WorldWideScience

Sample records for stes

  1. E-travel Adoption by Small Travel Enterprises (STEs: An Initial Study in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pujani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate e-travel adoption of tourism industries in Indonesia and Malaysia particularly by STEs. The qualitative research was undertaken using case analysis from in-depth interviews of 10-STEs as intial study both in Indonesia and Malaysia. The finding result of e-travel adoption by STEs in a cross-cultural study was identified from the findings present in the initial study based on personal, organizational and website characteristics. The majority of personal characteristics were relatively similar in both countries. However, few differences are present in organizational and website characteristics. E-travel adoption in both countries is influenced by the business experiences of owners/managers, various technological aspects, and the nature of use and benefits. The following study, the user-based survey would be undertaken to complete The e-travel adoption model in Indonesia and Malaysia.

  2. Science and Technology Education in the STES Context in Primary Schools: What Should It Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri

    2011-10-01

    Striving for sustainability requires a paradigm shift in conceptualization, thinking, research and education, particularly concerning the science-technology-environment-society (STES) interfaces. Consequently, `STES literacy' requires the development of students' question asking, critical, evaluative system thinking, decision making and problem solving capabilities, in this context, via innovative implementable higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS)-promoting teaching, assessment and learning strategies. The corresponding paradigms shift in science and technology education, such as from algorithmic teaching to HOCS-promoting learning is unavoidable, since it reflects the social pressure, worldwide, towards more accountable socially- and environmentally-responsible sustainable development. Since most of the STES- and, recently STEM (science-technology-engineering-mathematics)-related research in science education has been focused on secondary and tertiary education, it is vital to demonstrate the relevance of this multifaceted research to the science and technology teaching in primary schools. Our longitudinal STES education-related research and curriculum development point to the very little contribution, if any, of the traditional science teaching to "know", to the development of students' HOCS capabilities. On the other hand, there appears to be a `general agreement', that the contemporary dominant lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching and assessment strategies applied in science and technology education are, in fact, restraining the natural curiosity and creativity of primary school (and younger?) pupils/children. Since creative thinking as well as evaluative system thinking, decision making, problem solving and … transfer constitute an integral part of the HOCS conceptual framework, the appropriateness of "HOCS promoting" teaching, and the relevance of science and technology, to elementary education in the STES context, is apparent. Therefore, our

  3. Does STES-Oriented Science Education Promote 10th-Grade Students' Decision-Making Capability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Ben-Chaim, David; Azaiza, Ibtesam; Herskovitz, Orit; Zoller, Uri

    2010-07-01

    Today's society is continuously coping with sustainability-related complex issues in the Science-Technology-Environment-Society (STES) interfaces. In those contexts, the need and relevance of the development of students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as question-asking, critical-thinking, problem-solving and decision-making capabilities within science teaching have been argued by several science educators for decades. Three main objectives guided this study: (1) to establish "base lines" for HOCS capabilities of 10th grade students (n = 264) in the Israeli educational system; (2) to delineate within this population, two different groups with respect to their decision-making capability, science-oriented (n = 142) and non-science (n = 122) students, Groups A and B, respectively; and (3) to assess the pre-post development/change of students' decision-making capabilities via STES-oriented HOCS-promoting curricular modules entitled Science, Technology and Environment in Modern Society (STEMS). A specially developed and validated decision-making questionnaire was used for obtaining a research-based response to the guiding research questions. Our findings suggest that a long-term persistent application of purposed decision-making, promoting teaching strategies, is needed in order to succeed in affecting, positively, high-school students' decision-making ability. The need for science teachers' involvement in the development of their students' HOCS capabilities is thus apparent.

  4. Päästes euroopa naaritsat / Tiit Maran ; vahendas Jaanus Vaiksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maran, Tiit, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    16. jaanuaril 2007 kaitses Tallinna Loomaaia teadussekretär ja liigikaitse labori juhataja Tiit Maran Tallinna Ülikoolis doktoritööd "Euroopa naarits, Mustela lutreola, (Linnaeus 1761) looduskaitsebioloogia : liigi väljasuremine ja selle põhjused". Doktoritöö kajastab aastatepikkuse uurimise tulemusi, kuid veelgi tähtsam on Tiit Marani igapäevane praktiline töö euroopa naaritsa päästmise nimel. Euroopa naaritsa asurkonna loomisest Hiiumaal

  5. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    loop) is used to remove heat from the hot vapor, causing it to condense back into a liquid. The liquid is then routed back to the evaporator to complete...reversed, and heat is extracted from the heat source (the ground loop) to evaporate the liquid refrigerant. The refrigerant vapor condenses in a...towers are typically operated during hot summer months and rely mainly on water evaporation for cooling. Dry fluid coolers cool using heat transfer

  6. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  7. The Tail Wagging the Dog; An Overdue Examination of Student Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Patti; House, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of several factors beyond the professor's control and their unique impact on Student Teaching Evaluations (STEs). The present research pulls together a substantial amount of data to statistically analyze several academic historical legends about just how vulnerable STEs are to the…

  8. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  9. Analysis of safety information for nuclear power plants and development of source term estimation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Jin Hee

    1999-12-01

    Current CARE(Computerized Advisory System for Radiological Emergency) in KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has no STES(Source Term Estimation System) which links between SIDS(Safety Information Display System) and FADAS(Following Accident Dose Assessment System). So in this study, STES is under development. STES system is the system that estimates the source term based on the safety information provided by SIDS. Estimated source term is given to FADAS as an input for estimation of environmental effect of radiation. Through this first year project STES for the Kori 3,4 and Younggwang 1,2 has been developed. Since there is no CARE for Wolsong(PHWR) plants yet, CARE for Wolsong is under construction. The safety parameters are selected and the safety information display screens and the alarm logic for plant status change are developed for Wolsong Unit 2 based on the design documents for CANDU plants

  10. Secondary transfer effects of interracial contact: the moderating role of social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Griffin, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The contact hypothesis asserts that intergroup attitudes can be improved when groups have opportunities to interact with each other. Recent research extending the contact hypothesis suggests that contact with a primary outgroup can decrease bias toward outgroups not directly involved in the interaction, which is known as the secondary transfer effect (STE). The present study contributes to growing research on STEs by investigating effects among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White undergraduate students (N = 3,098) attending 28 selective colleges and universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, our results reveal numerous positive STEs among Asian, Black, and Hispanic college students. No significant STEs were observed among White students. Mediated moderation analyses support an attitude generalization mechanism, because STEs were explained by changes in attitudes toward the primary outgroup. This research speaks to equivocal findings in the extant STE literature and highlights directions for future research on social cohesion and bias reduction.

  11. New Releases

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Pärt "Tabula Rasa", Alfen "Swedish Rhapsodies" (dirigent Neeme Järvi), Tubin "Syms Nos 3 & 8" (dirigent Neeme Järvi), Shostakovich "Ballet Stes" (dirigent Neeme Järvi), Tüür "Orch Wks"

  12. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This is the reference manual of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program, and is the primary document for the transfer of technical information of the STES Program. It has been issued in preliminary form and will be updated periodically to include more technical data and results of research. As the program progresses and new technical data become available, sections of the manual will be revised to incorporate these data. This primary document contains summaries of: the TRW, incorporated demonstration project at Behtel, Alaska, Dames and Moore demonstration project at Stony Brook, New York, and the University of Minnesota demonstration project at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; the technical support programs including legal/institutional assessment; economic assessment; environmental assessment; field test facilities; a compendia of existing information; numerical simulation; and non-aquifer STES concepts. (LCL)

  13. Tidsskriftet Antropologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VOLD. 15 år efter murens fald må vi konstatere, at Verdens voldelige orden ikke opløstes med den kolde krigs afslutning. Verden er ikke blevet mere fredelig, og håbet kom til den endelige symbolske afslutning den 11. september 2001. Siden da har ”Krigen mod terror” skabt nye konflikter og krige i...

  14. Solar Total Energy System, Large Scale Experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia. Final technical progress report. Volume II, Section 3. Facility concept design. [1. 72 MW thermal and 383. 6 kW electric power for 42,000 ft/sup 2/ knitwear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1977-10-17

    The Stearns-Roger Engineering Company conceptual design of ERDA's Large Scale Experiment No. 2 (LSE No. 2) is presented. The various LSEs are part of ERDA's Solar Total Energy Program (STES) and a separate activity of the National Solar Thermal Power Systems Program. The object of this LSE is to design, construct, test, evaluate and operate a STES for the purpose of obtaining experience with large scale hardware systems and to establish engineering capability for subsequent demonstration projects. This particular LSE is to be located at Shenandoah, Georgia, and will provide power to the Bleyle knitwear factory. The Solar Total Energy system is sized to supply 1.720 MW thermal power and 383.6 KW electrical power. The STES is sized for the extended knitwear plant of 3902 M/sup 2/ (42,000 sq-ft) which will eventually employ 300 people. The details of studies conducted for Phase II of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) for the conceptual design requirements of the facility are presented. Included in this section are the detailed descriptions and analyses of the following subtasks: facility concept design, system concept design, performance analysis, operation plan, component and subsystem development, procurement plan, cost estimating and scheduling, and technical and management plans. (WHK)

  15. Guadalcanal Operation. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-07-01

    growing malarial rate. The malaria was accom- panied by a form of secondary anemia which caused the endurance and resistance of the troops to...STES, E H . FBBU & IN I, A J. PERU G IN I, V A. PH ILLIPS,. W alter R . > Jr. PY E, W illiam RANEY, H L . RANKIN, M H . REED, S B . ROGERS

  16. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  17. A phenomenological case study concerning science teacher educators' beliefs and teaching practices about culturally relevant pedagogy and preparing K-12 science teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Janice Bell

    Due to the rising diversity in today's schools, science teacher educators (STEs) suggest that K-12 teachers must be uniquely prepared to engage these students in science classrooms. Yet, in light of the increasing white-black science achievement gap, it is unclear how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage diverse students, and African Americans in particular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science. Thus, using the culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework, this phenomenological case study explored beliefs about culturally relevant science teaching and the influence of reported beliefs and experiences related to race on STEs' teaching practices. In the first phase, STE's in a mid-Atlantic state were invited to participate in an electronic survey. In the second phase, four participants, who were identified as exemplars, were selected from the survey to participate in three semi-structured interviews. The data revealed that STEs were more familiar with culturally responsive pedagogy (CResP) in the context of their post-secondary classrooms as opposed to CRP. Further, most of the participants in part one and two described modeling conventional ways they prepare their preservice teachers to engage K-12 students, who represent all types of diversity, without singling out any specific race. Lastly, many of the STEs' in this study reported formative experiences related to race and beliefs in various manifestations of racism have impacted their teaching beliefs and practices. The findings of this study suggest STEs do not have a genuine understanding of the differences between CRP and CResP and by in large embrace CResP principles. Secondly, in regards to preparing preservice teachers to engage African American students in science, the participants in this study seemed to articulate the need for ideological change, but were unable to demonstrate pedagogical changes

  18. Preliminary investigation of aluminum combustion in air and steam.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenbeck, Amos Edward.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The goal of the experiment is to understand the role of metal-steam combustion in the explosion of underwater shaped cnarges. An apparatus was constructed to investigate combustion of aluminum in stes.m. For background information, aluminum wires (1 mm diameter, 50 mm length) were ignited in air by high current (480 amperes) . Tests in air and steam were photographed using 35 mm color slides and 16 mm movies (4300 fr...

  19. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  20. Critical phenomena and their effect on thermal energy storage in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobold, Gustavo M.; Da Silva, Alexandre K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •High power thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids. •Influence of property variation on energy and power density. •Multi-fluid analysis and generalization for several storage temperatures. •Cost, heat transfer and energy density evaluation for high temperature storage. -- Abstract: Large-scale implementation of concentrated solar power plants requires energy storage systems if fossil sources are to be fully replaced. While several candidates have appeared, most still face major issues such as cost, limited energy density and material compatibility. The present paper explores the influence of property variation in the proximity of the critical point on thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids (sTES) from thermodynamic and heat transfer standpoints. Influence of thermodynamic operational parameters on energy density of isobaric and isochoric sTES and their optima is discussed, showing that the energy density results from a competition between average specific heat and loaded density. Moreover, sTES is shown to be applicable to virtually any storage temperature, depending only on the fluid’s critical point. Finally, a heat transfer and energy density comparison to other existing storage mechanisms is presented and supercritical water is shown to be competitive for high temperature thermal energy storage.

  1. Uranium export from a sandy beach subterranean estuary in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Maher, Damien T.; Holloway, Ceylena; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-J.

    2017-11-01

    Few studies exist on the contribution of subterranean estuaries (STEs) to the oceanic uranium (U) budget. Here, we estimate the dissolved U fluxes out of a quartz sand STE located on the east coast of Australia. Our results indicate that the advective flow of seawater in permeable sands enhances cycling of U in the STE. Dissolved U concentrations ranged from 25 nM in the STE to an effective zero salinity end-member of 3.8 nM in the surface estuary. The dissolved U (salinity corrected) concentrations were positively correlated to Fe (r2 = 0.49 p based on shallow saline groundwater exchange pathways and 0.4 μmol U m-2 day-1 based on deep fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Uranium's behavior in STEs is diverse and site specific. Out of the seven investigations available here and in the literature, three suggested a SGD-derived U source to the coastal ocean, while four suggested a U sink within STEs removing seawater U. Therefore, it remains unclear whether SGD is a source or sink of U to the ocean and additional investigations in contrasting settings are required to resolve the global contribution of SGD to the marine U cycle.

  2. [The evaluation of color vision and its diagnostic value in predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy in patients with glucose metabolism disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk-Skórka, Katarzyna; Kowalski, Jan

    2017-07-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate color vision and its diagnostic value in predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy in patients with glucose metabolism disorders. The study involved 197 people, 92 women and 105 men aged 63.21 ± 8.74 years. In order to assess glucose metabolism disorders, patients were divided into three groups. The first group (DM) consisted of 60 people (16 women and 44 men aged 61.92 ± 8.46 years). These were people with type 2 diabetes. Second group (IFG IGT) consisted of 67 people (35 women and 32 men aged 65 ± 8.5 years). These were people who were diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. The third group, the control one (K) consisted of 70 people (41 women and 29 men aged 62.6 ± 9.06 years). They were healthy individuals. In order to assess diabetic retinopathy study population was divided into two groups. The first group (BZ) consisted of 177 patients (84 women and 93 men aged 62.9 ± 8.78 years) without diabetic retinopathy. The second group (NPDR) consisted of 20 patients (8 women and 12 men aged 65.95 ± 8.17 years) with diabetic retinopathy. Glucose metabolism disorders were diagnosed with glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Evaluation of retinopathy was based on eye examination. All patients underwent binocular Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue color vision test (test result is a Total Error Score - TES). In the healthy control group (K) there were less patients with diabetic retinopathy (p = 0,0101), and less patients with abnormal color vision test (p = 0,0001) than in other groups. Majority of patients in K group had generalized abnormalities of color vision while other groups demonstrated tritanomalią (p = 0,0018). It was discovered that sTES value adequately distinguishes group K from group IFG, IGT, DM (AUC = 0,673), group K from group DM (AUC = 0,701), and group K from group IFG IGT (AUC = 0,648) sTES does not differentiate groups IGT, IFG and DM (AUC = 0,563). It was shown that in IGT, IFG group sTES

  3. Solar total energy: large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia Site. Annual report, June 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, E.J.

    1979-07-01

    A background summary and a complete description of the progress and current status of activities relative to the Cooperative Agreement for the Solar Total Energy - Large Scale Experiment at the Bleyle Knitwear Plant at Shenandoah, Georgia are presented. A statement of objectives and an abstract of progress to date are included. This is followed by a short introduction containing a project overview, a summary of the participants and their respective roles, a brief description of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) design concept, and a chronological summary of progress to date. A general description of the site is given, a detailed report of progress is reported, and drawings and equipment lists are included. The closed-loop solar energy system planned for Shenandoah begins with circulation of Syltherm 800, a heat transfer fluid of the Dow-Corning Corporation, through the receiver tubes of a parabolic dish solar collector field. As solar energy is focused on the receivers, the heat transfer fluid is heated to approximately 399/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F) and is pumped to a heat exchanger for immediate use, or to a thermal storage system for later use. Once in the heat exchanger, the fluid heats a working fluid that produces the steam required for operating the turbine. After performing this task, the heat transfer fluid returns to the collectors to repeat the cycle, while the steam turbine-generator system supplies the electrical demands for the knitwear plant and the STES. During STES operation, maximum thermal and electrical requirements of the application are expected to be at 1.08 MWth and 161 kWe, respectively. During the power generation phase, some of the steam is extracted for use as process steam in the knitwear manufacturing process, while exhaust steam from the turbine is passed through a condenser to produce hot water for heating, domestic use, and absorption air conditioning. (WHK)

  4. Transferencia de la formación docente universitaria : un estudio en los docentes de las facultades de ingeniería de la Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile) /

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Peña, Roxana,

    2017-01-01

    Departament responsable de la tesi: Departament de Pedagogia Aplicada. Numerosos estudios, la mayoría de ellos de universidades anglófonas y europeas, han examinado la cuestión de cómo medir el impacto de la formación de los profesores (Guskey, 2002, Gibbs y Coffey, Prosser y Rickinson, 2008, Stes, Min-Leliveld, Gijbels y Van Petegem, 2010, Feixas, Durán, Fernández, Fernández y García San Pedro, Márquez et al., 2013). Sin embargo, la falta de evaluación sistemática sigue siendo una preocup...

  5. Elastolysen und Hauterkrankungen mit Verlust der elastischen Fasern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnier, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Die elastischen Fasern sind neben den kollagenen Fasern der wichtigste Bestandteil des Bindegewebsgerüstes der Haut. Eine Verminderung oder ein Verlust der elastischen Fasern ist bei einer Vielzahl von klinisch sich unterschiedlich präsentierenden Erkrankungen, hereditär oder erworben, beschrieben. Bei den Erkrankungen, die mit einer Entzündung einhergehen ist die Elastophagozytose ein wichtiges histologisches Merkmal. Die Therapie der Erkrankungen dieser Gruppe ist grundsätzlich schwierig. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bibliography of the seasonal thermal energy storage library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Casper, G.; Kawin, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    The Main Listing is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Each citation includes the author's name, title, publisher, publication date, and where applicable, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) number or other document number. The number preceding each citation is the identification number for that document in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Library. Occasionally, one or two alphabetic characters are added to the identification number. These alphabetic characters indicate that the document is contained in a collection of papers, such as the proceedings of a conference. An Author Index and an Identification Number Index are included. (WHK)

  7. Energy localization and decay in highly ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.T.; Thoma, E.D.; Bunton, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Luminescence from localized states in pure wide-gap crystals is examined from the perspective of modern fast scintillator requirements. Recent advances in the understanding of self-trapped excitons are summarized with regard to excited-state configurations, spectra, and luminescence efficiency. As an example, the fast luminescence of partially quenched type I STEs (self-trapped excitons) in RbI offers tunable-lifetime subnanosecond pulses which could be useful for timing applications. The possible role of hole localization in cross luminescence is discussed. Stokes-shifted luminescence in some pure rare-earth fluoride crystals probably originates from self-trapped excitons of forms to be discussed

  8. Technology and application of two sets of industrial electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Degen

    2000-01-01

    The radiation industry in China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) has had a big scale, and the two sets of industrial electron accelerators play important roles. The Electron Processing System (E.P.S), which was introduced in 1987, is a powerful electron accelerator. And the 10 MeV Accelerator, which is a traveling wave linear electron accelerator, has the higher electron energy. Both of the stes are equipped the driving devices under the beam, and has made a considerable economic results. This article describes the technology and application of the two electron accelerators. (author)

  9. Structural Flight Loads Simulation Capability. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    actuators. Load cells sense the resulting loads and give the console operator a positive readout of the loads being applied. The operator’s console...qialn StesSa We Elmn 57. .......... C ’D D .... .. .-- --- -.. ... . ..114 .. ETF’ ’IFEFI,--EIJT :_I’F3L- EL4 ?O cl l c...3.20. (concluded). 127 ra E j214 CbC ob) C-H ea) 4p U) ’-4 r4 128 EL4 UA f r c www aw r. 0 ag 0 . 0 mo > 4-) 0 .4-) en 010 44 1*5 1 I .IA U * . a) Z

  10. Tracing the origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in subterranean estuaries using colored DOM and amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kwon, E.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine the origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the subterranean estuary (STE), the mixing zone of fresh terrestrial groundwater and recirculating seawater in a coastal permeable aquifer, we conducted water sampling from two STEs with different geological settings: (1) Jeju Island beaches (Hwasun and Samyang), which are composed of volcanic rocks and sandy sediments, and (2) Hampyeong beach, which is located in a large intertidal, sandy flat zone. The distributions of salinity, total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and colored DOM (CDOM) were measured for groundwater samples in these STEs. In the Hwasun STE, the humic-like peak decreases with increasing salinity, whereas the protein-like peak does not show a clear relationship with salinity. In contrast, in the Samyang STE, both humic-like peak and protein-like peak increase with increasing salinity. These contrasting results indicate that DOM in the Hwasun STE originates mainly from terrestrial inputs, while that in the Samyang STE originates mainly from biological and/or microbial activities. In the Hampyeong STE, we observed good correlations among the biodegradation index, alanine D/L ratios, THAA concentrations, DOC, and CDOM index (both humic-like and protein-like). Together with their geographical distribution patterns, these correlations indicate that DOM in the Hampyeong STE is mainly derived from marine sediments in the course of seawater recirculation. Our study shows that CDOM and amino acids are excellent tracers of DOM in the STE where DOM is derived from diverse sources.

  11. Formation and mobilization of neutral lipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Daum, G

    2005-11-01

    Since energy storage is a basic metabolic process, the synthesis of neutral lipids occurs in all kingdoms of life. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, widely accepted as a model eukaryotic cell, contains two classes of neutral lipids, namely STEs (steryl esters) and TAGs (triacylglycerols). TAGs are synthesized through two pathways governed by the acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase Dga1p and the phospholipid diacylglycerol acyltransferase Lro1p. STEs are formed by two STE synthases Are1p and Are2p, two enzymes with overlapping function, which also catalyse TAG formation, although to a minor extent. Neutral lipids are stored in the so-called lipid particles and can be utilized for membrane formation under conditions of lipid depletion. For this purpose, storage lipids have to be mobilized by TAG lipases and STE hydrolases. A TAG lipase named Tgl3p was identified as a major yeast TAG hydrolytic enzyme in lipid particles. Recently, a new family of hydrolases was detected which is required for STE mobilization in S. cerevisiae. These enzymes, named Yeh1p, Yeh2p and Tgl1p, are paralogues of the mammalian acid lipase family. The role of these proteins in biosynthesis and mobilization of TAG and STE, and the regulation of these processes will be discussed in this minireview.

  12. First-principles studies of Ce and Eu doped inorganic scintillator gamma ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Andrew; Chaudhry, Anurag; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    We have performed DFT based band structure calculations for new Ce and Eu doped wide band gap inorganic materials to determine their potential as candidates for gamma ray scintillator detectors. These calculations are based on determining the 4f ground state level of the Ce and Eu relative to the valence band of the host as well as the position of the Ce and Eu 5d excited state relative to the conduction band of the host. Host hole and electron traps as well as STEs (self trapped excitons) can also limit the transfer of energy from the host to the Ce or Eu site and therefore limit the light output. We also present calculations for host hole traps and STEs to compare the energies to the Ce and Eu excited states. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231.

  13. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-10-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km) (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area.

  14. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  15. Transferencia de la Formación Docente Universitaria: estudio de su impacto en los docentes de las facultades de Ingeniería de la Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Peña, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Numerosos estudios, la mayoría de ellos de universidades anglófonas y europeas, han examinado la cuestión de cómo medir el impacto de la formación de los profesores (Guskey, 2002, Gibbs y Coffey, Prosser y Rickinson, 2008, Stes, Min-Leliveld, Gijbels y Van Petegem, 2010, Feixas, Durán, Fernández, Fernández y García San Pedro, Márquez et al., 2013). Sin embargo, la falta de evaluación sistemática sigue siendo una preocupación en las universidades latinoamericanas. La evaluación de la formac...

  16. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  17. Is the pre-hospital ECG after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest accurate for the diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salam, Idrees; Hassager, Christian; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with ST-segment elevations (STEs) following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) should be referred for an acute coronary angiography. We sought to investigate the diagnostic value of the pre......-hospital ROSC-ECG in predicting ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHOD: ROSC-ECGs of 145 comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, randomly assigned in the Target Temperature Management trial, were classified according to the current STEMI ECG criteria (third universal definition...... interval (CI) 62-84), specificity of 65% (95% CI 53-75) and a positive and negative predictive value of 65% (95% CI 54-76) and 73% (95% CI 61-83) in predicting STEMI. Time to ROSC was significantly longer (24 minutes vs. 19 minutes, P=0.02) in STE compared with no STE patients. Percutaneous coronary...

  18. Areal Informations Systemet - AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Stjernholm, M.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    Forord: Denne rapport giver en kort beskrivelse af Areal Informations Systemet (AIS), som er et databasesystem med natur- og miljødata, som kan stedfæstes geografisk. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1996-2000 som et samarbejdsprojekt mellem Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU), Danmarks og...... og enkeltpersoner med interesse for natur- og miljøforhold i Danmark. Yderligere oplysninger om Areal Informations Systemet, herunder adgangsforhold, kan fås på DMU's hjemmeside med følgende adresse: http://ais.dmu.dk/ Projektet er finansieret af Miljø- og Energiministeriet, mens en række...... (planlægning, beskyttelse), geologi (overfladegeologi og marin geologi), samt marin dybdemodel. # Etablering af dataadgang for Miljø- og Energiministeriets institutioner til AIS-data. # Afprøvning af systemet i forhold til konkrete projekter. # Formidling af produkterne til brugerkredsen....

  19. Imunização de camundongos com "vacina" viva avirulenta de Trypanosoma cruzi: IV. ensaio de esquema de "vacinação"[ign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Menezes

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available A parasitemia e o exame histológico revelaram que, aparentemente camundongos que receberam duas doses de "vacina" reagiram melhor a vma infecção virulenta do T. cruzi do que animais "vacinados'' uma única vez. Nestes a infecção realizada quatro ou dez semanas depois da imunização não alterou substancialmente a resposta imunitária medida pela parasitemia, percentual de mortalidade e grau da resposta tissular. Animais unicamente "vacinados", com uma ou duas doses, não apresentaram alterações histológicas diferentes das dos animais normais. Êstes mostraram quase sempre um discreto grau de inflamação crônica focal no miocáráio, e fígado.

  20. Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs, are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs, are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways. These differences might provide valuable clues for us to find target proteins for novel antifungal drugs. In addition, the development of lipidomics technology in recent years has supplied us with a shortcut for finding new antifungal drug targets; this ability is important for guiding our research on pathogenic fungi.

  1. PSS: An approach to sustainable innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    produktionsomkostninger. Produkt/Service-systemer by-der på en oplagt mulighed for at virksomheder kan sikre sig deres fremtid. Introduktion til Produkt/Service-systemer Produkt/service-systemer (PSS) er en innovationsstrategi, hvor en større integration af produkter og services har potentiale til at afkoble den...... eneste mål for PSS. Der hvor de store effekter kan høstes af PSS, er imidlertid at denne tankegang giver flere frihedsgrader i udviklingsarbejdet. Ved at integrere udvikling af produkter og services kan man få øje på nye måder at opfylde kundernes behov kan opfyldes og grundlag dannes for nye produkter......, services og for-retningsmuligheder....

  2. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vectores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXIV. Variação dos dados biométricos obtidos em amostras do T. cruzi isolados de casos humanos da Doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferriolli Filho

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo biométrico de 10 amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de casos humanos da doença de CHAGAS, nove mantidas em camundongos brancos jovens e uma mantida em ratos brancos jovens, mostrou a existência de grandes variações amostrais. Assim os valores do comprimento total médio das diferentes amostras variaram entre 16,3μ e 21,8μ., enquanto os valores do índice nuclear médio oscilaram entre 0,93 e 1,52. Êstes resultados ampliam os limites de variações amostrais até agora observadas no T. cruzi, especialmente os que se referem ao índice nuclear médio.

  3. Kunstiakadeemia lõpetajad 2005 / Karin Paulus, Tanel Veenre, Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Valik Eesti Kunstiakadeemia bakalaureusetöid: Elize Hiiobi "Nimeta ehe", Anton Kooviti uued kirjatüübid, Raili Ilmsalu kipsskulptuur "Eva", Aleksei Aljoshini "Futuristlik spordirõivas", Merle Kasoneni töö "Võimalused", Leena Lüteri draakon "Isiklik kaitsja", Ave Maseri miniatuurid "Teised", Kärt Põldmani "Punased kingad", Riho Tiiveli vetelpäästesüsteem, Ester Kannelmäe rõivakollektsioon "Ahistab", töö "Eesti rahvalaulud", Helena Vaidla mosaiik "Veesilm", Merike Estna kineetiline maal "Punamütsike: I am the Prettiest Girl in the World", Eilve Mangluse käeobjektid, Annike Oldre maal "Üksi", Eliisa Ehini töö "Närviimpulsside liikumine ajus", Veiko Vaine terrassitool "Miinimum"

  4. Nature of radiative recombination processes in layered semiconductor PbCdI{sub 2} nanostructural scintillation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukivskii, A.P. [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gnatenko, Yu.P., E-mail: yuriygnatenko@ukr.net [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piryatinskii, Yu.P. [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gamernyk, R.V. [Lviv National University, 8 Kyryl o and Mefodiy Str., 29005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-05-15

    We report on the efficient photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) of the PbI{sub 2} nanoclusters (NCLs), which are naturally formed in the nanostructured Pb{sub 1-X}Cd{sub x}I{sub 2} alloys (X=0.70). Here, we carried out the studies of the nature of radiative recombination processes in the NCLs of various sizes by measuring PL temperature evolution. Our results indicate that at low temperatures the PL is mainly caused by exciton emission and recombination of donor-acceptor pairs, generated in volume of large NCLs. The broad bands, which are associated with the deep intrinsic surface states, including self-trapped excitons (STEs), are dominant in the PL spectra at higher temperature (>100 K). Our work shows that the nature of emission, associated with RL bands is analogous to that for PL bands. It was shown that the investigated nanostructured material is strongly radiation-resistant. Thus, the Pb{sub 1-X}Cd{sub X}I{sub 2} alloys can be considered as new effective layered semiconductor nanostructured materials which can be suitable for the elaboration of perspective semiconductor scintillators. These nanomaterials have promising prospects for applications in new generations of devices for biomedical diagnostics and industrial imaging applications. - Highlights: •The intense PL and RL of nanostructural PbCdI{sub 2} alloys were observed. •The nature of recombination processes of the nanoscintillators was established. •The low temperature PL is caused by exciton and donor-acceptor pairs recombination. •The broad PL bands are due to the deep intrinsic states formed on the NCLs surface. •The PL associated with STEs for NCLs of different sizes was analyzed in detail. •It was shown that the nature of PL and RL spectra is same.

  5. Experimental investigation on an innovative resorption system for energy storage and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Long; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Ruzhu; Zhu, Fangqi; Lu, Yiji; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A resorption thermal energy storage system is established and investigated for energy upgrade. • The highest heat release temperature is 155 °C. • The maximum thermal storage density is about 662 kJ/kg. • The energy efficiency and exergy efficiency range from 27.5% to 40.6% and from 32.5% to 47%. • ENG-TSA as the additive improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. - Abstract: Progress of efficient thermal energy storage (TES) has become a key technology for the development of energy conversion system. Among TES technologies, sorption thermal energy storage (STES) has drawn burgeoning attentions due to its advantages of high energy density, little heat loss and flexible working modes. Based on STES, this paper presents an innovative resorption sorption energy storage (RTES), and the experimental system is established and investigated for energy storage and upgrade. 4.8 kg and 3.9 kg MnCl 2 and CaCl 2 composite sorbents are separately filled in the sorption reactor, and expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid (ENG-TSA) is integrated as the matrix for heat transfer intensification. It is indicated that the highest energy storage density are 662 kJ/kg and 596 kJ/kg when heat input temperature is 125 °C and heat release temperature are 130 °C and 135 °C, respectively. For different heat input and release temperature, the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency range from 27.5% to 40.6% and from 32.5% to 47%, respectively. The novel RTES system verifies the feasibility for energy storage and upgrade, which shows the great potential for low grade heat utilization especially for industrial process.

  6. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  7. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action. A Workshop Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Worldwide, the essence of the current reform in science education is a paradigm shift from algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching to higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) learning. In the context of education in environmental chemistry (EEC), the ultimate goal is to educate students to be science technology environment society (STES)-literate, capable of evaluative thinking, decision making, problem solving and taking responsible action accordingly. Educators need to translate this goal into effective courses that can be implemented: this includes developing teaching strategies and assessment methodologies that are consonant with the goal of HOCS learning. An international workshop—"Environmental Chemistry Education in Europe: Setting the Agenda"—yielded two main recommendations for those undertaking educational reform in science education, particularly to promote meaningful EEC. The first recommendation concerns integration of environmental sciences into core chemistry courses as well as the development and implementation of HOCS-promoting teaching strategies and assessment methodologies in chemical education. The second emphasizes the development of students' HOCS for transfer, followed by performance assessment of HOCS. This requires changing the way environmental chemistry is typically taught, moving from a narrowly focused approach (applied analytical, ecotoxicological, or environmental engineering chemistry) to an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach.

  8. A Measurement System of Electric Signals on Standing Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao TIAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standing tree electric signal (STES, defined as the electric potential difference between standing trees and the surrounding soil, can be utilized to reflect the biological nature of the trees. This signal should be measured precisely because it can also be collected and used as the electric power energy. In this paper, the automatic measurement system of standing tree biological electric signal based on MSP430 MCU. First of all, the basic structure of the presented system is introduced and it includes three modules: amplification module of the standing tree electric signal, the acquisition and processing of the signal module and the serial communication module. Then, the performances of the built system are respectively validated by the Poplar, Planetree, and Platanus in Beijing Forestry University. The result indicated that the relative error of this system is less than 2 %. The presented system can be considered as the foundation of the subsequent study on the mechanism of the biological electric signal and the application of the biological electric energy on standing trees.

  9. What Can We Learn from the Crystal Structures of Metallacarboranes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Welch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the molecular structures of metallacarboranes by X-ray diffraction remains critical to the development of the field, in some cases being the only viable way in which the overall architecture and the isomeric form of the molecule can be established. In such studies one problem frequently met is how to distinguish correctly {BH} and {CH} vertices, and this review begins by describing two relatively new methods, the Vertex-Centroid Distance (VCD and Boron-Hydrogen Distance (BHD methods, that have been developed to overcome the problem. Once the cage C atoms are located correctly, the resulting metallacarborane structure can frequently be analysed on the basis that cage B has a greater Structural Trans Effect (STE than does cage C. In the absence of significant competing effects this gives rise to unequal M–L distances for a homogeneous ligand set and to a preferred Exopolyhedral Ligand Orientation (ELO for a heterogeneous ligand set. ELO considerations can be used, amongst other things, to rank order the STEs of ligands and to identify suspect (in terms of cage C atom positions metallacarborane structures.

  10. Complicações neurológicas no decurso de tratamento pelo ACTH: A propósito de um caso de agnosia visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Freitas Julião

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam a observação de um menino de 8 anos de idade, portador de síndrome nefrótica tratada pelo ACTH e que apresentou uma série de graves distúrbios neurológicos conseqüentes a uma crise hipertensiva (a pressão arterial elevou-se a 220-130 mm Hg, ocorrida por ocasião desse tratamento. Manifestando-se inicialmente por cefaléia intensa, depois por crise convulsiva generalizada, à qual se seguiu estado comatoso e posteriormente síndrome confusional, a encefalopatía hipertensiva condicionou, como seqüelas neurológicas mais importantes, distúrbios visuais. Êstes, que se apresentaram, a princípio, sob a forma de amaurose total, assumiram depois o aspecto de distúrbios da percepção, tipo agnóstico, persistentes ainda hoje. A agnosia visual refere-se aos objetos, pessoas, figuras simbólicas e côres.

  11. Teaching/learning styles, performance, and students' teaching evaluation in S/T/E/S-focused science teacher education: A quasiquantitative probe of a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Uri

    In response to the new needs for S/T/E/S-literate science teachers, an S/T/E/S-oriented ISMMC-IEE combination model of instruction was implemented in two specially designed undergraduate courses and one graduate course within college science teacher training programs. These three courses served as case studies for class-based, quasiquantitative pilot investigation aimed at gaining a deeper insight into some of the issues involved in the implementation in college of nontraditional, open-ended, problem-solving-oriented teaching strategies which are in dissonance with the cognitive or affective styles and functional paradigms of most students. This probe into the dissonance issue revealed that prospective teachers are capable of handling the new instructional model and do gain in their higher-level cognitive learning. However, undergraduates perceive these courses to be either difficult or not in accord with their needs, and their appreciation of the instructional techniques and style employed is different from that of graduate students accordingly. The current study suggests that although the ISMMC-IEE model is useful in S/T/E/S-oriented courses in science teacher training programs, special attention to the implementation stage is required to close the gap between students' and S/T/E/S educators' functional paradigms.

  12. Cost estimation in software engineering projects with web components development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen multitud de modelos propuestos para la predicción de co stes en proyectos de software, al gunos orientados específicamen te para proyectos Web. Este trabajo analiza si los modelos específicos para proyectos Web están justifi cados, examinando el comportami ento diferencial de los costes entre proyectos de desarrollo softwar e Web y no Web. Se analizan dos aspectos del cálculo de costes: las deseconomías de escala, y el im pacto de algunas características de estos proyectos que son utilizadas como cost drivers. Se en uncian dos hipótesis: (a en estos proyect os las deseconomías de escala so n mayores y (b el incremento de coste que provocan los cost dr ivers es menor para los proyectos Web. Se contrastaron estas hipótesis a nalizando un conjunto de proyectos reales. Los resultados sugie ren que ambas hipótesis se cumplen. Por lo tanto, la principal contribu ción a la literatura de esta inv estigación es que el desarrollo de modelos específicos para los proyectos Web está justificado.

  13. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  14. Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  16. Patterns produced when soil is transferred to bras by placing and dragging actions: The application of digital photography and image processing to support visible observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph; Kobus, Hilton

    2017-07-01

    A series of soil transference experiments (STEs) were undertaken to determine whether patterns identified in laboratory experiments could also be recognised at a simulated crime scene in the field. A clothed 55kg human rescue dummy dressed in a padded bra was either dragged or merely placed on a soil surface at sites with natural and anthropogenic soil types under both wet and dry soil conditions. Transfer patterns produced by dragging compared favourably with those of laboratory experiments. Twelve patterns were identified when a clothed human rescue dummy was dragged across the two soil types in the field. This expanded the original set of eight soil transfer patterns identified from dragging weighted fabric across soil samples in the laboratory. Soil transferred by placing the human rescue dummy resulted in a set of six transfer patterns that were different to those produced by dragging. By comparing trace soil patterns transferred to bras using each transfer method, it was revealed that certain transfer patterns on bras could indicate how the fabric had made contact with a soil surface. A photographic method was developed for crime scene examiners to capture this often subtle soil evidence before a body is transported or the clothing removed. This improved understanding of the dynamics of soil transference to bras and related clothing fabric may assist forensic investigators reconstruct the circumstances of a variety of forensic events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate evaluation schema (BSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassere Marissa N

    2012-03-01

    diastolic blood pressure was an A grade surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention. In comparison, using the same stroke data sets, no STEs could be estimated for cardiovascular (CV mortality or all-cause mortality reduction, although the STE for CV mortality approached 25 mmHg for systolic blood pressure. Conclusions In this report we provide the first surrogate threshold effect (STE values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We suggest the STEs have face and content validity, evidenced by the inclusivity of trial populations, subject populations and pharmacologic intervention populations in their calculation. We propose that the STE and STEP metrics offer another method of evaluating the evidence supporting surrogate endpoints. We demonstrate how surrogacy evaluations are strengthened if formally evaluated within specific-context evaluation frameworks using the Biomarker- Surrogate Evaluation Schema (BSES3, and we discuss the implications of our evaluation of blood pressure on other biomarkers and patient-reported instruments in relation to surrogacy metrics and trial design.

  18. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE) and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate) evaluation schema (BSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    was an A grade surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention. In comparison, using the same stroke data sets, no STEs could be estimated for cardiovascular (CV) mortality or all-cause mortality reduction, although the STE for CV mortality approached 25 mmHg for systolic blood pressure. Conclusions In this report we provide the first surrogate threshold effect (STE) values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We suggest the STEs have face and content validity, evidenced by the inclusivity of trial populations, subject populations and pharmacologic intervention populations in their calculation. We propose that the STE and STEP metrics offer another method of evaluating the evidence supporting surrogate endpoints. We demonstrate how surrogacy evaluations are strengthened if formally evaluated within specific-context evaluation frameworks using the Biomarker- Surrogate Evaluation Schema (BSES3), and we discuss the implications of our evaluation of blood pressure on other biomarkers and patient-reported instruments in relation to surrogacy metrics and trial design. PMID:22409774

  19. A comparison of long-term parallel measurements of sunshine duration obtained with a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and two automated sunshine sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, D. J.; Pötzi, W.; Freislich, H.; Strutzmann, H.; Veronig, A. M.; Foelsche, U.; Rieder, H. E.

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, automated sensors for sunshine duration (SD) measurements have been introduced in meteorological networks, thereby replacing traditional instruments, most prominently the Campbell-Stokes (CS) sunshine recorder. Parallel records of automated and traditional SD recording systems are rare. Nevertheless, such records are important to understand the differences/similarities in SD totals obtained with different instruments and how changes in monitoring device type affect the homogeneity of SD records. This study investigates the differences/similarities in parallel SD records obtained with a CS and two automated SD sensors between 2007 and 2016 at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Austria. Comparing individual records of daily SD totals, we find differences of both positive and negative sign, with smallest differences between the automated sensors. The larger differences between CS-derived SD totals and those from automated sensors can be attributed (largely) to the higher sensitivity threshold of the CS instrument. Correspondingly, the closest agreement among all sensors is found during summer, the time of year when sensitivity thresholds are least critical. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of various models to create the so-called sensor-type-equivalent (STE) SD records. Our analysis shows that regression models including all available data on daily (or monthly) time scale perform better than simple three- (or four-) point regression models. Despite general good performance, none of the considered regression models (of linear or quadratic form) emerges as the "optimal" model. Although STEs prove useful for relating SD records of individual sensors on daily/monthly time scales, this does not ensure that STE (or joint) records can be used for trend analysis.

  20. Algorithmic, LOCS and HOCS (chemistry) exam questions: performance and attitudes of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri

    2002-02-01

    The performance of freshmen biology and physics-mathematics majors and chemistry majors as well as pre- and in-service chemistry teachers in two Israeli universities on algorithmic (ALG), lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) chemistry exam questions were studied. The driving force for the study was an interest in moving science and chemistry instruction from an algorithmic and factual recall orientation dominated by LOCS, to a decision-making, problem-solving and critical system thinking approach, dominated by HOCS. College students' responses to the specially designed ALG, LOCS and HOCS chemistry exam questions were scored and analysed for differences and correlation between the performance means within and across universities by the questions' category. This was followed by a combined student interview - 'speaking aloud' problem solving session for assessing the thinking processes involved in solving these types of questions and the students' attitudes towards them. The main findings were: (1) students in both universities performed consistently in each of the three categories in the order of ALG > LOCS > HOCS; their 'ideological' preference, was HOCS > algorithmic/LOCS, - referred to as 'computational questions', but their pragmatic preference was the reverse; (2) success on algorithmic/LOCS does not imply success on HOCS questions; algorithmic questions constitute a category on its own as far as students success in solving them is concerned. Our study and its results support the effort being made, worldwide, to integrate HOCS-fostering teaching and assessment strategies and, to develop HOCS-oriented science-technology-environment-society (STES)-type curricula within science and chemistry education.

  1. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-03-29

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr 4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P2 1 /c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr 4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr 6 " octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τ avg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  2. Síndrome de Dandy-Walker: a propósito de 4 casos

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    Gilberto Machado de Almeida

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available Dá-se o nome de síndrome de Dandy-Walker a um tipo de hidrocefalia cuja principal característica é a transformação do IV ventrículo em um grande cisto, que ocupa quase tôda a fossa posterior; esta, por sua vez, está aumentada, devido à elevação da tenda do cerebelo e abaulamento do occipital. A patogenia do processo é discutida; admite-se geralmente que se trate de um vício de desenvolvimento determinado pela falta de abertura dos orifícios de Luschka e Magendie. Em revisão bibliográfica foram encontrados 60 casos. São apresentados mais 4, dois dos quais foram submetidos à derivação ventrículo-jugular pela técnica de Spitz-Holter. São discutidos os principais sinais clínicos, os exames subsidiários e a terapêutica. A posição anormalmente alta dos seios transversos, observada no craniograma ou na sinugrafia, é considerada como sinal patognomônico. A transiluminação do crânio também pode apresentar aspecto característico. Êstes exames, quando típicos, permitem evitar a realização de exames mais traumatizantes, como as ventriculografias. A terapêutica mais empregada tem sido a abertura da parede do cisto. Não há na literatura referência à operação de Spitz que, em nossa opinião, é a melhor forma de tratamento.

  3. Tunable White-Light Emission in Single-Cation-Templated Three-Layered 2D Perovskites (CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ) 4 Pb 3 Br 10–x Cl x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Traore, Boubacar [Institut; Katan, Claudine [Institut; Even, Jacky [Fonctions; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2017-08-16

    Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid halide perovskites come as a family (B)2(A)n-1PbnX3n+1 (B and A= cations; X= halide). These perovskites are promising semiconductors for solar cells and optoelectronic applications. Among the fascinating properties of these materials is white-light emission, which has been mostly observed in single-layered 2D lead bromide or chloride systems (n = 1), where the broad emission comes from the transient photoexcited states generated by self-trapped excitons (STEs) from structural distortion. Here we report a multilayered 2D perovskite (n = 3) exhibiting a tunable white-light emission. Ethylammonium (EA+) can stabilize the 2D perovskite structure in EA4Pb3Br10–xClx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9.5, and 10) with EA+ being both the A and B cations in this system. Because of the larger size of EA, these materials show a high distortion level in their inorganic structures, with EA4Pb3Cl10 having a much larger distortion than that of EA4Pb3Br10, which results in broadband white-light emission of EA4Pb3Cl10 in contrast to narrow blue emission of EA4Pb3Br10. The average lifetime of the series decreases gradually from the Cl end to the Br end, indicating that the larger distortion also prolongs the lifetime (more STE states). The band gap of EA4Pb3Br10–xClx ranges from 3.45 eV (x = 10) to 2.75 eV (x = 0), following Vegard’s law. First-principles density functional theory calculations (DFT) show that both EA4Pb3Cl10 and EA4Pb3Br10 are direct band gap semiconductors. The color rendering index (CRI) of the series improves from 66 (EA4Pb3Cl10) to 83 (EA4Pb3Br0.5Cl9.5), displaying high tunability and versatility of the

  4. Adubação nitrogenada do milho Nitrogen fertilizers for corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Vaz de Arruda

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados de duas experiências de adubação de milho, instaladas no ano-agrícola 1956-57 em terra-roxa da Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o efeito da aplicação de dois adubos azotados, Salitre do Chile e sulfato de amônio. Êstes adubos foram aplicados em duas doses, 80 e 160 kg/ha de N. A aplicação do nitrogênio para a dose 80 foi em cobertura e dividida em três partes, 30, 30 e 20 kg de N, aplicados aos 30, 60 e 80 dias após a germinação, respectivamente. Para a dose 160 aplicou-se o dôbro, em cada época. Todos os canteiros da experiência haviam recebido PK nos sulcos de plantio, na dose de 80 kg/ha de P2O5 e de K2O com exceção de um que era testemunha, sem adubos. O aumento devido à aplicação de PK em relação à testemunha foi de 50%, em média para as duas experiências. A adição do nitrogênio à adubação com PK proporcionou um aumento médio de 33%. Não houve diferença entre os tipos de adubo nitrogenado usados, bem como entre as doses de N empregadas.This paper reports the results of two experiments earned out in Ribeirão Prêto experiment station to study the effects of two nitrogen fertilizers, Chilean nitrate and ammonium sulfate on corn yield. The levels of N used were 80 and 160 kg per hectare applied as side-dressing at 30, 60 and 80 days after the germination. The types and levels of N were compared in presence of PK that were applied in the furrow at planting time, respectively as superphosphate and potassium chloride, both in the amount of 80 kg per hectare. Two other treatments, no fertilizer and PK alone were included as controls. The results indicated that the application of PK increased the yield in 50% in relation to the check. No differences were found between types and levels of N. Both levels of N increased the yield in 33% when compared with that of the PK treatment.

  5. La genèse de la première organisation prochinoise au Pérou (1963-1964. Idéologie et acteurs de la IVème conférence nationale du Parti Communiste péruvien (janvier 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La création de la première organisation prochinoise au Pérou à l’issue de la IVème conférence nationale du Parti Communiste Péruvien marque-t-elle la victoire de la majorité des militants attachés à la pureté du marxisme-léninisme sur le “révisionnisme” des partisans de Moscou comme l’affirment les historiographes maoïstes ? L’analyse de l’articulation de la polémique idéologique sino-soviétique sur la lutte interne du P.C.P. démontre que l’idéologie est davantage un moyen pour justifier l’expulsion d’un ennemi commun - la “vieille garde” qui accapare la direction du Parti - qu’un trait d’union entre partisans de la IVème conférence nationale. GENESIS DE LA PRIMERA ORGANIZACIÓN PROCHINA EN EL PERÚ (1963-1964. IDEOLOGÍA Y ACTORES DE LA IVA CONFERENCIA NACIONAL DEL PARTIDO COMUNISTA PERUANO (ENERO DE 1964. La primera organización pro-china que nace en el Perú con la IVa conferencia nacional del Partido Comunista Peruano sería, como lo afirman los historiógrafos maoístas, el desenlace victorioso de la lucha que la mayoría de los militantes peruanos han desarrollado contra el “revisionismo” de los partidarios de Moscú en su afán de preservar la pureza del marxismo-leninismo. La manera cómo la polémica china-soviética se incorpora a la lucha interna que divide al P.C.P. nos demuestra que la ideología sirve más para justificar la expulsión de la “vieja guardia” de la dirección del Partido que para unificar a los partidarios de la IVa conferencia nacional mismos. THE GENESIS OF THE FIRST PRO-CHINESE ORGANIZATION IN PERU (1963-1964. IDEOLOGY AND ACTORS OF THE IVTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE PERUVIAN COMMUNIST PARTY (JANUARY 1964. Does the birth of the first pro-Chinese organization at the Peruvian Communist Party’s IVth conference mark, as Maoists historiographers assert the victory of the majority of the Peruvian communists over the “revisionists” pledged to Moscow in order to preserve the

  6. Estudo epidemiológico de difteria na região da Grande São Paulo, 1969 Epidemiological investigation of diphtheria in the area of the Great São Paulo, Brazil, 1969

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    Marcilia de Araújo Medrado Faria

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento epidemiológico de Difteria, utilizando-se uma amostra de 29 pacientes (GRUPO POSITIVO, a qual correspondeu a 13,5% de crianças internadas no Hospital de Isolamento Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, SP., entre fevereiro a outubro de 1969. Através de pareamente por idade e sexo foram selecionados, entre os vizinhos dos pacientes, 24 crianças (GRUPO CONTROLE. A maioria dos pacientes provinha de bairros ou municípios operários da Grande São Paulo, vivendo sob precárias condições educacionais de saneamento e higiene. Através da história pregressa de vacinação, observou-se que nos 2 grupos é elevado o número de crianças não vacinadas com as três doses iniciais da tríplice. Porém, no Grupo Positivo, êste fato é observado em 100% das crianças. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação ao teste de Schick realizado entre os irmãos dos indivíduos dos dois grupos. Entretanto, as freqüências de Schick negativo foram 61,5% e 75,5%, respectivamente, para os Grupos Controle e Positivo. Êstes dados indicam que os programas de vacinação não têm conseguido resultados satisfatórios na imunização das populações de baixo nível econômico-social.In the period between February to October 1969, an investigation on some characteristics of patients with diphtheria and their families in the area of the Great S. Paulo (Brazil, was accomplished. A group of 29 patients, corresponding to 13.5% of the total number of patients with the disease, admitted to the Hospital Emílio Ribas during the period, was compared with a matched control group of 24 neighbourhood's children. Most of the patients came from the fringe area of the Great S. Paulo and their families and residential quarters were characterized by precarious social, educational and hygienic conditions. The number of children with previous history of complete vaccination (three primary doses of toxoid was strikingly low in both groups. As expected, none

  7. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: V - Melhoramento por hibridação

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    C. A. Krug

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação como método de melhoramento do cafeeiro, oferece amplas possibilidades que ainda se acham pouco exploradas. Para o caso da espécie C. arabica, a hibridação entre suas variedades, além de fornecer dados seguros sôbre a constituição genética, permite também a verificação de ocorrência da heterose, o melhoramento sem mudança dos caracteres das variedades, ou sintetização de estruturas genéticas novas. Os cruzamentos interespecíficos poderão contribuir decisivamente para a solução do problema da melhoria da qualidade do produto e dar indicações a respeito das relações das várias espécies e da reação dos fatôres genéticos de uma espécie em ambientes genéticos diversos. Cêrca de 2500 híbridos se acham em estudo na Secção de Genética, envolvendo plantas da mesma variedade, plantas de variedades diferentes e cafeeiros pertencentes a espécies distintas. As diversas possibilidades dêsses cruzamentos no melhoramento do cafeeiro são indicadas, chamando-se especial atenção para os híbridos interespecíficos, principalmente aquêles que envolvem a espécie tetraplóide C. arabica e outras espécies diplóides, como C. canephora, C. Dewevrei e C. congensis. Êstes híbridos triplóides, após duplicação do número de cromosômios, poderão constituir fonte de novas formas de Coffea, permitindo a expansão do cultivo do café era São Paulo.Artificial hybridization in coffee breeding offers possibilities that are still unexplored. Inter-varietal hybridization has been used in Coffea arabica in order to get information about the genetic constitution of the varieties, and occurrence of heterosis, to breed without changing the morphological characters of the varieties and also to synthesize new genetic types of economic value. Inter-specific hybridization has been employed for improvement of cup quality and to furnish data about the relationship of various coffee species and the behaviour of known

  8. Along Silk Road: Earth observation and ICT for Cultural Heritage from Italian and Chinese perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Chen, Fulong; Feng, Dexian; Gabellone, Francesco; Lasaponara, Rosa; Yang, Ruixia

    2014-05-01

    in China founded in 68 AD. The last capital date back to 493 when the Northern Wei Dynasty moved its capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. These grottoes are composed of more than 30,000 Buddhist statues sculptured in the rock which represent the second case study of the project. Finally, the third case study is the Silk road which is network of routes connecting the West and East and linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, from China to the Mediterranean Sea since the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD). For the above mentioned case studies different approaches for the knowledge and conservation have been experiencing. For Luoyang case study the preliminary results of SAR interferometry aimed to assess subsidence phenomena will be presented. Structure for Motion has been applied to obtain 3d models of one of the famous Buddhas of Longmen. Finally, the processing of multiscale optical satellite imagery is bringing to light old routes of the Silk Road in the in Xinjiang region, nearby Kashgar, the westernmost city of China. Acknowledgement The authors thank the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs for supporting the project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects. Reference F. Chen, F. Gabellone, R. Lasaponara, G. Leucci, E. Rizzo, Remote Sensing and ICT for Cultural heritage from European and Chinese perspectives, CNR-STES, Potenza, 2013. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2011, Satellite Remote Sensing in Archaeology : past, present and future, Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(9), 1995-2002, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2011.02.002 Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Airborne Lidar in Archaeology: Overview and a Case Study. In: Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2013

  9. Adubação da mandioca no estado de São Paulo: Parte I - Efeito da adubação mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard S. Normanha

    1951-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em 14 experiências de adubação mineral com a cultura da mandioca, em alguns tipos de solo do Estado de São Paulo. Foram levadas a efeito experiências em quatro regiões: Sorocaba, em solo Glacial, Salmourão e mistura dessas duas formações; Tietê, em solo Glacial e mistura deste com Corum-bataí; Araras, em terra roxa misturada, já bem explorada, e em Roseira, no Terciário. Os adubos empregados foram os seguintes: sulfato de amônio (20% de N, superfosfato de cálcio (20% de P2O5, ou farinha de ossos dege-latinados (29% de P2O5 e cloreto de potássio (50% de K(20 na base de 80 kg de N, 120 kg de P2O5 e 60 kg de K2O por hectare. Os tratamentos estudados foram os resultantes do emprêgo dêsses adubos, quer isoladamente quer combinados dois a dois, como em fórmulas completas, nas quais se reduziu à metade a dose de todos ou de cada um dos elementos. O adubo fosfatado, utilizado nas fórmulas de cada experiência, foi apenas um dos acima citados, conforme o caso. Os adubos foram aplicados nos sulcos antes do plantio, e bem misturados com a terra. Concluiu-se que o processo de aplicação dos adubos nos sulcos foi prejudicial para a brotação das manivas, principalmente nos casos em que as quantidades dos adubos foram grandes e em que figurou o sulfato de amônio. Êstes resultados sugerem uma experimentação relativa ao modo de aplicação dos adubos também para a mandioca. Estudando-se o efeito das adubações sobre a produção de raízes, constatou-se um efeito favorável do adubo fosfatado em solos pobres do Glacial e de terra Roxa misturada, já bem explorada. Em solo Salmourão, onde as produções de mandioca foram muito boas, a adubação azotada somente, e esta com a fosfatada, foram as melhores. Os ensaios servem de base para um planejamento da experimentação sôbre o assunto também em outros tipos de solo e sob aspectos diferentes, como sejam o da forma de

  10. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-07-07

    paradigms (parametric and non-parametric) are explored and put to use. Discriminant analysis (DA) is used for determining a linear separation boundary between type I and III ELMs in terms of global plasma parameters, which can then be used for the prediction of ELM types as well as the study of ELM occurrence boundaries and ELM physics. However, DA makes an assumption about the underlying class distribution and presently cannot be applied in spaces of probability distributions, leading to a sub-optimal treatment of stochasticity. This is circumvented by the use of GD-based CP and kNN classifiers. CP provides estimates of its own accuracy and reliability and kNN is a simple, yet powerful classifier of ELM types. It is shown that a classification based on the distribution of ELM properties, namely inter-ELM time intervals and the distribution of global plasma parameters, is more informative and accurate than the classification based on average parameter values. (iii) Finally, the correlation between ELM energy loss (ELM size) and ELM waiting times (inverse ELM frequency) is studied for individual ELMs in a set of plasmas from the JET tokamak upgraded with the ITER-like wall (ILW). The analysis finds that for individual ELMs the correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting times varies from zero to a moderately positive value. A comparison is made with the results from a set of carbon-wall (CW) JET plasmas and nitrogen-seeded ILW JET plasmas. It is found that a high correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting time comparable to CW plasmas is only found in nitrogen-seeded ILW plasmas. Furthermore, most of the unseeded JET ILW plasmas have ELMs that are followed by a second phase referred to as the slow transport event (STE). The effect of the STEs on the distribution of ELM durations is studied, as well as their influence on the correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting times.

  11. Die Darstellung von Deutschen in den Veröffentlichungen des türkischen Schriftstellers Haldun Taner The image of Germans in the Publications of the Turkish writer Haldun Taner

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    Nevide AKPINAR DELLAL

    2013-09-01

    herzustellen, doch bringt er vor allem genuin türkische Werke hervor. In allen Werken Haldun Taners geht es um ein durch seine Deutschlanderfahrungen in ihm selbst ausgelöstes interkulturelles Lernen, sowie um die Erlangung eines daraus entstehenden weiten Blickwinkels. Bu çalışmada, Haldun Taner’in birçok eseri, Almanya imgesiaçısından incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Yazarlar, diğer sanatçılar gibiçevreyi, doğayı ve toplumsal gelişmeleri gözlemler, ancak diğerinsanlardan farklı olarak, onların göremedikleri birtakım bağlamlarıfark eder, yorumlar ve geleceğe ilişkin duydukları rahatsızlıkları dışavurma isteği duyarlar. Haldun Taner de, her iki kültürde keskingözlemler yapmış ve her iki kültür çevresinde, bir sanatçıya rahatsızlıkveren unsurları dile getirmiştir. Haldun Taner eserlerinde Türk veAlman toplumları arasındaki farklı bakış açıları ve ülkelerin gelenekseltutumlarından dolayı kültürlerarasında çıkan diyalog sorunlarınıkonulaştırır. Türkiye’nin geçmiş mirası ile Türk kültürel öğelerini,Almanya örneğinde, Batı kültürü ile karşılaştırmış, kültürlerde vekültürlerarasında ortaya çıkan birçok aksaklıkları göz önüne sermiştir.“Ötekine” ilişkin betimlemelerin bu tarz ve anlamda -hem olumlu hemde olumsuz yönleriyle - sunulduğu bir durumda, bu betimleme veanlatımların önyargı ve imge özelliği taşımaktan çok, bir önyargı ve imgeçözümlemesi olduğu söylenebilir. Yani Taner, Alman kültürüne ilişkinönyargılı davranmak şöyle dursun, her iki kültür çevresindekiönyargıların nedenlerini sorgular. Taner kitabında her iki kültürçevresine ait insan davranışlarına samimi ve eleştirel yaklaşır. HaldunTaner eserlerinde Doğu ve Batı kültürü arasında sentez denemeleri deyapmasına rağmen, hakiki Türkçe eserler ortaya koyar. Haldun Taner’intüm eserlerine, Almanya deneyimleri nedeniyle kazanılmış birkültürlerarası

  12. Dissipation of the electronic excitation energy in fluorides with different type of a crystal lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyn, V.M.; Grechkina, T. V.; Korepanov, V.I.; Lisitsyna, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    F-centers is revealed. Therefore, in researched crystals any of types STE is not starting for creation of the F-centers. The expenditure energy for creation of STE at 20 K and the F-centers in the field of their primary creation (300 K) in crystals LiF and MeF 2 are comparable and equal 1.5-2 eV. It means that formation of both types of defects can be only result of decay created by radiation electronic excitation. Therefore, there are two basic channels of dissipation energy of high-energy electronic excitation, i.e. the creation of two-center type configuration of STEs in triplet state and creation Frenkel pairs defects. Occupation of channels occurs during an oscillatory relaxation of high-energy electronic excitation (a precursor state), instead of a process thermally activation conversion of one type of initial defect to another (from triplet STE to F, H pair). Thus total efficiency of generation of defects on channels remains practically to a constant in all the investigated temperature range 20-500 K. It is established, that the ratio between channels of energy dissipation of a precursor state depends on many parameters: temperatures of a crystal at an irradiation, type of crystal lattice, type and concentration both primary and created the defectiveness of a material during irradiation. Thus, creation of primary radiation defects of a lattice both in crystals LiF and MgF 2 , occurs during a relaxation electronic excitation. All set of experimental results are evidence of identical character of mechanisms of generation of primary defects in these crystals in wide temperature area, as well as similarity of structure and character of behavior of primary defects, specifying on the certain universality of the considered processes in ionic crystals

  13. Melhoramento do milho: II - Germoplasma utilizado nos trabalhos de seleção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Viegas

    1952-09-01

    linhagens muito promissoras derivadas do mesmo milho. Cumpre ressaltar ainda que, em Viçosa, do milho Tuxpan, foi isolada a L. 94-956, cujo comportamento é muito satisfatório. De par com as variedades, foram introduzidas também linhagens puras. Em 1941 e 1942, houve oportunidade de conseguir amostras de 153 linhagens nos Estados Unidos, obtidas nos principais centros de melhoramento do cereal em Wisconsin, Iowa, Mississippi, Illinois, Connecticut e North Carolina. De todo êsse material, apenas as conhecidas linhagens norte-americanas 38-11 e Hy portaram-se de modo relativamente satisfatório, nas nossas condições. O milho de procedência norte-americana é, em geral, muito precoce e tem pouca palha, o que o torna muito sujeito ao ataque do caruncho e da traça. De outras procedências, como da Argentina, por exemplo, também foram obtidas algumas linhagens. Com exceção das recebidas de outros centros do próprio país, devotados ao melhoramento do milho, - notadamente Viçosa, Piracicaba e Ipanema - as demais linhagens recebidas não se portaram bem nas nossas condições. Foram introduzidas ainda amostras de sementes de híbridos. Queremos nos referir especialmente às remessas feitas dos Estados Unidos, diretamente, ou por intermédio de firmas locais, interessadas. Êstes híbridos portaram-se, todos êles, muito mal. Atualmente, está sendo observado o comportamento dos híbridos simples sintetizados no México e na Colômbia, cruzados com híbridos obtidos no Brasil.In order to diversify the maize germplasm utilized in the breeding work conducted at the Instituto Agronômico, at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, efforts were made to obtain corn samples from the most diversified origins. Seeds of numerous varieties, inbred lines and hybrids were introduced and their performance observed under local conditions. Until 1951, a total of 1405 samples were introduced, most of them being derived from various parts of Brazil. From the United States, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia

  14. Vitamina C em "cabeludinha" (Myrciaria glomerata Berg Vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soubihe Sobrinho

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho faz parte do estudo do melhoramento genético das mirtáceas frutíferas, que vem sendo realizado pela Seção de Frutas Tropicais do Instituto Agronômiso e pela Seção de Genética da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", em Piracicaba. Colaboraram na parte analítica a Seção Técnica "Química Agrícola" e a Cadeira de Química, da "Luiz de Queiroz''. A extração de vitamina C foi feita num liqüidificador durante dois minutos, utilizando-se o ácido oxálico a quatro por mil como solução protetora. A determinação se fez no "EEL. portable colorimeter". A determinação do conteúdo de vitamina C no fruto integral de plantas expostas ao pleno sol revelou o seguinte : planta 1, 2147 mg/100 g ; planta 2, 2389 mg/100 g ; planta 3, 2322 mg/100 g de fruto (vêr figura 1-A. Os teores de ácido ascórbico encontrados nos graus de maturação foram : fruto verde, 2716 mg/100 g ; fruto de vez, 2391 mg/100 g; fruto maduro, 2417 mg/100 g. O fruto verde tem o teor mais alto, enquanto o de vez e o maduro não diferem entre si. Também foram analisadas as diversas partes do fruto maduro, encontrando-se na casca 2482 mg/100 g e na polpa 3018 mg/100 g. Isto quer dizer que na "cabeludinha" a riqueza em ácido ascórbico aumenta da periferia para o centro. Tal fato é de suma importância, uma vez que só é aproveitada a polpa, portanto, a parte mais rica do fruto. Determinou-se também o conteúdo de vitamina C no fruto integral e maduro, de plantas sombreadas, encontrando-se na planta 1, 717, 28 mg/100 g; na planta 2, 838,66 mg/100 g ; na planta 3, 560,83 mg/100 g ; na planta 4, 713, 28 mg/100 g. Êstes resultados indicam, provavelmente, que as plantas localizadas à sombra são bem mais pobres em ácido ascórbico que aquelas crescendo ao sol; indicam ainda, que entre as plantas sombreadas há diferenças significativas, talvez de origem genética. As figuras dos gráficos 3 e 4 mostram, respectivamente, que a "cabeludinha

  15. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-01-01

    paradigms (parametric and non-parametric) are explored and put to use. Discriminant analysis (DA) is used for determining a linear separation boundary between type I and III ELMs in terms of global plasma parameters, which can then be used for the prediction of ELM types as well as the study of ELM occurrence boundaries and ELM physics. However, DA makes an assumption about the underlying class distribution and presently cannot be applied in spaces of probability distributions, leading to a sub-optimal treatment of stochasticity. This is circumvented by the use of GD-based CP and kNN classifiers. CP provides estimates of its own accuracy and reliability and kNN is a simple, yet powerful classifier of ELM types. It is shown that a classification based on the distribution of ELM properties, namely inter-ELM time intervals and the distribution of global plasma parameters, is more informative and accurate than the classification based on average parameter values. (iii) Finally, the correlation between ELM energy loss (ELM size) and ELM waiting times (inverse ELM frequency) is studied for individual ELMs in a set of plasmas from the JET tokamak upgraded with the ITER-like wall (ILW). The analysis finds that for individual ELMs the correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting times varies from zero to a moderately positive value. A comparison is made with the results from a set of carbon-wall (CW) JET plasmas and nitrogen-seeded ILW JET plasmas. It is found that a high correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting time comparable to CW plasmas is only found in nitrogen-seeded ILW plasmas. Furthermore, most of the unseeded JET ILW plasmas have ELMs that are followed by a second phase referred to as the slow transport event (STE). The effect of the STEs on the distribution of ELM durations is studied, as well as their influence on the correlation between ELM energy loss and waiting times.

  16. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianxiong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  17. Dénonciation et récupération du stéréotype dans l'œuvre romanesque de Jardiel Poncela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile François

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fondée sur une esthétique de la répétition, voire du ressassement perpétuel, la littérature populaire de masse constitue une forme de « prêt-à-lire » à destination d'un lecteur considéré avant tout comme un consommateur. A l'intérieur de cette production, le roman d'amour apparaît comme un genre particulièrement codifié, qui s'organise autour de motifs récurrents et de séquences narratives et thématiques stéréotypées. Dans sa trilogie romanesque, qu'il définit d'emblée comme une satire littéraire, Enrique Jardiel Poncela propose au lecteur une promenade ludique et démystifiante dans les coulisses du genre. Rédigée à la fin des années 1920, l'œuvre de l'écrivain madrilène s'inscrit, en effet, dans un contexte de méfiance généralisée à l'égard des stéréotypes, caractéristique des Avant-gardes littéraires et artistiques. Outre la dénonciation directe par le biais de commentaires métanarratifs particulièrement caustiques, la dimension iconoclaste de la trilogie apparaît sous la forme d'une dénudation systématique et ironique des paradigmes narratifs traditionnels. La séquence stéréotypée du fameux duo d'amour, avec ses traits récurrents, tels que la promenade au clair de lune, le premier baiser ou les larmes de l'héroïne, fait ainsi les frais de l'humour anticonformiste et subversif de l'auteur. Toutefois, pour Jardiel Poncela, déconstruction n'est pas synonyme de destruction. A l'encontre des Dadaïstes qui prétendaient faire table rase des conventions dominantes, le jeune auteur, quant à lui, entend faire œuvre de création grâce à une récupération ludique et inventive du stéréotype. C'est ainsi que pour redynamiser des pratiques romanesques sclérosées, Jardiel Poncela se réfère non seulement à de nouveaux moyens d'expression, tels que la bande dessinée ou le cinéma, mais il sollicite également la coopération d'un lecteur complice qu'il associe en permanence à ses jeux de

  18. Reação da laranjeira azêda à tristeza Reaction of the sour orange plant to tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Mudinhas novas de laranjeira azêda podem ser infetadas com o vírus da tristeza por meio do afídio vetor da moléstia ou mais fàcilmente por enxertia. Plantas adultas são muitos resistentes, quase imunes. A recuperação do vírus da tristeza de plantas de laranja azeda infetadas é efetuada com facilidade por meio de enxertia e com muita dificuldade por meio do vetor. Os sintomas comumente apresentados por mudinhas de laranja azêda afetadas, consistem em amarelecimento das fôlhas novas, paralisação no crescimento e eventual queda das fôlhas amareladas. Em caso de infecção com estirpes fracas do vírus, os sintomas são menos evidentes e comumente há recuperação. As fôlhas formadas após recuperação, muitas vêzes apresentam palidez de pequenas extensões das nervuras. Os tecidos do floema da laranjeira azêda, abaixo do enxêrto de laranjeira doce infetada, mostram degeneração. Êstes sintomas têm sido utilizados para distinguir a tristeza de outras moléstias que causam declínio da planta. Sintomas de depressões no lenho ("pitting" raramente se manifestam em laranjeira azêda. Não se conhece presentemente nenhuma variedade de laranja azêda tolerante à tristeza, não se podendo, portanto, utilizar êsse cavalo para copas nas quais o vírus da tristeza se multiplica e atinge concentrações elevadas. Entretanto, a laranjeira azeda ainda pode ser usada como cavalo para alguns limões dos tipos Eureka e Siciliano e para a própria laranjeira azêda, em áreas invadidas pela moléstia. Há possibilidade de que o cavalo de azêda possa vir a ser novamente empregado para variedades que usualmente perecem quando nela enxertadas, lançando-se mão de medidas auxiliares como a inoculação prévia da copa com uma estirpe fraca do vírus, pela utilização do tipo de copa com união múltipla, etc. Borbulhas de plantas de laranja azêda afetadas pela tristeza nem sempre encerram o vírus. Borbulhas de plantas afetadas ou de