes (r=0.97) and between these and a simultaneous measurement made by gammacamera (r=0.90 and r=0.88). Despite uncertainties in the determination of correct background-level and centering over the left ventricle, there was no difference between the accuracy of the results of the two observers, compared with gammacamera measurements. The Nuclear Stethoscope is considerably cheaper than a gammacamera with computer-system, it is simple to operate, and can easily be used at the bedside, even in severely ill patients. A special feature is its capability of measuring sudden alterations in heart contractility on a beat-to-beat basis. Clinically it can be employed for both diagnostic purposes and for the monitoring of spontaneous courses and the effect of therapeutic interventions.

  18. Experimental validation of the tuneable diaphragm effect in modern acoustic stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina M; Nowak, Lukasz J

    2017-09-01

    The force with which the diaphragm chestpiece of a stethoscope is pressed against the body of a patient during an auscultation examination introduces the initial stress and deformation to the diaphragm and the underlying tissues, thus altering the acoustic parameters of the sound transmission path. If the examination is performed by an experienced physician, he will intuitively adjust the amount of the force in order to achieve the optimal sound quality. However, in case of becoming increasingly popular auto-diagnosis and telemedicine auscultation devices with no such feedback mechanisms, the question arises regarding the influence of the possible force mismatch on the parameters of the recorded signal. The present study describes the results of the experimental investigations on the relation between pressure applied to the chestpiece of a stethoscope and parameters of the transmitted bioacoustic signals. The experiments were carried out using various stethoscopes connected to a force measurement system, which allowed to maintain fixed pressure during auscultation examinations. The signals were recorded during examinations of different volunteers, at various auscultation sites. The obtained results reveal strong individual and auscultation-site variability. It is concluded that the underlying tissue deformation is the primary factor that alters the parameters of the recorded signals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Measurement of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle with the isotope stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marving, J.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Jensen, G.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction was performed in 21 patients by two observers with the Nuclear Stethoscope, a new, mobile, non-imaging single probe equipment. sup 99mTc was used for erythrocyte-labelling. Measurements were carried out in two different ways: beat-to-beat mode (i.e. for individual beats or a few beats at a time) and by ventricular function mode (i.e. for a composite beat, registered over a preselected period of time). There was good correlation between the two Nuclear Stethoscope modes (r=0.97) and between these and a simultaneous measurement made by gammacamera (r=0.90 and r=0.88). Despite uncertainties in the determination of correct background-level and centering over the left ventricle, there was no difference between the accuracy of the results of the two observers, compared with gammacamera measurements. The Nuclear Stethoscope is considerably cheaper than a gammacamera with computer-system, it is simple to operate, and can easily be used at the bedside, even in severely ill patients. A special feature is its capability of measuring sudden alterations in heart contractility on a beat-to-beat basis. Clinically it can be employed for both diagnostic purposes and for the monitoring of spontaneous courses and the effect of therapeutic interventions. (authors)

  20. Comparing the auscultatory accuracy of health care professionals using three different brands of stethoscopes on a simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mansoor Mehmood,1 Hazem L Abu Grara,1 Joshua S Stewart,2 Faisal A Khasawneh3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 2Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Northwest Texas Hospital, 3Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA Background: It is considered standard practice to use disposable or patient-dedicated stethoscopes to prevent cross-contamination between patients in contact precautions and others in their vicinity. The literature offers very little information regarding the quality of currently used stethoscopes. This study assessed the fidelity with which acoustics were perceived by a broad range of health care professionals using three brands of stethoscopes. Methods: This prospective study used a simulation center and volunteer health care professionals to test the sound quality offered by three brands of commonly used stethoscopes. The volunteer's proficiency in identifying five basic ausculatory sounds (wheezing, stridor, crackles, holosystolic murmur, and hyperdynamic bowel sounds was tested, as well. Results: A total of 84 health care professionals (ten attending physicians, 35 resident physicians, and 39 intensive care unit [ICU] nurses participated in the study. The higher-end stethoscope was more reliable than lower-end stethoscopes in facilitating the diagnosis of the auscultatory sounds, especially stridor and crackles. Our volunteers detected all tested sounds correctly in about 69% of cases. As expected, attending physicians performed the best, followed by resident physicians and subsequently ICU nurses. Neither years of experience nor background noise seemed to affect performance. Postgraduate training continues to offer very little to improve our trainees' auscultation skills. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using low-end stethoscopes to care for patients in contact precautions could

  1. Monitoring of right ventricular function by single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) and sup(81m)Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Ohmine, Hiromi; Kimura, Motomasa [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1982-12-01

    A single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) was developed to evaluate the monitoring of right ventricular function by sup(81m)Kr continuous infusion method. Optimal right ventricular and background positions were determined by position/monitor mode on beat-to-beat basis, and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was calculated by multi-gated method (MUGA). The correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (MUGA) was 0.82, while the correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (first-pass method) was 0.64. Therefore, the RVEF by nuclear stethoscope is useful for monitoring of right ventricular function. Clinical applications by sup(81m)Kr and nuclear stethoscope were as follows. 1. Exercise/rest RVEF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary artery disease (RCA occlusion) from normal subjects. 2. Beat-to-beat right ventricular volume response is useful for the monitoring of arrythmia such as atrial fibrillation.

  2. Novel approach to the diagnosis of fractures in an austere environment using a stethoscope and a cellular phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Brett A; Fivecoat, Phillip T; Ritz, Reis B

    2014-03-01

    Fracture diagnosis in the austere environment where radiographic tests are not available can be a challenge. In the past, a diagnostic technique has been described using a tuning fork and stethoscope to assess decreased sound conduction in the fractured extremity. In this study, we evaluate the use of a cellular phone's vibrate function and a stethoscope to limit equipment carried by expeditionary practitioners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fracture diagnosis using a cellular phone and stethoscope. This is a pilot study to assess the usefulness of the above technique before clinical implementation. In 3 cadavers, we created fractures of the humerus and femur. Twenty-seven emergency medicine residents and an attending physician performed the diagnostic technique. Overall, the use of the cellular phone and stethoscope resulted in a sensitivity of 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 0.81) and a specificity of 83% (95% CI: 0.77 to 0.88), with a positive predicted value of 68% (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.77) and a negative predicted value of 86% (95% CI: 0.81 to 0.90). Positive likelihood ratio was 4.3, and negative likelihood ratio was 0.32. The use of a cellular phone and stethoscope may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of fractures in the austere environment. However, further study is needed to validate these findings in the clinical environment. Published by Wilderness Medical Society on behalf of Wilderness Medical Society.

  3. Monitoring of right ventricular function by single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) and sup(81m)Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Ohmine, Hiromi; Kimura, Motomasa

    1982-01-01

    A single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) was developed to evaluate the monitoring of right ventricular function by sup(81m)Kr continuous infusion method. Optimal right ventricular and background positions were determined by position/monitor mode on beat-to-beat basis, and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was calculated by multi-gated method (MUGA). The correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (MUGA) was 0.82, while the correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (first-pass method) was 0.64. Therefore, the RVEF by nuclear stethoscope is useful for monitoring of right ventricular function. Clinical applications by sup(81m)Kr and nuclear stethoscope were as follows. 1. Exercise/rest RVEF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary artery disease (RCA occlusion) from normal subjects. 2. Beat-to-beat right ventricular volume response is useful for the monitoring of arrythmia such as atrial fibrillation. (author)

  4. The Difference in Effectiveness of 70% and 0.5% Chlorine to ReduceThe Germ Number on Stethoscope’s Membrane Experimental research at stethoscope in Baitul Izah Ward of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Pramita

    2011-06-01

    Design and Methods: This was an experimental research with the Post Test Only Control Group Design using 18 stethoscopes divided into 3 groups randomly. Group A was the control group (aquabidest, group B were treated with 70% alcohol treatment, and group C was treated with 0.5% chlorine. The research samples were the stethoscopes used to treat patient in Baitul Izah ward of Islamic Hospital of Sultan Agung Semarang. The data on the germ amount was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There was a significant difference between aquabidest group and 70% alcohol group (p0.05, nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the 70% alcohol group and 0.5% chlorine group ( 0.652. Conclusion: There was no difference in the effectiveness between 70% alcohol and 0.5% chlorine to reduce the number of germ on the stethoscope’s membrane (Sains Medika, 3(1:63-68.

  5. Variation of the Korotkoff Stethoscope Sounds During Blood Pressure Measurement: Analysis Using a Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; He, Peiyu; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Taiyong; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-11-01

    Korotkoff sounds are known to change their characteristics during blood pressure (BP) measurement, resulting in some uncertainties for systolic and diastolic pressure (SBP and DBP) determinations. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of Korotkoff sounds during BP measurement by examining all stethoscope sounds associated with each heartbeat from above systole to below diastole during linear cuff deflation. Three repeat BP measurements were taken from 140 healthy subjects (age 21 to 73 years; 62 female and 78 male) by a trained observer, giving 420 measurements. During the BP measurements, the cuff pressure and stethoscope signals were simultaneously recorded digitally to a computer for subsequent analysis. Heartbeats were identified from the oscillometric cuff pressure pulses. The presence of each beat was used to create a time window (1 s, 2000 samples) centered on the oscillometric pulse peak for extracting beat-by-beat stethoscope sounds. A time-frequency two-dimensional matrix was obtained for the stethoscope sounds associated with each beat, and all beats between the manually determined SBPs and DBPs were labeled as "Korotkoff." A convolutional neural network was then used to analyze consistency in sound patterns that were associated with Korotkoff sounds. A 10-fold cross-validation strategy was applied to the stethoscope sounds from all 140 subjects, with the data from ten groups of 14 subjects being analyzed separately, allowing consistency to be evaluated between groups. Next, within-subject variation of the Korotkoff sounds analyzed from the three repeats was quantified, separately for each stethoscope sound beat. There was consistency between folds with no significant differences between groups of 14 subjects (P = 0.09 to P = 0.62). Our results showed that 80.7% beats at SBP and 69.5% at DBP were analyzed as Korotkoff sounds, with significant differences between adjacent beats at systole (13.1%, P = 0.001) and diastole (17.4%, P < 0

  6. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsaei H.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan.

  7. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, H.; Vakily, A.; Shafiei, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan. PMID:28451580

  8. Clinical evaluation of the 3M Littmann Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 in 150 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Keith A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Scansen, Brian A; Visser, Lance C; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, Danielle N; Ward, Jessica L

    2013-10-01

    Detection of murmurs and gallops may help to identify cats with heart disease. However, auscultatory findings may be subject to clinically relevant observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electronic stethoscope (ES) in cats. We hypothesized that the ES would perform at least as well as a conventional stethoscope (CS) in the detection of abnormal heart sounds. One hundred and fifty consecutive cats undergoing echocardiography were enrolled prospectively. Cats were ausculted with a CS (WA Tycos Harvey Elite) by two observers, and heart sounds were recorded digitally using an ES (3M Littmann Stethoscope Model 3200) for off-line analysis. Echocardiography was used as the clinical standard method for validation of auscultatory findings. Additionally, digital recordings (DRs) were assessed by eight independent observers with various levels of expertise, and compared using interclass correlation and Cohen's weighted kappa analyses. Using the CS, a heart murmur (n = 88 cats) or gallop sound (n = 17) was identified in 105 cats, whereas 45 cats lacked abnormal heart sounds. There was good total agreement (83-90%) between the two observers using the CS. In contrast, there was only moderate agreement (P <0.001) between results from the CS and the DRs for murmurs, and poor agreement for gallops. The CS was more sensitive compared with the DRs with regard to murmurs and gallops. Agreement among the eight observers was good-to-excellent for murmur detection (81%). In conclusion, DRs made with the ES are less sensitive but comparably specific to a CS at detecting abnormal heart sounds in cats.

  9. Characterization of Cardiac Time Intervals in Healthy Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) by Using an Electronic Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8 ± 5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5 ± 1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  10. A low-cost 3-D printed stethoscope connected to a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Astudillo, Carlos; Chavez-Campos, Marx; Gonzalez-Suarez, Alan; Garcia-Cordero, Jose L

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a digital stethoscope using a 3D printer and commercial off-the-shelf electronics. A chestpiece consists of an electret microphone embedded into the drum of a 3D printed chestpiece. An electronic dongle amplifies the signal from the microphone and reduces any external noise. It also adjusts the signal to the voltages accepted by the smartphones headset jack. A graphical user interface programmed in Android displays the signals processed by the dongle. The application also saves the processed signal and sends it to a physician.

  11. Music-of-light stethoscope: a demonstration of the photoacoustic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on combining light excitation with ultrasound reception. Our brief was to present and explain PA imaging in a public-friendly way suitable for a variety of ages and backgrounds. We developed a simple, accessible demonstration unit using readily available materials. We used a modulated light emitting diode (LED) torch and an electronic stethoscope. The output of a music player was used for light modulation and the chest piece of the stethoscope covered by a black tape was used as an absorbing target and an enclosed chamber. This demonstration unit was presented to the public at the Bloomsbury Festival On Light in October 2015. Our stall was visited by over 100 people of varying ages. Twenty families returned in-depth evaluation questionnaires, which show that our explanations of the photoacoustic effect were well understood. Their interest in biomedical engineering was increased.

  12. Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Messina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today it is well demonstrated that stethoscopes can be as contaminated as hands, which are a recognized source of Health-Care Associated Infections (HCAIs. Ultraviolet C (UVC light has proven disinfection capacity and the innovative UVC technology of Light Emitting Diode (LED shows several potential benefits. To verify whether the use of UVC LEDs is effective and reliable in stethoscope membrane disinfection after prolonged use, a pre-post intervention study was conducted. A total of 1668 five-minute cycles were performed on two UVC LEDs to simulate their use; thereafter, their disinfection capacity was tested on stethoscope membranes used on a previously auscultated volunteer. Then, a further 1249 cycles were run and finally the LEDs were tested to assess performance in reducing experimental contamination by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on the stethoscope membrane. Baseline volunteer contamination identified 104 Colony Forming Units (CFUs while treated Petri dishes had 12 and 15 CFUs (p < 0.001. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001 were also found relating to the reduction of specific bacteria: in particular, after treatment no CFU were observed for S. aureus and E. coli. UVC LEDs demonstrated the capacity to maintain high levels of disinfection after more than 240 h of use and they were effective against common microorganisms that are causative agents of HCAIs.

  13. Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC) Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Gabriele; Fattorini, Mattia; Nante, Nicola; Rosadini, Daniele; Serafini, Andrea; Tani, Marco; Cevenini, Gabriele

    2016-09-23

    Today it is well demonstrated that stethoscopes can be as contaminated as hands, which are a recognized source of Health-Care Associated Infections (HCAIs). Ultraviolet C (UVC) light has proven disinfection capacity and the innovative UVC technology of Light Emitting Diode (LED) shows several potential benefits. To verify whether the use of UVC LEDs is effective and reliable in stethoscope membrane disinfection after prolonged use, a pre-post intervention study was conducted. A total of 1668 five-minute cycles were performed on two UVC LEDs to simulate their use; thereafter, their disinfection capacity was tested on stethoscope membranes used on a previously auscultated volunteer. Then, a further 1249 cycles were run and finally the LEDs were tested to assess performance in reducing experimental contamination by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on the stethoscope membrane. Baseline volunteer contamination identified 104 Colony Forming Units (CFUs) while treated Petri dishes had 12 and 15 CFUs (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were also found relating to the reduction of specific bacteria: in particular, after treatment no CFU were observed for S. aureus and E. coli. UVC LEDs demonstrated the capacity to maintain high levels of disinfection after more than 240 h of use and they were effective against common microorganisms that are causative agents of HCAIs.

  14. Reliability of Doppler and stethoscope methods of determining systolic blood pressures: considerations for calculating an ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesbro, Steven B; Asongwed, Elmira T; Brown, Jamesha; John, Emmanuel B

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the interrater and intrarater reliability of systolic blood pressures using a stethoscope and Doppler to determine an ankle-brachial index (ABI), and (2) to determine the correlation between the 2 methods. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States, and nearly half of those with this disease are asymptomatic. Early detection and prompt treatment of PAD will improve health outcomes. It is important that clinicians perform tests that determine the presence of PAD. Two individual raters trained in ABI procedure measured the systolic blood pressures of 20 individuals' upper and lower extremities. Standard ABI measurement protocols were observed. Raters individually recorded the systolic blood pressures of each extremity using a stethoscope and a Doppler, for a total of 640 independent measures. Interrater reliability of Doppler measurements to determine SBP at the ankle was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93-0.99) compared to moderate to strong reliability using a stethoscope (ICC, 0.64-0.87). Agreement between the 2 devices to determine SBP was moderate to very weak (ICC, 0.13-0.61). Comparisons of the use of Doppler and stethoscope to determine ABI showed weak to very weak intrarater correlation (ICC, 0.17-0.35). Linear regression analysis of the 2 methods to determine ABI showed positive but weak to very weak correlations (r2 = .013, P = .184). A Doppler ultrasound is recommended over a stethoscope for accuracy in systolic pressure readings for ABI measurements.

  15. Doctor, Teacher, and Stethoscope: Neural Representation of Different Types of Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangwen; Wang, Xiaosha; Wang, Xiaoying; Men, Weiwei; Gao, Jia-Hong; Bi, Yanchao

    2018-03-28

    Concepts can be related in many ways. They can belong to the same taxonomic category (e.g., "doctor" and "teacher," both in the category of people) or be associated with the same event context (e.g., "doctor" and "stethoscope," both associated with medical scenarios). How are these two major types of semantic relations coded in the brain? We constructed stimuli from three taxonomic categories (people, manmade objects, and locations) and three thematic categories (school, medicine, and sports) and investigated the neural representations of these two dimensions using representational similarity analyses in human participants (10 men and nine women). In specific regions of interest, the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ), we found that, whereas both areas had significant effects of taxonomic information, the taxonomic relations had stronger effects in the ATL than in the TPJ ("doctor" and "teacher" closer in ATL neural activity), with the reverse being true for thematic relations ("doctor" and "stethoscope" closer in TPJ neural activity). A whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed that widely distributed regions, mainly in the left hemisphere, represented the taxonomic dimension. Interestingly, the significant effects of the thematic relations were only observed after the taxonomic differences were controlled for in the left TPJ, the right superior lateral occipital cortex, and other frontal, temporal, and parietal regions. In summary, taxonomic grouping is a primary organizational dimension across distributed brain regions, with thematic grouping further embedded within such taxonomic structures. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How are concepts organized in the brain? It is well established that concepts belonging to the same taxonomic categories (e.g., "doctor" and "teacher") share neural representations in specific brain regions. How concepts are associated in other manners (e.g., "doctor" and "stethoscope," which are thematically

  16. Celebrating Two Centuries since the Invention of the Stethoscope. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Karakatsani, Anna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-10-01

    René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826), a French physician, is considered one of the pioneers of respiratory medicine. His contribution to the invention of the stethoscope and to the development of clinical auscultation played a key role in the progress of the diagnosis of chest diseases. Almost two centuries after his invention of the stethoscope, his achievements continue to be widely appreciated and used by modern physicians in current pulmonology.

  17. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826): The Man Behind the Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguin, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826) was a French physician who, in 1816, invented the stethoscope. Using this new instrument, he investigated the sounds made by the heart and lungs and determined that his diagnoses were supported by the observations made during autopsies. Laënnec later published the first seminal work on the use of listening to body sounds, De L’auscultation Mediate (On Mediate Auscultation). Laënnec is considered the father of clinical auscultation and wrote the first descriptions of bronchiectasis and cirrhosis and also classified pulmonary conditions such as pneumonia, bronchiectasis, pleurisy, emphysema, pneumothorax, phthisis and other lung diseases from the sounds he heard with his invention. Laënnec perfected the art of physical examination of the chest and introduced many clinical terms still used today. PMID:17048358

  18. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N.; Wake, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to generate a readily interpretable display of gamma radiation emitted from the heart blood pool at precise points in the cardiac cycle with the data for each point accumulated over many heart beats and displayed in one composite image showing the integrated activity at points within the cardiac cycle. (J.R.)

  19. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A built-up image illustrating heart activity within the cardiac cycle is produced by simultaneously displaying a plurality of memory channels which accumulate respectively the amount of radioactivity detected within a cardiac chamber during successive intervals throughout the cardiac cycle. The parallel lines of a raster scan display correspond respectively to the memory channels. The count stored in a particular memory channel causes the video signal for the corresponding line to be maintained at a binary level for a corresponding time interval thus generating a bar graph in which the length of each bar indicates the amount of radioactivity sensed during the corresponding interval of the cardiac cycle. As each memory channel accumulates radioactivity data with each successive cardiac cycle, each bar displayed in the bar graph lengthens to indicate the cumulative activity until an interpretable curve is obtained. The invention relates generally to the field of nuclear medicine and, more specifically, to diagnostic techniques of analyzing blood flow through the heart by detecting radioactivity from radioisotopes injected into the bloodstream

  20. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))

    1983-05-14

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  1. The correlation between the first heart sound and cardiac output as measured by using digital esophageal stethoscope under anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck Shin, Young; Hoon Yim, Kyoung; Hi Park, Sang; Wook Jeon, Yong; Ho Bae, Jin; Soo Lee, Tae; Hwan Kim, Myoung; Jin Choi, Young

    2014-03-01

    The use of an esophageal stethoscope is a basic heart sounds monitoring procedure performed in patients under general anesthesia. As the size of the first heart sound can express the left ventricle function, its correlation with cardiac output should be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cardiac output (CO) on the first heart sound (S1) amplitude. Methods : Six male beagles were chosen. The S1 was obtained with the newly developed esophageal stethoscope system. CO was measured using NICOM, a non-invasive CO measuring device. Ephedrine and beta blockers were administered to the subjects to compare changes in figures, and the change from using an inhalation anesthetic was also compared. The S1 amplitude displayed positive correlation with the change rate of CO (r = 0.935, p < 0.001). The heart rate measured using the esophageal stethoscope and ECG showed considerably close figures through the Bland-Altman plot and showed a high positive correlation (r = 0.988, p < 0,001). In beagles, the amplitude of S1 had a significant correlation with changes in CO in a variety of situations.

  2. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-09-07

    To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann(®) Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant difference was seen

  3. Living in a ``stethoscope'': burrow-acoustics promote auditory specializations in subterranean rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simone; Burda, Hynek; Wegner, Regina E.; Dammann, Philip; Begall, Sabine; Kawalika, Mathias

    2007-02-01

    Subterranean mammals rely to a great extent on audition for communication and to be alerted to danger. The only hitherto published report on burrow acoustics revealed that in tunnels of blind mole-rats ( Spalax ehrenbergi), airborne sounds of 440 Hz propagated best whereas lower and higher frequencies were effectively attenuated. Morpho-functional analyses classify the ear of subterranean mammals as a low-sensitivity and low-frequency device. Concordantly, hearing is characterized by low sensitivity and a restricted frequency range tuned to low frequencies (0.5-4 kHz). Some authors considered the restricted hearing in subterranean mammals vestigial and degenerate due to under-stimulation. In contrast to this view stand a rich (mostly low-frequency) vocal repertoire and progressive structural specializations of the middle and inner ear. Thus, other authors considered these hearing characteristics adaptive. To test the hypothesis that acoustical environment in burrows of different species of subterranean mammals is similar, we measured sound attenuation in burrows of Fukomys mole-rats (formerly known as Cryptomys, cf. Kock et al. 2006) of two differently sized species at different locations in Zambia. We show that in these burrows, low-frequency sounds (200-800 Hz) are not only least attenuated but also their amplitude may be amplified like in a stethoscope (up to two times over 1 m). We suggest that hearing sensitivity has decreased during evolution of subterranean mammals to avoid over-stimulation of the ear in their natural environment.

  4. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components. (author)

  5. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Inst. Co. Ltd. (Japan)); Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki

    1982-08-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components.

  6. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection; Study with a nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.).

  7. Receiver operating characteristics of diagnostic efficacy of resting left ventricular performance (evaluating with a non-imaging ECG gated scintillation detector - nuclear stethoscope)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Reba, R.C.; Lindsay, J.

    1983-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of left ventricular performance at rest was applied to evaluate diagnostic utility of non-imaging nuclear detector (''Nuclear Stethoscope''), for screening patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-one patients without CAD and normal rest and stress radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) were used as a control group. Another 62 patients with abnormal left ventricular reserve and segmental wall motion abnormalities at rest were also studied. All 93 patients were studied with the Nuclear Stethoscope (30 minutes after conventional MUGA testing) both in beat-to-beat and gated equilibrium modes. ROC analysis showed that along with ejection fraction, stroke and end-diastolic volumes, evaluation of the left ventricular filling phase has a great potential for the identification of patients with a segmental wall motion abnormality and, therefore, significant CAD

  8. Estetoscópio digital como ferramenta inovadora no ensino da ausculta cardíaca Digital stethoscope as an innovative tool on the teaching of auscultatory skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tinoco Mesquita

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O exame físico cardiovascular, em particular a ausculta cardíaca, é uma das habilidades clínicas mais difíceis para os alunos durante seu treinamento médico. Estudos sugerem que o uso de tecnologias, como o estetoscópio digital, aumente a acurácia do exame clínico, entretanto, seu impacto no ensino da propedêutica da ausculta cardíaca em alunos de graduação de Medicina não é conhecido. O objetivo é demonstrar a utilidade do estetoscópio digital, em comparação com métodos tradicionais, como instrumento de ensino da ausculta cardíaca. Estudo de intervenção, longitudinal, controlado, unicêntrico e randomizado. Foram inscritos 38 alunos de medicina para um curso de semiologia cardiovascular com duração de oito semanas. Definiu-se um programa com aulas expositivas e à beira do leito nas enfermarias de Cardiologia. Nas aulas práticas, os alunos foram randomizados em dois grupos: 1 (n = 21 estetoscópio digital (Littmann® modelo 3200, 3M; e 2 (n = 17 estetoscópios convencionais. Foi realizada uma avaliação pré-treinamento, através de um teste utilizando o software Heart Sounds®, que foi repetida ao final do curso. As médias das avaliações foram comparadas pelo teste T pareado e não pareado. Observa-se que, ao final do curso, houve uma melhora significativamente maior no grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio digital (51,9% quando comparado ao grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio convencional (29,5%. Intervenções de curta duração para o ensino de semiologia cardíaca são capazes de contribuir de modo significativo para melhora da proficiência da identificação dos sons cardíacos. O uso do estetoscópio digital demonstrou ser um fator positivo no ensino dessas habilidades.Physical cardiovascular examination, particularly cardiac auscultation, is one of the most difficult clinical skills for students during their medical training. Studies suggest that the use of technologies such as digital stethoscope increase the

  9. The 200th anniversary of the stethoscope: Can this low-tech device survive in the high-tech 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Ivan; Vliegen, Hubert W; Bruschke, Albert V G

    2016-12-14

    In 1816, Laennec discovered that auscultation of the heart and lungs could effectively be performed by placing a hollow cylinder (initially made of a roll of paper) between the chest of the patient and the ear of the examiner. This was the first step in the development of the stethoscope, which was a breakthrough in the diagnosis and management of cardiac and pulmonary patients. Technical improvements of the stethoscope followed and in cardiac patients auscultation soon became a major diagnostic tool. In the second half of the 20th century, new powerful non-invasive diagnostic modalities were developed and the interest in auscultation declined. As a result, the auscultatory skills of students and physicians at all levels of training decreased to a disappointingly low level. We now must decide whether we should stimulate the use of and proficiency in auscultation or if we should accept the further decline and eventual abolishment of this component of the physical examination. Reviewing the literature and taking into consideration the setting in which the patients are presented, including the availability of advanced diagnostic facilities, we conclude that the time-honoured stethoscope, in spite of its limitations, still has potential as a patient-friendly, effective, and economical instrument in medical practice. However, new initiatives are required to train students, physicians and allied health professionals in cardiac auscultation to avoid misinterpretations that may harm the patients and generate extra costs. To be successful such programs will require wide support from the medical community. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed

  11. Beyond the Stethoscope

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peek into the daily vicissitudes of the lives of their people – family intrigues, religious rituals, superstition, love and marriage, the challenges of Western assimilation, and even murder. As a township GP who regularly made house calls and was routinely relied upon for counsel, PN inevitably became em broiled in numerous, ...

  12. Contaminação bacteriana de estetoscópios das unidades de pediatria em um hospital universitário Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes in pediatric units at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souza Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da contaminação, de estetoscópios utilizados em setores pediátricos de hospital e emergência, mostrou que 87% dos estetoscópios apresentaram diafragmas contaminados. O microrganismo mais freqüentemente isolado foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. A resistência aos antibióticos mostra que o estetoscópio deve ser considerado um importante veículo de bactérias resistentes aos antibióticos.Evaluation of the contamination of stethoscopes used in pediatric units of a hospital and emergency service showed that 87% of them presented contaminated diaphragms. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the microorganism most frequently isolated. The resistance to antibiotics indicates that stethoscopes should be considered to be an important vehicle for disseminating bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

  13. Improved cardiovascular diagnostic accuracy by pocket size imaging device in non-cardiologic outpatients: the NaUSiCa (Naples Ultrasound Stethoscope in Cardiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiattarella Pier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Miniaturization has evolved in the creation of a pocket-size imaging device which can be utilized as an ultrasound stethoscope. This study assessed the additional diagnostic power of pocket size device by both experts operators and trainees in comparison with physical examination and its appropriateness of use in comparison with standard echo machine in a non-cardiologic population. Three hundred four consecutive non cardiologic outpatients underwent a sequential assessment including physical examination, pocket size imaging device and standard Doppler-echo exam. Pocket size device was used by both expert operators and trainees (who received specific training before the beginning of the study. All the operators were requested to give only visual, qualitative insights on specific issues. All standard Doppler-echo exams were performed by expert operators. One hundred two pocket size device exams were performed by experts and two hundred two by trainees. The time duration of the pocket size device exam was 304 ± 117 sec. Diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities was made in 38.2% of cases by physical examination and in 69.7% of cases by physical examination + pocket size device (additional diagnostic power = 31.5%, p In conclusion, pocket size device showed a relevant additional diagnostic value in comparison with physical examination. Sensitivity and specificity were good in experts and suboptimal in trainees. Specificity was particularly influenced by the level of experience. Training programs are needed for pocket size device users.

  14. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds.

  15. Bedside ultrasonography (US), Echoscopy and US point of care as a new kind of stethoscope for Internal Medicine Departments: the training program of the Italian Internal Medicine Society (SIMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienti, Vincenzo; Di Giulio, Rosella; Cogliati, Chiara; Accogli, Esterita; Aluigi, Leonardo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, thanks to the development of miniaturized ultrasound devices, comparable to personal computers, tablets and even to smart phones, we have seen an increasing use of bedside ultrasound in internal medicine departments as a novel kind of ultrasound stethoscope. The clinical ultrasound-assisted approach has proved to be particularly useful in assessing patients with nodules of the neck, dyspnoea, abdominal pain, and with limb edema. In several cases, it has allowed a simple, rapid and precise diagnosis. Since 2005, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine and its Ultrasound Study Group has been holding a Summer School and training courses in ultrasound for residents in internal medicine. A national network of schools in bedside ultrasound was then organized for internal medicine specialists who want to learn this technique. Because bedside ultrasound is a user-dependent diagnostic method, it is important to define the limits and advantages of different new ultrasound devices, to classify them (i.e. Echoscopy and Point of Care Ultrasound), to establish appropriate different levels of competence and to ensure their specific training. In this review, we describe the point of view of the Italian Internal Medicine Society on these topics.

  16. Harrisburg highlights need for nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A team at the University of New South Wales has almost completed developing a data acquisition system for nuclear plant surveillance. It consists of a computer interfaced with a digital correlator, a Fourier transform unit and multi-channel analyser

  17. Statistics: The stethoscope of a thinking urologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S Sivanandam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding statistical terminology and the ability to appraise clinical research findings and statistical tests are critical to the practice of evidence-based medicine. Urologists require statistics in their toolbox of skills in order to successfully sift through increasingly complex studies and realize the drawbacks of statistical tests. Currently, the level of evidence in urology literature is low and the majority of research abstracts published for the American Urological Association (AUA meetings lag behind for full-text publication because of a lack of statistical reporting. Underlying these issues is a distinct deficiency in solid comprehension of statistics in the literature and a discomfort with the application of statistics for clinical decision-making. This review examines the plight of statistics in urology and investigates the reason behind the white-coat aversion to biostatistics. Resources such as evidence-based medicine websites, primers in statistics, and guidelines for statistical reporting exist for quick reference by urologists. Ultimately, educators should take charge of monitoring statistical knowledge among trainees by bolstering competency requirements and creating sustained opportunities for statistics and methodology exposure.

  18. Comprehensive clinical validation of the nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruana, M.; Jones, R.; Lahiri, A.; Brigden, G.; Rodrigues, E.; Dore, C.; Raftery, E.B.

    1986-10-01

    Five studies were conducted to examine the degree of variability to be expected during the use of the non-imaging nuclear probe (BIOS Inc.) under a variety of clinical conditions. Comparison of the ejection fraction (EF) readings between the nuclear probe and a gamma camera showed good agreement, with the nuclear probe tending to underestimate lower, and overestimate higher camera EF values. It is concluded that the portable, low cost nuclear probe produces accurate EF measurements when compared with the gamma camera.

  19. Harrisburg highlights need for nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    A team at the University of New South Wales has almost completed developing a data acquisition system for nuclear plant surveillance. It consists of a computer interfaced with a digital correlator, a Fourier transform unit and multi-channel analyser.

  20. Assessment of the Noise Immune Stethoscope in a Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    left pneumothorax without rib fracture or other injuries]; if condition was suspected but not found, then so state [e.g., normal...such as the ribs were not easily identifiable through tactile manipulation and took more time and gel. It became necessary to switch between

  1. The role of stethoscopes in the transmission of hospital infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... and Enterococcus spp. Of the 121 .... fungi: Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were also ... scopes with 70% alcohol or liquid soap, or the use of ... and non-fermenting Gram (-) Basil were detected on samples ...

  2. A comprehensive clinical validation of the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, M.; Jones, R.; Lahiri, A.; Brigden, G.; Rodrigues, E.; Dore, C.; Raftery, E.B.; Medical Research Council, Harrow

    1986-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to examine the degree of variability to be expected during the use of the non-imaging nuclear probe (BIOS Inc.) under a variety of clinical conditions. Comparison of the ejection fraction (EF) readings between the nuclear probe and a gamma camera showed good agreement, with the nuclear probe tending to underestimate lower, and overestimate higher camera EF values. It is concluded that the portable, low cost nuclear probe produces accurate EF measurements when compared with the gamma camera. (author)

  3. Further contribution to the development of nuclear stethoscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Nemeth, L.; Kantor, E.; Kiss, J.; Bocsa, Z.; Sziberth, P.; Karman, M.

    1991-01-01

    After the introduction of radiocardiography (RCG) function analysis, the method has gradually been improved by applying scintillation probes, semiconductor detectors and computer evaluation. Miniature semiconductor detectors were fixed onto the chest, the detection efficiency and energy resolution was clarified to further improve the RCG technique. Various semiconductor devices were tested and compared. The RCG was combined with Holter monitoring and ECG. Photodiode RCG was extended to ergometric measurements. These new improvements were evaluated. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 8 figs

  4. Laser Stethoscope for Use in Noisy Spacecraft Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Auscultation, or listening to internal sounds made by the body of a patient, is an important tool in medical diagnostics. Heart, lung, intestine, and circulatory...

  5. The role of stethoscopes in the transmission of hospital infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 out 90 (16.3%) had potential pathogens including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (5), methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (4), Escherichia coli (3), Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and Enterococcus spp. Of the 121 health-care persons, only 61 regularly cleaned their ...

  6. Stethoscope vs. ultrasound probe - which is more reliable in children with suspected pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrenski, Jovan; Petrović, Slobodanka; Balj-Barbir, Svetlana; Jokić, Radoica; Vilotijević-Dautović, Gordana

    2016-05-01

    To compare lung ultrasound (LUS) with auscultation findings in children with clinical suspicion of pneumonia. A prospective study including 95 patients (age: from 2 months to 17.5 years; mean age: 5.1 y, SD 4.5 y) with referral diagnosis of suspected pneumonia. In all patients LUS and auscultatory examinations were performed within an hour. These findings were compared separately in each hemithorax. The radiologist performing LUS was blinded to the patient's clinical information. Positive auscultatory findings included: crackles and/or abnormal breath sounds (decreased, asymmetric, absent, or bronchial). For LUS examinations a combined transthoracic - transabdominal approach was used. A pneumonia-positive LUS finding included subpleural consolidation with air-bronchogram, or an adjacent area of interstitial edema. For each subpleural consolidation the cranio-caudal (CC) diameter was measured, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the sizes of subpleural consolidations for positive and negative auscultatory findings were compared. The p-value between LUS and auscultation was calculated using McNemar's test. LUS and auscultation showed pneumonia-positive findings in 98 and 64 hemithoraces, i.e. in 67 and 45 patients respectively. In positive auscultatory findings the CI for CC diameters of subpleural consolidations ranged from 32.46 to 54.14 mm, and in negative auscultatory findings the CI was between 16.52 and 29.83 mm, which showed a statistically significant difference. McNemar's test showed a statistically significant difference between LUS and auscultation. LUS showed positive findings in more hemithoraces than auscultation in children with suspected pneumonia. A cranio-caudal size of subpleural consolidation of less than 30 mm significantly reduces the possibility of auscultatory detection. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. Longwall strata control and maintenance system - a stethoscope for longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.W.; Deb, D. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (US). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1999-10-01

    The Longwall Strata-Control and Maintenance System (LoSCo-MS) is a software and data-communication system developed at the University of Alabama. This system integrates real-time shield monitoring, data presentation, analysis and the forecasting of forthcoming events. The main objective of this system is to provide stability information on longwall panels, including excessive shield load, low setting pressure, leg leakage, poor shield performance and imminent maintenance problems. Analyses of various mining and geological parameters were also performed to determine past and present roof characteristics and to forecast roof loading patterns for the following mining cycles, the next periodic weighting, etc. A local coal mine in the Warrior Coal Basin has adopted this system to provide daily evaluation of ground stability and maintenance problems in their longwall panels. Two years of experience with this system is covered in this paper. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  8. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21 st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-first Century, modem methods ("omics," in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods, etc.) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella ma...

  9. Atomic force microscopy as nano-stethoscope to study living organisms, insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia

    2012-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a known method to study various surfaces. Here we report on the use of AFM to study surface oscillations (coming from the work of internal organs) of living organisms, like insects. As an example, ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5 -10 Hz). The used here AFM method allows collecting signal from the area as small as ˜100nm2 (0.0001μm2) with an example of noise level of (2±0.2)x10-3 nm r.m.s. at the range of frequencies >50Hz (potentially, up to a MHz). Application of this method to humans is discussed. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing of what could be called ``nanophysiology.''

  10. Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on…

  11. Stethoscope vs. ultrasound probe - which is more reliable in children with suspected pneumonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Lovrenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare lung ultrasound (LUS with auscultation findings in children with clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Patients and methods. A prospective study including 95 patients (age: from 2 months to 17.5 years; mean age: 5.1 y, SD 4.5 y with referral diagnosis of suspected pneumonia. In all patients LUS and auscultatory examinations were performed within an hour. These findings were compared separately in each hemithorax. The radiologist performing LUS was blinded to the patient’s clinical information. Positive auscultatory findings included: crackles and/or abnormal breath sounds (decreased, asymmetric, absent, or bronchial. For LUS examinations a combined transthoracic – transabdominal approach was used. A pneumonia-positive LUS finding included subpleural consolidation with air-bronchogram, or an adjacent area of interstitial edema. For each subpleural consolidation the cranio-caudal (CC diameter was measured, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of the sizes of subpleural consolidations for positive and negative auscultatory findings were compared. The p-value between LUS and auscultation was calculated using McNemar’s test. Results. LUS and auscultation showed pneumonia-positive findings in 98 and 64 hemithoraces, i.e. in 67 and 45 patients respectively. In positive auscultatory findings the CI for CC diameters of subpleural consolidations ranged from 32.46 to 54.14 mm, and in negative auscultatory findings the CI was between 16.52 and 29.83 mm, which showed a statistically significant difference. McNemar’s test showed a statistically significant difference between LUS and auscultation. Conclusions. LUS showed positive findings in more hemithoraces than auscultation in children with suspected pneumonia. A cranio-caudal size of subpleural consolidation of less than 30 mm significantly reduces the possibility of auscultatory detection.

  12. Nuclear stethoscope and myocard check-like computed method for loading experiments in the State Hospital for Cardiology, Balatonfuered, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Boeszoermenyi, E.; Nemeth, L.; Kellenyi, L.; Karman, M.; Ludvigh, K.; Erdelyi, K.; Hajduczki, I.; Kantor, E.

    1982-01-01

    The radio-cyclographic technique (RCG) by ECG-triggered coherent averaging has been elaborated firstly for the presentation of cyclical fluctuation of the radioactive indicator in the heart during the equilibrium period, later it was extended to other cardiac products, e.g. mechano-cardiography (M-CG), too. The stroke volume (SV) equivalence of the RCG's amplitude was verified first in Balatonfuered, by dye dilution comparative experiments (corr. coeff. 0.96 in the 40-75 ml/m 2 SV-index range). The pressure/volume paralellogram as expression of the momentary cardiac activity has been attempted from the right part of the heart by means of micro-catheterization and RCG, similarly was the RCG-volume and apex-CG 'pressure' loop processed; nowadays the derivation of the left ventricular systolic pressure pattern is attempted on the basis of RCG-volumetry. The ICA-70 multichannel analyser (KFKI) served for the A/D conversion analog curves, directly or from impulse-code modulated magnetic stores, in millisec time resolution. Apart from the averaging, the system can also be used for beat to beat analysis. The other devices are also Hungarian-made: a four-channel radiocirculograph of Videoton, a desk calculator of the EMG type 666/B with 8 K memory, different nuclear instruments of the Gamma Works and a MEDICOR universal ergometer type KE-21. The mathematical operations are: time interval histogram, smoothing of different cyclograms by Fourier processing giving also the accuracy of the fitting by corr. coeff. The program evaluates the time and velocity parameters, like PEP, LVET and their quotient in basal state and during bicycle ergometric load carried out in supine position, under influence of (cardiac) drugs. The program also serves for the volumetric control of the atrial diaanostic pacing and for arrhythmic analysis. RCG-measured SV-monitoring with simultaneous serum myoglobin level determination provides useful prognostic index (by their inverse relations) in the hyperacute state of AMI in the coronary care unit bedside. (author)

  13. Nuclear stethoscope and myocard check-like computed method for loading experiments in the State Hospital for Cardiology, Balatonfuered, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, M.; Boeszoermenyi, E.; Nemeth, L.; Kellenyi, L.; Karman, M.; Ludvigh, K.; Erdelyi, K.; Hajduczki, I.; Kantor, E. (Allami Szivkorhaz, Balatonfuered (Hungary))

    1982-05-01

    The radio-cyclographic technique (RCG) by ECG-triggered coherent averaging has been elaborated firstly for the presentation of cyclical fluctuation of the radioactive indicator in the heart during the equilibrium period. Later it was extended to other cardiac products, e.g. mechano-cardiography (M-CG). The stroke volume (SV) equivalence of the RCG's amplitude was verified first in Balatonfuered, by dye dilution comparative experiments (corr. coeff. 0.96 in the 40-75 ml/m/sup 2/ SV-index range). The pressure/volume paralellogram as expression of the momentary cardiac activity has been attempted from the right part of the heart by means of micro-catheterization and RCG, similarly was the RCG-volume and apex-CG 'pressure' loop processed; nowadays the derivation of the left ventricular systolic pressure pattern is attempted on the basis of RCG-volumetry. The ICA-70 multichannel analyser (KFKI) served for the A/D conversion analog curves, directly or from impulse-code modulated magnetic stores, in millisec time resolution. Apart from the averaging, the system can also be used for beat to beat analysis. The mathematical operations are: time interval histogram, smoothing of different cyclograms by Fourier processing giving also the accuracy of the fitting by corr. coeff. The program evaluates the time and velocity parameters, like PEP, LVET and their quotient in basal state and during bicycle ergometric load carried out in supine position, under influence of (cardiac) drugs. The program also serves for the volumetric control of the atrial diagnostic pacing and for arrhythmic analysis. RCG-measured SV-monitoring with simultaneous serum myoglobin level determination provides useful prognostic index (by their inverse relations) in the hyperacute state of AMI in the coronary care unit bedside.

  14. Myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing in patients with coronary heart diseases when selected for surgical management: nuclear stethoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitilev, S.B.; Mironova, M.A.; Gordeev, V.F.; Satrapinskij, V.Yu.; Badalyan, E.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    Studies of myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing (TECP) were carried out in 70 patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). All the patients were examined for central and intracardiac hemodynamics during TECP using nuclear stetoscope Bios (USA). The obtained data of central hemodynamics and myocardium contractibility make it possible to judge not only of pathological hemodynamics changes, as a CHD diagnostic factor, but of factors limiting reserve of cardiovascular system as well, depending on morphological heart changes

  15. The StethoDop: a Doppler stethoscope attachment for investigation of arterial and venous insufficiency of the lower extremities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.C. van de; Bredie, S.J.H.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Holewijn, S.; Thien, Th.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the StethoDop can serve as a valid and reproducible instrument for measuring the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and assessing venous reflux, even when used by inexperienced investigators, in comparison with the classic Doppler. METHODS:

  16. Mobile learning devices in the workplace: 'as much a part of the junior doctors' kit as a stethoscope'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca; Bullock, Alison; Lovatt, Joseph; Stacey, Mark

    2016-08-17

    Smartphones are ubiquitous and commonly used as a learning and information resource. They have potential to revolutionize medical education and medical practice. The iDoc project provides a medical textbook smartphone app to newly-qualified doctors working in Wales. The project was designed to assist doctors in their transition from medical school to workplace, a period associated with high levels of cognitive demand and stress. Newly qualified doctors submitted case reports (n = 293) which detail specific instances of how the textbook app was used. Case reports were submitted via a structured online form (using Bristol Online Surveys - BOS) which gave participants headings to elicit a description of: the setting/context; the problem/issue addressed; what happened; any obstacles involved; and their reflections on the event. Case reports were categorised by the purpose of use, and by elements of the quality improvement framework (IoM 2001). They were then analysed thematically to identify challenges of use. Analysis of the case reports revealed how smartphones are a viable tool to address clinical questions and support mobile learning. They contribute to novice doctors' provision of safe, effective, timely, efficient and patient-centred care. The case reports also revealed considerable challenges for doctors using mobile technology within the workplace. Participants reported concern that using a mobile phone in front of patients and staff might appear unprofessional. Mobile phones blur boundaries between the public and private, and the personal and professional. In contrast to using a mobile as a communication device, using a smartphone as an information resource in the workplace requires different rituals. Uncertain etiquette of mobile use may reduce the capacity of smartphone technology to improve the learning experience of newly qualified doctors.

  17. Nuclear stethoscope and myocard check-like computed method for loading experiments in the State Hospital for Cardiology, Balatonfuered, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, M; Boeszoermenyi, E; Nemeth, L; Kellenyi, L; Karman, M; Ludvigh, K; Erdelyi, K; Hajduczki, I; Kantor, E [Allami Szivkorhaz, Balatonfuered (Hungary)

    1982-05-01

    The radio-cyclographic technique (RCG) by ECG-triggered coherent averaging has been elaborated firstly for the presentation of cyclical fluctuation of the radioactive indicator in the heart during the equilibrium period. Later it was extended to other cardiac products, e.g. mechano-cardiography (M-CG). The stroke volume (SV) equivalence of the RCG's amplitude was verified first in Balatonfuered, by dye dilution comparative experiments (corr. coeff. 0.96 in the 40-75 ml/m/sup 2/ SV-index range). The pressure/volume paralellogram as expression of the momentary cardiac activity has been attempted from the right part of the heart by means of micro-catheterization and RCG, similarly was the RCG-volume and apex-CG 'pressure' loop processed; nowadays the derivation of the left ventricular systolic pressure pattern is attempted on the basis of RCG-volumetry. The ICA-70 multichannel analyser (KFKI) served for the A/D conversion analog curves, directly or from impulse-code modulated magnetic stores, in millisec time resolution. Apart from the averaging, the system can also be used for beat to beat analysis. The mathematical operations are: time interval histogram, smoothing of different cyclograms by Fourier processing giving also the accuracy of the fitting by corr. coeff. The program evaluates the time and velocity parameters, like PEP, LVET and their quotient in basal state and during bicycle ergometric load carried out in supine position, under influence of (cardiac) drugs. The program also serves for the volumetric control of the atrial diagnostic pacing and for arrhythmic analysis. RCG-measured SV-monitoring with simultaneous serum myoglobin level determination provides useful prognostic index (by their inverse relations) in the hyperacute state of AMI in the coronary care unit bedside.

  18. A stethoscope with wavelet separation of cardiac and respiratory sounds for real time telemedicine implemented on field-programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Víctor M.; Muñoz, Nestor A.; Salazar, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation is one of the most utilized physical examination procedures for listening to lung, heart and intestinal sounds during routine consults and emergencies. Heart and lung sounds overlap in the thorax. An algorithm was used to separate them based on the discrete wavelet transform with multi-resolution analysis, which decomposes the signal into approximations and details. The algorithm was implemented in software and in hardware to achieve real-time signal separation. The heart signal was found in detail eight and the lung signal in approximation six. The hardware was used to separate the signals with a delay of 256 ms. Sending wavelet decomposition data - instead of the separated full signa - allows telemedicine applications to function in real time over low-bandwidth communication channels.

  19. EFFECT OF ISRADIPINE AND NIFEDIPINE ON DIASTOLIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT-VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION DUE TO CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE - A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, NUCLEAR, STETHOSCOPE STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENTOREN, EW; DEVRIES, RJM; PORTEGIES, MCM; BLANKSMA, PK; VANGILST, WH; HILLEGE, HJ; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; LIE, KI

    To elucidate the effect of isradipine and nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, each drug was given intravenously (i.v.) in equihypotensive doses to 10 patients accepted for coronary arteriography for stable angina pectoris. All 20 patients had LV ejection fraction

  20. A Labor and Delivery Patient Classification System Based on Direct Nursing Care Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    equipment at bedside, position temperature probe or thermometer, assess respiratory rate, take pulse, place cuff around extremity, position stethoscope ...at bedside, assess respiratory rate, take pulse, place cuff around extremity, position stethoscope , measure blood pressure, remove cuff, record...International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). A stratified random sample of the various types of delivery

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    collected using moistened sterile cotton swab from the ear pieces and diaphragms of each stethoscope and processed following standard microbiological techniques. In all, 26 stethoscopes were studied. 46.2% (12) of the diaphragms cultured yielded growth of bacteria while only 11.5% (3) of the ear pieces cultured yielded ...

  2. A simulator-based study of in-flight auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Libert, Nicolas; Clapson, Patrick; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Jost, Daniel; Tazarourte, Karim; Astaud, Cécil-Emmanuel; Debien, Bruno; Auroy, Yves

    2014-04-01

    The use of a stethoscope is essential to the delivery of continuous, supportive en route care during aeromedical evacuations. We compared the capability of 2 stethoscopes (electronic, Litmann 3000; conventional, Litmann Cardiology III) at detecting pathologic heart and lung sounds, aboard a C135, a medical transport aircraft. Sounds were mimicked using a mannequin-based simulator SimMan. Five practitioners examined the mannequin during a fly, with a variety of abnormalities as follows: crackles, wheezing, right and left lung silence, as well as systolic, diastolic, and Austin-Flint murmur. The comparison for diagnosis assessed (correct or wrong) between using the electronic and conventional stethoscopes were performed as a McNemar test. A total of 70 evaluations were performed. For cardiac sounds, diagnosis was right in 0/15 and 4/15 auscultations, respectively, with conventional and electronic stethoscopes (McNemar test, P = 0.13). For lung sounds, right diagnosis was found with conventional stethoscope in 10/20 auscultations versus 18/20 with electronic stethoscope (P = 0.013). Flight practitioners involved in aeromedical evacuation on C135 plane are more able to practice lung auscultation on a mannequin with this amplified stethoscope than with the traditional one. No benefit was found for heart sounds.

  3. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your heart with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation, which means the study of heart sounds. Doctors ... finds that your disease is more serious.) Tags: auscultation , blood pressure , heart valve , x-ray Article Info ...

  4. Utility of physical examination and comparison to echocardiography for cardiac diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Patel

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Careful clinical auscultation using a stethoscope remains a valuable tool for cardiac diagnosis. Decision on initial diagnosis and management of valvular and congenital heart diseases should be based on clinical examination and integrating such information with echocardiography as required.

  5. Dr. Michael DeBakey "is a magician of the heart…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... structure of the heart's chambers and vessels. — 1733 Stephen Hales, an English clergyman and scientist, first measures blood pressure. — 1816 Rene T. H. Laennec, a French physician, invents the stethoscope. — 1903 ...

  6. The United States Army Medical Department Journal, April - June 2011. Prehospital combat casualty care; The starting point of battlefield survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    from a porcine model of acute respiratory diseases secondary to pulmonary contusion. TRANSCUTANEOUS CO2 Are more accurate methods of estimating...combat medic diagnoses a tension pneumothorax from observing the patient and, if feasible, by auscultation with a stethoscope . Dyspnea, distended...Jugular veins, hypotension, and decreased unilateral breath sounds are the major findings for the diagnosis. The stethoscope was invented in 1816 by

  7. A Data Mining Approach for Acoustic Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    technology offered new methods to diagnose patients with lung diseases , the use of a stethoscope for auscultation waned in popularity and methods such as...lung sounds that were outside the normal range. The investigators found that the sensitivity for detection of respiratory disease rose from 71% to... diseases which can be costly and harmful to the patient because of over medicating. The “smart” stethoscope will help resolve some of these

  8. Tele-auscultation support system with mixed reality navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kenta; Uchida, Yusuke; Kan, Tsukasa; Minami, Maya; Naito, Chisako; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Hideya; Ando, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Kume, Naoto; Okamoto, Kazuya; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an information support system for tele-auscultation. In auscultation, a doctor requires to understand condition of applying a stethoscope, in addition to auscultatory sounds. The proposed system includes intuitive navigation system of stethoscope operation, in addition to conventional audio streaming system of auscultatory sounds and conventional video conferencing system for telecommunication. Mixed reality technology is applied for intuitive navigation of the stethoscope. Information, such as position, contact condition and breath, is overlaid on a view of the patient's chest. The contact condition of the stethoscope is measured by e-textile contact sensors. The breath is measured by a band type breath sensor. In a simulated tele-auscultation experiment, the stethoscope with the contact sensors and the breath sensor were evaluated. The results show that the presentation of the contact condition was not understandable enough for navigating the stethoscope handling. The time series of the breath phases was usable for the remote doctor to understand the breath condition of the patient.

  9. Validity and reliability of acoustic analysis of respiratory sounds in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, H; Lancaster, G; Solis, A; Majumdar, A; Gupta, R; Smyth, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the validity and reliability of computerised acoustic analysis in the detection of abnormal respiratory noises in infants. Methods: Blinded, prospective comparison of acoustic analysis with stethoscope examination. Validity and reliability of acoustic analysis were assessed by calculating the degree of observer agreement using the κ statistic with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: 102 infants under 18 months were recruited. Convergent validity for agreement between stethoscope examination and acoustic analysis was poor for wheeze (κ = 0.07 (95% CI, –0.13 to 0.26)) and rattles (κ = 0.11 (–0.05 to 0.27)) and fair for crackles (κ = 0.36 (0.18 to 0.54)). Both the stethoscope and acoustic analysis distinguished well between sounds (discriminant validity). Agreement between observers for the presence of wheeze was poor for both stethoscope examination and acoustic analysis. Agreement for rattles was moderate for the stethoscope but poor for acoustic analysis. Agreement for crackles was moderate using both techniques. Within-observer reliability for all sounds using acoustic analysis was moderate to good. Conclusions: The stethoscope is unreliable for assessing respiratory sounds in infants. This has important implications for its use as a diagnostic tool for lung disorders in infants, and confirms that it cannot be used as a gold standard. Because of the unreliability of the stethoscope, the validity of acoustic analysis could not be demonstrated, although it could discriminate between sounds well and showed good within-observer reliability. For acoustic analysis, targeted training and the development of computerised pattern recognition systems may improve reliability so that it can be used in clinical practice. PMID:15499065

  10. Assessment of chest impedance in relation to phonocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Niels Henrik; Møller, Henrik; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    the surface of the skin to the transducer. If the impedance of the skin is known, it may be possible to optimize the transducer to achieve an improved signal for a certain frequency range, while attenuating disturbing noise. Further, from a classical stethoscope it is known, that the sound picked up...... by the stethoscope can be influenced by changing the pressure on the chest piece of the stethoscope. A high pressure will stretch the skin similar to a drum skin, and attenuate lower frequencies, while lighter pressure will broaden the frequency range. By using an impedance tube (also known as standing wave tube......), it is possible to measure the impedance of the surface of the skin and at the same time investigate the influence of different pressures and diameters of a transducer. The impedance tube is made specifically with the purpose of measuring chest impedances in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. An MLS...

  11. [Gnathosonics study of the occlusal stability of orthodontic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruo-Ping; Tyson, Kenneth W

    2008-02-18

    To analysis the stability of the occlusion before and after the orthodontic treatment by gnathosonics; To evaluate the reliability of the stethoscope method by comparing the subjective(stethoscopy) and objective(digital occlusal sound recording) methods of checking the occlusal sound. Sixty-four new patients with malocclusion were selected as the before treatment group, these patients were not subject to any previous orthodontic treatment, facial surgery or injury; the treatment complete group included 15 patients who were just debonded the fixed appliance. Both stethoscope and digital occlusal sound recording were used to evaluate the occlusal sound. The occlusal stability before and after orthodontic treatment was compared depending on the results from the objective examination. The stability of the occlusion between different types of malocclusion before treatment was compared also. The veracity and reliability of the stethoscope method were analysis using the objective method as the golden standard. (1) 43.75%(28/64) of the 64 new patients showed unstable occlusal sound. ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the unstable rates in different type of malocclusion. (2) 40% (6/15) of the 15 treatment complete patients had unstable occlusions. (3) There were no statistically significant differences between the unstable rate pre- and post-treatment. (4) The veracity of the stethoscopes was 81.01% (64/79). (5) Kappa test showed that the stethoscopes and the digital recording method were consistent; the Kappa value was 0.488, Pocclusion rate between the two groups, and between the different types of malocclusion before treatment. (2) Using stethoscopes method to check the occlusal sound is reliable. The veracity could be improved significantly with increased experiences.

  12. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  13. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  14. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 29. Competency Curriculum for Advanced General Duty Corpsman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    pulse rate and respiratory rate (Conditions) Without assistance; using a sphygmomanometer, thermometer, stethoscope and watch (Criteria) Accuracy in...60 1. Preliminary Diagnosis of Disease or Other Presenting Medical Condition . . . . . . . . . 61 2. Initial Treatment of Disease or Other...Venereal Disease Interviewing. .. ........ . 94 4. Venereal Disease Reporting ... ......... . 95 5. Investigation of Foodborne or Waterborne Disease

  15. FT. Sam 91 Whiskey Combat Medic Medical Simulation Training Quantitative Integration Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    progressive respiratory distress who requires needle decompression. Necessary materials and equipment: stethoscope , large bore needle (10 to 14 gauge...of the benchmark. The clinical significance of this finding is that the risk of respiratory insufficiency and cardiovascular collapse increase as...trainee access to care  Conducted inspections of living/dining facilities to address potential communicable disease processes  Managed clinic

  16. Phonocardiography with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2017-01-01

    When a stethoscope is placed on the chest over the heart, sounds coming from the heart can be directly heard. These sound vibrations can be captured through a microphone and the electrical signals from the transducer can be processed and plotted in a phonocardiogram. Students can easily use a microphone and smartphone to capture and analyse…

  17. A randomised, simulated study assessing auscultation of heart rate at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogdt, Kevin G. J. A.; Morrison, Allison C.; Wood, Fiona E.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Wyllie, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate is a primary clinical indicator directing newborn resuscitation. The time taken to assess the heart rate by auscultation in relation to accuracy during newborn resuscitation is not known. To assess both the accuracy and time taken to assess heart rate by stethoscope in simulated

  18. Portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiev, Rustam; Glazova, Anna; Olyinik, Valery; Makarenkova, Anastasiia; Makarenkov, Anatolii; Rakhimov, Abdulvosid; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    A portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis has been developed, including the original electronic stethoscope coupled with mobile devices and special algorithms for the automated analysis of pulmonary sound signals. It's planned that the developed system will be used for monitoring of health status of patients with various pulmonary diseases.

  19. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were process...

  20. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine [fr

  1. Nuclear medical determination of left ventricular diastolic function in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.; Laesser, W.K.; Kullich, W.; Stoiberer, I.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 64 patients with coronary heart disease, the left ventricular diastolic function was determined by means of a new nuclear medical method (nuclear stethoscope). The investigations revealed an abnormal diastolic filling in 85.9% of the cases on the basis of the parameters peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate as manifestation of a disturbed ventricular function

  2. Medicinstuderende har udbytte af praktisk kursus i klinisk ultralydsundersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessmann, Ebbe Lahn; Bitsch, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning (US) is a new universal medical tool that may be compared to the stethoscope. Both are highly operator-dependent examinations used for screening, and both should be followed by more conclusive examinations. Clinical ultrasound can be seen as an extension of the clinical...

  3. Effect of rib-cage structure on acoustic chest impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Niels Henrik; Møller, Henrik; Hansen, John

    2011-01-01

    When a stethoscope is placed on the surface of the chest, the coupler picks up sound from heart and lungs transmitted through the tissues of the ribcage and from the surface of the skin. If the acoustic impedance of the chest surface is known, it is possible to optimize the coupler for picking up...

  4. Gamma cardio 82. Prospects of cardiac radioisotopic investigation. Perspectives de l'exploration radio-isotopique cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine.

  5. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  6. prevalence of hypertension and associated factors in bedele town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... and its risk factors among adults in Bedele Town, South-west Ethiopia. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional survey was ... Measurements of their blood pressure, body weight, height, and waist ... prevalence in urban areas, its frequent under- ... sphygmomanometer and stethoscope after the.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    termine the risk factors for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). Information ... It is more common in nulliparous than in multipa- ... cental dysfunction, is the measurement, in the ma- ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Ashanti Region of Ghana between November, 2006 ... a mercury sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope.

  8. Comparison of Obesity, Overweight and Elevated Blood Pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight .... a systematic sampling technique after randomly selecting .... The bell of the stethoscope was then applied ... Statistical analysis .... 5: Correlation of mean SBP and DBP with age, weight and height in bivariate .... MDBP in the multivariate analysis.

  9. Reframing the Field of Gender and Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim; Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Heggen, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how male students learn to practice nursing and the role of technology in their training process. The study is inspired by Bruno Latour's understanding of social interaction as an interplay between humans and technology. The students' use of the washcloth and the stethoscope, two significant nursing tools, is…

  10. Ethics in health care: healthcare fraud

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethics CPD Supplement: Ethics in health care: Healthcare Fraud. S10. Vol 56 No 1 Supplement 1. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Introduction. Vintage images are easily found depicting a virtuous doctor with a look of honesty and compassion on his or her face bending over a patient, stethoscope in hand, ready to perform a clinical ...

  11. Reference values for respiratory rate in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, F; Castagneto, M; Gagliardi, L; Leo, G; Pellegatta, A; Porta, N; Razon, S; Braga, M

    1994-09-01

    Raised respiratory rate is a useful sign to diagnose lower respiratory infections in childhood. However, the normal range for respiratory rate has not been defined in a proper, large sample. To assess the respiratory rate in a large number of infants and young children in order to construct percentile curves by age; to determine the repeatability to the assessment using a stethoscope and compare it with observation. Respiratory rate was recorded for 1 minute with a stethoscope in 618 infants and children, aged 15 days to 3 years old, without respiratory infections or any other severe disease when awake and calm and when asleep. In 50 subjects we compared respiratory rate taken 30 to 60 minutes apart to assess repeatability, and in 50 others we compared simultaneous counts obtained by stethoscope versus observation. Repeatability was good as the standard deviation of differences was 2.5 breaths/minute in awake and 1.7 breaths/minute in asleep children. Respiratory rate obtained with a stethoscope was systematically higher than that obtained by observation (mean difference 2.6 breaths/minute in awake and 1.8 breaths/minute in asleep children; P = .015 and P respiratory rate with age was seen for both states, and it was faster in the first few months of life when also a greater dispersion of values was observed. A second degree polynomial curve accurately fitted the data. Reference percentile values were developed from these data. The repeatability of respiratory rate measured with a stethoscope was good. Percentile curves would be particularly helpful in the first months of life when the decline in respiratory rate is very rapid and prevents to use cut off values for defining "normality."

  12. Inspection of the nasopharynx prior to fiberoptic-guided nasotracheal intubation reduces the risk epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min A; Song, Jaegyok; Kim, Seokkon; Ji, Seong-Mi; Bae, Jeongho

    2016-08-01

    Various complications may occur during nasotracheal intubation. This may include epistaxis and damage to the nasopharyngeal airway. We tested the hypothesis that the use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB)-guided intubation is superior to endotracheal tube (ETT) obturated with an inflated esophageal stethoscope. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n=22 each): either an FOB-guided intubation group or ETT obturated with an inflated esophageal stethoscope group. After the induction of general anesthesia, patients in the FOB group received an FOB inspection through the nostril without advancement of ETT. Then, after confirming the placement of the bronchoscope tip in the trachea, the lubricated ETT was advanced via the nostril to the trachea along the bronchoscope. In the obturated ETT insertion group, the proximal opening of the ETT was blunted with an inflated esophageal stethoscope. The ETT was inserted into the selected nostril and advanced blindly into the posterior oropharynx. Then, the esophageal stethoscope was removed and tracheal intubation was performed with the bronchoscope. The number of attempts for successful tracheal intubation, the degree of difficulty during insertion, and bleeding during bronchoscopy were recorded. Another anesthesiologist, blinded to the intubation method, estimated the severity of epistaxis 5minutes after the intubation and postoperative complications. The FOB group had significantly less epistaxis during bronchoscopy, better navigability, and fewer intubation attempts and redirections. Fiberoptic-guided nasotracheal intubation was associated with less epistaxis. It also showed better navigability and less redirection rate. Therefore, FOB as an intubation guide is superior to ETT with an inflated esophageal stethoscope when intubating a patient via the nasotracheal route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustics based assessment of respiratory diseases using GMM classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, P; Druzgalski, C; Morelos, R L; Gonzalez, O H; Vidales, J

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present a method utilizing lung sounds for a quantitative assessment of patient health as it relates to respiratory disorders. In order to accomplish this, applicable traditional techniques within the speech processing domain were utilized to evaluate lung sounds obtained with a digital stethoscope. Traditional methods utilized in the evaluation of asthma involve auscultation and spirometry, but utilization of more sensitive electronic stethoscopes, which are currently available, and application of quantitative signal analysis methods offer opportunities of improved diagnosis. In particular we propose an acoustic evaluation methodology based on the Gaussian Mixed Models (GMM) which should assist in broader analysis, identification, and diagnosis of asthma based on the frequency domain analysis of wheezing and crackles.

  14. In defence of auscultation: a glorious future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Reid

    2017-01-01

    Auscultation of the heart using a simple stethoscope continues to be a central aspect of the cardiovascular examination despite declining proficiency and availability of competing technologies such as hand-held ultrasound. In the ears and mind of a trained cardiologist, heart sounds can provide important information to help screen for certain diseases such as valvar lesions and many congenital defects. Using emerging technology, auscultation is poised to undergo a transformation that will simultaneously improve the teaching and evaluation of this important clinical skill and create a new generation of smart stethoscopes, capable of assisting the clinician in quickly and confidently screening for heart disease. These developments have important implications for global health, screening of athletes and recognition of congenital heart disease. PMID:28243316

  15. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  17. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the EMEDS Specialty Care Augmentation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    0.20 $10.74 0.26 0.20 $10.74 A 6515013146694 STETHOSCOPE LITTMAN CLASSIC II 28IN EA 2 2 1.72 0.50 $98.82 1.72 0.50 $98.82 A 6520012650108 STOOL DENTAL ...NEC 1 533.9 PEPTIC ULCER NOS 2 5 STAPH FOOD POISONING 4 592.9 URINARY CALCULUS NOS 3 PATIENT TOTAL 320 EMEDS Specialty Care

  18. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    managing childhood illness, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), pneumonia, and diarrhea, as well as maternal and newborn care. Nearly 20,000 IDPs have...More than 100 participants from the Kirkuk Veterinary Syndicate will receive new textbooks, clinical manuals, stethoscopes , thermometers, obstetrics...The PRT reported this quarter that the province’s date palms are threatened by disease and insect infestation because of a lack of insecticides

  19. The Impact of Experience, Exposure and Support on Emergency Worker Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-26

    rescue workers reported that they experienced musculoskeletal, respiratory , gastrointestinal, and neurological problems, although only 1 7% reported... stethoscope were used to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Following each blood pressure reading, heart rate was taken in 15 second...Ingraham, L . H. (1989). The impac t of a milicary air d i saster on che health of assistance workers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 177

  20. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 8, Edition 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    need you to submit articles that deal with trauma, orthopedic injuries, infectious disease processes, and/or environment and wilderness medicine...is not concerning if the dog is otherwise alert with a patent airway. As with humans, be careful of opioid use if the dog has respiratory compromise...about putting my stethoscope back in my bag, just to hear heart sounds for counting a pulse manually. This may also aid in confirming death. ISSUE

  1. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    patients with coronary artery disease routinely have continuous LV pressures recorded, applying the nuclear stethoscope concurrently will allow...research project. 73-3 I. INTRODUCTION: Bone defects can result from removal of bone from donor sites, diseased bone, excision of tumors, pathologic...large body of data which has clearly documented the existence of a " respiratory burst" of metabolic activity associated with phagocytosis El]. The

  2. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report FY 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    arterial blood gases, respiratory rate, daily chest roentgenograms), cardiovascular (blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output measured...MONITORING TECHNIQUES A. CIRCULATION 1i. Precordial and/or esophageal stethoscope 2. Peripheral pulse 3. Blood pressure. Direct arterial lines have been...may also occur in patients with no coexisting inhalation injury or preexisting cardiovascular disease when edema in the burn wound is being rapidly

  3. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro

    1983-08-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500/sup 0/C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others.

  4. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500 0 C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  5. Automated signal quality assessment of mobile phone-recorded heart sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David B; Brennan, Thomas; Ntusi, Ntobeko; Abdelrahman, Hassan Y; Zühlke, Liesl J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifford, Gari D

    Mobile phones, due to their audio processing capabilities, have the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of heart disease through automated auscultation. However, such a platform is likely to be used by non-experts, and hence, it is essential that such a device is able to automatically differentiate poor quality from diagnostically useful recordings since non-experts are more likely to make poor-quality recordings. This paper investigates the automated signal quality assessment of heart sound recordings performed using both mobile phone-based and commercial medical-grade electronic stethoscopes. The recordings, each 60 s long, were taken from 151 random adult individuals with varying diagnoses referred to a cardiac clinic and were professionally annotated by five experts. A mean voting procedure was used to compute a final quality label for each recording. Nine signal quality indices were defined and calculated for each recording. A logistic regression model for classifying binary quality was then trained and tested. The inter-rater agreement level for the stethoscope and mobile phone recordings was measured using Conger's kappa for multiclass sets and found to be 0.24 and 0.54, respectively. One-third of all the mobile phone-recorded phonocardiogram (PCG) signals were found to be of sufficient quality for analysis. The classifier was able to distinguish good- and poor-quality mobile phone recordings with 82.2% accuracy, and those made with the electronic stethoscope with an accuracy of 86.5%. We conclude that our classification approach provides a mechanism for substantially improving auscultation recordings by non-experts. This work is the first systematic evaluation of a PCG signal quality classification algorithm (using a separate test dataset) and assessment of the quality of PCG recordings captured by non-experts, using both a medical-grade digital stethoscope and a mobile phone.

  6. Establishing predictors for successfully planned endotracheal extubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Weng, Shih-Feng; Sung, Mei-I; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish predictors for successfully planned extubation, which can be followed by medical personnel. The patients who were admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital and met the following criteria between January 2005 and December 2014 were collected retrospectively: intubation > 48 hours; and candidate for extubation. The patient characteristics, including disease severity, rapid shallow breath index (RSBI), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), cuff leak test (CLT) before extubation, and outcome, were recorded. The CLT was classified as 2+ with audible flow without a stethoscope, 1+ with audible flow using a stethoscope, and negative (N) with no audible flow, even with a stethoscope. Failure to extubate was defined as reintubation within 48 hours. In total, 6583 patients were enrolled and 403 patients (6.1%) had extubation failures. Male patients dominated the patient cohort (4261 [64.7%]). The mean age was 64.5±16.3 years. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 11.3%. The extubation failure rate for females was greater than males (7.7% vs 5.3%, P respiratory capacity, was developed to better predict extubation success.

  7. Subcutaneous emphysema, a different way to diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José da Costa Medeiros

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a clinical condition that occurs when air gets into soft tissues under the skin. This can occur in any part of the body depending on the type of pathology. The most common site is under the skin that covers the chest wall or neck. It is characterized by painless swelling of tissues. The classic clinical sign is a crackling sensation upon touch, resembling that of touching a sponge beneath your fingers. Objective: To describe a new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema. Method: Our finding was a matter of serendipity while inspecting a patient with subcutaneous emphysema using a stethoscope. Instead only hearing the patient's chest, the stethoscope was gently pressed against the skin with SE and so we were able to detect a different sound. Results: This new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema consists in pressing the diaphragm part of stethoscope against the patient's skin where SE is supposed to be. Thus, we are able to hear a sound of small bubbles bursting. Crackle noise has an acoustic emission energy that varies between 750-1,200 Hz, considered high frequency. Conclusion: Although currently the use of imaging methods is widespread worldwide, we would like to strengthen the value of clinical examination. Auscultation is an essential diagnostic method that has become underestimated with the advances of healthcare and medicine as a whole. We therefore propose a different approach to diagnose SE.

  8. Beat-to-beat evaluation of left ventricular ejection in cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional multi-gated cardiac blood pool studies suffer from two kinds of superimpositions: the spatial overlapping of various heart chambers and the temporal superimposition of a large number of cardiac cycles. The first problem can be partially solved by first pass techniques or by emission tomography. For the second one, which is specially critical arrhythmias, the single probe device (''nuclear stethoscope'') represents an original solution. Patients with normal cardiac rythm and patients presenting various kinds of cardiac rythm alterations were examined using a commercial ''nuclear stethoscope''. Some characteristic results achieved in these cases, were presented. For blood pool labeling, 20 mCi of 99mTc albumin was injected. The single probe detector was then positioned over the left ventricular area. The beat-to-beat left ventricular activity curve was then recorded for several minutes on paper in the same time as the E.C.G. signal. In cases with irregular cardiac rythm, the multigated techniques yield an average value of left ventricular ejection. Due to the relatively constant duration of systole, the superimposition of cycles may be valid during contration: differences mainly appear during diastole. But, as it could be demonstrated using the ''nuclear stethoscope'', individual cycles can show a large variability of ejection and average ejection fraction is only a very partial aspect of the real cardiac function

  9. Segmentation of heart sound recordings by a duration-dependent hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S E; Graff, C; Toft, E; Struijk, J J; Holst-Hansen, C

    2010-01-01

    Digital stethoscopes offer new opportunities for computerized analysis of heart sounds. Segmentation of heart sound recordings into periods related to the first and second heart sound (S1 and S2) is fundamental in the analysis process. However, segmentation of heart sounds recorded with handheld stethoscopes in clinical environments is often complicated by background noise. A duration-dependent hidden Markov model (DHMM) is proposed for robust segmentation of heart sounds. The DHMM identifies the most likely sequence of physiological heart sounds, based on duration of the events, the amplitude of the signal envelope and a predefined model structure. The DHMM model was developed and tested with heart sounds recorded bedside with a commercially available handheld stethoscope from a population of patients referred for coronary arterioangiography. The DHMM identified 890 S1 and S2 sounds out of 901 which corresponds to 98.8% (CI: 97.8–99.3%) sensitivity in 73 test patients and 13 misplaced sounds out of 903 identified sounds which corresponds to 98.6% (CI: 97.6–99.1%) positive predictivity. These results indicate that the DHMM is an appropriate model of the heart cycle and suitable for segmentation of clinically recorded heart sounds

  10. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsing Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician’s subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications.

  11. Clinical Examination Component of Telemedicine, Telehealth, mHealth, and Connected Health Medical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ronald S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Doarn, Charles R

    2018-05-01

    Telemedicine and telehealth are the practices of medicine at a distance. Performing the equivalent of a complete clinical examination by telemedicine would be unusual. However, components of a more traditional clinical examination are part of the telemedicine workup for specific conditions. Telemedicine clinical examinations are facilitated, and enhanced, through the integration of a class of medical devices referred to as telemedicine peripherals (eg, electronic stethoscopes, tele-ophthalmoscopes, video-otoscopes, and so forth). Direct-to-consumer telehealth is a rapidly expanding segment of the health care service industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention, not just treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G L; Hilling, L

    1998-03-01

    A tragic burden of disease, disability, and death has resulted from smoking. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation is not only in treatment and rehabilitation of lung disease but in the prevention of lung disease. The skills of the pulmonary rehabilitation specialist should be used in the earlier detection and prevention of lung disease through primary and secondary prevention. The spirometer must gain acceptance in the medical community as the early tool to evaluate lung health, not the chest radiograph or the stethoscope. The lung age formula and sputum pap smears are just a few of the evaluation tools used to detect and motivate susceptible individuals. Prevention is the key to enhancing lung health.

  13. Cemaran Staphylococcus aureus dan Pseudomonas aerogenosa Pada Stetoskop dirumah Sakit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leka lutpiatina

    2017-10-01

    The result of the research was found contamination of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerogenosa on steteskop. The site home condition of the research data was 66.7% cleaned daily, the storage method was placed on the table 70% and the duration of using the set home more than 1 year as much as 70%. The conclusion of stethoscope at Banjarbaru Hospital was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus by 70% and Pseudomonas aerogenosa by 17%. The suggestion of research can be continued by knowing the existence of Staphylococcus aureus resistant antibiotic and Pseudomonas aerogenous antibiotic resistant at steteskop at Hospital.

  14. Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as a Stridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched, whining breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or larynx that is usually heard in children. We describe an unusual case of an 81-year-old man brought to our emergency department with sudden onset of dyspnea and shortness of breath. Stridor could be heard without a stethoscope. We found a huge mass over the left upper chest on chest radiography, suggesting an aortic aneurysm. We believed that these symptoms were caused by a huge thoracic aortic aneurysm with trachea/bronchi compression. Chest computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis.

  15. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  16. Significance of blood-pool scintigraphy and echocardiography in the investigation of left heart ventricle. Stellung von Herzbinnenraumszintigraphie (HBR) und Echokardiographie (Echo) bei der Untersuchung des linken Ventrikels (LV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, L.; Neumann, G.; Koegler, A.; Wuensche, A.; Schneider, G. (Leipzig Univ., Klinik fuer Radiologie (Germany)); Krosse, B.; Rother, T.; Loebe, M.; Otto, J. (Leipzig Univ., Klinik fuer Innere Medizin (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection (LVEF) was assessed by both radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography. The correlation coefficient of 0.74 revealed a just good agreement. It was better in the range of normal than of pathological values. The analysis of regional wall motion performed by echocardiography was not as reliable as by radionuclide ventriculography. The main advantage of echocardiography is its good spatial resolution. Its domain is the diagnostics of pathomorphological changes including valvular disorders. Advantages of radionuclide ventriculography are good temporal resolution, registration of the third dimension, practicability during exercise and as bed side method (nuclear stethoscope). Functional disturbances of both ventricles are its field of application. (orig.).

  17. Significance of blood pool scintigraphy and echocardiography in the investigation of left heart ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, L.; Krosse, B.; Neumann, G.; Rother, T.; Loebe, M.; Otto, J.; Koegler, A.; Wuensche, A.; Schneider, G.

    1990-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection (LVEF) was assessed by both radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography. The correlation coefficient of 0.74 revealed a just good agreement. It was better in the range of normal than of pathological values. The analysis of regional wall motion performed by echocardiography was not as reliable as by radionuclide ventriculography. The main advantage of echocardiography is its good spatial resolution. Its domain is the diagnosis of pathomorphological changes including valvular disorders. Advantages of radionuclide ventriculography are good temporal resolution, registration of the third dimension practicability during exercise and as bedside method (nuclear stethoscope). Functional disturbances of both ventricles are its field of application. (author)

  18. Medina (Medical Instant Pashmina) Hijab for Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Limita, Sandrarizka Yuvike; Dinarsari, Fairuz Febrita; Rona, Tiga Putu; Halimi, Achmad Aunul

    2017-01-01

    MEDINA (Medical Instant Pashmina) is a hijab made for medical personnel. MEDINA hijab is a hijab in instantpashmina model with a small hole near the ears but it cannot be seen from outside and the function is to makeusing stetoskop easier. The purpose of making our product is to make MEDINA as medical personnel's hijabwhich has funct ion to easily use stethoscope and still look syar'i. It is convenient with our motto: “Beauty inSyari, Luxury in Simplicit y”. There are three stages in running ...

  19. Lung and Heart Sounds Analysis: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortiz, Ana L; Ibarra, David

    2018-01-01

    Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively. In this article, we review the research conducted during the last six years on lung and heart sounds, instrumentation and data sources (sensors and databases), technological advances, and perspectives in processing and data analysis. Our review suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases reported on in the literature; related diseases that are less analyzed include chronic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and parenchymal pathology. Some new findings regarding the methodologies associated with advances in the electronic stethoscope have been presented for the auscultatory heart sound signaling process, including analysis and clarification of resulting sounds to create a diagnosis based on a quantifiable medical assessment. The availability of automatic interpretation of high precision of heart and lung sounds opens interesting possibilities for cardiovascular diagnosis as well as potential for intelligent diagnosis of heart and lung diseases.

  20. The prevalence and character of crackles (rales) in young women without significant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workum, P; Holford, S K; Delbono, E A; Murphy, R L

    1982-11-01

    Although some investigators have reported that crackles are present only in persons with lung disease, others say they also occur in normal persons. In order to clarify this difference of opinion, we determined the prevalence of crackles in 56 women without significant lung disease. The subjects ranged from 19 to 33 yr of age (mean, 21.3). They all had a FVC greater than 80% predicted and a FEV1/FVC ratio greater than 75%. None had a history of acute or chronic lung disease. During slow inspirations from residual volume, midinspiratory fine crackles were heard at the anterior bases in 35 of 56 subjects by a physician using an acoustic stethoscope, whereas a bioengineer using an 800 Hertz high pass filtered stethoscope heard crackles in 53 subjects. Crackles during tidal breathing were heard in 2 subjects. It is postulated that the crackles noted after expiration to residual volume are nonpathologic, and occur when basilar airways, which close at the end of a forced expiration, suddenly open during inspiration. Examination of the quality, timing, and anatomic distribution of the crackles in apparently normal subjects suggests that they can often be distinguished from those resulting from diseases such as bronchitis, interstitial fibrosis, and congestive heart failure.

  1. Technology for enhancing chest auscultation in clinical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeffrey J; Wattier, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The ability to use an acoustic stethoscope to detect lung and/or heart sounds, and then to then communicate one's interpretation of those sounds is an essential skill for many medical professionals. Interpretation of lung and heart sounds, in the context of history and other examination findings, often aids the differential diagnosis. Bedside assessment of changing auscultation findings may also guide treatment. Learning lung and heart auscultation skills typically involves listening to pre-recorded normal and adventitious sounds, often followed by laboratory instruction to guide stethoscope placement, and finally correlating the sounds with the associated pathophysiology and pathology. Recently, medical simulation has become an important tool for teaching prior to clinical practice, and for evaluating bedside auscultation skills. When simulating cardiovascular or pulmonary problems, high-quality lung and heart sounds should be able to accurately corroborate other findings such as vital signs, arterial blood gas values, or imaging. Digital audio technology, the Internet, and high-fidelity simulators have increased opportunities for educators and learners. We review the application of these technologies and describe options for reproducing lung and heart sounds, as well as their advantages and potential limitations.

  2. Advances in LWD pressure measurements: smart, time optimized pretests and on demand real-time transmission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Robson; Ferraris, Paolo [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The StethoScope Logging While Drilling (LWD) Pressure Measurement, introduced in Brazil in 2005, has been extensively used in deep water environment to provide reservoir pressure and mobility in real-time. In the last three years the StethoScope service was further enhanced to allow better real time monitoring using a larger transmission rate, higher RT data resolution and remote visualization. In order to guarantee stable formation pressures with a limited test duration under a wide range of conditions, Time Optimized Pretests (TOP) were developed. These tests adjust automatically drawdown and buildup parameters as a function of formation characteristics (pressure/mobility) without requiring any input from the operator. On-demand frame (ODF), an advanced telemetry triggered automatically during the pressure tests, allowed to increase equivalent transmission rate and resolution and to include quality indices computed downhole. This paper is focused on the TOP and ODF Field Test results in Brazil, which proved to be useful and reliable options for better real-time decisions together with remote monitoring visualization implemented by the RTMonitor program. (author)

  3. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heracleous Panikos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  4. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bucher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS workers, respectively. Methods: We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results: There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003. Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion: Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  5. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saruwatari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a 93.9% word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  6. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  7. The Accutension Stetho, an automated auscultatory device to validate automated sphygmomanometer readings in individual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Bruce S

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this report is to describe a new device that can validate, by automated auscultation, individual blood pressure (BP) readings taken by automated sphygmomanometers.The Accutension Stetho utilizes a smartphone application in conjunction with a specially designed stethoscope that interfaces directly into the smartphone via the earphone jack. The Korotkoff sounds are recorded by the application and are analyzed by the operator on the screen of the smartphone simultaneously with the images from the sphygmomanometer screen during BP estimation. Current auscultatory validation standards require at least 85 subjects and strict statistical criteria for passage. A device that passes can make no guarantee of accuracy on individual patients. The Accutension Stetho is an inexpensive smartphone/stethoscope kit combination that estimates precise BP values by auscultation to confirm the accuracy of an automated sphygmomanometer's readings on individual patients. This should be of great value for both professional and, in certain circumstances, self-measurement BP. Patients will avoid both unnecessary treatment and errors of underestimation of BP, in which the patient requires therapy. The Stetho's software has been validated in an independent ANSI/AAMI/ISO standard study. The Stetho has been shown to perform without difficulty in multiple deflation-based devices by many manufacturers.

  8. DigiScope--unobtrusive collection and annotating of auscultations in real hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, D; Hedayioglu, F; Correia, R; Silva, T; Dutra, I; Almeida, F; Mattos, S S; Coimbra, M

    2011-01-01

    Digital stethoscopes are medical devices that can collect, store and sometimes transmit acoustic auscultation signals in a digital format. These can then be replayed, sent to a colleague for a second opinion, studied in detail after an auscultation, used for training or, as we envision it, can be used as a cheap powerful tool for screening cardiac pathologies. In this work, we present the design, development and deployment of a prototype for collecting and annotating auscultation signals within real hospital environments. Our main objective is not only pave the way for future unobtrusive systems for cardiac pathology screening, but more immediately we aim to create a repository of annotated auscultation signals for biomedical signal processing and machine learning research. The presented prototype revolves around a digital stethoscope that can stream the collected audio signal to a nearby tablet PC. Interaction with this system is based on two models: a data collection model adequate for the uncontrolled hospital environments of both emergency room and primary care, and a data annotation model for offline metadata input. A specific data model was created for the repository. The prototype has been deployed and is currently being tested in two Hospitals, one in Portugal and one in Brazil.

  9. An open real-time tele-stethoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foche-Perez, Ignacio; Ramirez-Payba, Rodolfo; Hirigoyen-Emparanza, German; Balducci-Gonzalez, Fernando; Simo-Reigadas, Francisco-Javier; Seoane-Pascual, Joaquin; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Martinez-Fernandez, Andres

    2012-08-23

    Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood mortality. The lack of physicians in rural areas of developing countries makes difficult their correct diagnosis and treatment. The staff of rural health facilities (health-care technicians) may not be qualified to distinguish respiratory diseases by auscultation. For this reason, the goal of this project is the development of a tele-stethoscopy system that allows a physician to receive real-time cardio-respiratory sounds from a remote auscultation, as well as video images showing where the technician is placing the stethoscope on the patient's body. A real-time wireless stethoscopy system was designed. The initial requirements were: 1) The system must send audio and video synchronously over IP networks, not requiring an Internet connection; 2) It must preserve the quality of cardiorespiratory sounds, allowing to adapt the binaural pieces and the chestpiece of standard stethoscopes, and; 3) Cardiorespiratory sounds should be recordable at both sides of the communication. In order to verify the diagnostic capacity of the system, a clinical validation with eight specialists has been designed. In a preliminary test, twelve patients have been auscultated by all the physicians using the tele-stethoscopy system, versus a local auscultation using traditional stethoscope. The system must allow listen the cardiac (systolic and diastolic murmurs, gallop sound, arrhythmias) and respiratory (rhonchi, rales and crepitations, wheeze, diminished and bronchial breath sounds, pleural friction rub) sounds. The design, development and initial validation of the real-time wireless tele-stethoscopy system are described in detail. The system was conceived from scratch as open-source, low-cost and designed in such a way that many universities and small local companies in developing countries may manufacture it. Only free open-source software has been used in order to minimize manufacturing costs and look for alliances to

  10. An open real-time tele-stethoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foche-Perez Ignacio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood mortality. The lack of physicians in rural areas of developing countries makes difficult their correct diagnosis and treatment. The staff of rural health facilities (health-care technicians may not be qualified to distinguish respiratory diseases by auscultation. For this reason, the goal of this project is the development of a tele-stethoscopy system that allows a physician to receive real-time cardio-respiratory sounds from a remote auscultation, as well as video images showing where the technician is placing the stethoscope on the patient’s body. Methods A real-time wireless stethoscopy system was designed. The initial requirements were: 1 The system must send audio and video synchronously over IP networks, not requiring an Internet connection; 2 It must preserve the quality of cardiorespiratory sounds, allowing to adapt the binaural pieces and the chestpiece of standard stethoscopes, and; 3 Cardiorespiratory sounds should be recordable at both sides of the communication. In order to verify the diagnostic capacity of the system, a clinical validation with eight specialists has been designed. In a preliminary test, twelve patients have been auscultated by all the physicians using the tele-stethoscopy system, versus a local auscultation using traditional stethoscope. The system must allow listen the cardiac (systolic and diastolic murmurs, gallop sound, arrhythmias and respiratory (rhonchi, rales and crepitations, wheeze, diminished and bronchial breath sounds, pleural friction rub sounds. Results The design, development and initial validation of the real-time wireless tele-stethoscopy system are described in detail. The system was conceived from scratch as open-source, low-cost and designed in such a way that many universities and small local companies in developing countries may manufacture it. Only free open-source software has been used in order to

  11. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  12. [Cardiology: is the smartphone era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandoli, Giulia Elena; D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Cameli, Matteo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide spread of smartphones has radically changed the habits of human life, allowing a 24/7 connection with other people. These changes have involved also Medicine with smartphones being able to simplify the clinical practice of physicians. The development of new external devices that can be connected to smartphones has further increased their use with mobile phones converted in portable electrocardiogram or echocardiogram machines. This extraordinary technological improvement seems to be partly in conflict with the classical tools available for the cardiologist, such as the "old" stethoscope that in 2016 had its 200th anniversary. This article focuses on the smartphone as a new tool available for the physicians, describing the most important potential uses and reporting an analysis of pros and cons of the smart-cardiology.

  13. The Third Eye of the Rheumatologist: Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hua Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatologists manage patients with rheumatic diseases, which are of a wide range of musculoskeletal pathologies. Without clarification of the exact location of pathologies and the degree of inflammation, rheumatologists may have an incorrect assessment, leading to inappropriate management. In everyday practice, physical examination is limited by its sensitivity and power of assessment. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS is inexpensive, readily available, and allows side-by-side image comparisons. Thus, during the past 10 years, MSUS has become the “third eye” of the rheumatologist, in that it allows more detailed examination of muscles, bones, and joints, just as the stethoscope provides further details about the respiratory and circulatory systems. We briefly introduce how rheumatologists in Taiwan use MSUS for the diagnosis and treatment for rheumatic diseases.

  14. Noise Reduction in Breath Sound Files Using Wavelet Transform Based Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Situmeang, S. I. G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of science and technology in the field of healthcare increasingly provides convenience in diagnosing respiratory system problem. Recording the breath sounds is one example of these developments. Breath sounds are recorded using a digital stethoscope, and then stored in a file with sound format. This breath sounds will be analyzed by health practitioners to diagnose the symptoms of disease or illness. However, the breath sounds is not free from interference signals. Therefore, noise filter or signal interference reduction system is required so that breath sounds component which contains information signal can be clarified. In this study, we designed a filter called a wavelet transform based filter. The filter that is designed in this study is using Daubechies wavelet with four wavelet transform coefficients. Based on the testing of the ten types of breath sounds data, the data is obtained in the largest SNRdB bronchial for 74.3685 decibels.

  15. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements of the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS) System. Volume 1. The Small Portable Expeditionary Aeromedical Rapid Response (SPEARR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-18

    ACUTE UPPER  RESPIRATORY  INFECTION NOS  4  493.90  ASTHMA NOS  1  787.91  DIARRHEA  2  535.00  ACUTE GASTRTIS W/O HMRHG  2  401.90  HYPERTENSION NOS...2006.  8.  Joint Publication 4‐02, Health Service Support: Joint Chiefs of Staff; 2006.  9.  Zouris JM, Wade AL, Mango C. Projections of  Disease  and...STER TCT75 LINEAR  CUTTER 75MM  YES  EA  2  2  0.767  0.100  $116.58  0.767  0.100  $116.58  A  6515009354088  STETHOSCOPE  ADL SZ 24" LG TWO  POSN VALVE

  16. Detecting regional lung properties using audio transfer functions of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Adler, A; Goubran, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel instrument has been developed for measuring changes in the distribution of lung fluid the respiratory system. The instrument consists of a speaker that inputs a 0-4kHz White Gaussian Noise (WGN) signal into a patient's mouth and an array of 4 electronic stethoscopes, linked via a fully adjustable harness, used to recover signals on the chest surface. The software system for processing the data utilizes the principles of adaptive filtering in order to obtain a transfer function that represents the input-output relationship for the signal as the volume of fluid in the lungs is varied. A chest phantom model was constructed to simulate the behavior of fluid related diseases within the lungs through the injection of varying volumes of water. Tests from the phantom model were compared to healthy subjects. Results show the instrument can obtain similar transfer functions and sound propagation delays between both human and phantom chests.

  17. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  18. Monitoring ventricular function at rest and during exercise with a nonimaging nuclear detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H N; Rigo, P; Baxter, R H; Alderson, P O; Douglass, K H; Housholder, D F

    1979-05-01

    A portable nonimaging device, the nuclear stethoscope, for measuring beat to beat ventricular time-activity curves in normal people and patients with heart disease, both at rest and during exercise, is being developed and evaluated. The latest device has several operating modes that facilitate left ventricular and background localization, measurement of transit times and automatic calculation and display of left ventricular ejection fraction. The correlation coefficient of left ventricular ejection fraction obtained with the device and with a camera-computer system was 0.92 in 35 subjects. During bicycle exercise the ejection fraction in 15 normal persons increased from 44 to 64 percent (P less than 0.001), whereas among 12 patients with heart disease it was unchanged in 5 and decreased in 7.

  19. Nuclear medicine in cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizuka, K.; Ishii, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Tamaki, N. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    Nuclear medicine in cardiology was reviewed. Electrocardiogram is obtained from the ..gamma..-ray measurement of a tracer by a single detector, which enables a bedsidemonitoring. Resolution and sensitivity are high and nuclear stethoscope with a computer is applicable for a background treatment. Myocardium is imaged by /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. Relative difference of the perfusion indicates the ischemia which gaives roughly the size and portion of myocardial infarction. For transient ischemia stress myocardial perfusion imaging (SMPI) is also used. sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate provides a clear image for myocardial infarction. Angiocardiogram is obtained repeatedly, by a single administration, using an equilibrium method. An attempt of three-dimensional display by 7 pin hole collimator and positron CT are also discussed.

  20. The Auscultation of a Carbon Dioxide Embolization Event during Endoscopic Vein Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Strauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic vein harvest in preparation for coronary artery bypass surgery has become a preferred method of procuring saphenous vein. Several case reports have documented carbon dioxide (CO2 embolization with this procedure as well as CO2 embolization during other laparoscopic surgeries (Markar et al., 2010. Although uncommon, the potential for CO2 entrainment through an open vein or through absorption by vascular structures exists and should be recognized (Lin et al., 2003. We report a case of CO2 embolization during EVH for a 77-year-old patient who underwent CABG that was identified early by the cardiac surgeon through the indirect auscultation of a mill-wheel murmur after the pericardium was opened. This may be the first reported case of a murmur related to air emboli identified without the use of a precordial Doppler probe or a stethoscope. This diagnosis was further supported by TEE before systemic hypotension or cardiovascular collapse occurred.

  1. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  2. A survey on automated wheeze detection systems for asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamimi Mardiah Shaharum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an evidence of automated wheeze detection system by a survey that can be very beneficial for asthmatic patients. Generally, for detecting asthma in a patient, stethoscope is used for ascertaining wheezes present. This causes a major problem nowadays because a number of patients tend to delay the interpretation time, which can lead to misinterpretations and in some worst cases to death. Therefore, the development of automated system would ease the burden of medical personnel. A further discussion on automated wheezes detection system will be presented later in the paper. As for the methodology, a systematic search of articles published as early as 1985 to 2012 was conducted. Important details including the hardware used, placement of hardware, and signal processing methods have been presented clearly thus hope to help and encourage future researchers to develop commercial system that will improve the diagnosing and monitoring of asthmatic patients.

  3. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-09-15

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author).

  4. Egophony: is this classic semeiological sign still helpful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Viviani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Egophony, also known as “E to A change”, is a classical, clinical sign detected by chest auscultation, consisting into a change in timbre, but not pitch or volume, produced by solid interposed between the resonator and the stethoscope head. Egophony was first described in 1916 by R.T.H. Laënnec, but today it is almost unknown. Yet it is a powerful tool to detect pleural effusion as well as other pathological conditions associated with lung compression or consolidation, such as hemothorax or atelectasis of the lung. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this paper is to remember the value of this frequently neglected clinical sign and to stress the importance of physical examination, that should always precede – and could often replace – instrumental tests, which are quite expensive and sometimes unnecessary.

  5. Effects of statistical quality, sampling rate and temporal filtering techniques on the extraction of functional parameters from the left ventricular time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignard, P.A.; Chan, W. (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1984-09-01

    Several techniques for the processing of a series of curves derived from two left ventricular time-activity curves acquired at rest and during exercise with a nuclear stethoscope were evaluated. They were three and five point time smoothing. Fourier filtering preserving one to four harmonics (H), truncated curve Fourier filtering, and third degree polynomial curve fitting. Each filter's ability to recover, with fidelity, systolic and diastolic function parameters was evaluated under increasingly 'noisy' conditions and at several sampling rates. Third degree polynomial curve fittings and truncated Fourier filters exhibited very high sensitivity to noise. Three and five point time smoothing had moderate sensitivity to noise, but were highly affected by sampling rate. Fourier filtering preserving 2H or 3H produced the best compromise with high resilience to noise and independence of sampling rate as far as the recovery of these functional parameters is concerned.

  6. Effects of statistical quality, sampling rate and temporal filtering techniques on the extraction of functional parameters from the left ventricular time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, P.A.; Chan, W.

    1984-01-01

    Several techniques for the processing of a series of curves derived from two left ventricular time-activity curves acquired at rest and during exercise with a nuclear stethoscope were evaluated. They were three and five point time smoothing. Fourier filtering preserving one to four harmonics (H), truncated curve Fourier filtering, and third degree polynomial curve fitting. Each filter's ability to recover, with fidelity, systolic and diastolic function parameters was evaluated under increasingly 'noisy' conditions and at several sampling rates. Third degree polynomial curve fittings and truncated Fourier filters exhibited very high sensitivity to noise. Three and five point time smoothing had moderate sensitivity to noise, but were highly affected by sampling rate. Fourier filtering preserving 2H or 3H produced the best compromise with high resilience to noise and independence of sampling rate as far as the recovery of these functional parameters is concerned. (author)

  7. PHONOCARDIOGRAM SIGNAL ANALYSIS FOR MURMUR DIAGNOSING USING SHANNON ENERGY ENVELOP AND SEQUENCED DWT DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZIN Z. OTHMAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed procedure to analyze the PCG (Phono-CardioGram signal recorded by an electronic stethoscope. The procedure concludes heart sound cycle segmentation followed by a detecting step to categorize the normal cases from that which are characterized as an abnormal one (mainly Mitral Regurgitation MR and Mitral Stenosis MS. This is achieving using Shannon energy envelop. Furthermore, a diagnosing step is added to recognize the MR and MS cases from other abnormal cases using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform applied to the segmented murmur period. The MR and MS cases were selected since it is the most popular abnormal heart cases recorded in the Middle East countries. The obtained results pleased and agreed many cardiac specialists. The MATLAB is the main software environment used in this work.

  8. Monitoring ventricular function at rest and during exercise with a nonimaging nuclear detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Rigo, P.; Baxter, R.H.; Alderson, P.O.; Douglass, K.H.; Housholder, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    A portable nonimaging device, the nuclear stethoscope, for measuring beat to beat ventricular time-activity curves in normal people and patients with heart disease, both at rest and during exercise, is being developed and evaluated. The latest device has several operting modes that facilitate left ventricular and background localization, measurement of transit times and automatic calculation and display of left ventricular ejection fraction. The correlation coefficient of left ventricular ejection fraction obtained with the device and with a camera-computer system was 0.92 in 35 subjects. During bicycle exercise the ejection fraction in 15 normal persons increased from 44 to 64% (P less than 0.001), whereas among 12 patients with heart disease it was unchanged in 5 and decreased in 7

  9. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Ganz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined

  10. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author)

  11. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    In 302 patients with confirmed coronary disease we determined the left ventricular diastolic function with the Nuclear Stethoscope by the aid of the Peak Filling Rate (PFR) and the Time to Peak Filling Rate (TPFR). Moreover we investigated the ejection fraction (EF). 201 patients had already suffered a myocardial infarction, of these 99 an anterior wall and 102 an inferior wall infarction. The remaining 101 patients had a CAD without a history of myocardial infarction. The PFR was 2.19 ± 0.65 EDV/sec in the 99 patients after anterior wall infarction and 2.62 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in the 102 patients after inferior wall infarction and 2.79 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in 101 patients with coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction. For the PFR there could be found a statistically significant difference between normal patients and patients after anterior wall infarction (p [de

  12. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  13. A robust dataset-agnostic heart disease classifier from Phonocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rohan; Dutta Choudhury, Anirban; Deshpande, Parijat; Bhattacharya, Sakyajit; Pal, Arpan; Mandana, K M

    2017-07-01

    Automatic classification of normal and abnormal heart sounds is a popular area of research. However, building a robust algorithm unaffected by signal quality and patient demography is a challenge. In this paper we have analysed a wide list of Phonocardiogram (PCG) features in time and frequency domain along with morphological and statistical features to construct a robust and discriminative feature set for dataset-agnostic classification of normal and cardiac patients. The large and open access database, made available in Physionet 2016 challenge was used for feature selection, internal validation and creation of training models. A second dataset of 41 PCG segments, collected using our in-house smart phone based digital stethoscope from an Indian hospital was used for performance evaluation. Our proposed methodology yielded sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.76 and 0.75 respectively on the test dataset in classifying cardiovascular diseases. The methodology also outperformed three popular prior art approaches, when applied on the same dataset.

  14. Consumers’ perception of symbols and health claims as health-related label messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrillo, E.; Fiszman, S.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    The package is the first contact between the food and the consumer and an excellent vehicle for communication with the consumer. Visual cues (symbols) on the package can be used to communicate health-related information. Although EU legislation provides for the use of symbols, there could......’s appeal and convincingness in two countries, one Mediterranean (Spain) and the other Scandinavian (Denmark). Four symbols were employed in the study: (1) heart-plus-stethoscope, (2) olives (a symbol often used in Spain but not so much in Denmark), and two not directly linked to food products: (3) active...... of the symbols perceived by the participants was similar in both countries but the culture influenced the connotations attached to the symbols. In addition, the symbols on the packaging were found to be more important than the verbal information....

  15. Compliance with hygiene procedures among medical faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs are transmitted by healthcare workers’ hands, which actively contributes to transferring pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the easiest and cheapest method for preventing HCAIs. The article presents the compliance with hygiene procedures in a group of medical students of the Wroclaw Medical University. Material and Methods: The anonymous survey was conducted among 112 students. The survey included questions about the frequency of disinfection of hands and stethoscopes, changing clothes into clean ones, compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers, as well as subjective assessment of the availability of disinfectants in the hospital. Results: The results of the survey revealed that 35.7% of students did not disinfect their hands before each patient’s examination, 90% of them indicated limited access to disinfectants as the most important reason. The majority (93.8% of respondents were trained in hand hygiene. In 34.82% the availability of disinfectants in hospitals was assesed as good, 62.5% of respondents drew attention to the fact that the dispensers were often empty. Compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers: 66.9% posessed white coat with short sleeves, 52.68% wore wristwatch or jewelery on their hands, 50% of students laundered white coat less frequently than once a week, 9.82% did not disinfect their stethoscope at all, 15.18% did that before each patient’s examination. Conclusions: Students compliance with hand hygiene now and in their future work as doctors is the easiest method for preventing HCAIs. Providing easy access to disinfectants in the hospital environment and shaping hygiene habits during clinical activities play an essential role. Med Pr 2014;65(5:593–599

  16. Diagnostic validity of methods for assessment of swallowing sounds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Karinna Veríssimo Meira; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Leão, Bianca Lopes Cavalcante de; Neto, José Stechman; Pernambuco, Leandro; Silva, Letícia Korb da; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Porporatti, André Luís

    2018-02-03

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent comorbidity in neurological patients and presents a serious health threat, which may lead to outcomes of aspiration pneumonia, ranging from hospitalization to death. This assessment proposes a non-invasive, acoustic-based method to differentiate between individuals with and without signals of penetration and aspiration. This systematic review evaluated the diagnostic validity of different methods for assessment of swallowing sounds, when compared to Videofluroscopic of Swallowing Study (VFSS) to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Articles in which the primary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of swallowing sounds were searched in five electronic databases with no language or time limitations. Accuracy measurements described in the studies were transformed to construct receiver operating characteristic curves and forest plots with the aid of Review Manager v. 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. The final electronic search revealed 554 records, however only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria. The accuracy values (area under the curve) were 0.94 for microphone, 0.80 for Doppler, and 0.60 for stethoscope. Based on limited evidence and low methodological quality because few studies were included, with a small sample size, from all index testes found for this systematic review, Doppler showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for the discrimination of swallowing sounds, whereas microphone-reported good accuracy discrimination of swallowing sounds of dysphagic patients and stethoscope showed best screening test. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can safely undergo intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J; Simbartl, L; Render, M L; Snow, E; Chaney, C; Nishiyama, H; Rauf, G C; Wexler, L F

    1998-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually excluded from intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 testing. We developed a nurse-administered protocol to screen and pretreat patients so they could be safely tested. We prospectively screened patients referred for intravenous dipyridamole thallium testing and retrospectively reviewed a comparison group of patients who had undergone intravenous dipyridamole testing before our bronchospasm protocol. We studied 492 consecutive patients referred for intravenous dipyridamole thallium testing, separating those with complete data (n = 451) into two groups: group A (n = 72), patients assessed to be at risk for intravenous dipyridamole-induced bronchospasm who received our bronchospasm treatment protocol; and group B (n = 379), patients assessed to be free of risk, who did not receive our bronchospasm protocol. Group C (n = 89) was a retrospective comparison group of patients who had undergone intravenous dipyridamole testing before initiation of the protocol. Patients were considered at risk for an adverse event if any of the following were present: peak flow 400 ml after bronchodilator treatment, wheezing audible with stethoscope, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma or dyspnea on exertion at less than four blocks, or resting respiratory rate >18 breaths/min. The test was considered contraindicated if resting oxygen saturation was respiratory rate stethoscope but without marked respiratory distress), (2) marked events (severe bronchospasm or severe ischemia defined as wheezing audible with or without stethoscope, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min or increased by 10 from pretest evaluation, oxygen desaturation to respiratory rate with decreased mental status], respiratory arrest, chest pain, horizontal ST-segment depression > or =1 mm on the electrocardiogram in any lead, symptomatic hypotension), or (3) other intravenous dipyridamole-induced side effects (persistent headache, dizziness

  18. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in combination with lung ultrasound, with the appearance of B-lines considered to be the endpoint for fluid therapy

  19. A description of externally recorded womb sounds in human subjects during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, Joanna J; Daland, Robert; Kesavan, Kalpashri; Macey, Paul M; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Harper, Ronald M

    2018-01-01

    Reducing environmental noise benefits premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), but excessive reduction may lead to sensory deprivation, compromising development. Instead of minimal noise levels, environments that mimic intrauterine soundscapes may facilitate infant development by providing a sound environment reflecting fetal life. This soundscape may support autonomic and emotional development in preterm infants. We aimed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of external non-invasive recordings in pregnant women, endeavoring to capture intra-abdominal or womb sounds during pregnancy with electronic stethoscopes and build a womb sound library to assess sound trends with gestational development. We also compared these sounds to popular commercial womb sounds marketed to new parents. Intra-abdominal sounds from 50 mothers in their second and third trimester (13 to 40 weeks) of pregnancy were recorded for 6 minutes in a quiet clinic room with 4 electronic stethoscopes, placed in the right upper and lower quadrants, and left upper and lower quadrants of the abdomen. These recording were partitioned into 2-minute intervals in three different positions: standing, sitting and lying supine. Maternal and gestational age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and time since last meal were collected during recordings. Recordings were analyzed using long-term average spectral and waveform analysis, and compared to sounds from non-pregnant abdomens and commercially-marketed womb sounds selected for their availability, popularity, and claims they mimic the intrauterine environment. Maternal sounds shared certain common characteristics, but varied with gestational age. With fetal development, the maternal abdomen filtered high (500-5,000 Hz) and mid-frequency (100-500 Hz) energy bands, but no change appeared in contributions from low-frequency signals (10-100 Hz) with gestational age. Variation appeared between mothers, suggesting a resonant chamber role for intra

  20. Besides from what you see: analysis of social representation assigned to the medical professional through web sites available on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Alexandre Gonçalves do Nascimento GOMES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Images can convey strong associations with symbols. This type of interpretation applies to distinct areas, including Health. In the images which portray the medical professional, this is not different. However, there has been much questioned what symbol is related to this profession association. Currently, with the increased range of Internet search websites and its high number of access, a few images and symbols which connote or denote medical sites can be seized from a simple search. In this perspective, this study aims to analyze the social representation assigned to the medical professional through search websites as well as the symbols that are associated with this profession. This is an exploratory-descriptive study of qualitative and quantitative approach in which images were researcherd in five search sites available on different web, namely: www.google.com, www.ask.com, www.bing.com, www.yahoo.com and www.uol.com. For this, descriptors such as “médico”, “médica” and “profissionalmédico” were used. All posted images were collected in a period of 30 continuous days. Then, images were grouped into categories. It is worth mentioning, the images that only portray the everyday and images that portray show cartoons and famous or historical personalities were excluded. The images in different internet search websites were classified into diverse categories, among them lovingness, religion, leadership, teamwork, distance between doctor and patient, the profession, controversial, personal protective equipment, stethoscope, symbol, hospital equipment, records health and others. The categories that presented more frequently were: the profession, teamwork, stethoscope and health record. From this, we might infer that the doctor is a figure often linked to work, mainly because it routinely represented by instruments of his profession. When not represented by these instruments, the doctor is very portrayed and remembered by the exercise

  1. Enhancing Health-Care Services with Mixed Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantchev, Vladimir

    This work presents a development approach for mixed reality systems in health care. Although health-care service costs account for 5-15% of GDP in developed countries the sector has been remarkably resistant to the introduction of technology-supported optimizations. Digitalization of data storing and processing in the form of electronic patient records (EPR) and hospital information systems (HIS) is a first necessary step. Contrary to typical business functions (e.g., accounting or CRM) a health-care service is characterized by a knowledge intensive decision process and usage of specialized devices ranging from stethoscopes to complex surgical systems. Mixed reality systems can help fill the gap between highly patient-specific health-care services that need a variety of technical resources on the one side and the streamlined process flow that typical process supporting information systems expect on the other side. To achieve this task, we present a development approach that includes an evaluation of existing tasks and processes within the health-care service and the information systems that currently support the service, as well as identification of decision paths and actions that can benefit from mixed reality systems. The result is a mixed reality system that allows a clinician to monitor the elements of the physical world and to blend them with virtual information provided by the systems. He or she can also plan and schedule treatments and operations in the digital world depending on status information from this mixed reality.

  2. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Arntz, Y; Dumitresco, B; Eclancher, B; Prat, V

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) wh...

  3. Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mara de Oliveira Rodrigues Luiz; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery. To identify the characteristics of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery (MR), using an evaluating protocol composed by a water test, cervical auscultation and pulse oximetry. The Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia Risk through a Combined Swallowing test and Vital Signs monitoring was used (PADTC)--measurements of HR and SpO2 (heart rate and oxygen saturation), water swallowing test with 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ml, measurement of respiratory rate and cervical auscultation. The electronic stethoscope was used to analyze the number of swallows, response time and swallowing sound classification. In the Research Group (RG) older individuals with heart disease who were referred to MR were included. In the Control Group (CG) healthy older individuals were included. 38 older individuals were evaluated in the RG (mean age 68 years). In the CG, 30 older individuals were evaluated (mean age 70 years). There was a significant difference for the swallowing response time in older individuals with heart disease who presented HR below 60: swallowing response was shorter for 3 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml e 20 ml. HR was lower for individuals with heart disease. No significant difference was found between the groups for the other analyzed parameters. Older individuals with heart disease presented differences in the swallowing function when compared to healthy older individuals. Older individuals with heart disease presented alterations in the temporal coordination between breathing and swallowing, thus indicating risk for dysphagia.

  4. Crackle analysis for chest auscultation and comparison with high-resolution CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kido, Shoji; Jiang, Zhongwei; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the correlation between respiratory sounds and the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of lung diseases. Respiratory sounds were recorded using a stethoscope in 41 patients with crackles. All had undergone inspiratory and expiratory CT. Subjects included 18 patients with interstitial pneumonia and 23 without interstitial pneumonia. Two parameters, two-cycle duration (2CD) and initial deflection width (IDW) of the "crackle," were induced by time-expanded waveform analysis. Two radiologists independently assessed 11 HRCT findings. An evaluation was carried out to determine whether there was a significant difference in the two parameters between the presence and absence of each HRCT finding. The two parameters of crackles were significantly shorter in the interstitial pneumonia group than the non-interstitial pneumonia group. Ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, lung volume reduction, traction bronchiectasis, centrilobular nodules, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were correlated with one or two parameters in all patients, whereas the other three findings were not. Among the interstitial pneumonia group, traction bronchiectasis, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were significantly correlated with one or two parameters. Abnormal respiratory sounds were correlated with some HRCT findings.

  5. [Respiratory syncytial virus infections in children in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisa Monica; Halgrener, Jørgen; Hansen, Bjarne V Lühr

    2003-06-30

    The aim of the study was to describe the course of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in children under two years of age seen in general practice. Children under two years of age presenting acute respiratory infection during the registration period on 59 GPs' lists participated in the study. The GPs recorded data on a registration chart and a questionnaire was sent to the parents of the children in question one month after the date of inclusion. The children were tested in general practice for the presence of RSV. The GPs' objective findings and choice of treatment as well as the parents' account of the course of disease were compared in children with and without the presence of RSV. A total of 221 children participated in the study. Fifty-seven children were found RSV positive (25.8%). Among the RSV positive children there were significantly more with wheezing audibly detected with examination by stethoscope than among the RSV negative. The remaining parameters (the GP's objective examination, treatment and course of the disease) were distributed independently of the result of the RSV analysis. The results showed that RSV infections in children under two years in general practice are frequent and that the clinical picture most often is uncomplicated.

  6. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  7. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2015-10-23

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients' quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD). The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS) techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a) a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b) a telehealth framework; (c) CARS and (d) machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  8. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  9. Crackle analysis for chest auscultation and comparison with high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Kido, Shoji; Jiang Zhongwei

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the correlation between respiratory sounds and the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of lung diseases. Respiratory sounds were recorded using a stethoscope in 41 patients with crackles. All had undergone inspiratory and expiratory CT. Subjects included 18 patients with interstitial pneumonia and 23 without interstitial pneumonia. Two parameters, two-cycle duration (2CD) and initial deflection width (IDW) of the ''crackle,'' were induced by time-expanded waveform analysis. Two radiologists independently assessed 11 HRCT findings. An evaluation was carried out to determine whether there was a significant difference in the two parameters between the presence and absence of each HRCT finding. The two parameters of crackles were significantly shorter in the interstitial pneumonia group than the non-interstitial pneumonia group. Ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, lung volume reduction, traction bronchiectasis, centrilobular nodules, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were correlated with one or two parameters in all patients, whereas the other three findings were not. Among the interstitial pneumonia group, traction bronchiectasis, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were significantly correlated with one or two parameters. Abnormal respiratory sounds were correlated with some HRCT findings. (author)

  10. Classification of voluntary coughs applied to the screening of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Christian; Chamberlain, Daniel B; Kodgule, Rahul; Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary and respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD, allergies, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.) represent a large proportion of the global disease burden, mortality, and disability. In this context of creating automated diagnostic tools, we explore how the analysis of voluntary cough sounds may be used to screen for pulmonary disease. As a clinical study, voluntary coughs were recorded using a custom mobile phone stethoscope from 54 patients, of which 7 had COPD, 15 had asthma, 11 had allergic rhinitis, 17 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, and four had both COPD and allergic rhinitis. Data were also collected from 33 healthy subjects. These patients also received full auscultation at 11 sites, given a clinical questionnaire, and underwent full pulmonary function testing (spirometer, body plethysmograph, DLCO) which culminated in a diagnosis provided by an experienced pulmonologist. From machine learning analysis of these data, we show that it is possible to achieve good classification of cough sounds in terms of Wet vs Dry, yielding an ROC curve with AUC of 0.94, and show that voluntary coughs can serve as an effective test for determining Healthy vs Unhealthy (sensitivity=35.7% specificity=100%). We also show that the use of cough sounds can enhance the performance of other diagnostic tools such as a patient questionnaire and peak flow meter; however voluntary coughs alone provide relatively little value in determining specific disease diagnosis.

  11. High frequency analysis of cough sounds in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, K; Abeyratne, U R; Swarnkar, V

    2012-01-01

    Cough is a common symptom in a range of respiratory diseases and is considered a natural defense mechanism of the body. Despite its critical importance in the diagnosis of illness, there are no golden methods to objectively assess cough. In a typical consultation session, a physician may briefly listen to the cough sounds using a stethoscope placed against the chest. The physician may also listen to spontaneous cough sounds via naked ears, as they naturally propagate through air. Cough sounds carry vital information on the state of the respiratory system but the field of cough analysis in clinical medicine is in its infancy. All existing cough analysis approaches are severely handicapped by the limitations of the human hearing range and simplified analysis techniques. In this paper, we address these problems, and explore the use of frequencies covering a range well beyond the human perception (up to 90 kHz) and use wavelet analysis to extract diagnostically important information from coughs. Our data set comes from a pediatric respiratory ward in Indonesia, from subjects diagnosed with asthma, pneumonia and rhinopharyngitis. We analyzed over 90 cough samples from 4 patients and explored if high frequencies carried useful information in separating these disease groups. Multiple regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 77-82% at high frequencies (15 kHz-90 kHz) indicating that they carry useful information. When the high frequencies were combined with frequencies below 15kHz, the R(2) performance increased to 85-90%.

  12. A sneak peek into digital innovations and wearable sensors for cardiac monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, Frederic

    2017-04-01

    Many mobile phone or tablet applications have been designed to control cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes and hypertension) or to optimize treatment adherence. Some have been shown to be useful but the long-term benefits remain to be demonstrated. Digital stethoscopes make easier the interpretation of abnormal heart sounds, and the development of pocket-sized echo machines may quickly and significantly expand the use of ultrasounds. Daily home monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures with wireless implantable sensors has been shown to be associated with a significant decrease in hospital readmissions for heart failure. There are more and more non-invasive, wireless, and wearable sensors designed to monitor heart rate, heart rate variability, respiratory rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and thoracic fluid content. They have the potential to change the way we monitor and treat patients with cardiovascular diseases in the hospital and beyond. Some may have the ability to improve quality of care, decrease the number of medical visits and hospitalization, and ultimately health care costs. Validation and outcome studies are needed to clarify, among the growing number of digital innovations and wearable sensors, which tools have real clinical value.

  13. Neglected evidence in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Vincent; Richeldi, Luca

    2014-03-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s) remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a "by-product" of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of "velcro" crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns.

  14. [Anesthetic care for fibrobronchoscopy in patients with chronic terminal respiratory insufficiency undergoing evaluation for isolated lung transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solca, M; Elena, A; Croci, M; Damia, G

    1993-01-01

    During the first 18 month operation of the isolated lung transplantation program at or Institution, eight patients with terminal chronic respiratory failure underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage as part of their evaluation for isolated lung transplantation. Four patients had severe obstructive, three restrictive, and one mixed, obstructive and restrictive, disease; all of them were on continuous supplemental oxygen. Procedures were performed under topical anaesthesia, with either light sedation or simple monitored anaesthesia care. Monitoring included non-invasive blood pressure measurement, pulse oximeter and precordial stethoscope. No adverse events were recorded, except in one case, when pulse oximeter reading precipitously dropped below 80%, to a minimum of 68-69%. The procedures was terminated short of its completion, and the patient was briefly assisted with manual bag ventilation on oxygen 100%. Pulse oximeter quickly returned to normal levels (above 90%), and the patient promptly recovered, without complications. The importance of monitored anaesthesia care during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (a usually benign procedure) in critically ill patients is greatly emphasized.

  15. Detection of explosive cough events in audio recordings by internal sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, B M; Mendes, L; Couceiro, R; Henriques, J; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P

    2017-07-01

    We present a new method for the discrimination of explosive cough events, which is based on a combination of spectral content descriptors and pitch-related features. After the removal of near-silent segments, a vector of event boundaries is obtained and a proposed set of 9 features is extracted for each event. Two data sets, recorded using electronic stethoscopes and comprising a total of 46 healthy subjects and 13 patients, were employed to evaluate the method. The proposed feature set is compared to three other sets of descriptors: a baseline, a combination of both sets, and an automatic selection of the best 10 features from both sets. The combined feature set yields good results on the cross-validated database, attaining a sensitivity of 92.3±2.3% and a specificity of 84.7±3.3%. Besides, this feature set seems to generalize well when it is trained on a small data set of patients, with a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and tested on a bigger data set of mostly healthy subjects: a sensitivity of 93.4% and a specificity of 83.4% are achieved in those conditions. These results demonstrate that complementing the proposed feature set with a baseline set is a promising approach.

  16. Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound techniques in the physical examination: better at the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Bruce J

    2017-07-01

    The development of hand-carried, battery-powered ultrasound devices has created a new practice in ultrasound diagnostic imaging, called 'point-of-care' ultrasound (POCUS). Capitalising on device portability, POCUS is marked by brief and limited ultrasound imaging performed by the physician at the bedside to increase diagnostic accuracy and expediency. The natural evolution of POCUS techniques in general medicine, particularly with pocket-sized devices, may be in the development of a basic ultrasound examination similar to the use of the binaural stethoscope. This paper will specifically review how POCUS improves the limited sensitivity of the current practice of traditional cardiac physical examination by both cardiologists and non-cardiologists. Signs of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, lung congestion and elevated central venous pressures are often missed by physical techniques but can be easily detected by POCUS and have prognostic and treatment implications. Creating a general set of repetitive imaging skills for these entities for application on all patients during routine examination will standardise and reduce heterogeneity in cardiac bedside ultrasound applications, simplify teaching curricula, enhance learning and recollection, and unify competency thresholds and practice. The addition of POCUS to standard physical examination techniques in cardiovascular medicine will result in an ultrasound-augmented cardiac physical examination that reaffirms the value of bedside diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A hybrid particle swarm optimization-SVM classification for automatic cardiac auscultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasertsak Charoen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac auscultation is a method for a doctor to listen to heart sounds, using a stethoscope, for examining the condition of the heart. Automatic cardiac auscultation with machine learning is a promising technique to classify heart conditions without need of doctors or expertise. In this paper, we develop a classification model based on support vector machine (SVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO for an automatic cardiac auscultation system. The model consists of two parts: heart sound signal processing part and a proposed PSO for weighted SVM (WSVM classifier part. In this method, the PSO takes into account the degree of importance for each feature extracted from wavelet packet (WP decomposition. Then, by using principle component analysis (PCA, the features can be selected. The PSO technique is used to assign diverse weights to different features for the WSVM classifier. Experimental results show that both continuous and binary PSO-WSVM models achieve better classification accuracy on the heart sound samples, by reducing system false negatives (FNs, compared to traditional SVM and genetic algorithm (GA based SVM.

  18. Effectiveness of blood pressure educational and evaluation program for the improvement of measurement accuracy among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Franco; Testa, Elisa; Rabbia, Silvia; Praticò, Santina; Colasanto, Claudia; Montersino, Federica; Berra, Elena; Covella, Michele; Fulcheri, Chiara; Di Monaco, Silvia; Buffolo, Fabrizio; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco

    2013-06-01

    To assess the procedure for measuring blood pressure (BP) among hospital nurses and to assess if a training program would improve technique and accuracy. 160 nurses from Molinette Hospital were included in the study. The program was based upon theoretical and practical lessons. It was one day long and it was held by trained nurses and physicians who have practice in the Hypertension Unit. An evaluation of nurses' measuring technique and accuracy was performed before and after the program, by using a 9-item checklist. Moreover we calculated the differences between measured and effective BP values before and after the training program. At baseline evaluation, we observed inadequate performance on some points of clinical BP measurement technique, specifically: only 10% of nurses inspected the arm diameter before placing the cuff, 4% measured BP in both arms, 80% placed the head of the stethoscope under the cuff, 43% did not remove all clothing that covered the location of cuff placement, did not have the patient seat comfortably with his legs uncrossed and with his back and arms supported. After the training we found a significant improvement in the technique for all items. We didn't observe any significant difference of measurement knowledge between nurses working in different settings such as medical or surgical departments. Periodical education in BP measurement may be required, and this may significantly improve the technique and consequently the accuracy.

  19. Design of heart rate monitor based on piezoelectric sensor using an Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Veni; Muninggar, Jodelin; Shanti. N. A, Made R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Reading of result heart rate using an acoustic stethoscope needs a particular skill, quiet environment, and hearing sensitivity. This project had the purpose design of a user-friendly automatic heart rate monitor and especially in a noisy area which to eliminate problems and incorrect reading of result. The liquid crystal display shows a heart rate as a result of measurements. The design of the heart rate monitor has two main parts; the signal recorder that a piezoelectric sensor, a filter, and an amplifier as recorder. The second parts was Arduino microcontroller with reinforced. Besides, three supporting buttons provided as the manual switches, the ‘on’, the ‘start’, and ‘reset’ buttons. The values acquired from the heart rate monitor indicate that those were on the Vernier BPS-BTA value range. The measurement error factor of the heart rate monitor then compared to the Vernier BPS-BTA test device was 3.15%. Besides, the value of statistical independent-test indicates that there is no significant difference (P = 0.971) between the heart rate monitor device and the Vernier BPS-BTA. In conclusion, this device was ready to be used because it has almost the same accuracy with the standart device.

  20. Noise/spike detection in phonocardiogram signal as a cyclic random process with non-stationary period interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R; Pourkhajeh, H

    2013-09-01

    The major aim of this study is to describe a unified procedure for detecting noisy segments and spikes in transduced signals with a cyclic but non-stationary periodic nature. According to this procedure, the cycles of the signal (onset and offset locations) are detected. Then, the cycles are clustered into a finite number of groups based on appropriate geometrical- and frequency-based time series. Next, the median template of each time series of each cluster is calculated. Afterwards, a correlation-based technique is devised for making a comparison between a test cycle feature and the associated time series of each cluster. Finally, by applying a suitably chosen threshold for the calculated correlation values, a segment is prescribed to be either clean or noisy. As a key merit of this research, the procedure can introduce a decision support for choosing accurately orthogonal-expansion-based filtering or to remove noisy segments. In this paper, the application procedure of the proposed method is comprehensively described by applying it to phonocardiogram (PCG) signals for finding noisy cycles. The database consists of 126 records from several patients of a domestic research station acquired by a 3M Littmann(®) 3200, 4KHz sampling frequency electronic stethoscope. By implementing the noisy segments detection algorithm with this database, a sensitivity of Se=91.41% and a positive predictive value, PPV=92.86% were obtained based on physicians assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fractal dimension to classify the heart sound recordings with KNN and fuzzy c-mean clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, D.; Khotimah, C.; Wardani, D. E. K.; Budayasa, K.

    2018-01-01

    The heart abnormalities can be detected from heart sound. A heart sound can be heard directly with a stethoscope or indirectly by a phonocardiograph, a machine of the heart sound recording. This paper presents the implementation of fractal dimension theory to make a classification of phonocardiograms into a normal heart sound, a murmur, or an extrasystole. The main algorithm used to calculate the fractal dimension was Higuchi’s Algorithm. There were two steps to make a classification of phonocardiograms, feature extraction, and classification. For feature extraction, we used Discrete Wavelet Transform to decompose the signal of heart sound into several sub-bands depending on the selected level. After the decomposition process, the signal was processed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the spectral frequency. The fractal dimension of the FFT output was calculated using Higuchi Algorithm. The classification of fractal dimension of all phonocardiograms was done with KNN and Fuzzy c-mean clustering methods. Based on the research results, the best accuracy obtained was 86.17%, the feature extraction by DWT decomposition level 3 with the value of kmax 50, using 5-fold cross validation and the number of neighbors was 5 at K-NN algorithm. Meanwhile, for fuzzy c-mean clustering, the accuracy was 78.56%.

  2. Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia). Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator). Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality. PMID:22583622

  3. A comparison between swallowing sounds and vibrations in patients with dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.; Perera, Subashan

    2017-01-01

    The cervical auscultation refers to the observation and analysis of sounds or vibrations captured during swallowing using either a stethoscope or acoustic/vibratory detectors. Microphones and accelerometers have recently become two common sensors used in modern cervical auscultation methods. There are open questions about whether swallowing signals recorded by these two sensors provide unique or complementary information about swallowing function; or whether they present interchangeable information. The aim of this study is to present a broad comparison of swallowing signals recorded by a microphone and a tri-axial accelerometer from 72 patients (mean age 63.94 ± 12.58 years, 42 male, 30 female), who underwent videofluoroscopic examination. The participants swallowed one or more boluses of thickened liquids of different consistencies, including thin liquids, nectar-thick liquids, and pudding. A comfortable self-selected volume from a cup or a controlled volume by the examiner from a 5ml spoon was given to the participants. A comprehensive set of features was extracted in time, information-theoretic, and frequency domains from each of 881 swallows presented in this study. The swallowing sounds exhibited significantly higher frequency content and kurtosis values than the swallowing vibrations. In addition, the Lempel-Ziv complexity was lower for swallowing sounds than those for swallowing vibrations. To conclude, information provided by microphones and accelerometers about swallowing function are unique and these two transducers are not interchangeable. Consequently, the selection of transducer would be a vital step in future studies. PMID:28495001

  4. Software development for the analysis of heartbeat sounds with LabVIEW in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Taner; Polat, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a time-frequency spectral analysis software (Heart Sound Analyzer) for the computer-aided analysis of cardiac sounds has been developed with LabVIEW. Software modules reveal important information for cardiovascular disorders, it can also assist to general physicians to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. Heart sound analyzer (HSA) software can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors and help them in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. HSA has two main blocks: data acquisition and preprocessing, time-frequency spectral analyses. The heart sounds are first acquired using a modified stethoscope which has an electret microphone in it. Then, the signals are analysed using the time-frequency/scale spectral analysis techniques such as STFT, Wigner-Ville distribution and wavelet transforms. HSA modules have been tested with real heart sounds from 35 volunteers and proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  5. Multi-point accelerometric detection and principal component analysis of heart sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Panfilis, S; Peccianti, M; Chiru, O M; Moroni, C; Vashkevich, V; Parisi, G; Cassone, R

    2013-01-01

    Heart sounds are a fundamental physiological variable that provide a unique insight into cardiac semiotics. However a deterministic and unambiguous association between noises in cardiac dynamics is far from being accomplished yet due to many and different overlapping events which contribute to the acoustic emission. The current computer-based capacities in terms of signal detection and processing allow one to move from the standard cardiac auscultation, even in its improved forms like electronic stethoscopes or hi-tech phonocardiography, to the extraction of information on the cardiac activity previously unexplored. In this report, we present a new equipment for the detection of heart sounds, based on a set of accelerometric sensors placed in contact with the chest skin on the precordial area, and are able to measure simultaneously the vibration induced on the chest surface by the heart's mechanical activity. By utilizing advanced algorithms for the data treatment, such as wavelet decomposition and principal component analysis, we are able to condense the spatially extended acoustic information and to provide a synthetical representation of the heart activity. We applied our approach to 30 adults, mixed per gender, age and healthiness, and correlated our results with standard echocardiographic examinations. We obtained a 93% concordance rate with echocardiography between healthy and unhealthy hearts, including minor abnormalities such as mitral valve prolapse. (fast track communication)

  6. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components.

  7. The reliability of lung crackle characteristics in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis patients in a clinical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Alda; Bruton, Anne; Barney, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Lung sounds provide useful information for assessing and monitoring respiratory patients, but standard auscultation is subjective. Computer aided lung sound analysis (CALSA) enables the quantification and characterisation of added lung sounds (e.g. crackles). At present, little is known about the reliability of these sound characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the reliability of crackle initial deflection width (IDW) and two-cycle deflection (2CD) in a clinical population. Fifty-four subjects (37 bronchiectasis, 17 cystic fibrosis) were recruited from out-patient clinics. Three repeated lung sound recordings were taken at seven anatomical sites with a digital stethoscope connected to a laptop computer. The intra-subject reliability of crackle IDW and 2CD was found to be 'good' to 'excellent', estimated by the analysis of variance, intraclass correlation coefficient (IDW 0.76;0.85, 2CD 0.83;0.94), Bland and Altman 95% limits of agreement (IDW −0.50;0.47 ms, 2CD −2.12;1.87 ms) and smallest real difference (IDW 0.30;0.66 ms, 2CD 1.57;2.42 ms). Crackle 2CD was found to be more reliable than IDW. It is concluded that crackle IDW and 2CD characterized by CALSA have good test–retest reliability. This technique requires further evaluation since CALSA has potential to diagnose or monitor respiratory conditions, and provide an objective physiological measure for respiratory interventions

  8. Dysphagia Screening: Contributions of Cervical Auscultation Signals and Modern Signal-Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Coyle, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical auscultation is the recording of sounds and vibrations caused by the human body from the throat during swallowing. While traditionally done by a trained clinician with a stethoscope, much work has been put towards developing more sensitive and clinically useful methods to characterize the data obtained with this technique. The eventual goal of the field is to improve the effectiveness of screening algorithms designed to predict the risk that swallowing disorders pose to individual patients’ health and safety. This paper provides an overview of these signal processing techniques and summarizes recent advances made with digital transducers in hopes of organizing the highly varied research on cervical auscultation. It investigates where on the body these transducers are placed in order to record a signal as well as the collection of analog and digital filtering techniques used to further improve the signal quality. It also presents the wide array of methods and features used to characterize these signals, ranging from simply counting the number of swallows that occur over a period of time to calculating various descriptive features in the time, frequency, and phase space domains. Finally, this paper presents the algorithms that have been used to classify this data into ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ categories. Both linear as well as non-linear techniques are presented in this regard. PMID:26213659

  9. Beyond auscultation: acoustic cardiography in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yong-Na; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Chun-Na; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac auscultation by stethoscope is widely used but limited by low sensitivity and accuracy. Phonocardiogram was developed in an attempt to provide quantitative and qualitative information of heart sounds and murmurs by transforming acoustic signal into visual wavelet. Although phonocardiogram provides objective heart sound information and holds diagnostic potentials of different heart problems, its examination procedure is time-consuming and it requires specially trained technicians to operate the device. Acoustic cardiography (AUDICOR, Inovise Medical, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) is a major recent advance in the evolution of cardiac auscultation technology. The technique is more efficient and less operator-dependent. It synchronizes cardiac auscultation with ECG recording and provides a comprehensive assessment of both mechanical and electronic function of the heart. The application of acoustic cardiography is far beyond auscultation only. It generates various parameters which have been proven to correlate with gold standards in heart failure diagnosis and ischemic heart disease detection. Its application can be extended to other diseases, including LV hypertrophy, constrictive pericarditis, sleep apnea and ventricular fibrillation. The newly developed ambulatory acoustic cardiography is potentially used in heart failure follow-up in both home and hospital setting. This review comprehensively summarizes acoustic cardiographic research, including the most recent development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Verification of intravenous catheter placement by auscultation--a simple, noninvasive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavi, Amit; Rudich, Utay; Schechtman, Moshe; Katz, Yeshayahu Shai

    2014-01-01

    Verification of proper placement of an intravenous catheter may not always be simple. We evaluated the auscultation technique for this purpose. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized for 18G catheter inserted intravenously either in the right (12) or left arm (8), and subcutaneously in the opposite arm. A standard stethoscope was placed over an area approximately 3 cm proximal to the tip of the catheter in the presumed direction of the vein to grade on a 0-6 scale the murmur heard by rapidly injecting 2 mL of NaCl 0.9% solution. The auscultation was evaluated by a blinded staff anesthesiologist. All 20 intravenous injection were evaluated as flow murmurs, and were graded an average 5.65 (±0.98), whereas all 20 subcutaneous injections were evaluated as either crackles or no sound, and were graded an average 2.00 (±1.38), without negative results. Sensitivity was calculated as 95%. Specificity and Kappa could not be calculated due to an empty false-positive group. Being simple, handy and noninvasive, we recommend to use the auscultation technique for verification of the proper placement of an intravenous catheter when uncertain of its position. Data obtained in our limited sample of healthy subjects need to be confirmed in the clinical setting.

  11. Digital auscultation of the uterine artery: a measure of uteroplacental perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riknagel, Diana; Dinesen, Birthe; Zimmermann, Henrik; Farlie, Richard; Schmidt, Samuel; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan

    2016-07-01

    This observational study investigated digital auscultation for the purpose of assessing the clinical feasibility of monitoring vascular sounds in pregnancy. The study was performed at the Regional Hospital Viborg, Denmark, and included 29 pregnant women, 10 non-pregnant women and 10 male participants. Digital auscultation was performed with an electronic stethoscope bilaterally near the uterine arteries and correlated to the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or normal pregnancy in the group of pregnant participants. In the group of non-pregnant participants, digital auscultation was performed as control measurements in the same anatomical positions. The auscultations displayed pulse waveforms comprising systolic and diastolic periods in 20 of the 29 pregnant participants. However, in the non-pregnant and male participants, the pulse waveforms were absent. The pulsatile patterns are thus likely to originate from the arteries in relation to the pregnant uterus. In the participants displaying pulse waveforms, the presence of a dicrotic notch appeared with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 100% in the discrimination of normal pregnancies (n  =  11) from pregnancies with PE or IUGR (n  =  9), (p  <  0.001). This preliminary study shows the potential of identifying vascular complications during pregnancy such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. The morphology of the derived pulse contour should be investigated and could be further developed to identify pathophysiology.

  12. Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?

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    Garces Ana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator. Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.

  13. Emergency Physicians as Good Samaritans: Survey of Frequency, Locations, Supplies and Medications

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    Taylor W. Burkholder, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the frequency and locations in which emergency physicians (EPs are bystanders to an accident or emergency; equally uncertain is which contents of an “emergency kit” may be useful during such events. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and locations of Good Samaritan acts by EPs and also determine which emergency kit supplies and medications were most commonly used by Good Samaritans. Methods: We conducted an electronic survey among a convenience sample of EPs in Colorado. Results: Respondents reported a median frequency of 2.0 Good Samaritan acts per five years of practice, with the most common locations being sports and entertainment events (25%, road traffic accidents (21%, and wilderness settings (19%. Of those who had acted as Good Samaritans, 86% reported that at least one supply would have been useful during the most recent event, and 66% reported at least one medication would have been useful. The most useful supplies were gloves (54%, dressings (34%, and a stethoscope (20%, while the most useful medications were oxygen (19%, intravenous fluids (17%, and epinephrine (14%. Conclusion: The majority of EPs can expect to provide Good Samaritan care during their careers and would be better prepared by carrying a kit with common supplies and medications where they are most likely to use them.

  14. A system for heart sounds classification.

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    Grzegorz Redlarski

    Full Text Available The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability.

  15. Effect of Exercise on Cardiorespiratory Function in Obese Children with Asthma in Different Moisture Levels

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    S Pouyan Majd

    2014-09-01

    Methods: The present case-control study was carried out with ten obese asthmatic children and fifteen healthy children who performed an exercise protocol in different environments (relative humidity 65 ± 5% versus 35 ± 5%. During exercise, cardiorespiratory parameters were controlled using K4B2. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure and double product were measured with a digital sphygmomanometer and stethoscope polar. Data were analyzed with dependent T test and ANOVA with repeated measures analysis. Results: A significant increase was detected in the markers of HR, SP and DP after exercise in obese children with asthma and healthy children (P< 0.005. However, indexes of cardiorespiratory and exhaustion was significantly higher in obese children with asthma and healthy during exercise in the environment with 65 ± 5% relative humidity, as compared to 35 ± 5% relative humidity. Conclusion: These results indicated that cardiorespiratory function in children with asthma and healthy children were different. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in children are influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity, so that humidity has a negative impact on the duration of the activity and load on the heart muscle.

  16. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

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    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS, 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS, and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization. From the collected heart sounds, relative power of the frequency band, energy of the sinusoid formants, and entropy were extracted. PAH subjects were differentiated by applying the linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation. The entropy of the first sinusoid formant decreased significantly in subjects with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg versus subjects with a mPAp < 25 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 88.57%, within a 10-s optimized window length for heart sounds recorded at the 2LICS. First sinusoid formant entropy reduction of heart sounds in PAH subjects suggests the existence of a vowel-like pattern. Pattern analysis revealed a unique sound signature, which could be used in non-invasive screening tools.

  17. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions

  18. Frequency of temporomandibular joint dysfunction with clicking symptom due to primary molar premature loss in children aged 6-12 years old

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    Riana Hestu Laksitowati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint dysfunction with clicking symptom is sound “click” when open and close the mouth. The purpose of this study was to obtain the description of the frequency of temporomandibular joint dysfunction with clicking symptom caused by premature loss of primary molar teeth in children aged 6-12 years old at SDIT Imam Bukhari. The study was a descriptive survey, 136 students as samples were taken by purposive sampling technique. Premature loss of primary molar teeth examined by checking up the first and second primary molars upper and lower jaw using the hand mirror and explorer. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction examined by palpation and using a stethoscope. The result of this study showed that from 136 students having premature loss there are 49 students (36,03% had temporomandibular joint dysfunction with clicking symptom. The conclusion of this study indicates that more than one-fourth students at SDIT Imam Bukhari with premature loss of primary molar teeth had temporomandibular joint dysfunction with clicking symptom.

  19. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

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    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  20. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1995-01-01

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method

  1. Transcranial doppler: Technique and common findings (Part 1

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    Lokesh Bathala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler (TCD can be aptly called as the doctor′s stethoscope of the brain. Since its introduction in 1982, by Rune Aaslid, TCD has evolved as a diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic tool. During evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke, TCD combined with cervical duplex ultrasonography provides physiological information on the cerebral hemodynamics, which is often complementary to structural imaging. Currently, TCD is the only diagnostic tool that can provide real time information about cerebral hemodynamics and can detect embolization to the cerebral vessels. TCD is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and bedside tool for obtaining information regarding the collateral flow across various branches of the circle of Willis in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. Advanced applications of TCD help in the detection of right-to-left shunts, vasomotor reactivity, diagnosis, and monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. This article describes the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD insonation methods, for detecting the flow in intracranial vessels in addition to the normal and abnormal spectral flow patterns.

  2. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  3. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

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    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  4. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B. E-mail: eclan@alsace.u-strasbg.fr; Prat, V

    1999-06-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients.

  5. HUBUNGAN ANTARA TINGKAT KEPARAHAN GANGGUAN SENDI TEMPOROMANDIBULA DAN PERBEDAAN KARAKTERISTIK BUNYI SENDI TEMPOROMANDIBULA (Suatu analisis menggunakan perangkat lunak audio editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marpaung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joint sound is one of the signs of the temporomandibular joint disorder and its characteristics are thought to be able to establish the gravity of the disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the sound characteristics – its pitch and intensity – and the gravity of the temporomandibular joint disorder. The subjects of this research were 54 students who fulfilled the criteria included in the basic questionnaire which was distributed among all the 4th and 6th semester dental students of Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia. The gravity of the disorder was obtained from the subjective as well as the objective examination, using Helkimo index. 108 joint sound samples of the left and right joint were recorded during opening and closing movement of the mandible, using a modified stethoscope which was connected to a personal computer. The analysis of the joint sound characteristics was done with audio analysis software Cool Edit 2000. A one way anova test showed a significant relation between the gravity of the disorder was equivalent to the intensity of the sound. However there was no significant relation between the joint sound pitch and the gravity of the temporomandibular joint disorder. It was concluded that the joint sound intensity was worthy of further study as a sign of diagnostic value.

  6. Are our subcenters equipped enough to provide primary health care to the community: A study to explore the gaps in workforce and infrastructure in the subcenters from North India

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    M A Bashar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Sub-Centre (SC is most peripheral and first point of contact between the primary healthcare system and the community in the rural areas. The success of any nationwide program largely depends on well-functioning SCs providing services of acceptable standards to people. Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS for SCs was prepared keeping in view the minimum standards required to provide quality and need sensitive health care to the community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ambala District of Haryana to assess the availability of physical infrastructure, manpower, drugs and equipment in the SCs. A total of 30 SCs from a rural block was selected. The data was statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The deficiencies in the availability of health workers male and female were found to be 66.6% and 50%, respectively. The residential facility for health workers was available only in 33.3% SCs but none being utilized. Although labour room with labour table was present in half of the Sub Centers, the deliveries were found to be conducted in none of those. Only 40% and 26.6% of SCs had stethoscope and functional B.P apparatus. The availability of essential drugs and equipment was also poor. Conclusion: The physical infrastructure and manpower availability at the SCs needs considerable improvement as per the Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS. Poor availability of essential drugs and equipment needs to be addressed at the earliest.

  7. A framework for automatic heart sound analysis without segmentation

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    Tungpimolrut Kanokvate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new framework for heart sound analysis is proposed. One of the most difficult processes in heart sound analysis is segmentation, due to interference form murmurs. Method Equal number of cardiac cycles were extracted from heart sounds with different heart rates using information from envelopes of autocorrelation functions without the need to label individual fundamental heart sounds (FHS. The complete method consists of envelope detection, calculation of cardiac cycle lengths using auto-correlation of envelope signals, features extraction using discrete wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and classification using neural network bagging predictors. Result The proposed method was tested on a set of heart sounds obtained from several on-line databases and recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Geometric mean was used as performance index. Average classification performance using ten-fold cross-validation was 0.92 for noise free case, 0.90 under white noise with 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and 0.90 under impulse noise up to 0.3 s duration. Conclusion The proposed method showed promising results and high noise robustness to a wide range of heart sounds. However, more tests are needed to address any bias that may have been introduced by different sources of heart sounds in the current training set, and to concretely validate the method. Further work include building a new training set recorded from actual patients, then further evaluate the method based on this new training set.

  8. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  9. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disfunction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masitoh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to get the description on TMJ dysfunction as well as its symptoms including clicking, crepitation, jaw opening restriction and muscle pain in children. Thus the result can be used as an input to the program of TMJ dysfunction prevention and treatment for the children in SDN Sirnasari Village, Ciptasari Pamulihan Subdistrict, Sumedang District. This study is descriptive study using survey technique. The samples for the study are 79 children in elementary school taken by random sampling technique with stratification. TMJ dysfunctions with clicking and crepitation symptoms were detected by palpating and using a stethoscope. Deviation, deflection, and jaw opening restriction symptoms were found out by visual examination. Whereas pain in TMJ supporting muscles was also detected by palpating. The result of the study shows that the number of children developing TMJ dysfunction with symptom of clicking is 34 children (43.03%, crepitation are 4 children (5.06%, deviation are 13 children (16.45%, deflection are 17 children (21.51%, jaw opening restriction are 49 children (62.02%, and pain in TMJ supporting muscles are 69 children (87.34%. From the study, it can be concluded that the highest frequency of TMJ dysfunction symptom in SDN Sirnasari children is a pain in TMJ supporting muscles. It is followed by jaw opening restriction, clicking, deflection, deviation, and the last is crepitation.

  10. Wireless ECG and PCG Portable Telemedicine Kit for Rural Areas of Colombia

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    Miguel Jimeno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is always a popular topic thanks to the constants advancements of technology. The focus on development of new devices has been mainly on decreasing size to increase portability. Our research focused on improving functionality but not giving up on portability and cost. In this paper we are presenting the first prototype device that measures 4-leads electrocardiogram (ECG and phonocardiogram (PCG signals with low cost, high portability and wireless connectivity features in mind. We designed and developed a prototype that measures ECG using a standard ECG cable; we designed and developed a digital stethoscope prototype and also the necessary hardware for both medical signals to be transmitted through Bluetooth to a computer. We present here the hardware design, a new communication protocol for transmission of both signals from the device to the computer, and the software system to enable remote consultations. We designed the prototype with the main purpose of using low cost parts without sacrificing functionality, with the purpose of using it in remote zones of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We show open issues and prepare a field implementation of the kit in the target zone.

  11. Essential Segmental Myoclonus Responding Well To Fluoxetine A case Report

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    Bhattacharyya K B

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of essential segmental myoclonus a 10 year old girl who presented with continuing movement of both the shoulder girdle muscles for 6 months. The movements were exacerbated with the hands raised above the head or in the outstretched posture and were persisting during sleep. There was no abnormal palatal movement. Additionally there was a rhythmical clicking sound arising from the shoulders that could be felt and ausculated with the stethoscope. CT scan of brain and MRI of cervical spine were non-contributory, EMG showed muscle activates at about 50 per second in the shoulder girdle muscles. Cine-radiography of shoulder joints showed the head of humerus hitting against the spine of the scapula rhythmically. Spinal tap was non-contributory. The diagnosis or essential segmental myoclonus was entertained and the subject with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with remarkable response. The possible mechanism of action of agents modulating the serotonergic system in the brain for the management of myoclonus has been reviewed and their role suggested.

  12. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M [Signal and Imaging Processing and Tele-Medicine Technology Research Group, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2006-04-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  13. Telemedicine networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America

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    Ignacio ePrieto-Egido

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate healthcare services. This paper explains research results achieved by EHAS (Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud - Hispano American Health Link and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the healthcare services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned.

  14. BRAIN DEATH DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Machado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  15. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method.

  16. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B.; Prat, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients

  17. The history of thoracic surgical instruments and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, E J; Mann, C; Galibert, L A; Steichen, F M

    2000-02-01

    Thoracic surgical practice has evolved from the innovations of its pioneers. Beginning with the stethoscope discovered by Laënnec with his system of auscultation, to the tools we use in the dissection and control of the hilum of the lung for resection, our practice of thoracic surgery has been entwined with the development of instruments and instrumentation. The development of strategies to prevent death from the open pneumothorax began with manual control of the mediastinum and progressed through differential pressure to, finally, the technique of intubation and the methods of positive-pressure and insufflation anesthesia. The instruments we place in our hands are not enough to define our art. Entry into the chest would not be possible without the use of rib retractors, rib shears, and even periosteal elevators. Finally, to the present day of minimally invasive techniques and the application of thoracoscopy for therapeutic purposes, we find the efforts of our predecessors well developed. For the progression from the fear of the open pneumothorax to the present-day state of the ease of thoracotomy for lung resection we are indebted to those who gave so much of their time and, for some, their lives to death from tuberculosis, to allow the advancement of our practice of surgery. These great people should be remembered not only for their acceptance of novel ideas but also, more importantly, for their lack of fear of testing them.

  18. Distribution of craniomandibular disorders, occlusal factors and oral parafunctions in a paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, G; Tartaro, G; Giudice, A; Diomajuta, A

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this work was to gather clinical data on craniomandibular (CMD)/temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders in a paediatric population. The clinical study population comprised patients with TMJ disorders who were being treated in the orthognathic ambulatory clinic of the University of Naples, where an instrumental and clinical study was performed. Data were recorded for extra and intraoral findings, Angles classification and malocclusions. Radiographic examinations were carried out. Study models were fabricated for evaluation. TMJs were assessed by palpation as well as masseter, temporal, suprahyoid, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, paravertebral and trapezius muscles to evaluate any possible pain. Auscultation of the TMJ was used to determine presence of articular sounds and their type (cracks, crunches, clicks) by the use of a stethoscope. Pain localisation was evaluated according to these movements taking into account site, intensity, frequency, and duration. Episodes of headache were recorded according to its intensity (mild, moderate, intense), frequency (daily, weekly, monthly), site (top of the head, occiput, temple, frontal, overorbital region, back of the head) and the duration of the episodes (in minutes, hours or whether constant). A substantial number of the 106 patients included in the study showed a malocclusion with prevalence in Angles Class II cases. Bruxism, onychophagy, TMJ pain, headache, mouth opening partial inability, mastication difficulty and articular sound were the most representative symptoms. The identification and recognition of factors, such as malocclusions and parafunctions, are considered fundamental to early diagnosis of TMJ problems, which is the most useful way to avoid a dysfunctional state of the stomatognathic system.

  19. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  20. Application of semi-supervised deep learning to lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Daniel; Kodgule, Rahul; Ganelin, Daniela; Miglani, Vivek; Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of lung sounds, collected through auscultation, is a fundamental component of pulmonary disease diagnostics for primary care and general patient monitoring for telemedicine. Despite advances in computation and algorithms, the goal of automated lung sound identification and classification has remained elusive. Over the past 40 years, published work in this field has demonstrated only limited success in identifying lung sounds, with most published studies using only a small numbers of patients (typically Ndeep learning algorithm for automatically classify lung sounds from a relatively large number of patients (N=284). Focusing on the two most common lung sounds, wheeze and crackle, we present results from 11,627 sound files recorded from 11 different auscultation locations on these 284 patients with pulmonary disease. 890 of these sound files were labeled to evaluate the model, which is significantly larger than previously published studies. Data was collected with a custom mobile phone application and a low-cost (US$30) electronic stethoscope. On this data set, our algorithm achieves ROC curves with AUCs of 0.86 for wheeze and 0.74 for crackle. Most importantly, this study demonstrates how semi-supervised deep learning can be used with larger data sets without requiring extensive labeling of data.

  1. Synthesis of vibroarthrographic signals in knee osteoarthritis diagnosis training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chin-Shiuh; Tseng, Chin-Dar; Chang, Li-Yun; Lin, Wei-Chun; Wu, Li-Fu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chiu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Tsair-Fwu

    2016-07-19

    Vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals are used as useful indicators of knee osteoarthritis (OA) status. The objective was to build a template database of knee crepitus sounds. Internships can practice in the template database to shorten the time of training for diagnosis of OA. A knee sound signal was obtained using an innovative stethoscope device with a goniometer. Each knee sound signal was recorded with a Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade. The sound signal was segmented according to the goniometer data. The signal was Fourier transformed on the correlated frequency segment. An inverse Fourier transform was performed to obtain the time-domain signal. Haar wavelet transform was then done. The median and mean of the wavelet coefficients were chosen to inverse transform the synthesized signal in each KL category. The quality of the synthesized signal was assessed by a clinician. The sample signals were evaluated using different algorithms (median and mean). The accuracy rate of the median coefficient algorithm (93 %) was better than the mean coefficient algorithm (88 %) for cross-validation by a clinician using synthesis of VAG. The artificial signal we synthesized has the potential to build a learning system for medical students, internships and para-medical personnel for the diagnosis of OA. Therefore, our method provides a feasible way to evaluate crepitus sounds that may assist in the diagnosis of knee OA.

  2. Effect of treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with cervicogenic headache: a single-blind, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, Harry; Lüdtke, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    The present study was comprised of 43 patients (16 men) with cervicogenic headaches for over three months, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diagnostic Criteria of Headaches (ICDH-II). The patients were randomly assigned to receive either manual therapy for the cervical region (usual care group) or additional manual therapy techniques to the temporomandibular region to additionally influence temporomandibular disorders (TMD). All patients were assessed prior to treatment, after six sessions of treatment, and at a six-month follow-up. The outcome criteria were: intensity of headaches measured on a colored analog scale, the Neck Disability Index (Dutch version), the Conti Anamnestic Questionnaire, noise registration at the mandibular joint using a stethoscope, the Graded Chronic Pain Status (Dutch version), mandibular deviation, range of mouth opening, and pressure/pain threshold of the masticatory muscles. The results indicate in the studied sample of cervicogenic headache patients, 44.1% had TMD. The group that received additional temporomandibular manual therapy techniques showed significantly decreased headache intensities and increased neck function after the treatment period. These improvements persisted during the treatment-free period (follow-up) and were not observed in the usual care group. This trend was also reflected on the questionnaires and the clinical temporomandibular signs. Based on these observations, we strongly believe that treatment of the temporomandibular region has beneficial effects for patients with cervicogenic headaches, even in the long-term.

  3. Social supports and mental health: a cross-sectional study on the correlation of self-consistency and congruence in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, YanMei; Hu, Jie; Hu, YaPing; Wang, JianRong

    2016-06-28

    Psychosocial job characteristics require nursing staff with high self-consistency and good mental health. However, the attention and effort of such study remained very limited in China. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the bedside nurses in an affiliated hospital of Hebei Medical University, China. Of 218 registered bedside nurses eligible to participate in the survey anonymously, the data producing sample of 172 subjects resulted in a 79 % of effective response rate.. The Social Support Rating Scale was used to measure social support, and the Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale were used to measure mental health. Compared with the normal referenced group of college students, higher self-flexibility scores, lower self-conflict and self-stethoscope scores from the sample group were obtained with statistical significance in self-conflict scores. The close correlations were observed between participants' social support and Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale score. The difference of Social Support Rating Scale score was significant in demographic features including years of work, marital status, only child family, and levels of cooperation with other health worker. Bedside nurses in this study show a better inner harmony, and their Self-Consistency and Congruence closely correlates with the levels of social support. Thus, it is substantial to improve inner perception of support and external factors, such as the workplace support, and offer beneficial social environment to improve the bedside nurse's sub-health symptoms and decrease the high turnover rate.

  4. Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Sato

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility.

  5. Heated wire humidification circuit attenuates the decrease of core temperature during general anesthesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyong; Yoon, Seok-Hwa; Youn, Ann Misun; Song, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Ja Gyung

    2017-12-01

    Intraoperative hypothermia is common in patients undergoing general anesthesia during arthroscopic hip surgery. In the present study, we assessed the effect of heating and humidifying the airway with a heated wire humidification circuit (HHC) to attenuate the decrease of core temperature and prevent hypothermia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery under general anesthesia. Fifty-six patients scheduled for arthroscopic hip surgery were randomly assigned to either a control group using a breathing circuit connected with a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) (n = 28) or an HHC group using a heated wire humidification circuit (n = 28). The decrease in core temperature was measured from anesthetic induction and every 15 minutes thereafter using an esophageal stethoscope. Decrease in core temperature from anesthetic induction to 120 minutes after induction was lower in the HHC group (-0.60 ± 0.27℃) compared to the control group (-0.86 ± 0.29℃) (P = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia or the incidence of shivering in the postanesthetic care unit. The use of HHC may be considered as a method to attenuate intraoperative decrease in core temperature during arthroscopic hip surgery performed under general anesthesia and exceeding 2 hours in duration.

  6. Ocean array alters view of Atlantic conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornei, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Oceanographers have put a stethoscope on the coursing circulatory system of the Atlantic Ocean, and they have found a skittish pulse that's surprisingly strong in the waters east of Greenland—discoveries that should improve climate models. The powerful currents known as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are an engine in Earth's climate. The AMOC's shallower limbs—which include the Gulf Stream—move warm water from the tropics northward, warming Western Europe. In the north, the waters cool and sink, forming deeper limbs that transport the cold water back south—and sequester anthropogenic carbon in the process. Last week, at the American Geophysical Union's Ocean Sciences meeting, scientists presented the first data from an array of instruments moored in the subpolar North Atlantic, a $35 million, seven-nation project known as the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP). Since 2004, researchers have gathered data from another array, at 26°N, stretching from Florida to Africa. But OSNAP is the first to monitor the circulation farther north, where a critical aspect of the overturning occurs. The observations reveal unexpected eddies and strong variability in the AMOC currents. They also show that the currents east of Greenland contribute the most to the total AMOC flow. Climate models, on the other hand, have emphasized the currents west of Greenland in the Labrador Sea.

  7. Temporomandibular disorders in young people with an intellectual disability: prevalence of signs and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanboga, I; Durhan, M A; Durmus, B; Marks, L A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to TMJ disorders in a group of young people with intelectual disability (ID) and a matched group of healthy adolescents. A group of 105 young Special Olympics (SO) athletes (ID group) aged from 14 to 25 years and a control group were examined for the presence or absence of signs and symptoms of TMD through interview and clinical examination. A total of 64 young people with ID (61%) had at least one sign of TMD compared to 41 (39%) of the individuals screened that was free of any TMD symptoms. A significantly higher prevalence of TMJ sounds (palpation and stethoscope), TMJ tenderness, maximum vertical opening, headaches were observed among SO athletes compared to the healthy control group (pdisabled patients and a possible cause of pain that should be examined more in detail. We suggest that oral screening in people with a mental disability should be modified by including basic TMJ examination parameters in order to allow better understanding of the pathological aspects so as to address effective preventive and therapeutic measures.

  8. Telemedicine Versus Face-to-Face Evaluations by Respiratory Therapists of Mechanically Ventilated Neonates and Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rebecca C; Yager, Phoebe H; Clark, Maureen E; Roumiantsev, Serguei; Venancio, Heather L; Chipman, Daniel W; Kacmarek, Robert M; Noviski, Natan N

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical ventilation is one of the most important therapeutic interventions in neonatal and pediatric ICUs. Telemedicine has been shown to reliably extend pediatric intensivist expertise to facilities where expertise is limited. If reliable, telemedicine may extend the reach of pediatric respiratory therapists (RTs) to facilities where expertise does not exist or free up existing RT resources for important face-to-face activities in facilities where expertise is limited. The aim of this study was to determine how well respiratory assessments for ventilated neonates and children correlated when performed simultaneously by 2 RTs face-to-face and via telemedicine. We conducted a pilot study including 40 assessments by 16 RTs on 11 subjects (5 neonatal ICU; 6 pediatric ICU). Anonymously completed intake forms by 2 different RTs concurrently assessing 14 ventilator-derived and patient-based respiratory variables were used to determine correlations. Forty paired assessments were performed. Median telemedicine assessment time was 8 min. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine agreement between continuous data, and the Cohen kappa statistics were used for binary variables. Pressure control, PEEP, breathing frequency, and FIO2 perfectly correlated (r = 1, all P Telemedicine technology was acceptable to RTs. Telemedicine evaluations highly correlated with face-to-face for 10 of 14 aspects of standard bedside respiratory assessment. Poor correlation was noted for more complex, patient-generated parameters, highlighting the importance of further investigation incorporating a virtual stethoscope. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  11. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  12. Pharmaceutical advertising in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A

    2004-04-01

    Promotion of prescription drugs represents a growing source of pharmaceutical marketing expenditures. This study was undertaken to identify the frequency of items containing pharmaceutical advertising in clinical emergency departments (EDs). In this observational study, emergency physician on-site investigators quantified a variety of items containing pharmaceutical advertising present at specified representative times and days, in clinical EDs. Measurements were obtained by 65 on-site investigators, representing 22 states. Most EDs in this study were community EDs (87% community and 14% university or university affiliate), and most were in urban settings (50% urban, 38% suburban, and 13% rural). Investigators measured 42 items per ED (mean = 42; median = 31; interquartile range of 14-55) containing pharmaceutical advertising in the clinical area. The most commonly observed items included pens (mean 15 per ED; median 10), product brochures (mean 5; median 3), stethoscope labels (mean 4; median 2), drug samples (mean 3; median 0), books (mean 3.4), mugs (mean 2.4), and published literature (mean 3.1). EDs with a policy restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED had significantly fewer items containing pharmaceutical advertising (median 7.5; 95% CI = 0 to 27) than EDs without such a policy (median 35; 95% CI = 27 to 47, p = 0.005, nonparametric Wilcoxon two-sample test). There were no differences in quantities of pharmaceutical advertising for EDs in community compared with university settings (p = 0.5), rural compared with urban settings (p = 0.3), or annual ED volumes (p = 0.9). Numerous items containing pharmaceutical advertising are frequently observed in EDs. Policies restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED are associated with reduced pharmaceutical advertising.

  13. Medical informatics--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, T

    1991-06-01

    Computers, like the X-ray and stethoscope can be seen as clinical tools, that provide physicians with improved expertise in solving patient management problems. As tools they enable us to extend our clinical information base, and they also provide facilities that improve the delivery of the health care we provide. Automation (computerisation) in the health domain will cause the computer to become a more integral part of health care management and delivery before the start of the next century. To understand how the computer assists those who deliver and manage health care, it is important to be aware of its functional capabilities and how we can use them in medical practice. The rapid technological advances in computers over the last two decades has had both beneficial and counterproductive effects on the implementation of effective computer applications in the delivery of health care. For example, in the 1990s the computer hobbyist is able to make an investment of less than $10,000 on computer hardware that will match or exceed the technological capacities of machines of the 1960s. These rapid technological advances, which have produced a quantum leap in our ability to store and process information, have tended to make us overlook the need for effective computer programmes which will meet the needs of patient care. As the 1990s begin, those delivering health care (eg, physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators ...) need to become more involved in directing the effective implementation of computer applications that will provide the tools for improved information management, knowledge processing, and ultimately better patient care.

  14. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Computerized respiratory sounds: a comparison between patients with stable and exacerbated COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Cristina; Oliveira, Ana; Marques, Alda

    2017-09-01

    Diagnosis of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is often challenging as it relies on patients' clinical presentation. Computerized respiratory sounds (CRS), namely crackles and wheezes, may have the potential to contribute for the objective diagnosis/monitoring of an AECOPD. This study explored if CRS differ during stable and exacerbation periods in patients with COPD. 13 patients with stable COPD and 14 with AECOPD were enrolled. CRS were recorded simultaneously at trachea, anterior, lateral and posterior chest locations using seven stethoscopes. Airflow (0.4-0.6l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals; crackles and wheezes with validated algorithms. At trachea, anterior and lateral chest, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the number of inspiratory/expiratory crackles or inspiratory wheeze occupation rate. At posterior chest, the number of crackles (median 2.97-3.17 vs. 0.83-1.2, P < 0.001) and wheeze occupation rate (median 3.28%-3.8% vs. 1.12%-1.77%, P = 0.014-0.016) during both inspiration and expiration were significantly higher in patients with AECOPD than in stable patients. During expiration, wheeze occupation rate was also significantly higher in patients with AECOPD at trachea (median 3.12% vs. 0.79%, P < 0.001) and anterior chest (median 3.55% vs. 1.28%, P < 0.001). Crackles and wheezes are more frequent in patients with AECOPD than in stable patients, particularly at posterior chest. These findings suggest that these CRS can contribute to the objective diagnosis/monitoring of AECOPD, which is especially valuable considering that they can be obtained by integrating computerized techniques with pulmonary auscultation, a noninvasive method that is a component of patients' physical examination. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome among Toronto healthcare workers after implementation of infection control precautions: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Gravel, Denise; McDonald, L Clifford; Lem, Marcus; Sarwal, Shelley; McGeer, Allison; Green, Karen; Vearncombe, Mary; Roth, Virginia; Paton, Shirley; Loeb, Mark; Simor, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    To review the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection control practices, the types of exposure to patients with SARS, and the activities associated with treatment of such patients among healthcare workers (HCWs) who developed SARS in Toronto, Canada, after SARS-specific infection control precautions had been implemented. A retrospective review of work logs and patient assignments, detailed review of medical records of patients with SARS, and comprehensive telephone-based interviews of HCWs who met the case definition for SARS after implementation of infection control precautions. Seventeen HCWs from 6 hospitals developed disease that met the case definition for SARS after implementation of infection control precautions. These HCWs had a mean age (+/-SD) of 39+/-2.3 years. Two HCWs were not interviewed because of illness. Of the remaining 15, only 9 (60%) reported that they had received formal infection control training. Thirteen HCWs (87%) were unsure of proper order in which personal protective equipment should be donned and doffed. Six HCWs (40%) reused items (eg, stethoscopes, goggles, and cleaning equipment) elsewhere on the ward after initial use in a room in which a patient with SARS was staying. Use of masks, gowns, gloves, and eyewear was inconsistent among HCWs. Eight (54%) reported that they were aware of a breach in infection control precautions. HCWs reported fatigue due to an increased number and length of shifts; participants worked a median of 10 shifts during the 10 days before onset of symptoms. Seven HCWs were involved in the intubation of a patient with SARS. One HCW died, and the remaining 16 recovered. Multiple factors were likely responsible for SARS in these HCWs, including the performance of high-risk patient care procedures, inconsistent use of personal protective equipment, fatigue, and lack of adequate infection control training.

  17. Respiratory Rate During the First 24 Hours of Life in Healthy Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveiten, Lars; Diep, Lien My; Halvorsen, Thomas; Markestad, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal respiratory rate (RR) is a key symptom of disease in the newborn. The aim of this study was to establish the reference range for RR during the first 24 hours of life in healthy infants born at term. Infants were included at the hospital postnatal ward when time permitted. During sleep or a defined quiet state, RR was counted at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours by placing the bell of a stethoscope in front of the nostrils and mouth for 60 seconds. Data on maternal health, pregnancies, and births were obtained from medical records and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The study included 953 infants. Median RRs were 46 breaths/minute at 2 hours, thereafter 42 to 44 breaths/minute. The 95th percentile was 65 breaths/minute at 2 hours, thereafter 58 to 60 breaths/minute. The fifth percentile was 30 to 32 breaths/minute. Within these limits, the intraindividual variation was wide. The overall mean RR was 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7 to 5.7, P < .001) breaths/minute higher while awake than during sleep, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 4.8, P < .001) breaths/minute higher after heavy meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.4, P < .001) breaths/minute higher in boys than girls. RR did not differ for infants born after vaginal versus cesarean deliveries. The RR percentiles established from this study allow for a scientifically based use of RR when assessing newborn infants born at term. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Novel aspects in diagnostic approach to respiratory patients: is it the time for a new semiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Gino; Smargiassi, Andrea; Mariani, Alberto A; Inchingolo, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Medical approach to patients is a fundamental step to get the correct diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to analyze some aspects of the reasoning process inherent in medical diagnosis in our era. Pathologic signs (anamnestic data, symptoms, semiotics, laboratory and strumental findings) represent informative phenomena to be integrated for inferring a diagnosis. Thus, diagnosis begins with "signs" and finishes in a probability of disease. The abductive reasoning process is the generation of a hypothesis to explain one or more observations (signs) in order to decide between alternative explanations searching the best one. This process is iterative during the diagnostic activity while collecting further observations and it could be creative generating new knowledge about what has not been experienced before. In the clinical setting the abductive process is not only theoretical, conversely the physical exploitation of the patient (palpation, percussion, auscultation) is always crucial. Through this manipulative abduction, new and still unexpressed information is discovered and evaluated and physicians are able "to think through doing" to get the correct diagnosis. Abductive inferential path originates with an emotional reaction (discovery of the signs), step by step explanations are formed and it ends with another emotional reaction (diagnosis). Few bedside instruments are allowed to physicians to amplify their ability to search for signs. Stethoscope is an example. Similarities between ultrasound exploration and percussion can be found. Bedside ultrasonography can be considered an external amplifier of signs, a particular kind of percussion and represents a valid example of abductive manipulation. In this searching for signs doctors act like detectives and sometimes the discovering of a strategic, unsuspected sign during abductive manipulation could represent the key point for the correct diagnosis. This condition is called serendipity. Ultrasound is a powerful tool

  19. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Marco Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Elizabeth Vaz; Nascimento, Osvaldo José Moreira; Gemal, Alberto Esteves; Quintanilha, Giseli; Vasconcelos, Eliana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Werdnig-Hoffmann disease is the most common cause of hypotonia in infants and its prognosis is worse if it is present shortly after delivery. Symmetrical muscular weakness, areflexia, and fasciculations of the tongue are characteristic. The majority of the infants die before two years of age as a consequence of respiratory failure. The present report presents a case in which total intravenous anesthesia was used. This is a 1 year old white female weighing 10 kg, physical status ASA III, with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease diagnosed at two months of age. The patient was a candidate for open gastrostomy, fundus gastroplication, and tracheostomy. After venoclysis, the patient was monitored with cardioscope, non-invasive blood pressure, pulse oximeter, precordial stethoscope, and rectal temperature. She was oxygenated and, after bolus administration of atropine (0.3 mg), boluses of remifentanil (20 microg) and propofol (30 mg) were administered for anesthetic induction. After tracheal intubation, she was ventilated with manual controlled system without CO(2) absorber, Baraka (Mapleson D system), FGF of 4 L.min(-1), and FiO(2) 0.5 (O(2)/N(2)O). Anesthesia was maintained with continuous manual infusion of propofol, 250 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), and remifentanil, 0.3 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). The surgery lasted 150 minutes. The patient regained consciousness 8 minutes after the end of the infusion, ventilating spontaneously. Two hours later, she was transferred to the pediatric unit, being discharged from the hospital on the fourth postoperative day. The choice of anesthetic technique gives priority to the safety associated with the familiarity of handling available drugs. In children with neuromuscular diseases, due to the extremely short duration, total intravenous anesthesia with remifentanil and propofol in infusion systems can have a favorable influence on disease evolution.

  20. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.)

  2. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  3. Analysis of adventitious lung sounds originating from pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K W; Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M M; Diacon, A H

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common and potentially deadly infectious disease, usually affecting the respiratory system and causing the sound properties of symptomatic infected lungs to differ from non-infected lungs. Auscultation is often ruled out as a reliable diagnostic technique for TB due to the random distribution of the infection and the varying severity of damage to the lungs. However, advancements in signal processing techniques for respiratory sounds can improve the potential of auscultation far beyond the capabilities of the conventional mechanical stethoscope. Though computer-based signal analysis of respiratory sounds has produced a significant body of research, there have not been any recent investigations into the computer-aided analysis of lung sounds associated with pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), despite the severity of the disease in many countries. In this paper, respiratory sounds were recorded from 14 locations around the posterior and anterior chest walls of healthy volunteers and patients infected with pulmonary TB. The most significant signal features in both the time and frequency domains associated with the presence of TB, were identified by using the statistical overlap factor (SOF). These features were then employed to train a neural network to automatically classify the auscultation recordings into their respective healthy or TB-origin categories. The neural network yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 73%, but it is believed that automated filtering of the noise in the clinics, more training samples and perhaps other signal processing methods can improve the results of future studies. This work demonstrates the potential of computer-aided auscultation as an aid for the diagnosis and treatment of TB.

  4. Assessment and management of children aged 1-59 months presenting with wheeze, fast breathing, and/or lower chest indrawing; results of a multicentre descriptive study in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, T; Qazi, S; Nisar, Y B; Ansari, S; Maqbool, S; Randhawa, S; Kundi, Z; Asghar, R; Aslam, S

    2004-11-01

    Using current WHO guidelines, children with wheezing are being over prescribed antibiotics and bronchodilators are underutilised. To improve the WHO case management guidelines, more data is needed about the clinical outcome in children with wheezing/pneumonia overlap. In a multicentre prospective study, children aged 1-59 months with auscultatory/audible wheeze and fast breathing and/or lower chest indrawing were screened. Response to up to three cycles of inhaled salbutamol was recorded. The responders were enrolled and sent home on inhaled bronchodilators, and followed up on days 3 and 5. A total of 1622 children with wheeze were screened from May 2001 to April 2002, of which 1004 (61.8%) had WHO defined non-severe and 618 (38.2%) severe pneumonia. Wheeze was audible in only 595 (36.7%) of children. Of 1004 non-severe pneumonia children, 621 (61.8%) responded to up to three cycles of bronchodilator. Of 618 severe pneumonia children, only 166 (26.8%) responded. Among responders, 93 (14.9%) in the non-severe and 63 (37.9%) children in the severe pneumonia group showed subsequent deterioration on follow ups. No family history of wheeze, temperature >100 degrees F, and lower chest indrawing were identified as predictors of subsequent deterioration. Two third of children with wheeze are not identified by current WHO ARI (acute respiratory infections) guidelines. Antibiotics are over prescribed and bronchodilators under utilised in children with wheeze. Children with wheeze constitute a special ARI group requiring a separate management algorithm. In countries where wheeze is common it would be worthwhile to train health workers in use of the stethoscope to identify wheeze.

  5. International perception of lung sounds: a comparison of classification across some European borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Solis, Juan Carlos; Vanbelle, Sophie; Halvorsen, Peder A; Francis, Nick; Cals, Jochen W L; Andreeva, Elena A; Marques, Alda; Piirilä, Päivi; Pasterkamp, Hans; Melbye, Hasse

    2017-01-01

    Lung auscultation is helpful in the diagnosis of lung and heart diseases; however, the diagnostic value of lung sounds may be questioned due to interobserver variation. This situation may also impair clinical research in this area to generate evidence-based knowledge about the role that chest auscultation has in a modern clinical setting. The recording and visual display of lung sounds is a method that is both repeatable and feasible to use in large samples, and the aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver agreement using this method. With a microphone in a stethoscope tube, we collected digital recordings of lung sounds from six sites on the chest surface in 20 subjects aged 40 years or older with and without lung and heart diseases. A total of 120 recordings and their spectrograms were independently classified by 28 observers from seven different countries. We employed absolute agreement and kappa coefficients to explore interobserver agreement in classifying crackles and wheezes within and between subgroups of four observers. When evaluating agreement on crackles (inspiratory or expiratory) in each subgroup, observers agreed on between 65% and 87% of the cases. Conger's kappa ranged from 0.20 to 0.58 and four out of seven groups reached a kappa of ≥0.49. In the classification of wheezes, we observed a probability of agreement between 69% and 99.6% and kappa values from 0.09 to 0.97. Four out of seven groups reached a kappa ≥0.62. The kappa values we observed in our study ranged widely but, when addressing its limitations, we find the method of recording and presenting lung sounds with spectrograms sufficient for both clinic and research. Standardisation of terminology across countries would improve international communication on lung auscultation findings.

  6. The Ottawa telehealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S T; Davies, R F; Smith, K; Marsh, R; Sherrard, H; Keon, W J

    1998-01-01

    To examine the telehealth system as a means of improving access to cardiac consultations and specialized health services in remote areas of Ontario. The University of Ottawa Heart Institute has set up a telehealth test program, Healthcare and Education Access for Remote Residents by Telecommunications (HEARRT), in collaboration with industry and the provincial and federal government, as well as several remote clinical test sites. The program makes off-site cardiology consultations possible. History taking and physical examinations are conducted by video and electronic stethoscope. Laboratory results and echocardiograms are transmitted by document camera and VCR. The technology is being tested in both stable outpatient and emergency situations. Various telecommunications bandwidths and encoding systems are being evaluated, including satellite and terrestrial-based asynchronous transfer-mode circuits. Patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness are also being assessed. Bandwidths from as low as 384 kbps using H.320 encoders to 40 Mbps using digital transport of NTSC video signals have been evaluated. Although lower bandwidths are sufficient for sending echocardiographic and electrocardiogram data, bandwidths with transport speeds of 4 to 6 Mbps appear necessary to capture the nuances of the cardiac physical examination. A preliminary satisfaction survey of 19 patients noted that all felt that they could communicate effectively with the cardiologist by video, and each had confidence in the advice offered. None reported that he or she would rather have traveled to the doctor in person. Initial and projected examination of the costs suggested that telehealth will effectively reduce overall health care spending while decreasing travel expenses for rural patients. Telehealth technology is sufficiently sophisticated to allow off-site cardiology assessments. Preliminary results suggest there is a sound business case for the implementation of telehealth technology to meet

  7. Practical recommendations for performing ultrasound scanning in the urological and andrological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Pasquale; Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Bitelli, Marco; Consonni, Paolo; Fiorini, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Gunelli, Roberta; Liguori, Giovanni; Palazzo, Silvano; Pavan, Nicola; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Virgili, Guido

    2014-03-28

    US scanning has been defined as the urologist's stethoscope. These recommendations have been drawn up with the aim of ensuring minimum standards of excellence for ultrasound imaging in urological and andrological practice. A series of essential recommendations are made, to be followed during ultrasound investigations in kidney, prostate, bladder, scrotal and penile diseases. Members of the Imaging Working Group of the Italian Society of Urology (SIU) in collaboration with the Italian Society of Ultrasound in Urology, Andrology and Nephrology (SIEUN) identified expert Urologists, Andrologists, Nephrologists and Radiologists. The recommendations are based on review of the literature, previously published recommendations, books and the opinions of the experts. The final document was reviewed by national experts, including members of the Italian Society of Radiology. Recommendations are listed in 5 chapters, focused on: kidney, bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles, scrotum and testis, penis, including penile echo-doppler. In each chapter clear definitions are made of: indications, technological standards of the devices, the method of performance of the investigation. The findings to be reported are described and discussed, and examples of final reports for each organ are included. In the tables, the ultrasound features of the principal male uro-genital diseases are summarized. Diagnostic accuracy and second level investigations are considered. Ultrasound is an integral part of the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases of the urinary system and male genitals in patients of all ages, in both the hospital and outpatient setting. These recommendations are dedicated to enhancing communication and evidence-based medicine in an inter- and multi-disciplinary approach. The ability to perform and interpret ultrasound imaging correctly has become an integral part of clinical practice in uro-andrology, but intra and inter-observer variability is a well known limitation. These

  8. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of liquid bridge rupture: Application to lung physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Adriano M.; Wolfe, Elie; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    In the course of certain lung diseases, the surface properties and the amount of fluids coating the airways changes and liquid bridges may form in the small airways blocking the flow of air, impairing gas exchange. During inhalation, these liquid bridges may rupture due to mechanical instability and emit a discrete sound event called pulmonary crackle, which can be heard using a simple stethoscope. We hypothesize that this sound is a result of the acoustical release of energy that had been stored in the surface of liquid bridges prior to its rupture. We develop a lattice gas model capable of describing these phenomena. As a step toward modeling this process, we address a simpler but related problem, that of a liquid bridge between two planar surfaces. This problem has been analytically solved and we use this solution as a validation of the lattice gas model of the liquid bridge rupture. Specifically, we determine the surface free energy and critical stability conditions in a system containing a liquid bridge of volume Ω formed between two parallel planes, separated by a distance 2h , with a contact angle Θ using both Monte Carlo simulation of a lattice gas model and variational calculus based on minimization of the surface area with the volume and the contact angle constraints. In order to simulate systems with different contact angles, we vary the parameters between the constitutive elements of the lattice gas. We numerically and analytically determine the phase diagram of the system as a function of the dimensionless parameters hΩ-1/3 and Θ . The regions of this phase diagram correspond to the mechanical stability and thermodynamical stability of the liquid bridge. We also determine the conditions for the symmetrical versus asymmetrical rupture of the bridge. We numerically and analytically compute the release of free energy during rupture. The simulation results are in agreement with the analytical solution. Furthermore, we discuss the results in connection

  10. Usefulness of the second heart sound for predicting pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Barros Cobra

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: P2 hyperphonesis is considered to be a valuable finding in semiological diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH. The aim here was to evaluate the accuracy of the pulmonary component of second heart sounds for predicting PH in patients with interstitial lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the University of Brasilia and Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. METHODS: Heart sounds were acquired using an electronic stethoscope and were analyzed using phonocardiography. Clinical signs suggestive of PH, such as second heart sound (S2 in pulmonary area louder than in aortic area; P2 > A2 in pulmonary area and P2 present in mitral area, were compared with Doppler echocardiographic parameters suggestive of PH. Sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and positive (LR+ and negative (LR- likelihood ratios were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between S2 or P2 amplitude and PASP (pulmonary artery systolic pressure (P = 0.185 and 0.115; P= 0.13 and 0.34, respectively. Higher S2 in pulmonary area than in aortic area, compared with all the criteria suggestive of PH, showed S = 60%, Sp= 22%; LR+ = 0.7; LR- = 1.7; while P2> A2 showed S= 57%, Sp = 39%; LR+ = 0.9; LR- = 1.1; and P2 in mitral area showed: S= 68%, Sp = 41%; LR+ = 1.1; LR- = 0.7. All these signals together showed: S= 50%, Sp = 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The semiological signs indicative of PH presented low sensitivity and specificity levels for clinically diagnosing this comorbidity.

  11. Carotid artery ultrasonographic assessment in patients from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II with carotid bruits detected by electronic auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur; Cetrullo, Violetta; Sillars, Brett A; Lenzo, Nat; Davis, Wendy A; Davis, Timothy M E

    2014-09-01

    Electronic auscultation appears superior to acoustic auscultation for identifying hemodynamic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotid bruits detected by electronic stethoscope in patients with diabetes are associated with stenoses and increased carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT). Fifty Fremantle Diabetes Study patients (mean±SD age, 73.7±10.0 years; 38.0% males) with a bruit found by electronic auscultation and 50 age- and sex-matched patients with normal carotid sounds were studied. The degree of stenosis and CIMT were assessed from duplex ultrasonography. Patients with a bruit were more likely to have stenosis of ≥50% and CIMT of >1.0 mm than those without (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]=14.0 [1.8-106.5] and 5.3 [1.8-15.3], respectively; both P=0.001). For the six patients with stenosis of ≥70%, five had a bruit, and one (with a known total occlusion) did not (odds ratio=5.0 [0.6-42.8]; P=0.22). The sensitivity and specificity of carotid bruit for stenoses of ≥50% were 88% and 58%, respectively; respective values for stenoses of ≥70% were 83% and 52%. The equivalent negative predictive values were 96% and 98%, and positive predictive values were 30% and 10%, respectively. Electronic recording of carotid sounds for later interpretation is convenient and reliable. Most patients with stenoses had an overlying bruit. Most bruits were false positives, but ultrasonography is justified to document extent of disease; CIMT measurement will identify increased vascular risk in most of these patients. The absence of a bruit was rarely a false-negative finding, suggesting that these patients can usually be reassured that they do not have hemodynamically important stenosis.

  12. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-09-14

    To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds.

  13. Developing a Reference of Normal Lung Sounds in Healthy Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E.; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chavez, Miguel A.; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. Methods 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81 %) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Results Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47 % were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Conclusions Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments. PMID:24943262

  14. Initial Field Test of a Cloud-Based Cardiac Auscultation System to Determine Murmur Etiology in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Lee; Hemmati, Pouya; Pan, J; Yu, Xiaoju; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Tsakistos, Andreas; Zheleva, Bistra; Shao, Weiguang; Ni, Quan

    2017-04-01

    A system for collection, distribution, and long distant, asynchronous interpretation of cardiac auscultation has been developed and field-tested in rural China. We initiated a proof-of-concept test as a critical component of design of a system to allow rural physicians with little experience in evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD) to obtain assistance in diagnosis and management of children with significant heart disease. The project tested the hypothesis that acceptable screening of heart murmurs could be accomplished using a digital stethoscope and internet cloud transmittal to deliver phonocardiograms to an experienced observer. Of the 7993 children who underwent school-based screening in the Menghai District of Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, 149 had a murmur noted by a screener. They had digital heart sounds and phonocardiograms collected with the HeartLink tele auscultation system, and underwent echocardiography by a cardiology resident from the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. The digital phonocardiograms, stored on a cloud server, were later remotely reviewed by a board-certified American pediatric cardiologist. Fourteen of these subjects were found to have CHD confirmed by echocardiogram. Using the HeartLink system, the pediatric cardiologist identified 11 of the 14 subjects with pathological murmurs, and missed three subjects with atrial septal defects, which were incorrectly identified as venous hum or Still's murmur. In addition, ten subjects were recorded as having pathological murmurs, when no CHD was confirmed by echocardiography during the field study. The overall test accuracy was 91% with 78.5% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of differentiating pathologic murmurs due to CHD from normal functional heart murmurs with the HeartLink system. This field study is an initial step to develop a cost-effective CHD screening strategy in low

  15. Microbiological burden in air culture at various units of a tertiary care government hospital in Nepal

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    Binaya Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The environmental matrices (water, air, and surfaces play a vital role as reservoirs of Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas spp.. Hence, hospital environment control procedures are effective measures for reducing nosocomial infections. Aims This study was carried out to explore the profiles of microorganisms in air culture at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal between January and September 2015 to explore the microbiological burden in inanimate objects. Each week one ward or unit was selected for the study. Bed, tap, the entire room, trolley, computer, phone, rack handles, table, chair, door, stethoscope, oxygen mask, gown, cupboard handles, and wash basins were selected for air culture testing. Ten different wards/units and 77 locations/pieces of equipment were selected for air culture by employing a simple random sampling technique. Information about the organisms was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 (IBM: Armonk, NY and descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Micrococcus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most commonly detected organisms. In the postoperative ward, S. aureus was the most frequently detected microorganism. Micrococcus was detected in four out of 10 locations. In the x-ray unit, S. aureus was detected in three out of four locations. Conclusion S. aureus, Micrococcus, CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected.

  16. Non-proximate mass spectrometry using a heated 1-m long PTFE tube and an air-tight APCI ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T.; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Wada, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Masaya; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device. Analytes were ionized by an ac corona discharge located at 1.5 mm from the inlet of the mass spectrometer. By using the airtight ion source, all the ionized gas in the ion source was introduced into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer via only the evacuation of the mass spectrometer (1.6 l min"−"1). Sub-pg limits of detection were obtained for carbaryl and trinitrotoluene. Owing to its flexibility and high sensitivity, the sniffing tube coupled with a mass spectrometer can be used as the stethoscope for the high-sensitive gas analysis. The experimental results obtained for drugs, hydrogen peroxide and small alkanes were discussed by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Non-proximate mass spectrometry for the trace-level gas analysis was developed. • Using a 1-m long flexible PTFE tube, it can be applicable to complicated-shape real-world samples. • By atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the airtight ion source, sub-pg limits of detection were attained. • Adsorption of less-volatility compounds was negligible with the tube temperature at 130° C. • Novel experimental results obtained were fully examined by density functional theory calculations.

  17. Treatment Effects of Maxillary Flat Occlusal Splints for Painful Clicking of the Temporomandibular Joint

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    Sung-Wen Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing therapies for symptoms related to painful clicking of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ have rarely met with complete success and predicting prognosis remains difficult. Few studies have reported the efficacy of maxillary flat occlusal splints (MFOSs for the treatment of painful clicking of the TMJ, and few studies have evaluated the predisposing factors that influence the clinical outcomes of MFOSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment efficacy of MFOSs for painful clicking of the TMJ, and to determine the factors influencing TMJ therapy with MFOSs. We conducted a retrospective study of 109 patients suffering from unilateral clicking concurrent with preauricular area pain for at least 2 months between 2004 and 2008. Seventy-five patients were treated with an MFOS, while 34 patients did not receive MFOS therapy. Clicking score, pain-free maximal mouth opening, pain score, duration of the clicking sounds, age and bruxism were recorded during treatment and involved into the reviews. The degree of joint clicking was determined by a stethoscope placed in the anterolateral area of the external auditory canal and was divided into four grades. Data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test. Results showed statistically significant differences in treatment outcomes between the MFOS-treated and control groups in clicking index, maximal mouth opening, pain and complete remission rates of symptoms within 1 year. Furthermore, for patients treated with MFOS, there were statistically significant differences in the clinical outcomes between those with a high clicking index and those with a low index before treatment. Factors significantly correlated with successful outcomes of MFOS included nocturnal bruxism, patient age and duration of clicking. MFOSs can be used to treat patients with painful clicking of the TMJ and related symptoms. The severity of clicking, bruxism, age and duration of

  18. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

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    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  19. Practical recommendations for performing ultrasound scanning in the urological and andrological fields

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    Pasquale Martino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: US scanning has been defined as the urologist’s stethoscope. These recommendations have been drawn up with the aim of ensuring minimum standards of excellence for ultrasound imaging in urological and andrological practice. A series of essential recommendations are made, to be followed during ultrasound investigations in kidney, prostate, bladder, scrotal and penile diseases. Methods: Members of the Imaging Working Group of the Italian Society of Urology (SIU in collaboration with the Italian Society of Ultrasound in Urology, Andrology and Nephrology (SIEUN identified expert Urologists, Andrologists, Nephrologists and Radiologists. The recommendations are based on review of the literature, previously published recommendations, books and the opinions of the experts. The final document was reviewed by national experts, including members of the Italian Society of Radiology. Results: Recommendations are listed in 5 chapters, focused on: kidney, bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles, scrotum and testis, penis, including penile echo-doppler. In each chapter clear definitions are made of: indications, technological standards of the devices, the method of performance of the investigation. The findings to be reported are described and discussed, and examples of final reports for each organ are included. In the tables, the ultrasound features of the principal male uro-genital diseases are summarized. Diagnostic accuracy and second level investigations are considered. Conclusions: Ultrasound is an integral part of the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases of the urinary system and male genitals in patients of all ages, in both the hospital and outpatient setting. These recommendations are dedicated to enhancing communication and evidence-based medicine in an inter- and multi-disciplinary approach. The ability to perform and interpret ultrasound imaging correctly has become an integral part of clinical practice in uro-andrology, but intra and inter

  20. Differences in adaptation to tropical weather between buffaloes and cattle

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    Wang Shi Chang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty buffaloes and twenty Vietnamese yellow cattle from peri-urban Hue city were kept indoor and used for measurement of effect of environmental temperature (To and humidity (H%. The To and H% were recorded by thermo-hygrometers for temperature and humidity index (THI measurement. Breathing rate was observed by moving rate of diaphragm, heart beat rhythms was calculated by stethoscope around 3 to 4 ribs and body To tested by 42oC thermo-meters in animal rectums. The results showed that the To in the area studied varied widely during the day and when To increased H% often decreased. During the study period the average To changed from 24oC in February to 39oC in May. The H% varied from 57 to 86. The environmental To and H% had very little effect on body To for both types of animals (37oC to 39oC but there were changes in heart beat from 42 to 45 in cattle but from 44 to 57 in buffaloes. In warmest period with high H% (THI 83 breathing rates in cattle varied from 18 to 21 while in buffaloes from 20 to 35 and in May it increased to 50. At the warmest time of the day the heart beat in cattle were 42 while in buffaloes 57. The breathing rate in cattle only increased when ambient To was above 39 degrees. The results clearly showed that buffaloes were easily stressed when To and H% increased. Buffaloes need water and swamps to help to avoid heat stress while indigenous cattle are much better adapted to high environmental To and H%.

  1. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction with ionic sup(113m)In and a cardiac probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Harrison, K.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a cardiac probe (Nuclear Stethoscope. Bios Inc., Valhalla, New York) and sup(113m)In in 28 normal subjects and 86 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 20 normal subjects sup(99m)TC-RBCs were compared with sup(113m)In, which binds to transferrin after IV injection. With sup(99m)Tc-RBCs average LVEF was 57+-7% (1 SD); with sup(113m)In, average LEVF was 55+-8% (N.S.). Sequential measurements at different times over 60 min revealed good reproducibility. Comparison of LVEF's obtained using sup(99m)Tc-RBCs with a gamma camera and cardiac probe revealed a good correlation. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 in 25 patients with CAD and 0.95 in 10 patients with LV wall motion abnormalities. The LVEF obtained using a cardiac probe and sup(113m)In increased in 28 normals from 57+-9% to 64+-13% (P<0.001) during handgrip exercise, while the LVEF decreased from 45+-9% to 41+-10% (P<0.01) in patients with acute myocardial infarction 4-7 weeks after episode, from 48+-11 to 40+-12% (P<0.001) in patients with old myocardial infarction, and from 52+-9 to 42+-9% (P<0.001) in patients with angina pectoris. The cardiac probe and sup(113m)In provide a useful alternate means of determining left ventricular dysfunction in facilities where sup(99m)Tc and a gamma camera computer system are not readily available.

  2. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

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    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  3. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction with ionic sup(113m)In and a cardiac probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Harrison, K.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a cardiac probe (Nuclear Stethoscope. Bios Inc., Valhalla, New York) and sup(113m)In in 28 normal subjects and 86 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 20 normal subjects sup(99m)TC-RBCs were compared with sup(113m)In, which binds to transferrin after IV injection. With sup(99m)Tc-RBCs average LVEF was 57+-7% (1 SD); with sup(113m)In, average LEVF was 55+-8% (N.S.). Sequential measurements at different times over 60 min revealed good reproducibility. Comparison of LVEF's obtained using sup(99m)Tc-RBCs with a gamma camera and cardiac probe revealed a good correlation. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 in 25 patients with CAD and 0.95 in 10 patients with LV wall motion abnormalities. The LVEF obtained using a cardiac probe and sup(113m)In increased in 28 normals from 57+-9% to 64+-13% (P<0.001) during handgrip exercise, while the LVEF decreased from 45+-9% to 41+-10% (P<0.01) in patients with acute myocardial infarction 4-7 weeks after episode, from 48+-11 to 40+-12% (P<0.001) in patients with old myocardial infarction, and from 52+-9 to 42+-9% (P<0.001) in patients with angina pectoris. The cardiac probe and sup(113m)In provide a useful alternate means of determining left ventricular dysfunction in facilities where sup(99m)Tc and a gamma camera computer system are not readily available. (orig.)

  4. Phono-spectrographic analysis of heart murmur in children

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    Angerla Anna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 90% of heart murmurs in children are innocent. Frequently the skills of the first examiner are not adequate to differentiate between innocent and pathological murmurs. Our goal was to evaluate the value of a simple and low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs in children and in distinguishing innocent systolic murmurs from pathological. Methods The system consisting of an electronic stethoscope and a multimedia laptop computer was used for the recording, monitoring and analysis of auscultation findings. The recorded sounds were examined graphically and numerically using combined phono-spectrograms. The data consisted of heart sound recordings from 807 pediatric patients, including 88 normal cases without any murmur, 447 innocent murmurs and 272 pathological murmurs. The phono-spectrographic features of heart murmurs were examined visually and numerically. From this database, 50 innocent vibratory murmurs, 25 innocent ejection murmurs and 50 easily confusable, mildly pathological systolic murmurs were selected to test whether quantitative phono-spectrographic analysis could be used as an accurate screening tool for systolic heart murmurs in children. Results The phono-spectrograms of the most common innocent and pathological murmurs were presented as examples of the whole data set. Typically, innocent murmurs had lower frequencies (below 200 Hz and a frequency spectrum with a more harmonic structure than pathological cases. Quantitative analysis revealed no significant differences in the duration of S1 and S2 or loudness of systolic murmurs between the pathological and physiological systolic murmurs. However, the pathological murmurs included both lower and higher frequencies than the physiological ones (p Conclusion Phono-spectrographic analysis improves the accuracy of primary heart murmur evaluation and educates inexperienced listener

  5. Use of Wavelet Transform to Detect Compensated and Decompensated Stages in the Congestive Heart Failure Patient

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    Pratibha Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at improving health care, reducing cost, and the occurrence of emergency hospitalization in patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF by analyzing heart and lung sounds to distinguish between the compensated and decompensated states. Compensated state defines stable state of the patient but with lack of retention of fluids in lungs, whereas decompensated state leads to unstable state of the patient with lots of fluid retention in the lungs, where the patient needs medication. Acoustic signals from the heart and the lung were analyzed using wavelet transforms to measure changes in the CHF patient’s status from the decompensated to compensated and vice versa. Measurements were taken on CHF patients diagnosed to be in compensated and decompensated states by using a digital stethoscope and electrocardiogram (ECG in order to monitor their progress in the management of their disease. Analysis of acoustic signals of the heart due to the opening and closing of heart valves as well as the acoustic signals of the lungs due to respiration and the ECG signals are presented. Fourier, short-time Fourier, and wavelet transforms are evaluated to determine the best method to detect shifts in the status of a CHF patient. The power spectra obtained through the Fourier transform produced results that differentiate the signals from healthy people and CHF patients, while the short-time Fourier transform (STFT technique did not provide the desired results. The most promising results were obtained by using wavelet analysis. Wavelet transforms provide better resolution, in time, for higher frequencies, and a better resolution, in frequency, for lower frequencies.

  6. Study of Influence Muscular Progressive Relaxation on Blood Pressure Elderly Primary Hypertensive Clients that Resident in Kahrizak Home for Aged,1383

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    Saeed Hamidi-Zadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypertension is a chronic problem and most common cardiovascular disease. Whenever in this study carried out no drugs therapy and effect of progressive relaxation therapy on elderly hypertensive cliens. Materials & Methods: This study was a quasi experimental research that was conducted in two groups of control and experiment in order to evaluating efficacy and feasibility of progressive muscle relaxation on blood pressure of elderly subject with mild and moderate hypertension, residing at kahrizak charity foundation for elderly, in the year of 2005. fifty five elderly men and woman hypertensive (27 experiment and 28 control were randomly studied Equipments for data collection were, client demographic questionnaire, check list of BP and recorder, sphygmomanometer, stethoscope. For then experimental group progressive musele relaxation was performed in 20 minutes sessions, three weekly for 6 weeks were calculated and compared with control group. Statically analysis was done help of SPSS. Results: Mann- Whitney test showed that systolic blood pressure and diaatolic blood pressure in the both groups before the intervention was similar (p<0.05. Same test indicated that both stages of means, was significant differnce of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between both groups(p<0.05 , and Wilcox on test also , showed a significant difference in decline of blood pressure after the intervention(p<0.05 in the experimental groups and reversely the same test showed a significant difference berween, before and after intervention in control group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Consequently the hypothesis of this study progressive musele relaxation (PMR declines the blood pressure in subjects practieing this program. Comparing to the control group, such hyporthesis was confirmed.

  7. Influence of low stress handling during clinical visit on physiological and behavioural indicators in adult dogs: a preliminary study

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    Bruno Scalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low stress handling techniques or “Fear Free principles” in veterinary clinics are becoming an important research area aimed at improving small animal welfare, considering that the majority of dogs who undergo clinical examinations exhibit fear or anxiety signs. Objective of this study was to compare a number of physiological and behavioural indicators using low stress handling (LSH and traditional (TT techniques in order to assess whether the LSH approach had a positive impact on the dog’s welfare. Eight adult dogs were filmed while undergoing both LSH and TT visits (separated by a distance of seven weeks. The same usual sequence of events was followed for both visits (e. g. muzzle wearing, heart and lungs stethoscope examination, etc. except that 1 during the LSH visit, the dog was free to explore the environment (while receiving treats and play for five minutes before and after the visit 2 throughout the medical examination the veterinarians’ attitude and handling techniques were always aimed at preventing stress and guaranteeing the best physical support possible. The videos were then evaluated for the number of fear and stress signs the subjects showed. The examined physiological variables were respiration (breath/min, heart rate (HR and rectal temperature (RT. Physiological variables were analysed by t-Test for paired data while frequency of behavioural fear indicators by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Rectal temperature was within range in both groups but significantly higher (P<0.05 during LSH visit, while low head, lip licks and whale eye behaviours were significantly higher (P<0.05 during TT visit. These results suggest that low stress handling decreases frequency of some fear-related behaviours and could improve the quality of human-dog interactions. Future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results in a large canine population is required.

  8. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

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    Anuradha eGhosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and if they potentially play a role in the contamination of the hospital environment. Enterococcal strains (n=180 were isolated from the feces of six healthy resident cats from different SAVHs. The concentration of enterococci ranged from 1.1 x 105 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 of feces, and the population comprised E. hirae (38.3±18.6%, E. faecium (35.0±14.3%, E. faecalis (23.9±11.0%, and E. avium (2.8±2.2%. Testing of phenotypic resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents revealed multi-drug resistance (≥3 antimicrobials in 48.9% of all enterococcal isolates with most frequent resistance to tetracycline (72.8%, erythromycin (47.8%, and rifampicin (35.6%. Vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (3.9% with vanB not horizontally transferable in in vitro conjugation assays were detected from one cat. Genotyping (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a host-specific clonal population of MDR E. faecalis and E. faecium. Importantly, several feline isolates were genotypically identical or closely related to isolates from surfaces of cage door, thermometer, and stethoscope of the corresponding SAVHs. These data demonstrate that healthy resident cats at SAVHs carry MDR enterococci and likely contribute to contamination of the SAVH environment. Proper disposal and handling of fecal material and restricted movement of resident cats within the ward is recommended.

  9. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.T.

    1986-08-01

    In 302 patients with confirmed coronary disease we determined the left ventricular diastolic function with the Nuclear Stethoscope by the aid of the Peak Filling Rate (PFR) and the Time to Peak Filling Rate (TPFR). Moreover we investigated the ejection fraction (EF). 201 patients had already suffered a myocardial infarction, of these 99 an anterior wall and 102 an inferior wall infarction. The remaining 101 patients had a CAD without a history of myocardial infarction. The PFR was 2.19 +- 0.65 EDV/sec in the 99 patients after anterior wall infarction and 2.62 +- 0.85 EDV/sec in the 102 patients after inferior wall infarction and 2.79 +- 0.85 EDV/sec in 101 patients with coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction. For the PFR there could be found a statistically significant difference between normal patients and patients after anterior wall infarction (p < 0.0001), normal patients and patients after inferior wall infarction (p < 0.0001) and normal patients and patients with coronary artery disease (p < 0.0001). The TPFR was 180 +- 37.5 msec after anterior - and 158 +- 50.7 msec after inferior wall infarction and 156 +- 45.2 msec in the patients with CAD without previous infarction. The left ventricular diastolic function (PFR and/or TPFR) was abnormal in 88% after anterior- and in 82% after inferior wall infarction and in 69% in coronary patients without previous myocardial infarction. In comparison with this the ejection fraction was reduced in 66% in anterior- and in 61% inferior wall infarction at rest. These results indicate that the diastolic function at rest appears to be more informative for evaluation of a left ventricular dysfunction than the systolic function at rest.

  10. Ballroom dance: chronic responses on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p155

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    Fernanda Christina de Souza Guidarini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical exercise for patients with systemic hypertension is well established in the literature. However, ballroom dance has been little investigated in this context. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic effect of ballroom dance on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives. The sample was the number of blood pressure measurements obtained during the patients’ participation in the dance program. Thus, 92 blood pressure measurements were taken and divided into four groups: 1 pre-session systolic blood pressure, 2 post-session systolic blood pressure, 3 pre-session diastolic blood pressure, 4 post-session diastolic blood pressure. We used a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. As measuring protocol, we considered the Brazilian Guidelines. Blood pressure was measured before and after each ballroom dance session. The mean age of the 23 medicated hypertensive patients studied was 62.5 ± 7 years and 34.8% of them were male. Forty sessions were held three times a week, lasting one hour/session. The mean pre-session systolic blood pressure was 131,8 ± 17mmHg and 117,8±13mmHg after the session, with statistically significant difference (p <0.001; in diastolic blood pressure values were 70,7±6mmHg and 67,7±9mmHg (p <0.075. We conclude that ballroom dance can contribute to a better control of blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients, which may be considered as a cardiac rehabilitation exercise.

  11. Extensive severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus contamination in surrounding environment in patient rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, B-H; Kim, J Y; Kim, T; Kim, M-C; Kim, M J; Chong, Y-P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Kim, S-H

    2018-01-31

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Korea and China. Although there is previous evidence of person-to-person transmission via direct contact with body fluids, the role of environmental contamination by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in healthcare settings has not been established. We therefore investigated the contamination of the healthcare environment by SFTSV. We investigated the possible contamination of hospital air and surfaces with SFTSV transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surface samples in two hospitals treating six SFTS patients between March and September 2017. The samples were tested using real-time RT-PCR for SFTS M and S segments. Of the six SFTS patients, four received mechanical ventilation and three died. Five rooms were occupied by those using mechanical ventilation or total plasma exchange therapy in isolation rooms without negative pressure and one room was occupied by a patient bedridden due to SFTS. SFTSV was detected in 14 (21%) of 67 swab samples. Five of 24 swab samples were obtained from fomites including stethoscopes, and 9 of 43 were obtained from fixed structures including doorknobs and bed guardrails. Some samples from fixed structures such as television monitors and sink tables were obtained in areas remote from the patients. SFTSV RNA was not detected in five air samples from three patients' rooms. Our data suggest that SFTSV contamination was extensive in surrounding environments in SFTS patients' rooms. Therefore, more strict isolation methods and disinfecting procedures should be considered when managing SFTS patients. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-proximate mass spectrometry using a heated 1-m long PTFE tube and an air-tight APCI ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda-4, Kofu, Yamanashi, 400-8511 (Japan); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, Durmon Yoli Street 33, 100125, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Hiraoka, Kenzo, E-mail: hiraoka@yamanashi.ac.jp [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda-4, Kofu, Yamanashi, 400-8511 (Japan); Wada, Hiroshi [Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 496 Izumi, Chikugo, Fukuoka 833-0041 (Japan); Matsumura, Masaya; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo [Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Suya 2421, shiKo, Kumamoto 861-1192 (Japan); Nonami, Hiroshi [Plant Biophysics/Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 T Tarumi, 790-0905, Matsuyama (Japan); Yamabe, Shinichi, E-mail: yamabesh@gmail.com [Department of Material Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama-cho, 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara, 630−0101 (Japan)

    2017-06-22

    Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device. Analytes were ionized by an ac corona discharge located at 1.5 mm from the inlet of the mass spectrometer. By using the airtight ion source, all the ionized gas in the ion source was introduced into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer via only the evacuation of the mass spectrometer (1.6 l min{sup −1}). Sub-pg limits of detection were obtained for carbaryl and trinitrotoluene. Owing to its flexibility and high sensitivity, the sniffing tube coupled with a mass spectrometer can be used as the stethoscope for the high-sensitive gas analysis. The experimental results obtained for drugs, hydrogen peroxide and small alkanes were discussed by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Non-proximate mass spectrometry for the trace-level gas analysis was developed. • Using a 1-m long flexible PTFE tube, it can be applicable to complicated-shape real-world samples. • By atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the airtight ion source, sub-pg limits of detection were attained. • Adsorption of less-volatility compounds was negligible with the tube temperature at 130° C. • Novel experimental results obtained were fully examined by density functional theory calculations.

  13. Critical incidents and near misses during anesthesia: A prospective audit

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    Pamela Onorame Agbamu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A critical incident is any preventable mishap associated with the administration of anesthesia and which leads to or could have led to an undesirable patients' outcome. Patients' safety can be improved by learning from reported critical incidents and near misses. Materials and Methods: All perioperative critical incidents (excluding obstetrics occurring over 5 months were voluntarily documented in a pro forma. Age of patient, urgency of surgery, grade of anesthetist, and patients' outcome was noted. Results: Seventy-three critical incidents were recorded in 42 patients (incidence 6.1% of 1188 procedures with complete recovery in 88.1% (n = 37 and mortality in 11.9% (n = 5. The highest incidents occurred during elective procedures (71.4%, which were all supervised by consultants, and in patients aged 0–10 years (40.1%. Critical incident categories documented were cardiovascular (41.1%, respiratory (23.25%, vascular access (15.1%, airway/intubation (6.85%, equipment errors (6.85%, difficult/failed regional technique (4.11%, and others (2.74%. The monitors available were: pulse oximetry (100%, precordial stethoscope (90.5%, sphygmomanometer (90.5%, capnography (54.8%, electrocardiogram (31%, and temperature (14.3%. The most probable cause of critical incident was patient factor (38.7% followed by human error (22.5%. Equipment error, pharmacological factor, and surgical factor accounted for 12.9%. Conclusion: Critical incidents can occur in the hands of the highly skilled and even in the presence of adequate monitoring. Protocols should be put in place to avoid errors. Critical incident reporting must be encouraged to improve patients' safety and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  14. Economic analysis of bedside ultrasonography (US) implementation in an Internal Medicine department.

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    Testa, Americo; Francesconi, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The economic crisis, the growing healthcare demand, and Defensive Medicine wastefulness, strongly recommend the restructuring of the entire medical network. New health technology, such as bedside ultrasonography, might successfully integrate the clinical approach optimizing the use of limited resources, especially in a person-oriented vision of medicine. Bedside ultrasonography is a safe and reliable technique, with worldwide expanding employment in various clinical settings, being considered as "the stethoscope of the 21st century". However, at present, bedside ultrasonography lacks economic analysis. We performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis "ex ante", with a break-even point computing, of bedside ultrasonography implementation in an Internal Medicine department in the mid-term. Number and kind estimation of bedside ultrasonographic studies were obtained by a retrospective study, whose data results were applied to the next 3-year period (foresight study). All 1980 foreseen bedside examinations, with prevailing multiorgan ultrasonographic studies, were considered to calculate direct and indirect costs, while specific and generic revenues were considered only after the first semester. Physician professional training, equipment purchase and working time represented the main fixed and variable cost items. DRG increase/appropriateness, hospitalization stay shortening and reduction of traditional ultrasonography examination requests mainly impacted on calculated revenues. The break-even point, i.e. the volume of activity at which revenues exactly equal total incurred costs, was calculated to be 734 US examinations, corresponding to € 81,998 and the time considered necessary to reach it resulting 406 days. Our economic analysis clearly shows that bedside ultrasonography implementation in clinical daily management of an Internal Medicine department can produce consistent savings, or economic profit according to managerial choices (i.e., considering public or private targets

  15. Validation of the A&D UM-211 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define the accuracy of UM-211, an automated oscillometric device for office use coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes, according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The validation was performed in 33 individuals. Their mean age was 59.6±12.9 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) was 144.3±21.5 mmHg (range: 96-184 mmHg), diastolic BP was 86.8±18.5 mmHg (range: 48-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.2±4.3 cm (range: 23-39 cm). Four sequential readings were taken by observers 1 and 2 using a double-headed stethoscope and a mercury sphygmomanometer, whereas three BP readings were taken by the supervisor using the test instrument. The differences between the readings provided by the device and the mean observer measurements were calculated. Therefore, each device measurement was compared with the previous and the next mean observer measurement. The validation results fulfilled all the 2010 European Society of Hypertension revision Protocol criteria for the general population and passed all validation grades. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 1.7±2.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.7±2.5 mmHg. These data show that the UM-211 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference met the requirements for validation according to the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. However, these results mainly apply to the use of the 22-32 and the 31-45 cm cuffs.

  16. Effect of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and reliability of HRV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Metin; Doma, Serian

    2017-09-26

    The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses. Electrocardiogram and swallowing signal that obtained from an electronic stethoscope placed on the necks of subjects were recorded simultaneously from 30 healthy and young volunteers in sitting position during 15 min. Spontaneous swallowing has been shown to significantly alter some HRV parameters (SDNN, LF power and LF/HF ratio). Time-frequency analysis results showed that the contribution of saliva swallowing to LF (1-58%) and HF (2-42%) powers could change significantly depending on the number of swallowing. The ICC of the LF and HF powers for the successive 5-min signal segments were found 0·89, 0·92, respectively. These values decreased to 0·73 and 0·90 in the subjects with more swallowing rate. When the analyses were made for 2-min signal periods, these values decreased to 0·63 and 0·67. We concluded that spontaneous saliva swallowing can change HRV parameters. We have also seen that changes in swallowing rate and use of short signal segments may reduce the reliability of HRV analyses. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Preclinical medical students’ understandings of academic and medical professionalism: visual analysis of mind maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have begun to explore medical students’ understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students’ conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. Objectives The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. Methods We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. Results The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. Conclusions While the mind maps’ textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students’ conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. PMID:28821520

  18. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  19. The construction of power in family medicine bedside teaching: a video observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Ajjawi, Rola; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2013-02-01

    Bedside teaching is essential for helping students develop skills, reasoning and professionalism, and involves the learning triad of student, patient and clinical teacher. Although current rhetoric espouses the sharing of power, the medical workplace is imbued with power asymmetries. Power is context-specific and although previous research has explored some elements of the enactment and resistance of power within bedside teaching, this exploration has been conducted within hospital rather than general practice settings. Furthermore, previous research has employed audio-recorded rather than video-recorded observation and has therefore focused on language and para-language at the expense of non-verbal communication and human-material interaction. A qualitative design was adopted employing video- and audio-recorded observations of seven bedside teaching encounters (BTEs), followed by short individual interviews with students, patients and clinical teachers. Thematic and discourse analyses of BTEs were conducted. Power is constructed by students, patients and clinical teachers throughout different BTE activities through the use of linguistic, para-linguistic and non-verbal communication. In terms of language, participants construct power through the use of questions, orders, advice, pronouns and medical/health belief talk. With reference to para-language, participants construct power through the use of interruption and laughter. In terms of non-verbal communication, participants construct power through physical positioning and the possession or control of medical materials such as the stethoscope. Using this paper as a trigger for discussion, we encourage students and clinical teachers to reflect critically on how their verbal and non-verbal communication constructs power in bedside teaching. Students and clinical teachers need to develop their awareness of what power is, how it can be constructed and shared, and what it means for the student

  20. Deafness among physicians and trainees: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Christopher J; Latimore, Darin; Sen, Ananda; Arato, Nora; Zazove, Philip

    2013-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of and accommodations used by the deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHoH) physician and trainee population and examine whether these individuals are more likely to care for DHoH patients. Multipronged snowball sampling identified 86 potential DHoH physician and trainee participants. In July to September 2010, a Web-based survey investigated accommodations used by survey respondents. The authors analyzed participants' demographics, accommodation and career satisfaction, sense of institutional support, likelihood of recommending medicine as a career, and current/anticipated DHoH patient population size. The response rate was 65% (56 respondents; 31 trainees and 25 practicing physicians). Modified stethoscopes were the most frequently used accommodation (n = 50; 89%); other accommodations included auditory equipment, note-taking, computer-assisted real-time captioning, signed interpretation, and oral interpretation. Most respondents reported that their accommodations met their needs well, although 2 spent up to 10 hours weekly arranging accommodations. Of 25 physicians, 17 reported primary care specialties; 7 of 31 trainees planned to enter primary care specialties. Over 20% of trainees anticipated working with DHoH patients, whereas physicians on average spent 10% of their time with DHoH patients. Physicians' accommodation satisfaction was positively associated with career satisfaction and recommending medicine as a career. DHoH physicians and trainees seemed satisfied with frequent, multimodal accommodations from employers and educators. These results may assist organizations in planning accommodation provisions. Because DHoH physicians and trainees seem interested in primary care and serving DHoH patients, recruiting and training DHoH physicians has implications for the care of this underserved population.

  1. Detection of Respiratory Adverse Events in Pediatric Dental Patients Sedated With 0.75mg/Kg of Midazolam and Oxygen by Continuous Pretracheal Auscultation: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somri, Mostafa; Matter, Ibrahim; Hadjittofi, Christopher; Hoash, Naser; Moaddi, Bian; Kharouba, Johnny; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Peretz, Benjamin

    Sedation is becoming more commonplace for pediatric patients undergoing minor procedures. Fortunately, electronic monitors have contributed to a reduction in the associated respiratory adverse events (RAEs). To test the hypothesis that adding the pretracheal stethoscope (PTS) to standard monitoring methods (SMMs) may improve RAE detection in sedated pediatric dental patients, the frequency of RAEs detected by SMMs (i.e. visual observation, capnography, and pulse oximetry) was compared to that detected by SMMs alongside continuous PTS auscultation. A prospective, randomised, controlled trial was performed with 100 pediatric patient participants of ASA≤2, who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under 0.75 mg/kg and oxygen. Patients were randomised into Groups A (n=50; SMMs) and B (n=50; SMMs+PTS). Inclusion criteria were behavioral management problems and intolerance to dental treatment despite behavioral management techniques or nitrous oxide administration. Exclusion criteria were high-risk conditions for RAEs, altered mental status, gastrointestinal disorders, parental refusal of conscious sedation and failure of previous conscious sedation. An anesthesist was present throughout the dental treatments. RAEs were detected in 10 (20%) and 22(44%) Group A and B patients respectively (p=0.01). The majority of RAEs within Group B were detected by PTS auscultation (n=19). Capnography produced 13 and 15 false-positive results in Groups A and B respectively, whereas the PTS produced 4(8%) false-positive results in Group B (p=0.009). PTS was found to be useful for detecting RAEs during pediatric dental sedation with 0.75mg/kg midazolam and oxygen, in the presence of an anesthesist.

  2. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chang, Ming-Lang; Yang, Jiun-Yue; Kuo, Dar; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2017-01-01

    observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases. PMID:28590447

  3. Anesthetic Implications of Ebola Patient Management: A Review of the Literature and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missair, Andres; Marino, Michael J; Vu, Catherine N; Gutierrez, Juan; Missair, Alfredo; Osman, Brian; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2015-09-01

    As of mid-October 2014, the ongoing Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has affected approximately 10,000 patients, approached a 50% mortality rate, and crossed political and geographic borders without precedent. The disease has spread throughout Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Isolated cases have arrived in urban centers in Europe and North America. The exponential growth, currently unabated, highlights the urgent need for effective and immediate management protocols for the various health care subspecialties that may care for Ebola virus disease patients. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to identify key areas of anesthetic care affected by this disease. The serious potential for "high-risk exposure" and "direct contact" (as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of anesthesiologists caring for Ebola patients prompted this urgent investigation. A search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, MeSH, Cochrane Review, and Google Scholar. Key words included "anesthesia" and/or "ebola" combined with "surgery," "intubation," "laryngoscopy," "bronchoscopy," "stethoscope," "ventilation," "ventilator," "phlebotomy," "venous cannulation," "operating room," "personal protection," "equipment," "aerosol," "respiratory failure," or "needle stick." No language or date limits were applied. We also included secondary-source data from government organizations and scientific societies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, American Society of Anesthesiologists, and American College of Surgeons. Articles were reviewed for primary-source data related to inpatient management of Ebola cases as well as evidence-based management guidelines and protocols for the care of Ebola patients in the operative room, infection control, and health care worker personal protection. Two hundred thirty-six articles were identified using the aforementioned terminology in the scientific database search engines. Twenty articles

  4. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Zern Tsai

    2017-06-01

    account for the observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases.

  5. Listening panel agreement and characteristics of lung sounds digitally recorded from children aged 1–59 months enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel E; Watson, Nora L; Buck, W Chris; Bunthi, Charatdao; Devendra, Akash; Ebruke, Bernard E; Elhilali, Mounya; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J; Githinji, Leah; Hossain, Lokman; Madhi, Shabir A; Moore, David P; Mulindwa, Justin; Olson, Dan; Awori, Juliet O; Vandepitte, Warunee P; Verwey, Charl; West, James E; Knoll, Maria D; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R; Hammit, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric lung sound recordings can be systematically assessed, but methodological feasibility and validity is unknown, especially from developing countries. We examined the performance of acoustically interpreting recorded paediatric lung sounds and compared sound characteristics between cases and controls. Methods Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health staff in six African and Asian sites recorded lung sounds with a digital stethoscope in cases and controls. Cases aged 1–59 months had WHO severe or very severe pneumonia; age-matched community controls did not. A listening panel assigned examination results of normal, crackle, wheeze, crackle and wheeze or uninterpretable, with adjudication of discordant interpretations. Classifications were recategorised into any crackle, any wheeze or abnormal (any crackle or wheeze) and primary listener agreement (first two listeners) was analysed among interpretable examinations using the prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). We examined predictors of disagreement with logistic regression and compared case and control lung sounds with descriptive statistics. Results Primary listeners considered 89.5% of 792 case and 92.4% of 301 control recordings interpretable. Among interpretable recordings, listeners agreed on the presence or absence of any abnormality in 74.9% (PABAK 0.50) of cases and 69.8% (PABAK 0.40) of controls, presence/absence of crackles in 70.6% (PABAK 0.41) of cases and 82.4% (PABAK 0.65) of controls and presence/absence of wheeze in 72.6% (PABAK 0.45) of cases and 73.8% (PABAK 0.48) of controls. Controls, tachypnoea, >3 uninterpretable chest positions, crying, upper airway noises and study site predicted listener disagreement. Among all interpretable examinations, 38.0% of cases and 84.9% of controls were normal (p<0.0001); wheezing was the most common sound (49.9%) in cases. Conclusions Listening panel and case–control data suggests our methodology is feasible, likely valid

  6. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    .69%) on rhonchi, and 18 (23.38%) on other sounds such as pleural rub, squawk, as well as the pathology. Instrumentation used to collect data included microphones, stethoscopes, and accelerometers. Several references obtained data from online repositories or book audio CD companions. Detection or classification methods used varied from empirically determined thresholds to more complex machine learning techniques. Performance reported in the surveyed works were converted to accuracy measures for data synthesis. Direct comparison of the performance of surveyed works cannot be performed as the input data used by each was different. A standard validation method has not been established, resulting in different works using different methods and performance measure definitions. A review of the literature was performed to summarise different analysis approaches, features, and methods used for the analysis. The performance of recent studies showed a high agreement with conventional non-automatic identification. This suggests that automated adventitious sound detection or classification is a promising solution to overcome the limitations of conventional auscultation and to assist in the monitoring of relevant diseases.

  7. Computerized Respiratory Sounds: Novel Outcomes for Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Cristina; Marques, Alda

    2017-02-01

    Computerized respiratory sounds are a simple and noninvasive measure to assess lung function. Nevertheless, their potential to detect changes after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is unknown and needs clarification if respiratory acoustics are to be used in clinical practice. Thus, this study investigated the short- and mid-term effects of PR on computerized respiratory sounds in subjects with COPD. Forty-one subjects with COPD completed a 12-week PR program and a 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included dyspnea, self-reported sputum, FEV 1 , exercise tolerance, self-reported physical activity, health-related quality of life, and peripheral muscle strength. Computerized respiratory sounds, the primary outcomes, were recorded at right/left posterior chest using 2 stethoscopes. Air flow was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Normal respiratory sounds, crackles, and wheezes were analyzed with validated algorithms. There was a significant effect over time in all secondary outcomes, with the exception of FEV 1 and of the impact domain of the St George Respiratory Questionnaire. Inspiratory and expiratory median frequencies of normal respiratory sounds in the 100-300 Hz band were significantly lower immediately (-2.3 Hz [95% CI -4 to -0.7] and -1.9 Hz [95% CI -3.3 to -0.5]) and at 3 months (-2.1 Hz [95% CI -3.6 to -0.7] and -2 Hz [95% CI -3.6 to -0.5]) post-PR. The mean number of expiratory crackles (-0.8, 95% CI -1.3 to -0.3) and inspiratory wheeze occupation rate (median 5.9 vs 0) were significantly lower immediately post-PR. Computerized respiratory sounds were sensitive to short- and mid-term effects of PR in subjects with COPD. These findings are encouraging for the clinical use of respiratory acoustics. Future research is needed to strengthen these findings and explore the potential of computerized respiratory sounds to assess the effectiveness of other clinical interventions in COPD. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Primary care program for the ophidic accident Programa de atención primaria del accidente ofídico: una propuesta para Colombia

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    Luz E. Posada

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to reduce morbidly, mortality and sequels of snake bite in Colombia, particularly In the Departments of Antioquia and Chocó, we propose a Primary Care Program that would include education of the communities, training of auxiliary personnel on the proper care of snake bites (use of antivenoms and electrolyte solutions in rural and distant locations; treatment of these accidents according to the level of severity within the pyramid of the Colombian National Health System; permanent and adequate supplies (antivenoms, antibiotics, electrolyte solutions, antiallergy drugs, stethoscopes and sphigmomanometers; epidemiological surveillance of the program and of the main factors involved in this public health problem. The aid of suitable communications and remission systems and of other professional groups from each town or region is very important. The participation of the community in every phase of the program and a coordination by the University are essential.

    Para disminuir la morbilidad, la mortalidad y las secuelas del accidente ofídico en Colombia, en particular en Antioquia y Chocó, se propone diseñar un Programa de Atención Primaria que incluya educación a todos los niveles, entrenamiento de personal auxiliar en el manejo de antivenenos y soluciones hidroelectrolíticas en comunidades distantes, atención de las víctimas por niveles de complejidad en la pirámide del Sistema Nacional de Salud, una red de suministros permanente y adecuada (antivenenos, antibióticos, soluciones hidroelectrolíticas, antialérgicos, estetoscopios, tensiómetros, un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica que garantice la supervisión del programa y la intervención sobre los factores condicionantes del problema y el apoyo de una red de medios audiovisuales, de remisiones y de los grupos inter institucionales que existan en cada municipio y región. Serán fundamentales

  9. Simple and non-invasive techniques to evaluate the function of CircuLite Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Prashant N; Bowles, Christopher T; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Patil, Nikhil P; Sáez, Diana García; Banner, Nicholas R; Simon, André R

    2014-11-01

    The Synergy CircuLite micropump is a novel partial-support miniature left ventricular assist device that propels 2-3 l/min blood from the left atrium into the right subclavian artery. The ability of currently available investigative modalities to confirm Synergy pump malfunction is limited. The Synergy speed fluctuates periodically (at 10-s intervals) from the baseline to a transient decrease followed by a transient increase (alternating speed algorithm, ASA) with the purpose of changing the blood flow behaviour, thereby reducing thrombogenicity. The aim of this study was to develop a simple non-invasive monitoring technique to assess pump function based on the detection of the ASA in the peripheral microcirculation. Between February 2012 and July 2013, 10 patients with advanced chronic heart failure underwent Synergy implantation at our institution. The pump function was assessed by echocardiography and invasive monitoring according to standard protocols; additionally, the pump speed and power consumption were monitored. During the pump function assessment, the pulse oximeter waveform was recorded from the index fingers of the left and right hand with simultaneous pump auscultation using a stethoscope positioned on the pump (right infra-clavicular pocket). The pulse oximeter waveform was readily detectable from the right and left hand of all study patients. If the Synergy function was normal, there was a significant difference in the morphology of the pulse oximeter waveform from each hand: the ASA algorithm produced a more pronounced variation (giant wave) in the trace from the right hand than from the left. The giant waves invariably coincided with the sound variation associated with the ASA algorithms, which were detected regularly at 10-s intervals. We describe a simple, readily applicable, inexpensive, non-invasive technique that allows evaluation of Synergy pump function and may have diagnostic utility under conditions of suspected pump thrombus

  10. Acoustic cardiac signals analysis: a Kalman filter–based approach

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    Salleh SH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheik Hussain Salleh,1 Hadrina Sheik Hussain,2 Tan Tian Swee,2 Chee-Ming Ting,2 Alias Mohd Noor,2 Surasak Pipatsart,3 Jalil Ali,4 Preecha P Yupapin31Department of Biomedical Instrumentation and Signal Processing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia; 2Centre for Biomedical Engineering Transportation Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: Auscultation of the heart is accompanied by both electrical activity and sound. Heart auscultation provides clues to diagnose many cardiac abnormalities. Unfortunately, detection of relevant symptoms and diagnosis based on heart sound through a stethoscope is difficult. The reason GPs find this difficult is that the heart sounds are of short duration and separated from one another by less than 30 ms. In addition, the cost of false positives constitutes wasted time and emotional anxiety for both patient and GP. Many heart diseases cause changes in heart sound, waveform, and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Heart-sound auscultation is the primary test conducted by GPs. These sounds are generated primarily by turbulent flow of blood in the heart. Analysis of heart sounds requires a quiet environment with minimum ambient noise. In order to address such issues, the technique of denoising and estimating the biomedical heart signal is proposed in this investigation. Normally, the performance of the filter naturally depends on prior information related to the statistical properties of the signal and the background noise. This paper proposes Kalman filtering for denoising statistical heart sound. The cycles of heart sounds are certain to follow first-order Gauss–Markov process. These cycles are observed with additional noise

  11. Usefulness of bowel sound auscultation: a prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Seth; Margel, David; Murrell, Zuri; Fleshner, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Although the auscultation of bowel sounds is considered an essential component of an adequate physical examination, its clinical value remains largely unstudied and subjective. The aim of this study was to determine whether an accurate diagnosis of normal controls, mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO), or postoperative ileus (POI) is possible based on bowel sound characteristics. Prospectively collected recordings of bowel sounds from patients with normal gastrointestinal motility, SBO diagnosed by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, and POI diagnosed by clinical symptoms and a computed tomography without a transition point. Study clinicians were instructed to categorize the patient recording as normal, obstructed, ileus, or not sure. Using an electronic stethoscope, bowel sounds of healthy volunteers (n = 177), patients with SBO (n = 19), and patients with POI (n = 15) were recorded. A total of 10 recordings randomly selected from each category were replayed through speakers, with 15 of the recordings duplicated to surgical and internal medicine clinicians (n = 41) blinded to the clinical scenario. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and intra-rater variability were determined based on the clinician's ability to properly categorize the bowel sound recording when blinded to additional clinical information. Secondary outcomes were the clinician's perceived level of expertise in interpreting bowel sounds. The overall sensitivity for normal, SBO, and POI recordings was 32%, 22%, and 22%, respectively. The positive predictive value of normal, SBO, and POI recordings was 23%, 28%, and 44%, respectively. Intra-rater reliability of duplicated recordings was 59%, 52%, and 53% for normal, SBO, and POI, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the surgical and internal medicine clinicians for sensitivity, positive predictive value, or intra-rater variability. Overall, 44% of clinicians reported that they rarely listened

  12. Left-Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chang, Ming-Lang; Yang, Jiun-Yue; Kuo, Dar; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2017-06-07

    account for the observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases.

  13. Detection of Heart Sounds in Children with and without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension--Daubechies Wavelets Approach.

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    Mohamed Elgendi

    Full Text Available Automatic detection of the 1st (S1 and 2nd (S2 heart sounds is difficult, and existing algorithms are imprecise. We sought to develop a wavelet-based algorithm for the detection of S1 and S2 in children with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH.Heart sounds were recorded at the second left intercostal space and the cardiac apex with a digital stethoscope simultaneously with pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP. We developed a Daubechies wavelet algorithm for the automatic detection of S1 and S2 using the wavelet coefficient 'D6' based on power spectral analysis. We compared our algorithm with four other Daubechies wavelet-based algorithms published by Liang, Kumar, Wang, and Zhong. We annotated S1 and S2 from an audiovisual examination of the phonocardiographic tracing by two trained cardiologists and the observation that in all subjects systole was shorter than diastole.We studied 22 subjects (9 males and 13 females, median age 6 years, range 0.25-19. Eleven subjects had a mean PAP < 25 mmHg. Eleven subjects had PAH with a mean PAP ≥ 25 mmHg. All subjects had a pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg. The sensitivity (SE and positive predictivity (+P of our algorithm were 70% and 68%, respectively. In comparison, the SE and +P of Liang were 59% and 42%, Kumar 19% and 12%, Wang 50% and 45%, and Zhong 43% and 53%, respectively. Our algorithm demonstrated robustness and outperformed the other methods up to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 10 dB. For all algorithms, detection errors arose from low-amplitude peaks, fast heart rates, low signal-to-noise ratio, and fixed thresholds.Our algorithm for the detection of S1 and S2 improves the performance of existing Daubechies-based algorithms and justifies the use of the wavelet coefficient 'D6' through power spectral analysis. Also, the robustness despite ambient noise may improve real world clinical performance.

  14. A STUDY ON HYPERTENSION AND IT’S DETERMINANTS AMONG MALE BUS DRIVERS IN STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION, VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Bhaskara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is an iceberg disease and it remains silent, being generally asymptomatic most of its course. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality, which accounts for 20 - 50% of all deaths. The nature of profession puts bus drivers at higher risk of developing hypertension. Due to lack of information regarding the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants among the RTC bus drivers in Visakhapatnam, the present study is carried out. OBJECTIVE : To measure occurrence of certain ri sk factors for hypertension among bus drivers and to study the proportion of bus drivers having hypertension METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among bus drivers working in APSRTC Visakhapatnam city during months of Dec . 2014 – Jan . 2 015. One of the six bus depots was randomly selected, a prior permission from the depot manager was taken and convenient sample of 100 bus drivers considered for study. Data was collected using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire to the study subject s after obtaining informed consent. All the individuals who are willing to participate were included and those not willing to participate and who were60years of age were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed by using Microsoft excel, sta tistical tests were applied where ever necessary and p value of <0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Study materials include mercury sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, measuring tape, weighing machine. RESULTS: The mean age of study population was 42.9years, majority (90% of them belongs to class II and III according to modified B. G. Prasad’s classification, prevalence of hypertension among study population was (36%, of whom 44.4% of participants were not aware of their hypertensive status. Famil y history of hypertension observed in 46% of the study population. About 59% of the study population were overweight & obese, of them 45.7% had hypertension

  15. HIPNORELAKSASI MENURUNKAN TEKANAN DARAH DAN NADI PADA PASIEN PRE OPERASI FRAKTUR EKSTREMITAS

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    Nika Martsiwi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative patients can be experience an anxiety. Anxiety can be expressed through physiological changes that will be known by a change in the sympathetic response which some of them are increased in heart rate and blood pressure. Preliminary study results shows 4 of 6 patients got an increase in anxiety with signs of increased in blood pressure and pulse. Hypno relaxation is a complementary therapy for anxiety, while in the hypnotic state, most people will be experience relaxation, decrease blood pressure, and pulse. Objective: Determine the influence of hypno relaxation to the blood pressure and pulse in patients with preoperative fracture in RSUD Bantul. Methods: This study is a quassy experiment with design of the study is pre-test and post-test non equivalent control group. Samples were taken using purposive sampling techniques amounted to 24 respondents. 12 people was on control group and 12 was on intervention group. Research instrument which used was a record of hypno relaxation stages, the mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. The results were analyzed using Independent Samples t-test and Paired Samples t-test. Results: The results of the equal measurement in blood pressure and pulse in the pre and post test control group are 1.17 x / min and 0.5 mmHg, which showed an increase. Whereas in the intervention group difference in equal blood pressure and pulse are 7.00 mmHg and 6.25 x / min, which showed a decrease. Statistic result using independent t-test got (p value 0.000 <0.05 with t -7,257 for blood pressure and t -8,888 for pulse, and can be concluded that there is a significant difference in the mean value of pulse and blood pressure between the control group and intervention group of hypno relaxation. On the statistic test using Paired t-test got (p value 0.000 <0.05 in the intervention group, it means that hypno relaxation can be influence the pulse and blood pressure significantly. Conclusion: Hypno relaxation

  16. Task shifting to non-physician clinicians for integrated management of hypertension and diabetes in rural Cameroon: a programme assessment at two years

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    Grimm Jean-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of non-communicable chronic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, increases in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the majority of the rural population does still not have access to adequate care. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of integrating care for hypertension and type 2 diabetes by task shifting to non-physician clinician (NPC facilities in eight rural health districts in Cameroon. Methods Of the 75 NPC facilities in the area, 69 (87% received basic equipment and training in hypertension and diabetes care. Effectiveness was assessed after two years on status of equipment, knowledge among trained NPCs, number of newly detected patients, retention of patients under care, treatment cost to patients and changes in blood pressure (BP and fasting plasma glucose (FPG among treated patients. Results Two years into the programme, of 54 facilities (78% available for re-assessment, all possessed a functional sphygmomanometer and stethoscope (65% at baseline; 96% stocked antihypertensive drugs (27% at baseline; 70% possessed a functional glucose meter and 72% stocked oral anti-diabetics (15% and 12% at baseline. NPCs' performance on multiple-choice questions of the knowledge-test was significantly improved. During a period of two years, trained NPCs initiated treatment for 796 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. The retention of treated patients at one year was 18.1%. Hypertensive and diabetic patients paid a median monthly amount of 1.4 and 0.7 Euro respectively for their medication. Among hypertensive patients with ≥ 2 documented visits (n = 493, systolic BP decreased by 22.8 mmHg (95% CI: -20.6 to -24.9; p Conclusions The integration of hypertension and diabetes into primary health care of NPC facilities in rural Cameroon was feasible in terms of equipment and training, accessible in terms of treatment cost and showed promising BP- and FPG-trends. However, low case-detection rates

  17. Impact of usage of personal music systems on oto-acoustic emissions among medical students

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    Prasanth G Narahari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intact hearing is essential for medical students and physicians for communicating with patients and appreciating internal sounds with a stethoscope. With the increased use of (PMSs, they are exposed to high sound levels and are at a risk of developing hearing loss. The effect of long term personal music system (PMS usage on auditory sensitivity has been well established. Our study has reported the immediate and short term effect of PMS usage on hearing especially among medical professionals. Objective: To assess the effect of short term PMS usage on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE among medical professionals. Materials and Method: 34 medical students within the age range of 17–22 years who were regular users of PMS participated in the study. All participants had hearing thresholds <15 dBHL at audiometric octave frequencies. Baseline DPOAEs were measured in all participants after 18 h of non-usage of PMS. One week later DPOAEs were again measured after two hours of continuous listening to PMS. DPOAEs were measured within the frequency range of 2 to 12 kHz with a resolution of 12 points per octave. Output sound pressure level of the PMS of each participant was measured in HA-1 coupler and it was converted to free field SPL using the transformations of RECD and REUG. Results: Paired sample t test was used to investigate the main effect of short term music listening on DPOAE amplitudes. Analysis revealed no significant main effect of music listening on DPOAE amplitudes at the octave frequencies between 2 to 4 KHz (t67 = −1.02, P = 0.31 and 4 to 8 KHz (t67 = 0.24, P = 0.81. However, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in DPOAE amplitude (t67 = 2.10, P = 0.04 in the frequency range of 9 to 12 kHz following short term usage of PMS. The mean output sound pressure level of the PMS was 98.29. Conclusion: Short term exposure to music affects the DPOAE amplitude at

  18. Capacity of Health Facilities to Manage Hypertension in Mukono and Buikwe Districts in Uganda: Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Mukose, Aggrey; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases is increasing in both low- and middle-income countries. However, healthcare systems in low-income countries are inadequately equipped to deal with the growing disease burden, which requires chronic care for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of health facilities to manage hypertension in two districts in Uganda. In a cross-sectional study conducted between June and October 2012, we surveyed 126 health facilities (6 hospitals, 4 Health Center IV (HCIV), 23 Health Center III (HCIII), 41 Health Center II (HCII) and 52 private clinics/dispensaries) in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. We assessed records, conducted structured interviews with heads of facilities, and administered questionnaires to 271 health workers. The study assessed service provision for hypertension, availability of supplies such as medicines, guidelines and equipment, in-service training for hypertension, knowledge of hypertension management, challenges and recommendations. Of the 126 health facilities, 92.9% reported managing (diagnosing/treating) patients with hypertension, and most (80.2%) were run by non-medical doctors or non-physician health workers (NPHW). Less than half (46%) of the facilities had guidelines for managing hypertension. A 10th of the facilities lacked functioning blood pressure devices and 28% did not have stethoscopes. No facilities ever calibrated their BP devices except one. About a half of the facilities had anti-hypertensive medicines in stock; mainly thiazide diuretics (46%), beta blockers (56%) and calcium channel blockers (48.4%). Alpha blockers, mixed alpha & beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were only stocked by private clinics/dispensaries. Most HCIIs lacked anti-hypertensive medicines, including the first line thiazide diuretics. Significant knowledge gaps in classification of patients as hypertensive were noted among respondents. All health workers (except 5, 1.9%) indicated that they

  19. Emergency Care Capabilities in North East Haiti: A Cross-sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wulf, Annelies; Aluisio, Adam R; Muhlfelder, Dana; Bloem, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The North East Department is a resource-limited region of Haiti. Health care is provided by hospitals and community clinics, with no formal Emergency Medical System and undefined emergency services. As a paucity of information exists on available emergency services in the North East Department of Haiti, the objective of this study was to assess systematically the existing emergency care resources in the region. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out at all Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP)-affiliated hospitals in the North East Department and all clinics within the Fort Liberté district. A modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care and Generic Essential Emergency Equipment Lists were completed for each facility. Three MSPP hospitals and five clinics were assessed. Among hospitals, all had a designated emergency ward with 24 hour staffing by a medical doctor. All hospitals had electricity with backup generators and access to running water; however, none had potable water. All hospitals had x-ray and ultrasound capabilities. No computed tomography scanners existed in the region. Invasive airway equipment and associated medications were not present consistently in the hospitals' emergency care areas, but they were available in the operating rooms. Pulse oximetry was unavailable uniformly. One hospital had intermittently functioning defibrillation equipment, and two hospitals had epinephrine. Basic supplies for managing obstetrical and traumatic emergencies were available at all hospitals. Surgical services were accessible at two hospitals. No critical care services were available in the region. Clinics varied widely in terms of equipment availability. They uniformly had limited emergency medical equipment. The clinics also had inconsistent access to basic assessment tools (sphygmomanometers 20% and stethoscopes 60%). A protocol for transferring

  20. Task shifting to non-physician clinicians for integrated management of hypertension and diabetes in rural Cameroon: a programme assessment at two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Balo, Jean-Richard; Ndam, Mama; Grimm, Jean-Jacques; Manga, Engelbert

    2010-12-14

    The burden of non-communicable chronic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, increases in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the majority of the rural population does still not have access to adequate care. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of integrating care for hypertension and type 2 diabetes by task shifting to non-physician clinician (NPC) facilities in eight rural health districts in Cameroon. Of the 75 NPC facilities in the area, 69 (87%) received basic equipment and training in hypertension and diabetes care. Effectiveness was assessed after two years on status of equipment, knowledge among trained NPCs, number of newly detected patients, retention of patients under care, treatment cost to patients and changes in blood pressure (BP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among treated patients. Two years into the programme, of 54 facilities (78%) available for re-assessment, all possessed a functional sphygmomanometer and stethoscope (65% at baseline); 96% stocked antihypertensive drugs (27% at baseline); 70% possessed a functional glucose meter and 72% stocked oral anti-diabetics (15% and 12% at baseline). NPCs' performance on multiple-choice questions of the knowledge-test was significantly improved. During a period of two years, trained NPCs initiated treatment for 796 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. The retention of treated patients at one year was 18.1%. Hypertensive and diabetic patients paid a median monthly amount of 1.4 and 0.7 Euro respectively for their medication. Among hypertensive patients with ≥ 2 documented visits (n = 493), systolic BP decreased by 22.8 mmHg (95% CI: -20.6 to -24.9; p < 0.0001) and diastolic BP by 12.4 mmHg (-10.9 to -13.9; p < 0.0001). Among diabetic patients (n = 79) FPG decreased by 3.4 mmol/l (-2.3 to -4.5; p < 0.001). The integration of hypertension and diabetes into primary health care of NPC facilities in rural Cameroon was feasible in terms of equipment and training, accessible in

  1. Flora fúngica no ambiente da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica e Neonatal em hospital terciário Environmental fungal flora in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units at a tertiary hospital

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    Lívia Lopes S. de Melo

    2009-09-01

    conditioning, telephones, stethoscopes, doors and door knobs. Petri dishes of Sabouraud Dextrose Agar with the collected samples were incubated at air temperature for 15 days. The identification was based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and subcultures. RESULTS: Potentially pathological and toxigenic fungi were isolated in the studied areas. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 11 genera: 40% of the colonies were Penicillium spp., followed by Cladosporium spp. and Chrysosporium spp. CONCLUSIONS: The fungi found may present a great pathogenic potential, mainly in immunocompromised patients. It is important to adopt some measures in order to reduce nosocomial infection in ICU, such as the strict control regarding equipment cleansing, control of visitors, hand washing and periodic cleansing and renewal of air conditioning filters.

  2. Teaching and testing physical examination skills without the use of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Bernard; Thornton, William; Frye, Ann W

    2002-07-01

    . Students used their own stethoscopes for auscultation. The targeted skills were efficiently tested in one hour of testing time per student. This cardiopulmonary instructional module was well received by the second-year medical students. In the skills OSCE, 80% of the students accurately measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure to within 5 mm Hg. Cardiopulmonary auscultation proficiency results showed average recognition of 60% for cardiac abnormalities and 88% for pulmonary sounds. Developing auscultation transducers with pulse simulation capability ensured that students could identify systole. Therefore, heart murmurs and sounds could be timed with the cardiac cycle. We found the results from the skills OSCE encouraging. Most students demonstrated reasonable competency in the skills taught, and the new transportable simulators performed well. The six-hour instructional module was meant to prepare students for their bedside teaching during the third year of medical school. The significant cost of the "Harvey" simulator may be a barrier to its widespread use for teaching. Therefore, continued development of smaller transportable simulators for teaching and testing purposes is important.

  3. Accuracy and reliability of wrist-cuff devices for self-measurement of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Chonan, Kenichi; Imai, Yutaka; Goto, Eiji; Ishii, Masao

    2002-04-01

    Self-measurement of blood pressure (BP) might offer some advantages in diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation and in patient management of hypertension. Recently, wrist-cuff devices for self-measurement of BP have gained more than one-third of the world market share. In the present study, we validated wrist-cuff devices and compared the results between wrist- and arm-cuff devices. The factors affecting the accuracy of wrist-cuff devices were also studied. The research group to assess the validity of automated blood pressure measuring device consisted of 13 institutes in Japan, which validated two wrist-cuff devices (WC-1 and WC-2) and two arm-cuff devices (AC-1 and AC-2). They used a crossover method, where the comparison was done between auscultation, by two observers by means of a double stethoscope on one arm and the device on the opposite arm or wrist. There was good inter-observer agreement for the auscultation method in each institute (systolic blood pressure (SBP), -0.1 +/- 2.8 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure (DBP), -0.1 +/- 2.6 mmHg, n = 498). The mean difference between auscultation and the device was minimal both in arm-cuff devices (mean difference for AC-1, 2.2/1.9 mmHg, n = 97 and for AC-2, 5.1/2.9 mmHg, n = 136, SBP/DBP) and wrist-cuff devices (mean difference for WC-1, -2.1/1.2 mmHg, n = 173 mmHg and for WC-2, -2.3/-5.6 mmHg, n = 92). The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) in wrist-cuff devices, however (SDD for WC-1, 9.7/7.3 mmHg and for WC-2, 10.2/8.6 mmHg), was larger than that of the arm-cuff devices (SDD for AC-1, 5.6/6.6 mmHg and for AC-2, 6.3/5.1 mmHg). Grading of AC-1 and AC-2 based on criteria of British Hypertension Society was A/A and B/A, respectively, while that of WC-1 and WC-2 was C/B and D/B, respectively. Using the same validation protocol, the results of validation for one device were divergent in each institute. In wrist-cuff devices, the BP value obtained in palmar flexion was significantly higher and that obtained in palmar

  4. Gambaran Perubahan Tekanan Darah Pasca Olahraga Futsal pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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    Akdri Andi

    2016-08-01

    2014. Subject played futsal for 30 minutes, then the blood pressure was measured right after doing futsal then 15, 30 and 60 minutes later with a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. This study found an increase in systolic blood pressure shortly after  futsal in all subjects with an increase of 20 mmHg in 18 people (60% and 25 people (83.8% had no change in diastolic blood pressure. Fifteen minutes after doing futsal, 18 people (60% had 20 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure and 26 (86.67% had no change in diastolic blood pressure. Thirty minutes after doing futsal, 4 (13.3% experienced a decrease in systolic blood pressure and 100%  returned to the initial blood pressure. One hour after exercise, all of subjects  reached the initial blood pressure again.Keywords: blood pressure, right after doing futsal, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour

  5. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

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    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    (11.69% on rhonchi, and 18 (23.38% on other sounds such as pleural rub, squawk, as well as the pathology. Instrumentation used to collect data included microphones, stethoscopes, and accelerometers. Several references obtained data from online repositories or book audio CD companions. Detection or classification methods used varied from empirically determined thresholds to more complex machine learning techniques. Performance reported in the surveyed works were converted to accuracy measures for data synthesis.Direct comparison of the performance of surveyed works cannot be performed as the input data used by each was different. A standard validation method has not been established, resulting in different works using different methods and performance measure definitions.A review of the literature was performed to summarise different analysis approaches, features, and methods used for the analysis. The performance of recent studies showed a high agreement with conventional non-automatic identification. This suggests that automated adventitious sound detection or classification is a promising solution to overcome the limitations of conventional auscultation and to assist in the monitoring of relevant diseases.

  6. Cardiovascular side-effects and insulin secretion after intravenous administration of radiolabeled Exendin-4 in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydén, Anneli; Nyman, Görel; Nalin, Lovisa; Andreasson, Susanne; Korsgren, Olle; Eriksson, Olof; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    . Arrhythmia was detected by listening to the heart with a stethoscope up to 4 days after the [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 injection. In all animals, no effect on the cardiovascular system was registered after the low dose of IV [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4. Insulin secretion increased (p < 0.05) when IV [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 was given in dosages ≥ 0.14 μg/kg. Conclusions: Intravenous administration of ≥ 2.8 μg/kg [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 resulted in severe tachycardia and arrhythmias in healthy non-diabetic and diabetes-induced pigs, and the insulin secretion was stimulated in healthy non-diabetic animals when ≥ 0.14 μg/kg [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 was given.

  7. Doctor’s identity in modern Western society

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    KIM Ock-Joo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago doctors perceived themselves quite differently as they do today Doctor’s identity in modern Western society shaped from the modernization of medicine starting in the nineteenth century Modern medicine as practiced today was established from 1800 to the World War I In the eighteenth century three medical groups (physicians surgeons and apothecaries struggled to elevate their position and to organize their education Surgery and surgical education in hospitals developed greatly while physicians tried to theorize their own medical system in the eighteenth century In the early nineteenth century hospital medicine emerged hospitals moved from the place for the poor and the social inadequate to the center of medical education and research Especially French hospitals became the birth places of clinico-pathology new diagnosis with stethoscope careful observation and the numerical method The influence of the hospital medicine spread from France to England America and other parts of Europe After the birth of clinic in France laboratory medicine emerged in Germany France Britain and the United States Surpassing other nations Germany developed university-centered laboratory research system Most of all the reward and status of the laboratory researchers were established so that they could concentrate on their research Although other countries were influenced by German system and knowledge they did not develop research system at the same degree as Germany Rise of scientific medicine transformed self-perception of doctors Science made a great impact not only on the doctors’ practice of medicine but also on the public’s perception of medicine and doctors In the late nineteenth century new discoveries and new armament of scientific medicine marched through antiseptic surgery tropical medicine new laboratories antitoxin therapies from immunology the rise of pharmaceutical industry and the discovery of X-ray Payment system also was changed

  8. Pediatric hearing aid use: parent-reported challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Karen; Olson, Whitney A; Twohig, Michael P; Preston, Elizabeth; Blaiser, Kristina; White, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parent-reported challenges related to hearing aid management and parental psychosocial characteristics during the first 3 years of the child's life. Using a cross-sectional survey design, surveys were distributed to parents of children with hearing loss via state Early Intervention programs in Utah and Indiana. Packets contained one family demographic form and two sets of three questionnaires to obtain responses from mothers and fathers separately: the Parent Hearing Aid Management Inventory explored parent access to information, parent confidence in performing skills, expectations, communication with the audiologist, and hearing aid use challenges. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire measured psychological flexibility, experiential avoidance, and internal thought processes that can affect problem-solving ability and decrease an individual's ability to take value-based actions. The Patient Health Questionnaire identified symptoms of depression. Thirty-seven families completed questionnaires (35 mothers and 20 fathers). Most responses were parents of toddlers (M = 22 months) who had been wearing binaural hearing aids for an average of 15 months. Both mothers and fathers reported that even though the amount of information they received was overwhelming, most (84%) preferred to have all the information at the beginning, rather than to receive it over an extended time period. Parents reported an array of challenges related to hearing aid management, with the majority related to daily management, hearing aid use, and emotional adjustment. Sixty-six percent of parents reported an audiologist taught them how to complete a listening check using a stethoscope, however, only one-third reported doing a daily hearing aid listening check. Both mothers and fathers reported a wide range of variability in their confidence in performing activities related to hearing aid management, and most reported minimal confidence in their ability to

  9. APRONS- BOON OR BANE?

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    Sri Krishna Prakash Sistu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aprons have long been a doctor’s ornamental and symbolic professional wear when a doctor has been recognised, respected and valued as very significant person if he wore a long sleeved white coat with a stethoscope around the neck in the past. There have been many studies done about the safety of wearing aprons by the medical professionals and many countries like Great Britain have discarded and abandoned the use of long white coats as it is considered a serious threat with regards to the nosocomial infections. In India, it has still been a custom and code that a doctor and medical students wear aprons in the Hospital. Various studies have proved that aprons worn by doctors carry dangerous microbial flora. Hence, a prospective study is done to cognise the question if “Aprons are a boon or bane?.” MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study done to identify the bacteriological flora present on the aprons of 150 students in our institute NRIIMS, Visakhapatnam. The institutional approval and ethical committee clearance were taken. The swabs were taken from the pocket region of the aprons of all the students. The collected swabs were immediately sent to the microbiology department in different culture media including nutrient agar, blood agar and Robertson’s Cooked Meat broth. RESULTS Various bacteria are identified namely; 1. Gram-positive bacilli; 2. Micrococci; 3. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus; 4. Grampositive cocci; 5. Micrococci with gram-positive bacilli; 6. Micrococci with aerobic spore bearing bacilli; 7. Gram-negative coccobacilli; 8. Gram-positive bacilli with ASB. The significance of the study is that majority of the identified organisms were normal body flora. Out of 150 aprons, 38 aprons were found to be sterile and one or more of above-mentioned flora are identified in 112 aprons. 25 out of 38 aprons, which were found sterile were washed regularly at least once in 7 days. 74 (49.2% aprons are found to be

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Infections and inflammation”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    CELLS GENE EXPRESSION • M. Cernada, M.C. Collado, C. Bäuerl, E. Serna, M. Gormaz, G. Pérez-Martínez, M. VentoABS 12. CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN A SPANISH TERTIARY HOSPITAL (2009-2015 • N. Lecumberri García, M. Villarreal Calvo, G. Sierra Colomina, M. García Ayerra, S. Torrús Carmona, I. Gil HernandezABS 13. ADENOVIRUS PNEUMONIA IN A PRETERM NEWBORN • E. Ergenekon, E. Ozcan, S. Ilbay, G. Bozdayı, H. TezerABS 14. ACCURACY OF NEONATAL GASTRIC FLUID EXAMINATION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF CHORIOAMNIONITIS • S. Punnahitananda, T. Chitsinchayakul, P. ThaithumyanonABS 15. NON-TARGETED AND TARGETED URINE METABOLOMICS ANALYSIS IN NEONATES WITH LATE-ONSET SEPSIS • K. Sarafidis, A. Thomaidou, G. Theodoridis, A. Chatziioannou, H. Gika, E. Mikros, D. Benaki, E. Diamanti, Ch. Agakidis, V. DrossouABS 16. PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII COLONIZATION IN PRETERM INFANTS • P. Rojas, E. García, V. Friaza, C. De la Horra, E. Calderón, A. PavónABS 17. FACTORS THAT PREDICT DEATH IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS WITH LATE-ONSET SEPSIS • G. Traidaraitė, I. Aldakauskienė, R. Brinkis, A. Pužas, R. TamelienėABS 18. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF BLOOD MONOCYTES IN NEONATES WITH BIRTH WEIGHT ≤ 1,500 G • M. Zasada, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska-Zapała, N. Mól, M. Siedlar, P. KwintaABS 19. VAGINAL UREAPLASMA SPP. COLONIZATION AND PREGNANCY OUTCOME: DATA OF A PROSPECTIVE MULTICENTER STUDY • J. Rittenschober-Böhm, T. Waldhör, S. M. Schulz, B. Stihsen, B. Pimpel, K. Goeral, E. Hafner, G. Sliutz, D. C. Kasper, A. Witt, A. BergerABS 20. MICRO-METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF LINEZOLID IN THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING IN NEONATES • B.M. Goffredo, S. Cairoli, F. Piersigilli, MP. Ronchetti, C. Dionisi-Vici, A. Dotta, C. AuritiABS 21. ANTIBIOTIC USE IN THE FIRST WEEK OF LIFE • M. Ferreira, C. Fernandes, T. Marques, R. BarrosoABS 22. STUDY OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF MOBILE PHONES AND STETHOSCOPES IN NEONATOLOGY • A. Daoudi, N. El Idrissi Slitine, M. Mekkaoui Alaoui, F. Elalouani, F

  11. Anestesia para separação de gêmeos isquiópagos no período neonatal: relato de caso Anestesia para separación de gemelos isquiópagos en el período neonatal Anesthetic management for neonatal conjoined twins separation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo

    2002-07-01

    together 5100 g, who were classified as ischiopagus tetrapus. Two anesthetic-surgical teams were present and the anesthetic procedure was programmed using two units of each device: anesthesia machine, cardioscope, capnograph, pulse oximetry, electric thermometer and esophageal stethoscope. Halothane and fentanyl were used for anesthesia induction, with the twins in the lateral position and 45º head rotation to allow tracheal intubation. Ventilation was manually controlled using Rees-Baraka systems. Anesthesia was also maintained with halothane, fentanyl and oxygen. Double abdominal organs were found during surgery, except for the single colon. Bladders and ischia were joined. At surgery completion, twins had stable vital signs. They remained in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for four weeks and were discharged in good general conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of the team’s "meshing of gears", multidisciplinary retrospective studies, adequate and careful monitoring and good clinical observation is emphasized. All those factors contributed for twins’ good evolution.

  12. Fibre optic monitoring of pipes a world first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: This article explains how water authorities can remotely monitor vast kilometres of underground pipe, quickly pinpoint faults and, more importantly, assess how critical they are. A new fibre optic system developed in a collaboration between Melbourne Water, Monash University, South East Water, CSIRO Land and Water, and Hawk Measurement Systems has the potential to provide 24/7 monitoring, inexpensive fault and deterioration location, and to reduce unnecessary pipe maintenance. Trials show the system is accurate to within one metre along 50km of pipe. A grant from the Department of State Development, Business and Innovation's Market Validation Program, along with cash and in-kind contributions, has resulted in a $2.5 million project. Existing fibre optic-sensing technology was known to have the capability to monitor the condition and integrity of pipes, but available solutions were largely confined to those above ground. What was needed was a system that allowed sensors to be installed and managed on buried pipes in a cost- effective manner for the long service life of water pipelines - about 100 years. Traditionally, leaks need to become visible first. They are then located with a stethoscope-like instrument, which requires a site visit. This observation can be drawn out because leaking water often appears at the surface some distance from the actual pipe fracture. With the new fibre optic system, once a fault is identified it can be evaluated remotely using a data-acquisition system capable of sensing three variables - stress and strain (or pressure), sound vibrations and temperature. A laser beam is sent to the optical fibre, which measures the signals coming back. Analysis of the spectrum interprets the signals, telling the operator what kind of fault is occurring, its location and dimensions. Continuous, long-term remote monitoring using fibre optics eliminates the need for onsite inspection. All the sensed variables are monitored and accuracy is

  13. Análise da freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e duplo-produto em diferentes posições corporais nos exercícios resistidos Análisis de la frecuencia cardíaca, presion arterial y doble-producto en diferentes posiciones corporales en los ejercícios resistidos Analysis on the cardiac rate, blood pressure and doubled-product in different body positions in resisted exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2005-10-01

    ímetro Polar MZ1 (Finlândia, esfigmomanómetro Vasquez-Lubry (Alemanha e un estetoscópio Littman (EUA. Fué utilizado el test t-Student apareado, para efecto de comparación entre los valores encontrados en las variables fisiológicas. El análisis estatístico tuvo como critério de significancia p Presently, resisted exercises (RE have suffered several investigations due to the importance they attained to the development of the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular fitness. To prescribe the RE, some variables such as cardiac rate (CR, and blood pressure (BP shall be monitored. The association between the CR and BP supply data to allow the obtainment of the doubled-product (DP. These two variables were used to analyze and compare the hemodynamic responses of the straight seat supine (SRS and straight slying supine (SRD and ten repetitions at 65% of a maximum repetition (1 RM were performed. The sampling was composed by 14 individuals (10 female and 4 male with mean ages of 23 years (± 4 years, body weight of 61 kg (± 7 kg, and height of 168 cm (± 5 cm. As material to the collection, it was used a Polar MZ1 frequencymeter (Finland, a Vasquez-Lubry sphygmomanometer (Germany, and a Littman stethoscope (USA. It was used the coupled t-Student test to make a comparison between values found among physiological variables. The statistical analysis had as significance criterion p < .05. Every variable presented a mean higher value in the SRS related to the SRD. It was considered the pre- and post-exercise's CR, the BP, SBP and DBP. It is understood that the absolute value of the BP measured by the auscultatory method trends to be lower than the value recorded inside the artery, but in test situations using different intensity exercises, the percentage of the BP variation presents the same trend than the invasive method. Thus, it can be concluded that the SRS and SRD exercises did not present significant differences in none of the physiological parameters studied, but it was noted a

  14. Chronicle of a Death Foretold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    instruments to examine different parts of the human body," said co-author David Boboltz. "While the mouth can be checked with a simple light, a stethoscope is required to listen to the heart beat. Similarly the heart of the star can be observed in the optical, the molecular and dust layers can be studied in the infrared and the maser emission can be probed with radio instruments. Only the combination of the three gives us a more complete picture of the star and its envelope." The maser emission comes from silicon monoxide (SiO) molecules and can be used to image and track the motion of gas clouds in the stellar envelope roughly 10 times the size of the Sun. The astronomers observed S Ori with two of the largest interferometric facilities available: the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal, observing in the near- and mid-infrared, and the NRAO-operated Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), that takes measurements in the radio wave domain. Because the star's luminosity changes periodically, the astronomers observed it simultaneously with both instruments, at several different epochs. The first epoch occurred close to the stellar minimum luminosity and the last just after the maximum on the next cycle. ESO PR Photo 25c/07 ESO PR Photo 25c/07 S Ori to Scale (Artist's Impression) The astronomers found the star's diameter to vary between 7.9 milliarcseconds and 9.7 milliarcseconds. At the distance of S Ori, this corresponds to a change of the radius from about 1.9 to 2.3 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or between 400 and 500 solar radii! As if such sizes were not enough, the inner dust shell is found to be about twice as big. The maser spots, which also form at about twice the radius of the star, show the typical structure of partial to full rings with a clumpy distribution. Their velocities indicate that the gas is expanding radially, moving away at a speed of about 10 km/s. The multi-wavelength analysis indicates that near the minimum there is

  15. Anestesia em paciente com Xeroderma Pigmentoso: relato de caso Anestesia en paciente con Xeroderma Pigmentoso: relato de caso Anesthesia in patient with Xeroderma Pigmentosum: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Degrandi Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    premature development of neoplasias due to an exacerbated hypersensitivity to UV radiation. These manifestations are due to DNA excision and repair mechanism damage. As compared to normal individuals, these patients have a 1000-fold increased risk for developing neoplasias on sun-exposed areas. This report aimed at describing the anesthetic management of a patient with Xeroderma Pigmentosum submitted to ophthalmologic surgery. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 7 years of age, with Xeroderma Pigmentosum and extensive facial involvement, submitted to right eye papillomatous lesion excision. Patient was premedicated with 10 mg oral midazolam. Initial monitoring consisted of cardioscope, pulse oximetry, precordial stethoscope and noninvasive blood pressure. Patient was preoxygenated with 100% oxygen for 3 minutes and inhalational anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane under mask in incremental concentrations up to 7%. Peripheral venous access was achieved with a 22G catheter followed by intravenous 50 mg propofol and 20 mg succinylcholine and tracheal intubation with a 5.5 mm uncuffed tracheal tube. A guide wire was used to help tracheal tube introduction. Anesthesia was maintained with 3,5% sevoflurane and 100% oxygen with Bain's Circuit. Patient was extubated in the operating room and was sent to the post-anesthetic care unit in good conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Facial and oropharyngeal changes caused by this pathology have imposed many difficulties for facial mask adaptation and tracheal intubation. Patient and relatives continuous education are the most important Xeroderma Pigmentosum management objective.

  16. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia general intravenosa (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende

    2010-04-01

    delivery. Symmetrical muscular weakness, areflexia, and fasciculations of the tongue are characteristic. The majority of the infants die before two years of age as a consequence of respiratory failure. The present report presents a case in which total intravenous anesthesia was used. CASE REPORT: This is a 1 year old white female weighing 10 kg, physical status ASA III, with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease diagnosed at two months of age. The patient was a candidate for open gastrostomy, fundus gastroplication, and tracheostomy. After venoclysis, the patient was monitored with cardioscope, non-invasive blood pressure, pulse oximeter, precordial stethoscope, and rectal temperature. She was oxygenated and, after bolus administration of atropine (0.3 mg, boluses of remifentanil (20 µg and propofol (30 mg were administered for anesthetic induction. After tracheal intubation, she was ventilated with manual controlled system without CO2 absorber, Baraka (Mapleson D system, FGF of 4 L.min-1, and FiO2 0.5 (O2/N2O. Anesthesia was maintained with continuous manual infusion of propofol, 250 µg.kg-1.min-1, and remifentanil, 0.3 µg.kg-1.min-1. The surgery lasted 150 minutes. The patient regained consciousness 8 minutes after the end of the infusion, ventilating spontaneously. Two hours later, she was transferred to the pediatric unit, being discharged from the hospital on the fourth postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: The choice of anesthetic technique gives priority to the safety associated with the familiarity of handling available drugs. In children with neuromuscular diseases, due to the extremely short duration, total intravenous anesthesia with remifentanil and propofol in infusion systems can have a favorable influence on disease evolution.

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    NEONATAL HEART RATE IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH USING DIGITAL STETHOSCOPE, HAND HELD ULTRASOUND AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY • B. Treston, J. Semberova, R. Kernan, E. Crothers, A. Branagan, N. O’Cathain, J. MiletinABS 29. NEW IBUPROFEN DOSAGE REGIMEN FOR PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS FOLLOWING SIMULATIONS BASED ON PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC EVIDENCE •  R. Flint, R. ter Heine, E. Spaans, D. Burger, J. de Klerk, K. Allegaert, C. Knibbe, S. SimonsABS 30. WHAT IS THAT PULSATING ON THE ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL? •  O. Nolan, R. Prasad, P. Miller, M. Singh, S.V. Rasiah

  18. VLBA Teams With Optical Interferometer to Study Star's Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Structure of S Ori (Artist's Impression) "Astronomers are like medical doctors, who use various instruments to examine different parts of the human body," said co-author David Boboltz. "While the mouth can be checked with a simple light, a stethoscope is required to listen to the heart beat. Similarly the heart of the star can be observed in the optical, the molecular and dust layers can be studied in the infrared and the maser emission can be probed with radio instruments. Only the combination of the three gives us a more complete picture of the star and its envelope." The maser emission comes from silicon monoxide (SiO) molecules and can be used to image and track the motion of gas clouds in the stellar envelope roughly 10 times the size of the Sun. The astronomers observed S Ori with two of the largest interferometric facilities available: the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal, observing in the near- and mid-infrared, and the NRAO-operated Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), that takes measurements in the radio wave domain. Because the star's luminosity changes periodically, the astronomers observed it simultaneously with both instruments, at several different epochs. The first epoch occurred close to the stellar minimum luminosity and the last just after the maximum on the next cycle. ESO PR Photo 25c/07 ESO PR Photo 25c/07 S Ori to Scale (Artist's Impression) The astronomers found the star's diameter to vary between 7.9 milliarcseconds and 9.7 milliarcseconds. At the distance of S Ori, this corresponds to a change of the radius from about 1.9 to 2.3 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or between 400 and 500 solar radii! As if such sizes were not enough, the inner dust shell is found to be about twice as big. The maser spots, which also form at about twice the radius of the star, show the typical structure of partial to full rings with a clumpy distribution. Their velocities indicate that the gas is expanding radially, moving away at a