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Sample records for steps sbir product

  1. SBIR/STTR Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA SBIR and STTR programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA needs as described in the annual...

  2. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  3. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...... - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  4. Wireless Sensor Needs Defined by SBIR Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the needs for wireless sensor technology from various U.S. government agencies as exhibited by an analysis of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) solicitations. It would appear that a multi-agency group looking at overlapping wireless sensor needs and technology projects is desired. Included in this presentation is a review of the NASA SBIR process, and an examination of some of the SBIR projects from NASA, and other agencies that involve wireless sensor development

  5. A Report on the Navy SBIR Program: Best Practices, Roadblocks and Recommendations for Technology Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bland, Erin; Busch, Dan; Clark, Al

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years the Armed Services Committees have shown an increased interest in the DoD doing as much as possible to transition SBIR developed technologies into products or services that support the warfighter...

  6. KSC SBIR/STTR 2004 Program Year Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Level III SBIR/STTR management staff is under the Technology Transfer Office within the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate. The SBIR and STTR programs provide an opportunity for small high technology companies and research institutions to participate in Government-sponsored research and development (R&D) programs in key technology areas. The SBIR program was established by Congress in 1982 to provide increased opportunities for small businesses to participate in R&D programs, increase employment, and improve U.S. competitiveness. The program's specific objectives are to stimulate U.S. technological innovation, use small businesses to meet Federal research and development needs, increase private sector commercialization of innovations, and foster and encourage participation by socially disadvantaged businesses. Legislation enacted in December 2000 reauthorized the program and strengthened emphasis on pursuing commercial applications of SBIR projects. An SBIR Phase I contract is the opportunity to establish the feasibility and technical merit of a proposed innovation. Selected competitively, the Phase I contract lasts for 6 months and is funded up to $70,000. SBIR Phase II contracts continue the most promising Phase I projects based on scientific! technical merit, expected value to NASA, company capability, and commercial potential. Phase II contracts are usually for a period of 24 months and may not exceed $600,000. NASA usually selects approximately 40 percent of Phase I projects to continue to the Phase II level. Phase III is the process of furthering the development of a product to make it commercially available. The STTR program awards contracts to small business concerns for cooperative R&D with a nonprofit research institution. Research institutions include nonprofit research organizations, Federal laboratories, or universities. The goal of the program established by Congress is to facilitate the transfer of technology

  7. Photometrical Observations "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Sukhov, K. P.; Kudak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Photometrical observations GSS "SBIRS GEO 2" in B,V,R filters were carried near the equinoxes 2014-2015. Used velocity electrophotometer based on the FEU-79 in the pulse-counting mode. Received more than 25 light curves. From the known dimensions are defined; effective reflecting area - Sγλ, the spectral reflectance index - γλ, periods of light variation. Color-indices showed that in the reflected light flux from the GSS prevails "red" component. In the light curves are periodically dips and specular flash. This shows that GSS orbit is not in a static position specified triaxial orientation as in dynamic motion. Assumed following dynamics of the satellite "SBIRS GEO 2" in orbit. Helical scanning the Earth's surface visible infrared sensors satellite occurs with a period P1 = 15.66 sec. and swinging of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in an orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., from the northern to the southern pole. Thus, during the period of swinging GSS going on 2 scan the visible part of the northern and southern hemispheres. In some dates observations dynamics work satellite in orbit changed.

  8. The LHCb Inner Tracker Module Production Steps and Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Bettler, M O; Esperante, D; Fauland, P; van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Koestner, S; Tran, M T; Perez Trigo, E; Vazquez, P; Voss, H

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the various production step for the LHCb Inner Tracker silicon modules. We quickly sketch where the various items are produced and mention their acceptance criteria where applicable. A detail description is given of the various production and testing steps of the silicon detector modules in Lausanne and at CERN.

  9. Systems Engineering Applications for Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Engineering processes within the SBIR community. Information was collected from multiple organizations throughout the SBIR community to support this research...Force by Program Executive Officers, Technolgy Directorates, Air Logistics Centers and Test Centers. SBIR projects are developed in three phases...found to be associated with SBIR projects and varied among organizations. Thus it became essential to conduct interviews to gather the information

  10. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  11. Space Surveillance Catalog growth during SBIRS low deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoult, C. P.; Wright, R. P.

    The Space Surveillance Catalog is a database of all Resident Space Objects (RSOs) on Earth orbit. It is expected to grow in the future as more RSOs accumulate on orbit. Potentially still more dramatic growth could follow the deployment of the Space Based Infrared System Low Earth Orbit Component (SBTRS Low). SBIRS Low, currently about to enter development, offers the potential to detect and acquire much smaller debris RSOs than can be seen by the current ground-based Space Surveillance Network (SSN). SBIRS Low will host multicolor infrared/visible sensors on each satellite in a proliferated constellation on low Earth orbit, and if appropriately tasked, these sensors could provide significant space surveillance capability. Catalog growth during SBIRS Low deployment was analyzed using a highly aggregated code that numerically integrates the Markov equations governing the state transitions of RSOs from uncataloged to cataloged, and back again. It was assumed that all newly observed debris RSOs will be detected as by-products of routine Catalog maintenance, not including any post breakup searches, and if sufficient sensor resources are available, be acquired into the Catalog. Debris over the entire low to high altitude regime were considered.

  12. SBIR Phase I final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Grot

    2009-07-07

    The approach that we propose here in this SBIR proposal is a modified water electrolysis cell. In conventional water electrolysis the H2O is split into electrons, protons, and oxygen gas at the anode electrode. The electrons travel through an external power source and the protons travel through an electrolyte membrane to the cathode where they recombine to form hydrogen gas. The power source requires a minimum of 1.23 V to overcome the potential difference of the electrodes for the splitting of water. In contrast in our approach proposed here, instead of splitting water we are using acetate in wastewater and bacteria to oxidize the acetate into electrons and protons at the anode surface. The microbes release the electrons to the anode and the resulting protons move to the cathode electrode through the proton exchange membrane as described above and recombine to form hydrogen gas. The advantage here is that the required potential is now on the order of 0.25 to 0.8 V, and a considerable savings in electricity is realized to produce the same amount of hydrogen while at the same time removing organic matter from wastewater streams. Significant improvements in current density needs to be made in order for this type of technology to be economically viable

  13. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of R and D programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  14. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of RandD programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  15. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical computing, optical memory, and SBIRs at Foster-Miller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    1994-03-01

    A desktop design and manufacturing system for binary diffractive elements, MacBEEP, was developed with the optical researcher in mind. Optical processing systems for specialized tasks such as cellular automation computation and fractal measurement were constructed. A new family of switchable holograms has enabled several applications for control of laser beams in optical memories. New spatial light modulators and optical logic elements have been demonstrated based on a more manufacturable semiconductor technology. Novel synthetic and polymeric nonlinear materials for optical storage are under development in an integrated memory architecture. SBIR programs enable creative contributions from smaller companies, both product oriented and technology oriented, and support advances that might not otherwise be developed.

  17. Air Force/Industry F-35/F-22 Technology Interchange Workshop for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR): Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-28

    Identification/Solution Process • Senior leader engagement • Joint AFRL/Product center process • Multi-directorate AFRL engagement • PEO/ TEO approval...SPO Primes participation Strategy Driven Process Industry days PEO/ TEO Meeting Jan - May Prioritized Tech Solutions Existing SBIRs SBIR Topics...Electronic parts & components, Frontier now supports the Global Hawk Joint Stars, B-1B, KC -135, C-17, F-15E, & DoD’s Defense Support Program (DSP

  18. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  19. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  20. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2005-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  1. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2006-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  2. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2003-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  3. Steps for preparing uranium production feasibility studies: A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Uranium exploration, development and eventual production, form a series of progressive and logical steps. Each step is part of a progression of activities with the objective of obtaining new or additional information from which a crucial decision is to be made. This guidebook is primarily aimed at mineral management personnel in developing countries who have little or no experience in preparing feasibility studies in uranium production. It is not a textbook which describes the geology, mining or processing of uranium. This guidebook deals with the philosophy, basic principles and important factors in the various stages of economic evaluation of the project. This guidebook is primarily concerned with small to medium sized mining projects. However, it can also provide useful guidance for the initial study of larger mining projects. More detailed studies of larger projects, however, should be left to well known experts in the field. While the mineral commodity in question is uranium, the procedures and approaches outlined in this guidebook are generally applicable to the study of other commodities. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. An Overview of Air-Breathing Propulsion Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 24 of the innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as hybrid nanocomposites for efficient aerospace structures; plasma flow control for drag reduction; physics-based aeroanalysis methods for open rotor conceptual designs; vertical lift by series hybrid power; fast pressure-sensitive paint systems for production wind tunnel testing; rugged, compact, and inexpensive airborne fiber sensor interrogators based on monolithic tunable lasers; and high sensitivity semiconductor sensor skins for multi-axis surface pressure characterization. Each featured technology describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  5. Balancing innovation with commercialization in NASA's Science Mission Directorate SBIR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, R. J.; Jackson, B. L.

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) administers a portion of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. One of the challenges of administrating this program is to balance the need to foster innovation in small businesses and the need to demonstrate commercialization by infusion into NASA. Because of the often risky nature of innovation, SBIR programs will tend to drift into a status that rewards proposals that promise to deliver a product that is exactly what was specified in the call. This often will satisfy the metric of providing a clear demonstration of infusion and thus also providing a publishable success story. However, another goal of the SBIR program is to foster innovation as a national asset. Even though data from commercially successful SMD SBIR tasks indicate a higher value for less innovative efforts, there are programmatic and national reasons to balance the program toward risking a portion of the portfolio on higher innovation tasks. Establishing this balance is made difficult because there is a reward metric for successful infusion and commercialization, but none for successful innovation. In general, the ultimate infusion and commercialization of innovative solutions has a lower probability than implementation of established ideas, but they can also have a much higher return on investment. If innovative ideas are valued and solicited in the SBIR program, then NASA technology requirements need to be specified in a way that defines the problem and possible solution, but will also allow for different approaches and unconventional methods. It may also be necessary to establish a guideline to risk a percentage of awards on these innovations.

  6. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  7. Industry-University SBIR NDT Projects — A Critical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Eugene R.

    2007-03-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program, funded by various United States government agencies (DOD, DOE, NSF, etc.), provides funds for Research and Development (R&D) of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment, thereby supplying valuable money for NDT development by small businesses and stimulating cooperative university programs. A review and critical assessment of the SBIR program as related to NDT is presented and should provide insight into reasons for or against pursuing this source of R&D funding.

  8. Two step culture for production of recombinant herpes simplex virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was the major cause of genital herpes in humans. The HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2) had been proved to be a potentially effective vaccine for treatment of genital herpes. The present study was to develop a two step culture to express the recombinant gD2 protein using the immobilized ...

  9. NASA's Management and Utilization of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexcur, Winfield Paul

    2003-01-01

    The United Space Congress established the SBIR program in 1982 for the following purposes: ( 1) Stimulate technological innovation (2) Increase private-sector commercialization derived from federal R&D (3) Use small business to meet federal R&D needs (4) Foster and encourage participation by disadvantaged persons and women in technological innovation The STTR program was established in 1992 with the additional requirement of having a small business partner with a research institution (usually a university) for the purpose of transferring intellectual property from the research institution to the small business concern for enabling a government technical need and furthering the technological development for the purpose of developing commercial products. The government of Japan has established a program that models portions of the U.S. SBIR and STTR programs. They are very interested in how NASA has been so successful in fulfilling the Congressional objectives of these programs. In particular, they want to understand the management practices and incentives that are provided to enable partnerships between business enterprises, academia and government. The speech will also focus on some of the many successful technologies (on a conceptual level) that have been developed through NASA s SBIR and STTR programs and mechanisms used to promote cooperation between small businesses, large businesses, academia and government agencies within the United States. The speech is on a conceptual level, focusing on U.S. and NASA policies and management implementation practices. No enabling technical discussion will be held.

  10. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  11. One-step method for the production of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Milivoje [Chicago, IL; Golubovic, Mihajlo [Chicago, IL; Hull, John R [Downers Grove, IL; Choi, Stephen U. S. [Napersville, IL

    2010-05-18

    A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a particle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such (i.e. ethylene glycol) is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. A heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (particle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material, the evaporated material absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

  12. Exploratory Model Analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Brian

    1999-01-01

    ...) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to missile interceptors...

  13. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1991 phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. Carl; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of 301 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1991 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 301, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1991 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  14. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1990 phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The research objectives of the 280 projects placed under contract in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1990 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 program are described. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses in response to NASA's 1990 SBIR Phase 1 Program Solicitation. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 280, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. The document also includes Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference in the 1990 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA field center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number.

  15. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1992, phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Sacknoff, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of 346 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1992 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 346, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1992 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  16. Multi-step production of a diphoton resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    2017-04-24

    Assuming that the mass peak at 750 GeV reported by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is due to a spin-0 particle that decays into two photons, we present two weakly-coupled renormalizable models that lead to different production mechanisms. In one model, a scalar particle produced through gluon fusion decays into the diphoton particle and a light, long-lived pseudoscalar. In another model, a $Z'$ boson produced from the annihilation of a strange-antistrange quark pair undergoes a cascade decay that leads to the diphoton particle and two sterile neutrinos. We show that various kinematic distributions may differentiate these models from the canonical model where the diphoton particle is directly produced in gluon fusion.

  17. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  18. Investigation to biodiesel production by the two-step homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Tu, Song; Sha, Yong

    2010-10-01

    For the two-step transesterification biodiesel production made from the sunflower oil, based on the kinetics model of the homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification and the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of the transesterification product, the total methanol/oil mole ratio, the total reaction time, and the split ratios of methanol and reaction time between the two reactors in the stage of the two-step reaction are determined quantitatively. In consideration of the transesterification intermediate product, both the traditional distillation separation process and the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product are investigated in detail by means of the rigorous process simulation. In comparison with the traditional distillation process, the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product has distinct advantage in the energy duty and equipment requirement due to replacement of the costly methanol-biodiesel distillation column. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  20. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are eighteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a security-enhanced autonomous network management, secure communications using on-demand single photons, cognitive software-defined radio, spacesuit audio systems, multiband photonic phased-array antenna, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  1. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Airbreathing Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Bitler, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Airbreathing Propulsion which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a Turbo-Brayton cryocooler for aircraft superconducting systems, braided composite rotorcraft structures, engine air brake, combustion control valve, flexible composite driveshaft, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  2. NASA Johnson Space Center SBIR STTR Program Technology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program increases opportunities for small businesses to participate in research and development (R&D), increases employment, and improves U.S. competitiveness. Specifically the program stimulates U.S. technological innovation by using small businesses to meet federal R&D needs, increasing private-sector commercialization of innovations derived from federal R&D, and fostering and encouraging the participation of socially disadvantaged businesses. In 2000, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program extended and strengthened the SBIR Program, increasing its emphasis on pursuing commercial applications by awarding contracts to small business concerns for cooperative R&D with a nonprofit research institution. Modeled after the SBIR Program, STTR is nevertheless a separately funded activity. Technologies that have resulted from the Johnson Space Center SBIR STTR Program include: a device for regenerating iodinated resin beds; laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK; a miniature physiological monitoring device capable of collecting and analyzing a multitude of real-time signals to transmit medical data from remote locations to medical centers for diagnosis and intervention; a new thermal management system for fibers and fabrics giving rise to new line of garments and thermal-enhancing environments; and a highly electropositive material that attracts and retains electronegative particles in water.

  3. Demonstration of an efficient cooling approach for SBIRS-Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Myers, E. A.

    2002-05-01

    The Space Based Infrared System-Low (SBIRS-Low) segment is a near-term Air Force program for developing and deploying a constellation of low-earth orbiting observation satellites with gimbaled optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The optical system design and requirements present unique challenges that make conventional cooling approaches both complicated and risky. The Cryocooler Interface System (CIS) provides a remote, efficient, and interference-free means of cooling the SBIRS-Low optics. Technology Applications Inc. (TAI), through a two-phase Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has taken the CIS from initial concept feasibility through the design, build, and test of a prototype system. This paper presents the development and demonstration testing of the prototype CIS. Prototype system testing has demonstrated the high efficiency of this cooling approach, making it an attractive option for SBIRS-Low and other sensitive optical and detector systems that require low-impact cryogenic cooling.

  4. One-step production of biodiesel from Nannochloropsis sp. on solid base Mg-Zr catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuesong; Lian, Shuang; Tong, Dongmei; Song, Ruili; Yang, Wenyan; Fan, Yong; Qing, Renwei; Hu, Changwei

    2011-01-01

    Nannochloropsis sp., one kind of green microalgae cultivated autotrophically and axenically in laboratory, is used as raw material to produce biodiesel by one-step method in an amended reactor. The effects of several reaction parameters on transesterification over Mg-Zr solid base catalyst were investigated through both conventional method and one-step method. One-step method could give a higher yield of methyl ester than conventional two-step method, which demonstrates that the present one-step method is suitable for biodiesel production from the microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. Moreover, the present one-step method realizes the convenient in situ separation of catalyst from microalgae residue which can be easily used consequently, reducing the procedure units as well as the overall costs.

  5. Towards single step production of multi-layer inorganic hollow fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    In this work we propose a generic synthesis route for the single step production of multi-layer inorganic hollow fibers, based on polymer wet spinning combined with a heat treatment. With this new method, membranes with a high surface area per unit volume ratio can be produced, while production time

  6. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  7. Production of biovanillin by one-step biotransformation using fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Annapure, Uday

    2010-04-14

    The current study proposes a one-step biotransformation process for vanillin production from ferulic acid using the wild fungal strain Pycnoporous cinnabarinus belonging to the family Basidiomycete. Improvement of biotransformation conditions was performed in two steps; initially a one factor at a time method was used to investigate effects of medium composition variables (i.e., carbon, nitrogen) and environmental factors such as pH on vanillin production. Subsequently, concentrations of medium components were optimized using an orthogonal matrix method. After primary screening, glucose as carbon source and corn steep liquor and ammonium chloride as organic and inorganic nitrogen source, respectively, supported maximum biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin. Under statistically optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by P. cinnabarinus was 126 mg/L with a molar yield of 54%. The overall molar yield of vanillin production increased by 4 times.

  8. Exploratory model analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler problem

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Proliferation of theater ballistic missile technologies to potential U.S. adversaries necessitates that the U.S. employ a defensive system to counter this threat. The system that is being developed is called the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to mis...

  9. Development of a two-step “green” synthesis for (-)-ambafuran production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Lucia H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the development of a two-step “green” synthesis for (-)-ambafuran production is to find an alternative synthesis of (-) Ambrox from sclareol, to use a bioconversion or biocatalysis route, and that it results in a natural...

  10. Phase 2 SBIR Final Report: An Ultra-Sensitive Optical Biosensor for Flood Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The further development of a unique interferometric based optical biosensor platform for the rapid unlabelled detection and identification of foodborne pathogens was carried out under Phase II SBIR...

  11. Maximizing Efficiency in Two-step Solar-thermochemical Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Widespread solar fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. In this paper, the material and energy requirements in two-step solar-thermochemical cycles are considered.The need for advanced redox active materials is demonstrated, by considering the oxide mass flow requirements at a large scale. Two approaches are also identified for maximizing the efficiency: optimizing reaction temperatures, and minimizing the pressure in the thermal reduction step by staged thermal reduction. The results show that each approach individually, and especially the two in conjunction, result in significant efficiency gains.

  12. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  13. Tapping into a Billion Dollar Resource, SBIR/STTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexcur, Paul; Kalshoven, James

    2002-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs as implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These programs, as mandated by Congress, provide an opportunity for small, high technology companies and research institutions to participate in Government sponsored research and development (R&D) efforts in key technology areas. This presentation describes the background and operation of these two programs and discusses what factors a business should consider in making the decision to participate.

  14. Steps of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Natural Products and Their Characteristic Times

    OpenAIRE

    Sovová, H. (Helena)

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from plants is variable due to different micro-structure of plants and their parts, different properties of extracted substances and solvents, and different flow patterns in the extractor. Variety of published mathematical models for SFE of natural products corresponds to this diversification. This study presents simplified equations of extraction curves in terms of characteristic times of four single extraction steps: internal diffusion, exter...

  15. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  16. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small Business...

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-20 - Rights in Data-SBIR Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-SBIR....227-20 Rights in Data—SBIR Program. As prescribed in 27.409(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  18. Analyses of one-step liquid hydrogen production from methane and landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Conventional liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) production consists of two basic steps: (1) gaseous hydrogen (GH{sub 2}) production via steam methane reformation followed by purification by means of pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and (2) GH{sub 2} liquefaction. LH{sub 2} produced by the conventional processes is not carbon neutral because of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission from PSA operation. A novel concept is herein presented and flowsheeted for LH{sub 2} production with zero carbon emission using methane (CH{sub 4}) or landfill gas as feedstock. A cryogenic process is used for both H{sub 2} separation/purification and liquefaction. This one-step process can substantially increase the efficiency and reduce costs because no PSA step is required. Furthermore, the integrated process results in no CO{sub 2} emissions and minimal H{sub 2} losses. Of the five flowsheets presented, one that combines low and high temperature CO/CH{sub 4} reforming reactions in a single reactor shows the highest overall efficiency with the first and second law efficiencies of 85% and 56%, respectively. The latter figure assumes 10% overall energy loss and 30% efficiency for the cryogenic process. (author)

  19. Modelling a New Product Model on the Basis of an Existing STEP Application Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-R. Hoehn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years a great range of computer aided tools has been generated to support the development process of various products. The goal of a continuous data flow, needed for high efficiency, requires powerful standards for the data exchange. At the FZG (Gear Research Centre of the Technical University of Munich there was a need for a common gear data format for data exchange between gear calculation programs. The STEP standard ISO 10303 was developed for this type of purpose, but a suitable definition of gear data was still missing, even in the Application Protocol AP 214, developed for the design process in the automotive industry. The creation of a new STEP Application Protocol or the extension of existing protocol would be a very time consumpting normative process. So a new method was introduced by FZG. Some very general definitions of an Application Protocol (here AP 214 were used to determine rules for an exact specification of the required kind of data. In this case a product model for gear units was defined based on elements of the AP 214. Therefore no change of the Application Protocol is necessary. Meanwhile the product model for gear units has been published as a VDMA paper and successfully introduced for data exchange within the German gear industry associated with FVA (German Research Organisation for Gears and Transmissions. This method can also be adopted for other applications not yet sufficiently defined by STEP

  20. Photon Production through Multi-step Processes Important in Nuclear Fluorescence Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagmann, C; Pruet, J

    2006-01-01

    The authors present calculations describing the production of photons through multi-step processes occurring when a beam of gamma rays interacts with a macroscopic material. These processes involve the creation of energetic electrons through Compton scattering, photo-absorption and pair production, the subsequent scattering of these electrons, and the creation of energetic photons occurring as these electrons are slowed through Bremsstrahlung emission. Unlike single Compton collisions, during which an energetic photon that is scattered through a large angle loses most of its energy, these multi-step processes result in a sizable flux of energetic photons traveling at large angles relative to an incident photon beam. These multi-step processes are also a key background in experiments that measure nuclear resonance fluorescence by shining photons on a thin foil and observing the spectrum of back-scattered photons. Effective cross sections describing the production of backscattered photons are presented in a tabular form that allows simple estimates of backgrounds expected in a variety of experiments. Incident photons with energies between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV are considered. These calculations of effective cross sections may be useful for those designing NRF experiments or systems that detect specific isotopes in well-shielded environments through observation of resonance fluorescence

  1. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  2. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SBIR Final Report. Liquid Core Optical Scintillating Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, C.P.; Steinbeck, J.; Buerstler, R.

    2000-01-01

    This Phase I SBIR project focused on developing flexible scintillating liquid core optical fibers, with potential uses in high-energy calorimetry, tracking, preradiators, active targets or other fast detectors. Progress on the six tasks of the project is summarized. The technical developments involve three technology components: (1) highly flexible capillaries or tubes of relatively low n (index of refraction) to serve as cladding and liquid core containment; (2) scintillator (and clear) fluids of relatively high n to serve as a core-- these fluids must have a high light transmission and, for some applications, radiation hardness; (3) optical end plugs, plug insertion, and plug-cladding tube sealing technology to contain the core fluids in the tubes, and to transmit the light

  4. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  6. Defense Contractors SBIR/STTR Partnering Manual: A Primer on Technology Risk Management and Partnering Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, John R

    2008-01-01

    As the world looks increasingly to technology innovation to meet the challenges of defense, security, disaster relief and increased health, many in industry have come to identify this nation's SBIR...

  7. A Tale of Two Small Business Grants: The Best of Times, the Worst of Times from the NASA Ames Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Lee, Geoffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of the SBIR Program are to: stimulate technological innovation in the private sector; strengthen the role of Small Business Concerns (SBCs) in meeting Federal research and development needs; increase the commercial application of these research results; and encourage participation of socially and economically disadvantaged persons and women-owned small businesses. The process can be highly rewarding, providing the small business with resources to pursue research and development with a focus on providing NASA with new and advanced capabilities. We present two examples of how the NASA Ames SBIR Program has addressed these purposes, nurturing innovative ideas from small, businesses into commercially viable products that also address analytical needs in space research. These examples, from the Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration Subtopic, describe the journey from innovative concept to analytical instrument, one successful and one hampered by numerous roadblocks (including some international intrigue}.

  8. Production of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae for several industrial applications in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirif, María C; Milatich, Esteban J; Farruggia, Beatriz M; Romanini, Diana

    2016-06-01

    A one-step method as a strategy of alpha-amylase concentration and purification was developed in this work. This methodology requires the use of a very low concentration of biodegradable polyelectrolyte (Eudragit(®) E-PO) and represents a low cost, fast, easy to scale up and non-polluting technology. Besides, this methodology allows recycling the polymer after precipitation. The formation of reversible soluble/insoluble complexes between alpha-amylase and the polymer Eudragit(®) E-PO was studied, and their precipitation in selected conditions was applied with bioseparation purposes. Turbidimetric assays allowed to determine the pH range where the complexes are insoluble (4.50-7.00); pH 5.50 yielded the highest turbidity of the system. The presence of NaCl (0.05M) in the medium totally dissociates the protein-polymer complexes. When the adequate concentration of polymer was added under these conditions to a liquid culture of Aspergillus oryzae, purification factors of alpha-amylase up to 7.43 and recoveries of 88% were obtained in a simple step without previous clarification. These results demonstrate that this methodology is suitable for the concentration and production of alpha-amylase from this source and could be applied at the beginning of downstream processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  10. Production of Biodiesel from Acid Oil via a Two-Step Enzymatic Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nakyung; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Kwak, Jieun; Lee, Junsoo; Kim, In-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus. The effects of molar ratio of acid oil to ethanol, temperature, and enzyme loading were investigated to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification with the three immobilized lipases. The optimum conditions of the three immobilized lipases were a molar ratio of 1:5 (acid oil to ethanol), the temperature range of 30-40°C, and the enzyme loading range of 5-10%. The two-step transesterification was then conducted under the optimum conditions of each lipase. The stepwise use of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM or Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM resulted in similar or higher levels of yield to the individual lipases. The maximum yields obtained in both stepwise uses were ca. 92%.

  11. Two-Step Electrochemical Intercalation and Oxidation of Graphite for the Mass Production of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianyun; He, Pei; Mohammed, Mahdi A; Zhao, Xin; Young, Robert J; Derby, Brian; Kinloch, Ian A; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2017-12-06

    Conventional chemical oxidation routes for the production of graphene oxide (GO), such as the Hummers' method, suffer from environmental and safety issues due to their use of hazardous and explosive chemicals. These issues are addressed by electrochemical oxidation methods, but such approaches typically have a low yield due to inhomogeneous oxidation. Herein we report a two-step electrochemical intercalation and oxidation approach to produce GO on the large laboratory scale (tens of grams) comprising (1) forming a stage 1 graphite intercalation compound (GIC) in concentrated sulfuric acid and (2) oxidizing and exfoliating the stage 1 GIC in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M ammonium sulfate. This two-step approach leads to GO with a high yield (>70 wt %), good quality (>90%, monolayer), and reasonable oxygen content (17.7 at. %). Moreover, the as-produced GO can be subsequently deeply reduced (3.2 at. % oxygen; C/O ratio 30.2) to yield highly conductive (54 600 S m -1 ) reduced GO. Electrochemical capacitors based on the reduced GO showed an ultrahigh rate capability of up to 10 V s -1 due to this high conductivity.

  12. Influence of the modulated two-step synthesis of biogenic hydroxyapatite on biomimetic products' surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miculescu, Florin; Mocanu, Aura Cătălina; Stan, George E.; Miculescu, Marian; Maidaniuc, Andreea; Cîmpean, Anisoara; Mitran, Valentina; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Processing calcium-rich natural resources, such as marble and mussel seashells, into biomimetic products could constitute an environmentally-friendly and economically sustainable alternative given their geographical widespread. Hitherto, their value for biomedicine was demonstrated only for seashells, with the technological exploitation approaches still facing challenges with respect to the identification of generic synthesis parameters capable to allow the reproducible and designed synthesis of calcium phosphate at an industrial-ready level. In this study was targeted the optimization of Rathje synthesis method for the fabrication of biogenic calcium phosphates, by conveniently adjusting the chemical composition of employed reagents. It was shown that post-synthesis heat-treatment of compacted powders is the key step for inducing structural transformations suitable to attain biomimetic products for reconstructive orthopedic applications. The sintered materials have been multi-parametricallyevaluated from morpho-compositional, structural, wettability, mechanical and cytocompatibility points of view and the results have been cross-examined and discussed. Convenient and efficient preparation routes to produce biogenic hydroxyapatite have been identified. The functional performances of the as-prepared biogenic ceramics endorse their use as a solid and inexpensive alternative source material for the fabrication of various bone regenerative products and implant coatings.

  13. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

  14. The MOX Demonstration Facility - the stepping stone to commercial MOX production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper provides an insight into MOX fuel and the economic benefits of its use in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). BNFL and AEA are collaborating in the design, construction and operation of a thermal MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) on the AEA Windscale site in Cumbria. The process flowsheet and equipment employed in MDF are discussed and the special precautions required to handle plutonium bearing materials are highlighted. The process flowsheet includes the short binderless route which has been specially developed for use in MDF and results in fuel pellets with an homogeneous structure. MDF is the forerunner to the design and construction of a larger scale Sellafield MOX Plant and hence is the stepping-stone to commercial MOX production. (author)

  15. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA for zygote injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Beaton, Benjamin P; Spate, Lee D; Benne, Joshua A; Murphy, Stephanie L; O'Gorman, Chad W; Spate, Anna M; Prather, Randall S; Wells, Kevin D

    2018-03-01

    Production of Cas9 mRNA in vitro typically requires the addition of a 5´ cap and 3´ polyadenylation. A plasmid was constructed that harbored the T7 promoter followed by the EMCV IRES and a Cas9 coding region. We hypothesized that the use of the metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) triplex structure downstream of an IRES/Cas9 expression cassette would make polyadenylation of in vitro produced mRNA unnecessary. A sequence from the mMalat1 gene was cloned downstream of the IRES/Cas9 cassette described above. An mRNA concentration curve was constructed with either commercially available Cas9 mRNA or the IRES/ Cas9/triplex, by injection into porcine zygotes. Blastocysts were genotyped to determine if differences existed in the percent of embryos modified. The concentration curve identified differences due to concentration and RNA type injected. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA provides an alternative source of Cas9 for use in zygote injections.

  16. Dose field simulation for products irradiated by electron beams: formulation of the problem and its step by step solution with EGS4 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Roginets, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    When performing radiation treatment of products using an electron beam much time and money should be spent for numerous measurements to make optimal choice of treatment mode. Direct radiation treatment simulation by means of the EGS4 computer code fails to describe such measurement results correctly. In the paper a multi-step radiation treatment planning procedure is suggested which consists in fitting the EGS4 simulation results to reference measurement results, and using the fitted electron beam parameters and other ones in subsequent computer simulations. It is shown that the fitting procedure should be performed separately for each material or product type. The procedure suggested allows to replace measurements by computer simulations and therefore reduces significantly time and money required for such measurements. (author)

  17. Arsenic removal by discontinuous ZVI two steps system for drinking water production at household scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, Barbara; Falcione, Fabiano Teo; Amalfitano, Stefano; Fazi, Stefano; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Different countries in Europe still suffer of elevated arsenic (As) concentration in groundwaters used for human consumption. In the case of households not connected to the distribution system, decentralized water supply systems, such as Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE), offer a direct benefit for the consumers. Field scale ex-situ treatment systems based on metallic iron (ZVI) are already available for the production of reduced volumes of drinking water in remote areas (village scale). To address drinking water needs at larger scale, we designed a pilot unit able to produce an elevated daily volume of water for human consumption. We tested the long-term As removal efficiency of a two steps ZVI treatment unit for the production of 400 L/day clean water based on the combination of ZVI corrosion process with sedimentation and retention of freshly formed Fe precipitates. The system treated 100 μg/L As(V)-contaminated oxic groundwater in a discontinuous operation mode at a flow rate of 1 L/min for 31 days. Final removal was 77-96% and the most performing step was aeration/sedimentation (A/S) tank with a 60-94% efficiency. Arsenic in the outflow slightly exceeded the drinking water limit of 10 μg/L only after 6000 L treated and Fe concentration was always below 0.2 mg/L. Under proposed operating conditions ZVI passivation readily occurred and, as a consequence, Fe production sharply decreased. Arsenic mobility attached to particulate was 13-60% after ZVI column and 37-100% after A/S tank. Uniform amorphous cluster of Fe nanoparticles (100 nm) formed during aeration drove As removal process with an adsorption capacity corresponding to 20.5 mg As /g Fe . Research studies often focus only on chemico-physical aspects disregarding the importance of biological processes that may co-occur and interfere with ZVI corrosion, As removal and safe water production. We explored the microbial transport dynamics by flow cytometry, proved as a suitable tool to

  18. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.

    2017-05-01

    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  19. Single-Step Fabrication of Computationally Designed Microneedles by Continuous Liquid Interface Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Johnson

    Full Text Available Microneedles, arrays of micron-sized needles that painlessly puncture the skin, enable transdermal delivery of medications that are difficult to deliver using more traditional routes. Many important design parameters, such as microneedle size, shape, spacing, and composition, are known to influence efficacy, but are notoriously difficult to alter due to the complex nature of microfabrication techniques. Herein, we utilize a novel additive manufacturing ("3D printing" technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP to rapidly prototype sharp microneedles with tuneable geometries (size, shape, aspect ratio, spacing. This technology allows for mold-independent, one-step manufacturing of microneedle arrays of virtually any design in less than 10 minutes per patch. Square pyramidal CLIP microneedles composed of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, polyacrylic acid and photopolymerizable derivatives of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone were fabricated to demonstrate the range of materials that can be utilized within this platform for encapsulating and controlling the release of therapeutics. These CLIP microneedles effectively pierced murine skin ex vivo and released the fluorescent drug surrogate rhodamine.

  20. Sample preparation: a critical step in the analysis of cholesterol oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Christiana A; Constantinou, Michalis S; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P

    2014-02-15

    In recent years, cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have drawn scientific interest, particularly due to their implications on human health. A big number of these compounds have been demonstrated to be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. The main source of COPs is through diet, and particularly from the consumption of cholesterol-rich foods. This raises questions about the safety of consumers, and it suggests the necessity for the development of a sensitive and a reliable analytical method in order to identify and quantify these components in food samples. Sample preparation is a necessary step in the analysis of COPs in order to eliminate interferences and increase sensitivity. Numerous publications have, over the years, reported the use of different methods for the extraction and purification of COPs. However, no method has, so far, been established as a routine method for the analysis of COPs in foods. Therefore, it was considered important to overview different sample preparation procedures and evaluate the different preparative parameters, such as time of saponification, the type of organic solvents for fat extraction, the stationary phase in solid phase extraction, etc., according to recovery, precision and simplicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar thermal production of zinc - Final steps toward scale-up - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.

    2008-05-15

    A 10 kW receiver-reactor prototype (called ZIRRUS) was further improved and tested for the solar thermal de-composition of ZnO, which is the 1{sup st} step of the two-step water-splitting thermochemical ZnO/Zn cycle. The rotating cylindrical cavity was made of either sintered ZnO or sintered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles placed on top of a multi-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramics for thermal shock resistance, mechanical stability, gas diffusion barrier, and thermal insulation. Pre-heated Ar gas was injected for aerodynamic window protection and for minimizing recombination of product gases in the cavity. Experimentation was carried out at PSI's High-Flux Solar Simulator with the direct heating 10 kW reactor prototype subjected to peak radiative fluxes exceeding 5,800 suns. The reactor operated without incident for a total of more than 40 h at maximum temperatures - measured behind the ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles - ranging from 1807-1907 K. Thermal dissociation of ZnO(s) near 2000 K was demonstrated for experimental runs over 4 h in transient ablation mode with up to nine semi-continuous feed cycles of ZnO particles. A working Zn/O{sub 2} separation device based on the rapid quenching of the Zn/O{sub 2} mixture is ready to be incorporated at the exit of the solar reactor. Zinc yields of up to 94% were obtained when using total Ar/Zn(g) dilution of 530 and a cooling rate of about 10{sup 5} K/s. The fully integrated solar reactor will be scaled up to the pilot scale of 100 kW. A newly developed reactor model that couples radiation, conduction, and convection heat transfer to the reaction kinetics will allow determining optimal operational conditions for matching the feeding rate to the reaction rate and for maximizing solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency. The 2{sup nd} step of the ZnO/Zn cycle has been experimentally demonstrated at ETH using an aerosol-flow reactor for in-situ formation and hydrolysis of Zn nanoparticles

  2. An Overview of Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 15 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high-radiation-tolerant ceramic voltage isolators, development of hermetic sealing glasses for solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable lithium metal cells, high-efficiency direct methane solid oxide fuel cell systems, Li metal protection for high-energy space batteries, isolated bidirectional direct current converters for distributed battery energy applications, and high-efficiency rad-hard ultrathin Si photovoltaic cell technology for space. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  3. Step-Based Data Sharing and Exchange in One-of-a-Kind Product Collaborative Design for Cloud Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the trend for global collaboration, there is a need for collaborative design between geographically distributed teams and companies. In particular, this need is inevitable in the companies doing their business based on one-of-a-kind production (OKP. One important problem is the lack of interoperability and compatibility of data between different CAx systems. This problem is further highlighted in data exchange in cloud manufacturing. To the best of authors' knowledge, current studies have limitations in achieving the interoperability and compatibility of data. In this paper, a STEP-based data model is proposed to represent OKP product data/knowledge, which contains four categories of product knowledge (i.e., customer, product, manufacturing, and resource resp.. A STEP-based data modelling approach is proposed to describe each category of knowledge separately and then connect them to form the final integrated model. Compared with most current product models, this model includes the more complete product data/knowledge involved in OKP product development (OKPPD, and thus it can provide more adequate knowledge support for OKPPD activities. Based on the proposed STEP-based data model, a product data exchange and sharing (DES framework is proposed and developed to enable DES in collaborative OKPPD in the cloud manufacturing environment. Case studies were carried out to validate the proposed data model and DES framework.

  4. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NASA Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Successes, Infusion and Commercializations and Potential International Partnering Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Kathryn; Goodman, Doug; Whittington, James

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program has served as a beneficial funding vehicle to both US small technology businesses and the Federal Agencies that participate in the program. This paper, to the extent possible, while observing Intellectual Property (IP) laws, will discuss the many SBIR and STTR (SBIR Technology Transfer) successes in the recent history of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Many of the participants of the International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) have based their research and papers on technologies that were made possible by SBIR/STTR awards and post award funding. Many SBIR/STTR successes have flown on Space Shuttle missions, Space X Dragons, and other spacecraft. SBIR/STTR technologies are currently infused on the International Space Station (ISS) and satellites, one of which was a NASA/JAXA (Japanese Space Agency) joint venture. Many of these companies have commercialized their technologies and grown as businesses while helping the economy through the creation of new jobs. In addition, this paper will explore the opportunity for international partnership with US SBIR/STTR companies as up to 49% of the makeup of the company is not required to be American owned. Although this paper will deal with technical achievements, it does not purport to be technical in nature. It will address the many requests for information on successes and opportunities within NASA SBIR and the virtually untapped potential of international partnering.

  6. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullaikah, S.; Lai, Chao Chin; Vali, S.R.; Ju, Yi Hsu [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60 {sup o}C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100 {sup o}C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as {gamma}-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%). (author)

  7. This Mechanistic Step Is ''Productive'': Organic Chemistry Students' Backward-Oriented Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, I.; Weinrich, M. L.; Sevian, H.; Graulich, N.

    2018-01-01

    If an organic chemistry student explains that she represents a mechanistic step because ''it's a productive part of the mechanism,'' what meaning could the professor teaching the class attribute to this statement, what is actually communicated, and what does it mean for the student? The professor might think that the explanation is based on…

  8. The Progress of SBIR Supported R and D of Solid State Pulse Modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R

    2004-01-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant program funded by the US Department of Energy makes a number of awards each year for R and D in the field of accelerator technology including high power pulse modulators and their components. This paper outlines program requirements, and reviews some of the awards made in the last three years in support of high power modulator systems and solid state switching. A number of award recipients are presenting the results of their SBIR R and D at this workshop

  9. Product analysis illuminates the final steps of IES deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    2001-06-15

    DNA sequences (IES elements) eliminated from the developing macronucleus in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila are released as linear fragments, which have now been detected and isolated. A PCR-mediated examination of fragment end structures reveals three types of strand scission events, reflecting three steps in the deletion process. New evidence is provided for two steps proposed previously: an initiating double-stranded cleavage, and strand transfer to create a branched deletion intermediate. The fragment ends provide evidence for a previously uncharacterized third step: the branched DNA strand is cleaved at one of several defined sites located within 15-16 nucleotides of the IES boundary, liberating the deleted DNA in a linear form.

  10. One-step production of biocommodities from lignocellulosic biomass by recombinant cellulolytic bacillus subtilis: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Yi-Heng P. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center of Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-10-15

    One-step consolidated bioprocessing that integrates cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and product fermentation into a single step for decreasing costly cellulase use, increasing volumetric productivity, and reducing capital investment is widely accepted for low-cost production of biofuels or other value-added biochemicals. Considering the narrow margins between biomass and low-value biocommodities, good physiological performance of industrial microbes is crucial for economically viable production. Bacillus subtilis, the best-characterized Gram-positive microorganism, is a major industrial microorganism with numerous valuable features such as hexose and pentose utilization, low-nutrient needs, fast growth rate, high protein secretion capacity, industrial safety, etc. As compared with other potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms such as Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis strains would be a potential platform for biocommodity production from nonfood biomass. Here, we review the advances in recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis development and metabolic engineering for biocommodity production, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of cellulolytic B. subtilis for biocommodity production. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, S. [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO{sub 2}, which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO{sub 2}-free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industrial age levels in 10 years. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Production of three types of krill oils from krill meal by a three-step solvent extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Mu, Hongyan; Tang, Tianpei; Wang, Xiaosan; Wei, Wei; Jin, Jun; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a three-step extraction method (separately use acetone, hexane, and ethanol as extraction solvent in each step) was conducted to selectively extract three types of krill oils with different compositions. The lipid yields were 5.08% in step 1, 4.80% in step 2, and 9.11% in step 3, with a total of 18.99%. The krill oil extracted with acetone in step 1 (A-KO) contained the lowest contents of phospholipids (PL) (2.32%) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (16.63%), but the highest levels of minor components (505.00 mg/kg of astaxanthin, 29.39 mg/100 g of tocopherols, 34.32 mg/100 g of vitamin A and 27.95 mg/g of cholesterol). By contrast, despite having traces of minor components, the krill oil extracted using ethanol in step 3 (E-KO) was the most abundant in PL (59.52%) and n-3 PUFA (41.74%). The krill oil extracted using hexane in step 2 (H-KO) expressed medium contents of all the testing indices. The oils showed significant differences in the antioxidant capacity (E-KO > H-KO > A-KO) which exhibited positive correlation with the PL content. These results could be used for further development of a wide range of krill oil products with tailor-made functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and detection of cold anti-hydrogen atoms A first step towards high precision CPT test

    CERN Document Server

    Variola, A; Bonomi, G; Boutcha, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, Michael; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Lindelöf, D; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Montagna, P; Pruys, H S; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Riedler, P; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P

    2003-01-01

    Observations of anti-hydrogen in small quantities have been reported at CERN and at FermiLab, but these experiments were not suited to spectroscopy experiments. In 2002 the ATHENA collaboration reported the production and detection of very low energy anti-hydrogen atoms produced in cryogenic environment. This is the first major step in the study of antiatom's internal structure and it can lead to a high precision test of the CPT fundamental symmetry. The method of production and detection of cold anti-hydrogen will be introduced. The absolute rate of anti-hydrogen production and the signal to background ratio in the ATHENA experiment will be discussed. (7 refs) .

  14. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  15. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    165 proposals for funding in Phase II of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. These proposals were selected from those submitted by... small research and development firms awarded Phase I contracts from the FY 1984 solicitation. In order to make information available on the technical

  16. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights eight of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Communication Technology and Development. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as X-ray navigation, microsensor instrument for unmanned aerial vehicle airborne atmospheric measurements, 16-element graphene-based phased array antenna system, interferometric star tracker, ultralow power fast-response sensor, and integrated spacecraft navigation and communication. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  17. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Air-Breathing Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as development of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method for the measurement of complex 3D ice shapes, phased array techniques for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, compact kinetic mechanisms for petroleum-derived and alternative aviation fuels, and hybrid electric propulsion systems for a multirotor aircraft. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  18. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are nineteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as high-performance Hall thruster support system, thruster discharge power converter, high-performance combustion chamber, ion thruster design tool, green liquid monopropellant thruster, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  19. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  20. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty three technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as fine-filament superconductor wire, composite oxide cathode materials, nano-composites, high radiation solar cell, wrapped multilayer insulation, thin aerogel, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  1. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase II Awards. 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    OFFICE: AFBMOiPMX THE INTEGR ATE-DRILL-LOADLSHUOT (IDLS) C’ NCv " , A CONTINUOUS DRILL 04 ’e SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH (SBIR) PROGRAM - PHASE 2...WORK WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE COMPONENTS OF THE -.’ WBGI INDEX ( WEB BULB, DRY BULB AND BLACK GLOBE TEMPERATURE) CAN BE DE- RIVED FROM SATELLITE DATA

  2. The Results of Complex Research of GSS "SBIRS-Geo 2" Behavior in the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Motrunich, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    The new generation of geosynchronous satellites SBIRS of US Air Force early warning system series (Satellite Early Warning System) replaced the previous DSP-satellite series (Defense Support Program). Currently from the territory of Ukraine, several GSS of DSP series and one "SBIRS-Geo 2" are available to observation. During two years of observations, we have received and analyzed for two satellites more than 30 light curves in B, V, R photometric system. As a result of complex research, we propose a model of "SBIRS-Geo" 2 orbital behavior compared with the same one of the DSP-satellite. To control the entire surface of the Earth with 15-16 sec interval, including the polar regions, 4 SBIRS satellites located every 90 deg. along the equator are enough in GEO orbit. Since DSP-satellites provide the coverage of the Earth's surface to 83 deg. latitudes with a period of 50 sec, DSP-satellites should be 8. All the conclusions were made based on an analysis of photometric and coordinate observations using the simulation of the dynamics of their orbital behavior.

  3. A novel multimodal chromatography based single step purification process for efficient manufacturing of an E. coli based biotherapeutic protein product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Gupta, Darpan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2013-11-01

    Methionine oxidized, reduced and fMet forms of a native recombinant protein product are often the critical product variants which are associated with proteins expressed as bacterial inclusion bodies in E. coli. Such product variants differ from native protein in their structural and functional aspects, and may lead to loss of biological activity and immunogenic response in patients. This investigation focuses on evaluation of multimodal chromatography for selective removal of these product variants using recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) as the model protein. Unique selectivity in separation of closely related product variants was obtained using combined pH and salt based elution gradients in hydrophobic charge induction chromatography. Simultaneous removal of process related impurities was also achieved in flow-through leading to single step purification process for the GCSF. Results indicate that the product recovery of up to 90.0% can be obtained with purity levels of greater than 99.0%. Binding the target protein at pHproduct variants using the combined pH and salt based elution gradient and removal of the host cell impurities in flow-through are the key novel features of the developed multimodal chromatographic purification step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Manufacturing Steps for Commercial Production of Nano-Structure Capacitors Final Report CRADA No. TC02159.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schena, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and TroyCap LLC, to develop manufacturing steps for commercial production of nano-structure capacitors. The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate high deposition rates of selected dielectric materials which are 2 to 5 times larger than typical using current technology.

  5. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  6. Proton induced nuclide production cross section by HETC-3STEP/FRG-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Takada, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The level density parameter depending on the excitation energy is taken in the evaporation process. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG-R) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  7. Measurement of width and step-height of photolithographic product patterns by using digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ju Yeop; Kang, Sung Hoon; Ma, Hye Joon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Chung Ki; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ik Hwan [Dept. of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Pil [Dept. of Ophthalmic Optics, Dong A College of Health, Youngam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The semiconductor industry is one of the key industries of Korea, which has continued growing at a steady annual growth rate. Important technology for the semiconductor industry is high integration of devices. This is to increase the memory capacity for unit area, of which key is photolithography. The photolithography refers to a technique for printing the shadow of light lit on the mask surface on to wafer, which is the most important process in a semiconductor manufacturing process. In this study, the width and step-height of wafers patterned through this process were measured to ensure uniformity. The widths and inter-plate heights of the specimens patterned using photolithography were measured using transmissive digital holography. A transmissive digital holographic interferometer was configured, and nine arbitrary points were set on the specimens as measured points. The measurement of each point was compared with the measurements performed using a commercial device called scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Alpha Step. Transmission digital holography requires a short measurement time, which is an advantage compared to other techniques. Furthermore, it uses magnification lenses, allowing the flexibility of changing between high and low magnifications. The test results confirmed that transmissive digital holography is a useful technique for measuring patterns printed using photolithography.

  8. Measurement of width and step-height of photolithographic product patterns by using digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ju Yeop; Kang, Sung Hoon; Ma, Hye Joon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Chung Ki; Kim, Kyeong Suk; Kwon, Ik Hwan; Yang, Seung Pil

    2016-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is one of the key industries of Korea, which has continued growing at a steady annual growth rate. Important technology for the semiconductor industry is high integration of devices. This is to increase the memory capacity for unit area, of which key is photolithography. The photolithography refers to a technique for printing the shadow of light lit on the mask surface on to wafer, which is the most important process in a semiconductor manufacturing process. In this study, the width and step-height of wafers patterned through this process were measured to ensure uniformity. The widths and inter-plate heights of the specimens patterned using photolithography were measured using transmissive digital holography. A transmissive digital holographic interferometer was configured, and nine arbitrary points were set on the specimens as measured points. The measurement of each point was compared with the measurements performed using a commercial device called scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Alpha Step. Transmission digital holography requires a short measurement time, which is an advantage compared to other techniques. Furthermore, it uses magnification lenses, allowing the flexibility of changing between high and low magnifications. The test results confirmed that transmissive digital holography is a useful technique for measuring patterns printed using photolithography

  9. A green two-step process for adipic acid production from cyclohexene. A study on parameters affecting selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavani, F.; Macchia, F.; Pino, R.; Raabova, K.; Rozhko, E. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Alini, S.; Accorinti, P.; Babini, G. [Radici Chimica SpA, Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report about the effect of reaction parameters on catalytic behavior in a twostep process aimed at the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene. In the first step, cyclohexene reacts with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, under conditions leading to the formation of trans-1,2-cyclohexandiol as the prevailing product; the reaction is catalysed by tungstic acid, in the presence of phosphoric acid and of a PT agent. In the second step, 1,2-cyclohexandiol is oxidized with air, in the presence of an heterogeneous catalyst made of alumina-supported Ru(OH){sub 3}. This process is aimed at using the minimal amount of the costly hydrogen peroxide, since only one mole is theoretically needed per mole of cyclohexene. The first step afforded very high yield to the glycol, using only a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. However, the second step turned out to be the more critical one, since the selectivity to adipic acid was very low because of the concomitant occurrence of several undesired side reactions. The latter were in part due to the reaction conditions used, which were necessary for the activation of cyclohexandiol. (orig.)

  10. Parallel and four-step synthesis of natural-product-inspired scaffolds through modular assembly and divergent cyclization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oguri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By emulating the universal biosynthetic strategy, which employs modular assembly and divergent cyclizations, we have developed a four-step synthetic process to yield a collection of natural-product-inspired scaffolds. Modular assembly of building blocks onto a piperidine-based manifold 6, having a carboxylic acid group, was achieved through Ugi condensation, N-acetoacetylation and diazotransfer, leading to cyclization precursors. The rhodium-catalyzed tandem cyclization and divergent cycloaddition gave rise to tetracyclic and hexacyclic scaffolds by the appropriate choice of dipolarophiles installed at modules 3 and 4. A different piperidine-based manifold 15 bearing an amino group was successfully applied to demonstrate the flexibility and scope of the unified four-step process for the generation of structural diversity in the fused scaffolds. Evaluation of in vitro antitrypanosomal activities of the collections and preliminary structure–activity relationship (SAR studies were also undertaken.

  11. The Department of Defense FY 1998 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Program Solicitation 98.2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  12. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Topic CBD99-204, Phase I: 3D Chemical/BIO Response Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase I small business innovation research (SBIR) program effort was to demonstrate the scientific, technical and commercial feasibility of a 3D virtual world or virtual reality (VR...

  13. Program Solicitation 2001.2. Closing Date: 15 August 2001. FY 2001 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...), and Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  14. The Department of Defense FY 1999 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Program Solicitation 99.2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Special Operations Command (SOCOM), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  15. The Department of Defense FY 2000 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program: Program Solicitation 00.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... (NIMA), and U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  16. Effect of Processing Steps on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Appearance of 6063 Aluminium Extruded Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Lozano, Juan; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Vander Voort, George F.

    2014-01-01

    6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching during the anodizing stage, shown to be connected to certain microstructural characteristics. The present study has attempted to determine the origin of these defects and measure the mechanical properties in these zones, properties which were either barely acceptable or did not meet the specification’s requirements. Quantitative metallography and mechanical testing, both tensile and microhardness, were used for materials assessment at the different steps of the process of manufacturing 6063 anodized extrusions. The results of this research show that nonequilibrium solidification rates during billet casting could lead to the formation of coarse eutectic Mg2Si particles which have a deleterious effect on both mechanical properties and surface appearance in the anodized condition. However, differences in the size and density of the coarse Mg2Si particles have been found to exist in the streak profile compared to the surrounding zones. The study revealed the importance of these particles in explaining the origin of the marginal or sub-marginal properties and anodizing surface defects found. PMID:28788673

  17. Effect of Processing Steps on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Appearance of 6063 Aluminium Extruded Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Asensio-Lozano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching during the anodizing stage, shown to be connected to certain microstructural characteristics. The present study has attempted to determine the origin of these defects and measure the mechanical properties in these zones, properties which were either barely acceptable or did not meet the specification’s requirements. Quantitative metallography and mechanical testing, both tensile and microhardness, were used for materials assessment at the different steps of the process of manufacturing 6063 anodized extrusions. The results of this research show that nonequilibrium solidification rates during billet casting could lead to the formation of coarse eutectic Mg2Si particles which have a deleterious effect on both mechanical properties and surface appearance in the anodized condition. However, differences in the size and density of the coarse Mg2Si particles have been found to exist in the streak profile compared to the surrounding zones. The study revealed the importance of these particles in explaining the origin of the marginal or sub-marginal properties and anodizing surface defects found.

  18. Production and characterization of carbon nano colloid via one-step electrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doohyun; Hwang, Yujin; Cheong, Seong Ir; Lee, Jae Keun [Pusan National University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Daeseung; Moon, Seongyong [N-BARO TECH CO., LTD, Institute of SamchangTsinghua Nano Application (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Pusan National University, Industrial Liaison Innovation Cluster (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo H., E-mail: sookim@pusan.ac.k [Pusan National University, Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    We present a one-step electrochemical method to produce water-based stable carbon nano colloid (CNC) without adding any surfactants at the room temperature. The physical, chemical, and thermal properties of CNC prepared were characterized by using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta potential meter, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, turbidity meter, viscometer, and transient hot-wire method. The average primary size of the suspended spherical-shaped nanoparticles in the CNC was found to be {approx}15 nm in diameter. The thermal conductivity of CNC compared with that of water was observed to increase up to {approx}14% with the CNC concentration of {approx}4.2 wt%. The CNC prepared in this study was considerably stable over the period of 600 h. With the assistance of FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, we confirmed the presence of carboxyl group (i.e., O-H stretching (3,458 cm{sup -1}) and C=O stretching (1,712 cm{sup -1})) formed in the outer atomic layer of carbon nanoparticles, which (i) made the carbon particles hydrophilic and (ii) prevented the aggregation among primary nanoparticles by increasing the magnitude of zeta potential over the long period.

  19. Organic chemistry. A rhodium catalyst for single-step styrene production from benzene and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Benjamin A; Webster-Gardiner, Michael S; Cundari, Thomas R; Gunnoe, T Brent

    2015-04-24

    Rising global demand for fossil resources has prompted a renewed interest in catalyst technologies that increase the efficiency of conversion of hydrocarbons from petroleum and natural gas to higher-value materials. Styrene is currently produced from benzene and ethylene through the intermediacy of ethylbenzene, which must be dehydrogenated in a separate step. The direct oxidative conversion of benzene and ethylene to styrene could provide a more efficient route, but achieving high selectivity and yield for this reaction has been challenging. Here, we report that the Rh catalyst ((Fl)DAB)Rh(TFA)(η(2)-C2H4) [(Fl)DAB is N,N'-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA is trifluoroacetate] converts benzene, ethylene, and Cu(II) acetate to styrene, Cu(I) acetate, and acetic acid with 100% selectivity and yields ≥95%. Turnover numbers >800 have been demonstrated, with catalyst stability up to 96 hours. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  1. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Conor; Jurk, Diana; Gillespie, Colin S; Shanley, Daryl; Saretzki, Gabriele; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Passos, João F

    2012-01-01

    Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage). However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS). We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  2. Production and characterization of carbon nano colloid via one-step electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doohyun; Hwang, Yujin; Cheong, Seong Ir; Lee, Jae Keun; Hong, Daeseung; Moon, Seongyong; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Soo H.

    2008-01-01

    We present a one-step electrochemical method to produce water-based stable carbon nano colloid (CNC) without adding any surfactants at the room temperature. The physical, chemical, and thermal properties of CNC prepared were characterized by using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta potential meter, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, turbidity meter, viscometer, and transient hot-wire method. The average primary size of the suspended spherical-shaped nanoparticles in the CNC was found to be ∼15 nm in diameter. The thermal conductivity of CNC compared with that of water was observed to increase up to ∼14% with the CNC concentration of ∼4.2 wt%. The CNC prepared in this study was considerably stable over the period of 600 h. With the assistance of FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, we confirmed the presence of carboxyl group (i.e., O-H stretching (3,458 cm -1 ) and C=O stretching (1,712 cm -1 )) formed in the outer atomic layer of carbon nanoparticles, which (i) made the carbon particles hydrophilic and (ii) prevented the aggregation among primary nanoparticles by increasing the magnitude of zeta potential over the long period.

  3. Single-step ethanol production from lignocellulose using novel extremely thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitchnyi, Vitali A; Kensch, Oliver; Falkenhan, Doris A; Korseska, Svenja G; Lippert, Nadine; Prinz, Melanie; Sassi, Jamaleddine; Schickor, Anke; Curvers, Simon

    2013-02-28

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol using thermophilic bacteria provides a promising solution for efficient lignocellulose conversion without the need for additional cellulolytic enzymes. Most studies on the thermophilic CBP concentrate on co-cultivation of the thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum with non-cellulolytic thermophilic anaerobes at temperatures of 55°C-60°C. We have specifically screened for cellulolytic bacteria growing at temperatures >70°C to enable direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials into ethanol. Seven new strains of extremely thermophilic anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor and eight new strains of extremely thermophilic xylanolytic/saccharolytic bacteria of the genus Thermoanaerobacter isolated from environmental samples exhibited fast growth at 72°C, extensive lignocellulose degradation and high yield ethanol production on cellulose and pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Monocultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains degraded up to 89-97% of the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in pretreated biomass and produced up to 72 mM ethanol on cellulose without addition of exogenous enzymes. In dual co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains with Thermoanaerobacter strains the ethanol concentrations rose 2- to 8.2-fold compared to cellulolytic monocultures. A co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor DIB 087C and Thermoanaerobacter DIB 097X was particularly effective in the conversion of cellulose to ethanol, ethanol comprising 34.8 mol% of the total organic products. In contrast, a co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii subsp. mathranii DSM 11426 produced only low amounts of ethanol. The newly discovered Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain DIB 004C was capable of producing unexpectedly large amounts of ethanol from lignocellulose in fermentors. The established co-cultures of new Caldicellulosiruptor

  4. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-step chemical and radiation process for the production of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, R.D.; Leffert, C.B.; Teichmann, T.; Teitel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    It has previously been proposed to use the radiation energy within the central reaction chamber of a thermonuclear reactor for the dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen in one step. However, the coefficient of recombination of pure hydrogen and oxygen at the elevated reaction chamber temperature is relatively high so that the overall yield is low. Furthermore, it is desirable to recover any unspent tritium from the reaction chamber exhaust, but separation of residual tritium from pure hydrogen in the chamber exhaust is relatively difficult. In the process provided in this patent pure carbon dioxide rather than steam is injected into the central reaction chamber of a thermonuclear reactor. Radiolysis of carbon dioxide yields carbon monoxide and pure oxygen. While the oxygen may be separated and collected at the exhaust vent of the reaction chamber, the carbon monoxide is separated and then combined with water to produce pure hydrogen and reconstituted carbon dioxide, which may be collected and recycled so that the overall closed-loop system produces pure hydrogen and oxygen at the expense of water. The efficiency of the process is high due, in large part, to the relatively low coefficient of recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen at the reaction chamber temperature. Heat required for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water may be provided by suitable heat transfer from the heated reaction chamber. The chamber exhaust contains carbon monoxide and oxygen, so that any unburnt tritium in the exhaust stream may be easily collected and recycled to form additional pellet fuel. The carbon dioxide molecules injected into the reaction chamber provide protection for the reaction chamber walls from the deleterious effects of charged-particle and x-ray bombardment. (LL)

  6. Accounting for spatiotemporal errors of gauges: A critical step to evaluate gridded precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoqiang; Behrangi, Ali; Long, Di; Li, Changming; Hong, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Rain gauge observations are commonly used to evaluate the quality of satellite precipitation products. However, the inherent difference between point-scale gauge measurements and areal satellite precipitation, i.e. a point of space in time accumulation v.s. a snapshot of time in space aggregation, has an important effect on the accuracy and precision of qualitative and quantitative evaluation results. This study aims to quantify the uncertainty caused by various combinations of spatiotemporal scales (0.1°-0.8° and 1-24 h) of gauge network designs in the densely gauged and relatively flat Ganjiang River basin, South China, in order to evaluate the state-of-the-art satellite precipitation, the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG). For comparison with the dense gauge network serving as "ground truth", 500 sparse gauge networks are generated through random combinations of gauge numbers at each set of spatiotemporal scales. Results show that all sparse gauge networks persistently underestimate the performance of IMERG according to most metrics. However, the probability of detection is overestimated because hit and miss events are more likely fewer than the reference numbers derived from dense gauge networks. A nonlinear error function of spatiotemporal scales and the number of gauges in each grid pixel is developed to estimate the errors of using gauges to evaluate satellite precipitation. Coefficients of determination of the fitting are above 0.9 for most metrics. The error function can also be used to estimate the required minimum number of gauges in each grid pixel to meet a predefined error level. This study suggests that the actual quality of satellite precipitation products could be better than conventionally evaluated or expected, and hopefully enables non-subject-matter-expert researchers to have better understanding of the explicit uncertainties when using point-scale gauge observations to evaluate areal products.

  7. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  8. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 2. Navy Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    NAVY ABSTRACTS OF SBIR PHASE I AWARDS mmhancemegs to be added. Advanced processor architeturs which u- new technology hardware and software for...Adaptive Compensation System for Performance Improvenent of piezoelectric Hydropbones Abstract: Hydopbone output level is, in gena, insly proportional to die...growth rate is proportional to the mode frequency and under optimal conditions, the cavity mode TMI 10 exponcntiates in only 10 oscillation periods. In

  9. One-Pot, One-Step Production of Dietary Nucleotides by Magnetic Biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon del Arco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic synthesis of nucleotides offers several advantages over traditional multistep chemical methods, such as stereoselectivity, regioselectivity, enantioselectivity, simple downstream processing, and the use of mild reaction conditions. However, in order to scale up these bioprocesses, several drawbacks, such as the low enzyme stability and recycling, must be considered. Enzyme immobilization may overcome these cost-related problems by enhancing protein stability and facilitating the separation of products. In this regard, tetrameric hypoxanthine–guanine–xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was covalently immobilized onto glutaraldehyde-activated MagReSyn®Amine magnetic iron oxide porous microparticles (MTtHGXPRT. In this context, two different strategies were followed: (a an enzyme immobilization through its N-terminus residues at pH 8.5 (derivatives MTtHGXPRT1-3; and (b a multipoint covalent immobilization through the surface lysine residues at pH 10 (derivatives MTtHGXPRT4-5. The immobilized derivatives of MTtHGXPRT3 (activity 1581 international units per gram of support, IU/g; retained activity 29% and MTtHGXPRT5 (activity 1108 IU/g; retained activity 23% displayed the best wet biocatalyst activity, and retained activity values in the enzymatic synthesis of inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP. In addition, the dependence of the activities and stabilities of both derivatives on pH and temperature was tested, as well as their reusability potential. Taking these results into account, MTtHGXPRT3 was chosen as the best biocatalyst (negligible loss of activity at 60 °C during 24 h; reusable up to seven cycles. Finally, as proof of concept, the enzymatic production of dietary nucleotides from high concentrations of low soluble bases was achieved.

  10. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  11. High-yield production of pure tagatose from fructose by a three-step enzymatic cascade reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-08-01

    To produce tagatose from fructose with a high conversion rate and to establish a high-yield purification method of tagatose from the reaction mixture. Fructose at 1 M (180 g l -1 ) was converted to 0.8 M (144 g l -1 ) tagatose by a three-step enzymatic cascade reaction, involving hexokinase, plus ATP, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, phytase, over 16 h with a productivity of 9 g l -1 h -1 . No byproducts were detected. Tagatose was recrystallized from ethanol to a purity of 99.9% and a yield of 96.3%. Overall, tagatose at 99.9% purity was obtained from fructose with a yield of 77%. This is the first biotechnological production of tagatose from fructose and the first application of solvent recrystallization for the purification of rare sugars.

  12. A one-step strategy for ultra-fast and low-cost mass production of plastic membrane microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chong; Lin, Sheng; Li, Wanbo; Sun, Han; Chen, Yangfan; Chan, Chiu-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wu, Hongkai; Ren, Kangning

    2016-10-05

    An ultra-fast, extremely cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method was developed for fabricating flexible microfluidic chips with plastic membranes. With this method, we could fabricate plastic microfluidic chips rapidly (within 12 seconds per piece) at an extremely low cost (less than $0.02 per piece). We used a heated perfluoropolymer perfluoroalkoxy (often called Teflon PFA) solid stamp to press a pile of two pieces of plastic membranes, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). During the short period of contact with the heated PFA stamp, the pressed area of the membranes permanently bonded, while the LDPE membrane spontaneously rose up at the area not pressed, forming microchannels automatically. These two regions were clearly distinguishable even at the micrometer scale so we were able to fabricate microchannels with widths down to 50 microns. This method combines the two steps in the conventional strategy for microchannel fabrication, generating microchannels and sealing channels, into a single step. The production is a green process without using any solvent or generating any waste. Also, the chips showed good resistance against the absorption of Rhodamine 6G, oligonucleotides, and green fluorescent protein (GFP). We demonstrated some typical microfluidic manipulations with the flexible plastic membrane chips, including droplet formation, on-chip capillary electrophoresis, and peristaltic pumping for quantitative injection of samples and reagents. In addition, we demonstrated convenient on-chip detection of lead ions in water samples by a peristaltic-pumping design, as an example of the application of the plastic membrane chips in a resource-limited environment. Due to the high speed and low cost of the fabrication process, this single-step method will facilitate the mass production of microfluidic chips and commercialization of microfluidic technologies.

  13. Method of neptunium recovery into the product stream of the Purex second codecontamination step for LWR fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboya, T; Nemoto, S; Hoshino, T; Segawa, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1973-04-01

    The neptunium behavior in the second codecontamination step in Purex process of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation was experimentally studied, and the conditions for discharging neptunium in product stream were examined. Improved nitrous acid method was applied to the second codecontamination step. Nitrous acid (NaNO/sub 2/) was supplied to the 1st stage of extraction section at feed rate of 7.5 mM/hr, and hydrazine (hydrazine nitrate) was supplied to some stages near feed point at feed rate of 1.6 mM/hr, by using laboratory scale mixer-settlers having 6 ml of mixing volume and 17 ml of settling volume. Neptunium extraction behavior was analyzed by the code NEPTUN-I simulating neptunium concentration profile and by the code NEPTUN-II for calculating Np (V) and Np (VI) concentration. Batch experiments were performed for explaining the reduction reaction of Np (VI) in organic phase. After shaking the aqueous solution containing Np (VI) in 3 M nitric acid with the various volume ratios of TBP, both phases were separated, and the neptunium concentration was determined. In conclusion, the improved nitrous acid method was effective for the neptunium discharge in product stream when the flow ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase was increased to about three times.

  14. Modeling of the steam hydrolysis in a two-step process for hydrogen production by solar concentrated energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Hernández, Julio; Romero-Paredes, Hernando; Pacheco-Reyes, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    In this paper the simulation of the steam hydrolysis for hydrogen production through the decomposition of cerium oxide is presented. The thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production consists of the endothermic reduction of CeO2 to lower-valence cerium oxide, at high temperature, where concentrated solar energy is used as a source of heat; and of the subsequent steam hydrolysis of the resulting cerium oxide to produce hydrogen. The modeling of endothermic reduction step was presented at the Solar Paces 2015. This work shows the modeling of the exothermic step; the hydrolysis of the cerium oxide (III) to form H2 and the corresponding initial cerium oxide made at lower temperature inside the solar reactor. For this model, three sections of the pipe where the reaction occurs were considered; the steam water inlet, the porous medium and the hydrogen outlet produced. The mathematical model describes the fluid mechanics; mass and energy transfer occurring therein inside the tungsten pipe. Thermochemical process model was simulated in CFD. The results show a temperature distribution in the solar reaction pipe and allow obtaining the fluid dynamics and the heat transfer within the pipe. This work is part of the project "Solar Fuels and Industrial Processes" from the Mexican Center for Innovation in Solar Energy (CEMIE-Sol).

  15. Biohydrogen and methane production via a two-step process using an acid pretreated native microalgae consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reyes, Julian; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-12-01

    A native microalgae consortium treated under thermal-acidic hydrolysis was used to produce hydrogen and methane in a two-step sequential process. Different acid concentrations were tested, generating hydrogen and methane yields of up to 45mLH 2 gVS -1 and 432mLCH 4 gVS -1 , respectively. The hydrogen production step solubilized the particulate COD (chemical oxygen demand) up to 30%, creating considerable amounts of volatile fatty acids (up to 10gCODL -1 ). It was observed that lower acid concentration presented higher hydrogen and methane production potential. The results revealed that thermal acid hydrolysis of a native microalgae consortium is a simple but effective strategy for producing hydrogen and methane in the sequential process. In addition to COD removal (50-70%), this method resulted in an energy recovery of up to 15.9kJ per g of volatile solids of microalgae biomass, one of the highest reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved sugar-free succinate production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 following identification of the limiting steps in glycogen catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Hasunuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Succinate produced by microorganisms can replace currently used petroleum-based succinate but typically requires mono- or poly-saccharides as a feedstock. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can produce organic acids such as succinate from CO2 not supplemented with sugars under dark anoxic conditions using an unknown metabolic pathway. The TCA cycle in cyanobacteria branches into oxidative and reductive routes. Time-course analyses of the metabolome, transcriptome and metabolic turnover described here revealed dynamic changes in the metabolism of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cultivated under dark anoxic conditions, allowing identification of the carbon flow and rate-limiting steps in glycogen catabolism. Glycogen biosynthesized from CO2 assimilated during periods of light exposure is catabolized to succinate via glycolysis, the anaplerotic pathway, and the reductive TCA cycle under dark anoxic conditions. Expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylase gene (ppc was identified as a rate-limiting step in succinate biosynthesis and this rate limitation was alleviated by ppc overexpression, resulting in improved succinate excretion. The sugar-free succinate production was further enhanced by the addition of bicarbonate. In vivo labeling with NaH13CO3 clearly showed carbon incorporation into succinate via the anaplerotic pathway. Bicarbonate is in equilibrium with CO2. Succinate production by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 therefore holds significant promise for CO2 capture and utilization. Keywords: Autofermentation, Cyanobacteria, Dynamic metabolic profiling, Metabolomics, Succinate, Synechocystis

  17. Knowledge production and learning for sustainable landscapes: seven steps using social-ecological systems as laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Axelsson, Robert; Dixelius, Malcolm; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple challenges regarding use and governance of landscapes' goods, functions and intangible values for ecosystem health and human well-being. One group of challenges is to measure and assess principal sustainability dimensions through performance targets, so stakeholders have transparent information about states and trends. Another group is to develop adaptive governance at multiple levels, and management of larger geographical areas across scales. Addressing these challenges, we present a framework for transdisciplinary research using multiple landscapes as place-based case studies that integrates multiple research disciplines and non-academic actors: (1) identify a suite of landscapes, and for each (2) review landscape history, (3) map stakeholders, use and non-use values, products and land use, (4) analyze institutions, policies and the system of governance, (5) measure ecological, economic, social and cultural sustainability, (6) assess sustainability dimensions and governance, and finally (7) make comparisons and synthesize. Collaboration, communication and dissemination are additional core features. We discuss barriers bridges and bridges for applying this approach.

  18. Black tea assisted exfoliation using a kitchen mixer allowing one-step production of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Farhana Abu Kassim, Nurul; Hannifa Abdullah, Abu; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Anis; Sameha Ismail, Fadwa; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-07-01

    A kitchen mixer is one of the possible tools for the exfoliation of graphene. While organic solvents such as NMP or DMF are suitable for the exfoliation of graphite, the majority are toxic and dangerously harmful when exposed to humans and the environment. Therefore, an alternative solvent must be proposed for green and sustainable production of graphene. In this initial work, we have developed a new synthesis method for graphene through the direct exfoliation of graphite in commercial black tea. We found that our maximum yield concentration of graphene is Y  =  0.032 mg ml-l after 15 min of mixing. From the data of Raman, the level of defects in our produced graphene is suggested as being very minor (I D/I G  =  0.17), despite possible graphene functionalization by oxygen groups in tea. Incorporation of our graphene into PMMA results in shifting the onset temperature from 300 °C to 326 °C, which impressively validates the potential of the produced graphene as a thermal reinforcement material for polymer composites.

  19. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  20. An overview of physico-chemical mechanisms of biogas production by microbial communities: a step towards sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Shome, Arunima; Banerjee, Sambhu Nath; Chakraborty, Amit Kumar; Mathew, Anil K; Chaudhury, Shibani

    2016-06-01

    Biogas is a combination of methane, CO 2 , nitrogen, H 2 S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD. Microbes identified have been found to belong mainly to the bacterial phyla of Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Among the archaeal population, the majority have been found to be methanogens (mainly unculturable), the remaining being thermophilic microbes. Thus, the AD process as a whole could be controlled by regulating the microbial consortia involved in it. Optimization in the feedstock, pH, temperature and other physical parameters would be beneficial for the microbial growth and viability and thus helpful for biogas production in AD. Besides, the biogas production is also dependent upon the activity of several key genes, ion-specific transporters and enzymes, like genes coding for methyl-CoM reductase, formylmethanofuran transferase, formate dehydrogenase present in the microbes. Fishing for these high-efficiency genes will ultimately increase the biogas production and sustain the production plant.

  1. Ceria-based electrospun fibers for renewable fuel production via two-step thermal redox cycles for carbon dioxide splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, William T; Venstrom, Luke J; De Smith, Robert M; Davidson, Jane H; Jackson, Gregory S

    2014-07-21

    Zirconium-doped ceria (Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2) was synthesized through a controlled electrospinning process as a promising approach to cost-effective, sinter-resistant material structures for high-temperature, solar-driven thermochemical redox cycles. To approximate a two-step redox cycle for solar fuel production, fibrous Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 with relatively low levels of Zr-doping (0 rates of O2 release during reduction and CO production during reoxidation and by assessing post-cycling fiber crystallite sizes and surface areas. Sintering increases with reduction temperature but occurs primarily along the fiber axes. Even after 108 redox cycles with reduction at 1400 °C and oxidation with CO2 at 800 °C, the fibers maintain their structure with surface areas of ∼0.3 m(2) g(-1), higher than those observed in the literature for other ceria-based structures operating at similarly high temperature conditions. Total CO production and peak production rate stabilize above 3.0 mL g(-1) and 13.0 mL min(-1) g(-1), respectively. The results show the potential for electrospun oxides as sinter-resistant material structures with adequate surface area to support rapid CO2 splitting in solar thermochemical redox cycles.

  2. One step transesterification process of sludge palm oil (SPO) by using deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Renita; Ramadhani, Debbie Aditia; Maisarah, Siti

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel production by using sludge palm oil (SPO) as raw material is generally synthesized in two step reactions, namely esterification and transesterification, because the free fatty acid (FFA) content of SPO is relatively high. However, the presence of choline chloride (ChCl), glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES), in transesterification may produce biodiesel from SPO in just one step. In this study, DES was produced by the mixture of ChCl and glycerol at molar ratio of 1:2 at a temperature of 80°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm for 1 hour. DES was characterized by its density and viscosity. The transesterification process was performed at reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar with ratio of 9:1, sodium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1 % wt, DES as cosolvent with concentration of 0 to 5 % wt, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and one hour reaction time. The obtained biodiesel was then assessed with density, viscosity, and ester content as the parameters. FFA content of SPO as the raw material was 7.5290 %. In this case, DES as cosolvent in one step transesterification process of low feedstock could reduce the side reaction (saponification), decrease the time reaction, decrease the surface tension between ethanol and oil, and increase the mass transfer that simultaneously simplified the purification process and obtained the highest yield. The esters properties met the international standards of ASTM D 6751, with the highest yield obtained was 83.19% with 99.55% of ester content and the ratio of ethanol:oil of 9:1, concentration of DES of 4%, catalyst amount of 1%, temperature of reaction at 70°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm.

  3. An optimized two-step derivatization method for analyzing diethylene glycol ozonation products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Duan, Lei; Jiang, Jingkun; Hao, Jiming

    2017-03-01

    The ozonation of hydroxyl compounds (e.g., sugars and alcohols) gives a broad range of products such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. This study developed and optimized a two-step derivatization procedure for analyzing polar products of aldehydes and carboxylic acids from the ozonation of diethylene glycol (DEG) in a non-aqueous environment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Experiments based on Central Composite Design with response surface methodology were carried out to evaluate the effects of derivatization variables and their interactions on the analysis. The most desirable derivatization conditions were reported, i.e., oximation was performed at room temperature overnight with the o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxyl amine to analyte molar ratio of 6, silylation reaction temperature of 70°C, reaction duration of 70min, and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide volume of 12.5μL. The applicability of this optimized procedure was verified by analyzing DEG ozonation products in an ultrafine condensation particle counter simulation system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Two-step microalgal biodiesel production using acidic catalyst generated from pyrolysis-derived bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Tao; Gao, Difeng; Miao, Chao; Yu, Xiaochen; Degan, Charles; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam S.; Chen, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly active catalyst was prepared using bio-char co-produced in Auger pyrolysis. • Catalyst inhibitors in crude oil were effectively removed by a practical refinery process. • Free fatty acids (FFA) content in refined microalgal oil was reduced to less than 0.5%. • A total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 99% was obtained via a two-step process. • The inexpensive bio-char catalyst is superior to Amberlyst-15 in pre-esterification. - Abstract: An efficient process for biodiesel production from fast-refined microalgal oil was demonstrated. A low cost catalyst prepared from pyrolysis-derived bio-char, was applied in pre-esterification to reduce free fatty acid (FFA) content. Results showed that the bio-char catalyst was highly active in esterification; however, the performance of the catalyst significantly reduced when crude microalgal oil was used as feedstock. To solve the problem caused by catalyst-fouling, a fast and scalable crude oil refinery procedure was carried out to remove chlorophyll and phospholipids that might degrade the catalyst and the quality of biodiesel. The activity and reusability of bio-char catalyst were remarkably improved in the fast-refined oil. FFA content in the refined microalgal oil was reduced to less than 0.5% after pre-esterification. The bio-char catalyst could be reused for 10 cycles without dramatic loss in activity. The pre-esterification fits the first-order kinetic reaction with activation energy of 42.16 kJ/mol. The activity of bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberlyst-15 under the same reaction condition. A total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, namely biodiesel) yield of 99% was obtained following the second-step CaO-catalyzed transesterification. The cost-effective bio-char catalyst has great potential for biodiesel production using feedstocks having high FFA content.

  5. SBIR Grant:No-Vibration Agile Cryogenic Optical Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard

    2013-04-09

    Optical refrigeration is currently the only all-solid-state cryocooling technology that has been demonstrated. Optical cryocoolers are devices that use laser light to cool small crystal or glass cooling elements. The cooling element absorbs the laser light and reradiates it at higher energy, an example of anti-Stokes fluorescence. The dif-ference between the energy of the outgoing and incoming light comes from the thermal energy of the cooling element, which in turn becomes colder. Entitled No-Vibration Agile Cryocoolers using Optical Refrigeration, this Phase I proposal directly addressed the continued development of the optical refrigerator components necessary to transition this scientific breakthrough into National Nu-clear Security Administration (NNSA) sensor applications in line with the objectives of topic 50b. ThermoDynamic Films LLC (TDF), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), cooled an optical-refrigerator cooling element comprised of an ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb:YLF) crystal from room tempera-ture to 123 K with about 2% efficiency. This is the world record in optical refrigera-tion and an important step toward revolutionizing cryogenic systems for sensor ap-plications. During this period, they also designed and analyzed the crucial elements of a prototype optical refrigerator including the thermal link that connects the cool-ing element with the load.

  6. A method of neptunium recovery into the product stream of the Purex 1st codecontamination step for LWR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboya, Takao; Nemoto, Shinichi; Hoshino, Tadaya; Segawa, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    An improved nitrous acid method was applied for recovering neptunium in spent fuel. Counter-current solvent extraction has been performed to find out its recovery conditions. The nitrous acid in the form of sodium salt solution was fed to the 1st stage of extraction section, and hydrazine nitrate was fed to some stages near feed point. Flow rate and the concentration of additives were altered for finding out optimum condition. Laboratory scale mixer-settlers having 6 ml of mixing volume and 17 ml of settling volume for each stage were used. The nitrous acid method was improved so that the reduction reaction in scrub section can be eliminated by the decomposition of the nitrous acid using a reagent such as sulfamic acid, urea, or hydrazine. In operation, the feed rate of the nitrous acid was about 3 mM/hr, and about 61% of neptunium charged was discharged in the product stream of Purex-1st codecontamination step designed for the LWR fuel reprocessing plant of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The calculated value of Δx/x for extraction section agreed with the experimental value, where Δx is the quantity of oxidation, and x is the inventory for neptunium in each stage. In conclusion, the improved nitrous acid method is effective for the neptunium discharge in product stream, and the difference of neptunium extraction between estimate and experiment is caused by some of reduction reaction in scrub section. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Neutron Compound Refractive Prisms - DOE SBIR Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Jr, Jay Theodore

    2011-06-25

    The results of the research led to a pulsed electromagnetic periodic magnetic field array (PMF), which coupled with a pair of collimation slits, and a mechanical chopper slit, were able to deflect spin-up neutrons to a band of line-fused neutrons a focal plane heights that correspond to the time-varying magnetic field amplitude. The electromagnetic field PMF produced 5.4 pulses per minute in which each pulse was 50 msec in duration with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 7.5 msec. The calculated 7.7 mm vertical height of the band of focused spin-up neutrons corresponded closely to the measured 7.5 mm height of the center line of the imaged band of neutrons. The band of deflected spin-up neutrons was 5 mm in vertical width and the bottom of the band was 5 mm above the surface of the PMF pole. The limited exposure time of 3 hours and the smaller 0.78 T magnetic field allowed focused and near focused neutrons of 1.8 to 2.6 neutrons, which were in the tails of the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center Bay 4 Maxwell Boltzmann distribution of neutrons with peak flux at 1.1-1.2. The electromagnetic PMF was expected to produces a 2.0 T peak magnetic field amplitude, which would be operational at a higher duty factor, rather than the as built 7.5 msec FWHM with pulse repetition frequency of 5.4 pulses per minute. The fabricated pulsed electromagnetic PMF with chopper is expected to perform well on a cold, very cold or ultra cold beam line as a spectrometer or monochromator source of spin-up polarized neutron. In fact there may be a possible use of the PMF to do ultra-cold neutron trapping, see paper by A. I. Frank1, V. G. Nosov, Quantum Effects in a One-Dimensional Magnetic Gravitational Trap for Ultracold Neutrons, JETP Letters, Vol. 79, No. 7, 2004, pp. 313-315. The next step is to find a cold or very cold neutron facility, where further testing or use of the pulsed magnetic field PMF can be pursued.

  8. Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security - SBIR Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twogood, Richard E [Dirac Solutions Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    2015-01-27

    This is the Final Report for the DOE Phase II SBIR project “Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security.” The topics covered herein include technical progress made, progress against the planned milestones and deliverables, project outcomes (results, collaborations, intellectual property, etc.), and a discussion on future expectations of deployment and impacts of the results of this work. In brief, all planned work for the project was successfully completed, on or ahead of schedule and on budget. The major accomplishment was the successful development of a very advanced passive ultra-secure RFID tag system with combined security features unmatched by any commercially available ones. These tags have high-level dynamic encrypted authentication, a novel tamper-proofing mechanism, system software including graphical user interfaces and networking, and integration with a fiber-optic seal mechanism. This is all accomplished passively (with no battery) by incorporating sophisticated hardware in the tag which harvests the energy from the RFID readers that are interrogating the tag. Based on initial feedback (and deployments) at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), it is anticipated these tags and their offspring will meet DOE and international community needs for highly secure RFID systems. Beyond the accomplishment of those original objectives for the ultra-secure RF tags, major new spin-off thrusts from the original work were identified and successfully pursued with the cognizance of the DOE sponsor office. In particular, new classes of less sophisticated RFID tags were developed whose lineage derives from the core R&D thrusts of this SBIR. These RF “tag variants” have some, but not necessarily all, of the advanced characteristics described above and can therefore be less expensive and meet far wider markets. With customer pull from the DOE and its national laboratories, new RFID tags and systems (including custom readers and software) for

  9. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  10. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    into diamond. 2 ARMY SBIR PHASE II AWARDS Transition metals were alloyed at relatively low temperatures to form a thin layer of silicides which lowered...structures. D~uring the phase I program. lDamaskos . Intc. succCssfullN delltonstratet! a cs stpssiol loter :,1I formed by depositinig alte rnat intg layers ...Heights Drive Office: CRI)FC Aica. fiI 96701 Co ntract #: 1)AAA 1 5-93-C-0002if Phonie: 1808)l 486-5381 Ill: Dr, T- J, G. Rasbould Title: Urease -Linked

  11. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  12. Linear feature extraction from radar imagery: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), phase 2, option 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, David L.; Kahn, Philip; Conner, Gary D.; Lawton, Daryl T.

    1988-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate prototype processing capabilities for a knowledge-based system to automatically extract and analyze features from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. This effort constitutes Phase 2 funding through the Defense Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. Previous work examined the feasibility of and technology issues involved in the development of an automated linear feature extraction system. This final report documents this examination and the technologies involved in automating this image understanding task. In particular, it reports on a major software delivery containing an image processing algorithmic base, a perceptual structures manipulation package, a preliminary hypothesis management framework and an enhanced user interface.

  13. The Study of Effect of Surimi Production Steps on Chemical Composition and Electrophoresis Pattern of Myofibrillar Proteins of Mechanically Deboned poultry meat (MDPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Haji BagherNaeeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically deboning poultry meat (MDPM is widely used due to its suitable technological properties as well as low lipids and saturated fatty acids contents. Besides, production processes applied during the surimi production can improve the technological properties of MDPM. That is to say, the production steps of surimi can change chemical composition and concentration of myofibrillar proteins and improve functional properties of MDPM. In this study, MDPM was prepared from the poultry meat. The production process consisted of 2 washing steps with sodium bicarbonate solution followed by another washing step with 4°C water. Afterwards, chemical properties of MDPM and surimi (moisture content, protein, lipid, and ash content as well as electrophoresis pattern were evaluated. Result showed that surimi production steps could significantly decrease protein, lipid and ash contents; however, moisture content of MDPM increased significantly. The result of electrophoresis indicated a significant increase in heavy chain myosin with 200 KDa and actin with 45 KDa molecular weights. It was concluded that the production steps improved the chemical properties and increased the concentration of MDPM myofibrillar proteins.

  14. Daylighting Digital Dimmer SBIR Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan [MoJo Labs Inc., Longmont, CO (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The primary focus of the Phase II Development is the implementation of two key technologies, Task To Wall (TTW) Control, and Wand Gesture light dimming control into an easy to use remote for SSL light control, the MoJo Remote. The MoJo Remote product family includes a battery powered wireless remote, a WiFi gateway as well as Mobile Applications for iOS and Android. Specific accomplishments during the second reporting period include: 1. Finalization and implementation of MoJo Remote Accelerometer and capacitive-touch based UI/UX, referred to as the Wand Gesture UI. 2. Issuance of Patent for Wand Gesture UI. 3. Industrial and Mechanical Design for MoJo Remote and MoJo Gateway. 4. Task To Wall implementation and testing in MoJo Remote. 5. Zooming User Interface (ZUI) for the Mobile App implemented on both iOS and Andriod. 6. iOS Mobile app developed to beta level functionality. 7. Initial Development of the Android Mobile Application. 8. Closed loop color control at task (demonstrated at 2016 SSL R&D Workshop). 9. Task To Wall extended to Color Control, working in simulation. 10. Beta testing begun in Late 2017/Early 2018. The MoJo Remote integrates the Patented TTW Control and the Wand Gesture innovative User Interface, and is currently in Beta testing and on the path to commercialization.

  15. Feasibility of electrospray deposition for rapid screening of the cocrystal formation and single step, continuous production of pharmaceutical nanococrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Shahram; Siahi-Shadbad, Mohammadreza; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro

    2018-06-01

    This study employed electrospray deposition (ESD) for simultaneous synthesis and particle engineering of cocrystals. Exploring new methods for the efficient production of cocrystals with desired particle properties is an essential demand. The possibility of cocrystal formation by ESD was examined for indomethacin-saccharin, indomethacin-nicotinamide, naproxen-nicotinamide, and naproxen-iso-nicotinamide cocrystals. Solutions of the drug and coformer at stoichiometric ratios were sprayed to a high electric field which caused rapid evaporation of the solvent and the formation of fine particles. The phase purity, size, and morphology of products were compared with reference cocrystals. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of stoichiometric ratio, concentration and solvent type on the cocrystal formation. Physical stability and dissolution properties of the electrosprayed cocrystals were also compared with reference cocrystals. ESD was found to be an efficient and rapid method to produce cocrystals for all studied systems other than indomethacin-nicotinamide. Pure cocrystals only formed at a specific drug:coformer ratio. The solvent type has a weak effect on the cocrystal formation and morphology. Electrosprayed cocrystals exhibited nano to micrometer sizes with distinct morphologies with comparable physical stability with reference cocrystals. Nanococrystals of indomethacin-saccharin with a mean size of 219 nm displayed a threefold higher dissolution rate than solvent evaporated cocrystal. ESD successfully was utilized to produce pure cocrystals of poorly soluble drugs with different morphologies and sizes ranging from nano to micrometer sizes in one step. This study highlighted the usefulness of ESD for simultaneous preparation and particle engineering of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

  16. Single-step production of the simvastatin precursor monacolin J by engineering of an industrial strain of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Liang, Yajing; Yang, Yong; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    Monacolin J is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (Zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. Industrially, monacolin J is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by Aspergillus terreus. Multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. A biocatalysis process for monacolin J conversion to simvastatin has been developed. However, direct bioproduction of monacolin J has not yet been achieved. Here, we identified a lovastatin hydrolase from Penicillium chrysogenum, which displays a 232-fold higher catalytic efficiency for the in vitro hydrolysis of lovastatin compared to a previously patented hydrolase, but no activity for simvastatin. Furthermore, we showed that an industrial A. terreus strain heterologously expressing this lovastatin hydrolase can produce monacolin J through single-step fermentation with high efficiency, approximately 95% of the biosynthesized lovastatin was hydrolyzed to monacolin J. Our results demonstrate a simple and green technical route for the production of monacolin J, which makes complete bioproduction of the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin feasible and promising. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  18. SBIR & STTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    I’I’GW:O’VIH!rl:: !r.(ll:~~ccl~l\\ 1 t:n ’ • ·iiUo:O. lOJ7, W<tlcn SICil.• ) llj ~ anll )nlAllol~on lnuN<Se $1)!11 f l «.f10Q ’I hc;~.r~~’ U. t~ lil’’’"’\\1...r \\o ~I ~ h t I ~ , t I Ill I ’ I .. , r l).: td = _!:1 dl .. H.mtsvl" Al _l_’:_ l ,• T’ l•l• , I ,

  19. Production of ethyl ester from crude palm oil by two-step reaction using continuous microwave system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukritthira Ratanawilai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA in vegetable oils with alcohol using an acid catalyst is a promising methodto convert FFA into valuable ester and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In thiswork, the direct esterification reaction of FFA in crude palm oil to ethyl ester by continuous microwave was studied and theeffects of the main variables involved in the process, amount of catalyst, reaction time and the molar ratio oil/ alcohol, wereanalyzed. The optimum condition for the continuous esterification process was carried out with a molar ratio of oil to ethanol1:6, using 1.25%wt of H2SO4/oil as a catalyst, microwave power of 78 W and a reaction time 90 min. This esterification processshows that the amount of FFA was reduced from 7.5%wt to values around 1.4 %wt. Similar results were obtained followingconventional heating at 70°C, but only after a reaction time of 240 min. The esterified crude palm oil is suitable to perform thetransesterification process. Transesterification of the esterified palm oil has been accomplished with a molar ratio of oil toethanol of 1:8.5, 2.5%wt of KOH as a catalyst, a microwave power of 78 W, and a reaction time of 7 min. In addition, theproblem of glycerin separation was solved by mixing 10%wt of pure glycerin into the ethyl ester to induce the glycerin fromthe reaction to separated. This two-step esterification and transesterification process provided a yield of 78%wt with anester content of 97.4%wt. The final ethyl ester product met with the specifications stipulated by ASTM D6751-02.

  20. 77 FR 23228 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... business concerns to submit a Phase II application for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (CFDA 84.133). This is in response to Public Law 106-554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research...

  1. 77 FR 23229 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase I-Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ....133). This is in response to Public Law 106- 554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act of [[Page... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase I--Grant Application Package SUMMARY: This application package invites small business...

  2. An Overview of In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenics Fluids Management Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 11 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects from 2010 to 2012 that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as divergent field annular ion engines, miniature nontoxic nitrous oxide-propane propulsion, noncatalytic ignition systems for high-performance advanced monopropellant thrusters, nontoxic storable liquid propulsion, and superconducting electric boost pumps for nuclear thermal propulsion. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  3. Automated System for Aneuploidy Detection in Sperm Final Report CRADA No. TC-1364-96: Phase I SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlay, R. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This project was a relationship between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Biological Detection, Inc. (now known as Cellomics, Inc.) It was funded as a Phase I SBIR from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) awarded to Cellomics, Inc. with a subcontract to LLNL.

  4. SBIR and STTR Program for Assistive Technology Device Development: Evaluation of Impact Using an ICF-Based Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Arthanat, Sajay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grant programs of 5 federal agencies National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Department of Education (USDE), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and…

  5. Thermochemical reactivity of 5–15 mol% Fe, Co, Ni, Mn-doped cerium oxides in two-step water-splitting cycle for solar hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ngokon@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suda, Toshinori [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuya [Department of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2015-10-10

    Highlights: • 5–15 mol% M-doped ceria are examined for thermochemical two-step water-splitting. • 5 mol% Fe- and Co-doped ceria have stoichiometric production of oxygen and hydrogen. • 10–15 mol% Fe- and Mn-doped ceria showed near-stoichiometric production. - Abstract: The thermochemical two-step water-splitting cycle using transition element-doped cerium oxide (M–CeO{sub 2−δ}; M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) powders was studied for hydrogen production from water. The oxygen/hydrogen productivity and repeatability of M–CeO{sub 2−δ} materials with M doping contents in the 5–15 mol% range were examined using a thermal reduction (TR) temperature of 1500 °C and water decomposition (WD) temperatures in the 800–1150 °C range. The temperature, steam partial pressure, and steam flow rate in the WD step had an impact on the hydrogen productivity and production rate. 5 mol% Fe- and Co-doped CeO{sub 2−δ} enhances hydrogen productivity by up to 25% on average compared to undoped CeO{sub 2}, and shows stable repeatability of stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen production for the cyclic thermochemical two-step water-splitting reaction. In addition, 5 mol% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2−δ}, 10 and 15 mol% Fe- and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2−δ} show near stoichiometric reactivities.

  6. Use of Diels-Alder Chemistry for Thermoreversible Cross-Linking of Rubbers : The Next Step toward Recycling of Rubber Products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; van Duin, M.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2015-01-01

    A proof of principle for the use of Diels-Alder chemistry as a thermoreversible cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. A commercial ethylene-propylene rubber grafted with maleic anhydride has been thermoreversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride rings were first

  7. An optimized fed-batch culture strategy integrated with a one-step fermentation improves L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqian; Sun, Xiaolong; Zhu, Huayue; Jiang, Ru; Luo, Xi; Yin, Longfei

    2018-05-21

    In previous work, we proposed a novel modified one-step fermentation fed-batch strategy to efficiently generate L-lactic acid (L-LA) using Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, to further enhance efficiency of L-LA production through one-step fermentation in fed-batch cultures, we systematically investigated the initial peptone- and glucose-feeding approaches, including different initial peptone and glucose concentrations and maintained residual glucose levels. Based on the results of this study, culturing R. oryzae with initial peptone and glucose concentrations of 3.0 and 50.0 g/l, respectively, using a fed-batch strategy is an effective approach of producing L-LA through one-step fermentation. Changing the residual glucose had no obvious effect on the generation of L-LA. We determined the maximum LA production and productivity to be 162 g/l and 6.23 g/(l·h), respectively, during the acid production stage. Compared to our previous work, there was almost no change in L-LA production or yield; however, the productivity of L-LA increased by 14.3%.

  8. Linear feature extraction from radar imagery: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) phase 2, option 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Gary D.; Milgram, David L.; Lawton, Daryl T.; McConnell, Christopher C.

    1988-04-01

    The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate prototype processing capabilities for a knowledge-based system to automatically extract and analyze linear features from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. This effort constitutes Phase 2 funding through the Defense Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. Previous work examined the feasibility of the technology issues involved in the development of an automatedlinear feature extraction system. This Option 1 Final Report documents this examination and the technologies involved in automating this image understanding task. In particular, it reports on a major software delivery containing an image processing algorithmic base, a perceptual structures manipulation package, a preliminary hypothesis management framework and an enhanced user interface.

  9. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route — an example of technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.

    1989-04-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described.

  10. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route - an example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience on this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. (orig.)

  11. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route: An example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates have received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. 4 refs., 1 fig

  12. The Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidase 3 (AA03) gene product catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, M.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Koiwai, H.; Oritani, T.; Marion-Poll, A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koshiba, T.

    2000-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in seed development and germination and in responses to various environmental stresses. The last step of ABA biosynthesis involves oxidation of abscisic aldehyde, and aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1) is thought to catalyze this reaction. An aldehyde

  13. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of {sup 16}O, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  14. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji.

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16 O, 27 Al, nat Fe, 59 Co, nat Zr and 197 Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for nat Zr and 197 Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  15. Two-step rating-based 'double-faced applicability' test for sensory analysis of spread products as an alternative to descriptive analysis with trained panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ah; den-Hollander, Elyn; Lee, Hye-Seong

    2018-03-01

    Descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel has thus far been the most well defined methodology to characterize various products. However, in practical terms, intensive training in descriptive analysis has been recognized as a serious defect. To overcome this limitation, various novel rapid sensory profiling methodologies have been suggested in the literature. Among these, attribute-based methodologies such as check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions showed results comparable to those of conventional sensory descriptive analysis. Kim, Hopkinson, van Hout, and Lee (2017a, 2017b) have proposed a novel attribute-based methodology termed the two-step rating-based 'double-faced applicability' test with a novel output measure of applicability magnitude (d' A ) for measuring consumers' product usage experience throughout various product usage stages. In this paper, the potential of the two-step rating-based 'double-faced applicability' test with d' A was investigated as an alternative to conventional sensory descriptive analysis in terms of sensory characterization and product discrimination. Twelve commercial spread products were evaluated using both conventional sensory descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel and two-step rating-based 'double-faced applicability' test with an untrained sensory panel. The results demonstrated that the 'double-faced applicability' test can be used to provide a direct measure of the applicability magnitude of sensory attributes of the samples tested in terms of d' A for sensory characterization of individual samples and multiple sample comparisons. This suggests that when the appropriate list of attributes to be used in the questionnaire is already available, the two-step rating-based 'double-faced applicability' test with d' A can be used as a more efficient alternative to conventional descriptive analysis, without requiring any intensive training process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Analysis of Information Systems Technology Initiatives and Small Businesses in the DoD Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    which aimed at analyzing and evaluating the SBIR program through a survey and case study methodology. The report contained 10 academic articles...highlights the difficulty in any academic research that might attempt to estimate the return on investment of federal funding used in the SBIR...military training tools, knowledge management tools (i.e., “InfoTracker,” which can detect text overlaps and identify plagiarism ), as well as

  17. Material and energy flow analysis (MEFA – first step in eco-innovation approach to assessment of steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Korol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to evaluate material and energy flow analysis (MEFA of steel production. The application of umberto universal software to devise MEFA for the steel production was presented. The material and energy flow analysis of steel production includes a range of technologies through each unit process in integrated steelmaking route in Poland. Modelling MEFA helps a high level of technology to be reached through the effective use of resources and energy.

  18. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona

    2008-01-01

    conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C......Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine...... if the steps in the processing of cold-smoked salmon affect Survival and subsequent growth of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes to a lesser degree than presumed non-persistent strains. We used a sequence of experiments increasing in complexity: (i) small salmon blocks salted, smoked or dried under model...

  19. Contending stigma in product design : Using insights from social psychology as a stepping stone for design strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.R.V.; Stappers, P.J.; Standaert, A.; Desager, K.

    2012-01-01

    Assistive, protective or medical products that are visibly worn or used in proximity to the human body can have an emotional impact on their users and bystanders. In his design effort it is important for a designer to be mindful of the potential stigma a product might elicit. The identity threat

  20. Lactate production as representative of the fermentation potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 in a one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuat, Hoang Bao Truc; Kaboré, Abdoul Karim; Olmos, Eric; Fick, Michel; Boudrant, Joseph; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane; Guedon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fermentative properties of thermo-sensitive strain Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 were investigated in processes coupling aerobic cell growth and the anaerobic fermentation phase. In particular, the influence of two modes of fermentation on the production of lactate, the fermentation product model, was studied. In both processes, lactate was produced in significant amount, 27 g/L in batch culture, and up to 55.8 g/L in fed-batch culture, but the specific production rate in the fed-batch culture was four times lower than that in the batch culture. Compared to other investigated fermentation processes, our strategy resulted in the highest yield of lactic acid from biomass. Lactate production by C. glutamicum 2262 thus revealed the capability of the strain to produce various fermentation products from pyruvate.

  1. A step forward in laccase exploitation: Recombinant production and evaluation of techno-economic feasibility of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, Cinzia; Giacobelli, Valerio Guido; Lettera, Vincenzo; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Cicatiello, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni; Piscitelli, Alessandra

    2017-10-10

    Protein heterologous production offers viable opportunities to tailor laccase properties to specific industrial needs. The high redox potential laccase POXA1b from Pleurotus ostreatus was chosen as case study of marketable enzyme, due to its desirable properties in terms of activity/stability profile, and already assessed applicability. POXA1b was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris by investigating the effect of inducible and constitutive expression systems on both the yield and the cost of its production. System performances were first assessed in shaken-flasks and then scaled-up in bioreactor. The production level obtained in the inducible system is 42U/mL, while the activity value achieved with the constitutive one is 60U/mL, the highest obtained in constitutive systems so far. The economic feasibility of recombinant laccase production was simulated, describing the case of an Italian small-medium enterprise. Two scenarios were evaluated: Scenario (I) production based on methanol inducible system; Scenario (II) production based on the constitutive system, fed with glycerol. At all the scales the glycerol-based fermentation is more economic than the methanol-based one. The price forecast for rPOXA1b production is 0.34€kU -1 for glycerol-based process, and is very competitive with the current price of commercial laccase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Overview of Communications Technology and Development Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are fifteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as novel solid state lasers for space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors for aerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser for methane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites; a SIC-based microcontroller for high-temperature in-situ instruments and systems; improved yield, performance and reliability of high-actuator-count deformable mirrors; embedded multifunctional optical sensor system; switching electronics for space-based telescopes with advanced AO systems; integrated miniature DBR laser module for Lidar instruments; and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors foraerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser formethane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites.

  3. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.

    2001-12-24

    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  4. Two-step production of monoamines in monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord: a different control strategy of neurotransmitter supply?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengliang

    2016-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play an important role in the modulation of sensory, motor and autonomic functions in the spinal cord. Although traditionally it is believed that in mammalian spinal cord, monoamine neurotransmitters mainly originate from the brain, accumulating evidence indicates...... that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord. Published data from different sources and unpublished data from my own ongoing projects...... that dopamine and serotonin could be synthesized sequentially in two monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord via a TH-AADC and a TPH-AADC cascade respectively. The monoamines synthesized through this pathway may compensate for lost neurotransmitters following spinal cord injury and also may play specific roles...

  5. Production of the Q2 doubly excited states of the hydrogen molecule by electron impact in a single step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo O.; Rocha, Alexandre B.; Faria, Nelson Velho de Castro; Jalbert, Ginette

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the single step cross sections for excitation of Q 2 states of H2 and its subsequent dissociation. The cross section calculations were performed within the first Born approximation and the electronic wave functions were obtained via State-Averaged Multiconfigurational Self-Consistent Field followed by Configuration Interaction. We have assumed autoionization is the only important process competing with dissociation into neutral atoms. We have estimated its probability through a semi classical approach and compared with results of literature. Special attention was given to the Q 2 1Σg +(1) state which, as has been shown in a previous work, may dissociate into H(2 sσ) + H(2 sσ) fragments (some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version).

  6. Two-step gasification of cattle manure for hydrogen-rich gas production: Effect of biochar preparation temperature and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ya; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-10-01

    Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production. We obtained 1.61m 3 /kg of syngas production, 0.93m 3 /kg of hydrogen yield and 57.58% of hydrogen concentration. This study shows that two-step gasification is an efficient waste-to-hydrogen energy process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-step phase retrieval algorithm based on the quotient of inner products of phase-shifting interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Wenhu; Zhong, Liyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the quotient of inner products, a simple and rapid algorithm is proposed to retrieve the measured phase from two-frame phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase shifts. Firstly, we filtered the background of interferograms by a Gaussian high-pass filter. Secondly, we calculated the inner products of the background-filtered interferograms. Thirdly, we extracted the phase shifts by the quotient of the inner products then calculated the measured phase by an arctangent function. Finally, we tested the performance of the proposed algorithm by the simulation calculation and the experimental research for a vortex phase plate. Both the simulation calculation and the experimental result showed that the phase shifts and the measured phase with high accuracy can be obtained by the proposed algorithm rapidly and conveniently. (paper)

  8. One-step flame synthesis of silver nanoparticles for roll-to-roll production of antibacterial paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobbey, Kofi J.; Haapanen, Janne; Gunell, Marianne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Eerola, Erkki; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in several applications due to the unique properties they possess compared to bulk materials. Production techniques have continuously evolved over the years. Recently, there has been emphasis on environmentally friendly manufacturing processes. Substrate properties often limit the possible production techniques and, for example; until recently, it has been difficult to incorporate nanoparticles into paper. Chemical reduction of a precursor in the presence of paper changes the bulk properties of paper, which may limit intended end-use. In this study, we present a novel technique for incorporating silver nanoparticles into paper surface using a flame pyrolysis procedure known as Liquid Flame Spray. Papers precoated with mineral pigments and plastic are used as substrates. Silver nanoparticles were analyzed using SEM and XPS measurements. Results show a homogeneous monolayer of silver nanoparticles on the surface of paper, which demonstrated antibacterial properties against E. coli. Paper precoated with plastic showed more nanoparticles on the surface compared to pigment coated paper samples except for polyethylene-precoated paper. The results demonstrate a dry synthesis approach for depositing silver nanoparticles directly onto paper surface in a process which produces no effluents. The production technique used herein is up scalable for industrial production of antibacterial paper.

  9. A Two-Step Bioconversion Process for Canolol Production from Rapeseed Meal Combining an Aspergillus niger Feruloyl Esterase and the Fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinot, Elise; Fine, Frédéric; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Navarro, David; Laguna, Oscar; Bisotto, Alexandra; Peyronnet, Corinne; Ginies, Christian; Lecomte, Jérôme; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2017-10-14

    Rapeseed meal is a cheap and abundant raw material, particularly rich in phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest. In this study, we developed a two-step bioconversion process of naturally occurring sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid) from rapeseed meal into canolol by combining the complementary potentialities of two filamentous fungi, the micromycete Aspergillus niger and the basidiomycete Neolentinus lepideus . Canolol could display numerous industrial applications because of its high antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. In the first step of the process, the use of the enzyme feruloyl esterase type-A (named AnFaeA) produced with the recombinant strain A. niger BRFM451 made it possible to release free sinapic acid from the raw meal by hydrolysing the conjugated forms of sinapic acid in the meal (mainly sinapine and glucopyranosyl sinapate). An amount of 39 nkat AnFaeA per gram of raw meal, at 55 °C and pH 5, led to the recovery of 6.6 to 7.4 mg of free sinapic acid per gram raw meal, which corresponded to a global hydrolysis yield of 68 to 76% and a 100% hydrolysis of sinapine. Then, the XAD2 adsorbent (a styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer resin), used at pH 4, enabled the efficient recovery of the released sinapic acid, and its concentration after elution with ethanol. In the second step, 3-day-old submerged cultures of the strain N. lepideus BRFM15 were supplied with the recovered sinapic acid as the substrate of bioconversion into canolol by a non-oxidative decarboxylation pathway. Canolol production reached 1.3 g/L with a molar yield of bioconversion of 80% and a productivity of 100 mg/L day. The same XAD2 resin, when used at pH 7, allowed the recovery and purification of canolol from the culture broth of N. lepideus . The two-step process used mild conditions compatible with green chemistry.

  10. Heliostat-field gain-scheduling control applied to a two-step solar hydrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Lidia; Calle, Alberto de la; Yebra, Luis J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A control system is proposed for a solar reactor system which produces hydrogen. ► The controller chooses which heliostats from the solar field must be focused. ► A gain scheduling scheme is included to deal with different system dynamics. ► The scheme is tested and tunned in simulation. ► Real experiments show the promising results of this work. -- Abstract: This article describes a temperature control structure designed for the interior of a solar hydrogen reactor based on a two-step ferrite-redox technology. Until now, this temperature has been controlled by manual selection of the heliostats to be focused on the receiver targets. However, the strong system dependency on operating conditions suggests that the procedure be automated in order to ensure the desired setpoint change response. The aims are to maintain the desired temperatures and to make the setpoint switch as fast as possible, keeping plant conditions within the margins of safety. The scheme proposed includes a procedure for selecting the heliostats to be focused on the reactor by using a simple model of the solar field and a gain scheduling control system which changes the control tuning parameters to deal with the varying dynamics observed during the process. Real experiments show the promising results of this work.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL DATA, THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR THE PURIFICATION STEPS OF ETHYL BIODIESEL FROM FODDER RADISH OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Basso

    Full Text Available Abstract The goals of this work were to present original liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the system containing glycerol + ethanol + ethyl biodiesel from fodder radish oil, including the individual distribution of each ethyl ester; to adjust binary parameters of the NRTL; to compare NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund in the LLE representation of the system containing glycerol; to simulate different mixer/settler flowsheets for biodiesel purification, evaluating the ratio water/biodiesel used. In thermodynamic modeling, the deviations between experimental data and calculated values were 0.97% and 3.6%, respectively, using NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund. After transesterification, with 3 moles of excess ethanol, removal of this component until a content equal to 0.08 before an ideal settling step allows a glycerol content lower than 0.02% in the ester-rich phase. Removal of ethanol, glycerol and water from biodiesel can be performed with countercurrent mixer/settler, using 0.27% of water in relation to the ester amount in the feed stream.

  12. One-step multiplex PCR method for the determination of pecan and Brazil nut allergens in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalkova, Zora; Rencova, Eva

    2011-10-01

    A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of the major allergens of pecan and Brazil nuts was developed. Primer pairs for the amplification of partial sequences of genes encoding the allergens were designed and tested for their specificity on a range of food components. The targeted amplicon size was 173 bp of Ber e 1 gene of Brazil nuts and 72 bp of vicilin-like seed storage protein gene in pecan nuts. The primer pair detecting the noncoding region of the chloroplast DNA was used as the internal control of amplification. The intrinsic detection limit of the PCR method was 100 pg mL(-1) pecan or Brazil nuts DNA. The practical detection limit was 0.1% w/w (1 g kg(-1)). The method was applied for the investigation of 63 samples with the declaration of pecans, Brazil nuts, other different nut species or nuts generally. In 15 food samples pecans and Brazil nuts allergens were identified in the conformity with the food declaration. The presented multiplex PCR method is specific enough and can be used as a fast approach for the detection of major allergens of pecan or Brazil nuts in food. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. One-step production of phage-silicon nanoparticles by PLAL as fluorescent nanoprobes for cell identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M.; Scibilia, Santi; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Crea, Sara; Franco, Domenico; Mezzasalma, Angela M.; Guglielmino, Salvatore P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are widely used as promising nanoplatform owing to their high specific surface area, optical properties and biocompatibility. Silicon nanoparticles find possible application in biomedical environment for their potential quantum effects and the functionalization with biomaterials, too. In this work, we propose a new approach for bio-functionalization of SiNPs and M13-engineered bacteriophage, displaying specific peptides that selectively recognize peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The "one-step" functionalization is conducted during the laser ablation of silicon plate in buffer solution with engineered bacteriophages, to obtain SiNPs binding bacteriophages (phage-SiNPs). The interaction between SiNPs and bacteriophage is investigated. Particularly, the optical and morphological characterizations of phage-SiNPs are performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy operating in transmission mode (STEM) and X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The functionality of phage-SiNPs is investigated through the photoemissive properties in recognition test on PBMC. Our results showed that phage-SiNPs maintain the capability and the activity to bind PBMC within 30 min. The fluorescence of phage-SiNPs allowed to obtain an optical signal on cell type targets. Finally, the proposed strategy demonstrated its potential use in in vitro applications and could be exploited to realize an optical biosensor to detect a specific target.

  14. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Final Report SBIR Phase I, Improvement of Properties of Tubular Internal-Tin Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Final report of SBIR to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in the next generation of accelerators. The overall problem is to develop an economical process that can produce material with good properties for high field magnets to be used in the future for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications. The Internal-tin (IT) process, called by some the Restacked Rod process (RRP), for making Nb 3 Sn has been very successful in achieving high J c properties in the high field region. As a result it has been used effectively in several high field magnets. Originally, when this material was processed to give the highest J c it behaved unstably in the low field region and consequently did not perform as well in magnets designed for intermediate field applications. In this field range, the Powder-in-Tube (PIT) material, that has a lower d eff and a high RRR, behaved more reliably. The IT material has been improved to give better stability in the low field range and consequently the process offers a considerable challenge to the PIT process for application in both types of magnets. The PIT material has two principal drawbacks - lower J c and high cost. Work has been carried out to address these two problems and Supergenics I LLC has reported, on a low cost tubular process that is under development. It has fewer problems than the (IT) process in making low d eff materials and is of lower cost than both the IT and PIT processes. At the present stage, the J c 's that have been achieved are similar to those of the PIT material but are below those of the IT material. The purpose of the work proposed here is to improve the properties of the material made by this tubular process that has been described previously.

  16. Parallel tools GUI framework-DOE SBIR phase I final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James [Argo Navis Technologies LLC., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Many parallel performance, profiling, and debugging tools require a graphical way of displaying the very large datasets typically gathered from high performance computing (HPC) applications. Most tool projects create their graphical user interfaces (GUI) from scratch, many times spending their project resources on simply redeveloping commonly used infrastructure. Our goal was to create a multiplatform GUI framework, based on Nokia/Digia’s popular Qt libraries, which will specifically address the needs of these parallel tools. The Parallel Tools GUI Framework (PTGF) uses a plugin architecture facilitating rapid GUI development and reduced development costs for new and existing tool projects by allowing the reuse of many common GUI elements, called “widgets.” Widgets created include, 2D data visualizations, a source code viewer with syntax highlighting, and integrated help and welcome screens. Application programming interface (API) design was focused on minimizing the time to getting a functional tool working. Having a standard, unified, and userfriendly interface which operates on multiple platforms will benefit HPC application developers by reducing training time and allowing users to move between tools rapidly during a single session. However, Argo Navis Technologies LLC will not be submitting a DOE SBIR Phase II proposal and commercialization plan for the PTGF project. Our preliminary estimates for gross income over the next several years was based upon initial customer interest and income generated by similar projects. Unfortunately, as we further assessed the market during Phase I, we grew to realize that there was not enough demand to warrant such a large investment. While we do find that the project is worth our continued investment of time and money, we do not think it worthy of the DOE's investment at this time. We are grateful that the DOE has afforded us the opportunity to make this assessment, and come to this conclusion.

  17. Co-expression of D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase: development of an efficient one-step production of D-psicose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Zeng, Yan; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-10-01

    D-Psicose has been attracting attention in recent years because of its alimentary activities and is used as an ingredient in a range of foods and dietary supplements. To develop a one-step enzymatic process of D-psicose production, thermoactive D-glucose isomerase and the D-psicose 3-epimerase obtained from Bacillus sp. and Ruminococcus sp., respectively, were successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The substrate of one-step enzymatic process was D-glucose. The co-expression system exhibited maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 7.0. Mg(2+) could enhance the output of D-psicose by 2.32 fold to 1.6 g/L from 10 g/L of D-glucose. When using high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as substrate, 135 g/L D-psicose was produced under optimum conditions. The mass ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-psicose was almost 3.0:2.7:1.0, when the reaction reached equilibrium after an 8h incubation time. This co-expression system approaching to produce D-psicose has potential application in food and beverage products, especially softdrinks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deuterium isotope effects on toluene metabolism. Product release as a rate-limiting step in cytochrome P-450 catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.H.; Hanzlik, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats oxidize toluene to a mixture of benzyl alcohol plus o-, m- and p-cresol (ca. 69:31). Stepwise deuteration of the methyl group causes stepwise decreases in the yield of benzyl alcohol relative to cresols (ca. 24:76 for toluene-d3). For benzyl alcohol formation from toluene-d3 DV = 1.92 and D(V/K) = 3.53. Surprisingly, however, stepwise deuteration induces stepwise increases in total oxidation, giving rise to an inverse isotope effect overall (DV = 0.67 for toluene-d3). Throughout the series (i.e. d0, d1, d2, d3) the ratios of cresol isomers remain constant. These results are interpreted in terms of product release for benzyl alcohol being slower than release of cresols (or their epoxide precursors), and slow enough to be partially rate-limiting in turnover. Thus metabolic switching to cresol formation causes a net acceleration of turnover

  19. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  20. Bias Correction of Satellite Precipitation Products (SPPs) using a User-friendly Tool: A Step in Enhancing Technical Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushi, B. R.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Adams, E. C.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Roy, T.; Valdés, J. B.; Mithieu, F.; Omondi, S.

    2017-12-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative, works to build capacity in Earth observation technologies in developing countries for improved environmental decision making in the arena of: weather and climate, water and disasters, food security and land use/land cover. SERVIR partners with leading regional organizations in Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya, Mekong region, and West Africa to achieve its objectives. SERVIR develops hydrological applications to address specific needs articulated by key stakeholders and daily rainfall estimates are a vital input for these applications. Satellite-derived rainfall is subjected to systemic biases which need to be corrected before it can be used for any hydrologic application such as real-time or seasonal forecasting. SERVIR and the SWAAT team at the University of Arizona, have co-developed an open-source and user friendly tool of rainfall bias correction approaches for SPPs. Bias correction tools were developed based on Linear Scaling and Quantile Mapping techniques. A set of SPPs, such as PERSIANN-CCS, TMPA-RT, and CMORPH, are bias corrected using Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data which incorporates ground based precipitation observations. This bias correction tools also contains a component, which is included to improve monthly mean of CHIRPS using precipitation products of the Global Surface Summary of the Day (GSOD) database developed by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This tool takes input from command-line which makes it user-friendly and applicable in any operating platform without prior programming skills. This presentation will focus on this bias-correction tool for SPPs, including application scenarios.

  1. A Two-Step Bioconversion Process for Canolol Production from Rapeseed Meal Combining an Aspergillus niger Feruloyl Esterase and the Fungus Neolentinus lepideus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Odinot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed meal is a cheap and abundant raw material, particularly rich in phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest. In this study, we developed a two-step bioconversion process of naturally occurring sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid from rapeseed meal into canolol by combining the complementary potentialities of two filamentous fungi, the micromycete Aspergillus niger and the basidiomycete Neolentinus lepideus. Canolol could display numerous industrial applications because of its high antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. In the first step of the process, the use of the enzyme feruloyl esterase type-A (named AnFaeA produced with the recombinant strain A. niger BRFM451 made it possible to release free sinapic acid from the raw meal by hydrolysing the conjugated forms of sinapic acid in the meal (mainly sinapine and glucopyranosyl sinapate. An amount of 39 nkat AnFaeA per gram of raw meal, at 55 °C and pH 5, led to the recovery of 6.6 to 7.4 mg of free sinapic acid per gram raw meal, which corresponded to a global hydrolysis yield of 68 to 76% and a 100% hydrolysis of sinapine. Then, the XAD2 adsorbent (a styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer resin, used at pH 4, enabled the efficient recovery of the released sinapic acid, and its concentration after elution with ethanol. In the second step, 3-day-old submerged cultures of the strain N. lepideus BRFM15 were supplied with the recovered sinapic acid as the substrate of bioconversion into canolol by a non-oxidative decarboxylation pathway. Canolol production reached 1.3 g/L with a molar yield of bioconversion of 80% and a productivity of 100 mg/L day. The same XAD2 resin, when used at pH 7, allowed the recovery and purification of canolol from the culture broth of N. lepideus. The two-step process used mild conditions compatible with green chemistry.

  2. STEP ONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this bioremediation agent (biological additive) for oil spill cleanups can be used on most hydrocarbons on land, fresh water, or ocean water. It comes as two components, sold together.

  3. A novel two-step ultrasound post-assisted lye peeling regime for tomatoes: Reducing pollution while improving product yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruiping; Ye, Fayin; Lu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jiajia; Li Shen, Xiao; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the effects and mechanisms of a novel two-step tomato peeling method, hot lye with a post-assistance of ultrasound, were investigated. The present work aims to improve the environmental friendliness of the conventional hot lye tomato peeling method (10% w/v, 97 °C, 45 s). The results showed that 4% (w/v) lye treatment at 97 °C for 30 s with a post-assistance of a 31.97 W/L ultrasound treatment at 70 °C for 50 s achieved a 100% peelability. In this scenario, the peeling yield and lycopene content in the peeled product were significantly higher than the peeling yield and lycopene content with the conventional hot lye peeling method. The present two-step peeling method was concluded with a mechanism of chemico-mechanical synergism, in which the hot lye functions mainly in a chemical way while the ultrasound is a mechanical process. Especially from the lye side, this work first demonstrated that the lye penetrated across the tomato skin via a pitting model rather than evenly. The findings reported in this paper not only provide a novel tomato peeling method with significant environmental benefits but also discover new clues to the peeling mechanism using hot lye. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influences of Time and Velocity of Inert Gas on the Quality of theProcessing Product of Graphite Matrix on the Baking Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam-Dahroni; Dwi-Herwidhi; NS, Kasilani

    2000-01-01

    The research of the synthesis of matrix graphite on the step of bakingprocess was conducted, by focusing on the influence of time and velocityvariables of the inert gas. The investigation on baking times ranging from 5minutes to 55 minutes and by varying the velocity of inert gas from 0.30l/minute to 3.60 l/minute, resulted the product of different matrix.Optimizing at the time of operation and the flow rate of argon gas indicatedthat the baking time for 30 minutes and by the flow rate of argon gas of 2.60l/minute resulted best matrix graphite that has a hardness value of 11kg/mm 2 of hardness and the ductility of 1800 Newton. (author)

  6. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  7. Production of 3-Oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic Acid in the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae: A Step Towards Heterologous Production of Pyrethrins in Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Maged E; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Lazarus, Colin M

    2016-03-01

    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides, which accumulate to high concentrations in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) flowers. Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable, more efficacious and cheaper, but contemporary requirements for safe and environmentally friendly pesticides encourage a return to the use of natural pyrethrins, and this would be favoured by development of an efficient route to their production by microbial fermentation. The biosynthesis of pyrethrins involves ester linkage between an acid moiety (chrysanthemoyl or pyrethroyl, synthesised via the mevalonic acid pathway from glucose), and an alcohol (pyrethrolone). Pyrethrolone is generated from 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, which originates from α-linolenic acid via the jasmonic acid biosynthetic cascade. The first four genes in this cascade, encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene-oxide synthase, allene-oxide cyclase 2 and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3, were amplified from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, cloned in a purpose-built fungal multigene expression vector and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. HPLC-MS analysis of the transgenic fungus homogenate gave good evidence for the presence of 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid.

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Candlenut Oil Using a Two-step Co-solvent Method and Evaluation of Its Gaseous Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lan Ngoc; Luu, Boi Van; Phuoc, Hung Duong; Le, Hanh Ngoc Thi; Truong, Hoa Thi; Luu, Phuong Duc; Furuta, Masakazu; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2018-05-01

    Candlenut oil (CNO) is a potentially new feedstock for biodiesel (BDF) production. In this paper, a two-step co-solvent method for BDF production from CNO was examined. Firstly, esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) (7 wt%) present in CNO was carried out using a co-solvent of acetonitrile (30 wt%) and H 2 SO 4 as a catalyst. The content of FFAs was reduced to 0.8 wt% in 1 h at 65°C. Subsequent transesterification of the crude oil produced was carried out using a co-solvent of acetone (20 wt%) and 1 wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH). Ester content of 99.3% was obtained at 40°C in 45 min. The water content in BDF was 0.023% upon purification using vacuum distillation at 5 kPa. The components of CNO BDF were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The physicochemical properties of BDF satisfied the ASTM D6751-02 standard. The gaseous exhaust emissions from the diesel engine upon combustion of the BDF blends (B0-B100) with petrodiesel were examined. The emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were clearly lower, but that of nitrogen oxides was higher in comparison to those from petro-diesel.

  9. Two-Step Production of Phenylpyruvic Acid from L-Phenylalanine by Growing and Resting Cells of Engineered Escherichia coli: Process Optimization and Kinetics Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hou

    Full Text Available Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries. Here, a two-step bioconversion process, involving growing and resting cells, was established to produce PPA from l-phenylalanine using the engineered Escherichia coli constructed previously. First, the biotransformation conditions for growing cells were optimized (l-phenylalanine concentration 20.0 g·L-1, temperature 35°C and a two-stage temperature control strategy (keep 20°C for 12 h and increase the temperature to 35°C until the end of biotransformation was performed. The biotransformation conditions for resting cells were then optimized in 3-L bioreactor and the optimized conditions were as follows: agitation speed 500 rpm, aeration rate 1.5 vvm, and l-phenylalanine concentration 30 g·L-1. The total maximal production (mass conversion rate reached 29.8 ± 2.1 g·L-1 (99.3% and 75.1 ± 2.5 g·L-1 (93.9% in the flask and 3-L bioreactor, respectively. Finally, a kinetic model was established, and it was revealed that the substrate and product inhibition were the main limiting factors for resting cell biotransformation.

  10. Two-Step Production of Phenylpyruvic Acid from L-Phenylalanine by Growing and Resting Cells of Engineered Escherichia coli: Process Optimization and Kinetics Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries. Here, a two-step bioconversion process, involving growing and resting cells, was established to produce PPA from l-phenylalanine using the engineered Escherichia coli constructed previously. First, the biotransformation conditions for growing cells were optimized (l-phenylalanine concentration 20.0 g·L-1, temperature 35°C) and a two-stage temperature control strategy (keep 20°C for 12 h and increase the temperature to 35°C until the end of biotransformation) was performed. The biotransformation conditions for resting cells were then optimized in 3-L bioreactor and the optimized conditions were as follows: agitation speed 500 rpm, aeration rate 1.5 vvm, and l-phenylalanine concentration 30 g·L-1. The total maximal production (mass conversion rate) reached 29.8 ± 2.1 g·L-1 (99.3%) and 75.1 ± 2.5 g·L-1 (93.9%) in the flask and 3-L bioreactor, respectively. Finally, a kinetic model was established, and it was revealed that the substrate and product inhibition were the main limiting factors for resting cell biotransformation.

  11. One-step production of long-chain hydrocarbons from waste-biomass-derived chemicals using bi-functional heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cun; Barrow, Elizabeth; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason; Lauterbach, Jochen

    2014-02-21

    In this study, we demonstrate the production of long-chain hydrocarbons (C8+) from 2-methylfuran (2MF) and butanal in a single step reactive process by utilizing a bi-functional catalyst with both acid and metallic sites. Our approach utilizes a solid acid for the hydroalkylation function and as a support as well as a transition metal as hydrodeoxygenation catalyst. A series of solid acids was screened, among which MCM-41 demonstrated the best combination of activity and stability. Platinum nanoparticles were then incorporated into the MCM-41. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst showed 96% yield for C8+ hydrocarbons and the catalytic performance was stable over four reaction cycles of 20 hour each. The reaction pathways for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons is probed with a combination of infrared spectroscopy and steady-state reaction experiments. It is proposed that 2MF and butanal go through hydroalkylation first on the acid site followed by hydrodeoxygenation to produce the hydrocarbon fuels.

  12. Two-Step Production of Phenylpyruvic Acid from L-Phenylalanine by Growing and Resting Cells of Engineered Escherichia coli: Process Optimization and Kinetics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries. Here, a two-step bioconversion process, involving growing and resting cells, was established to produce PPA from l-phenylalanine using the engineered Escherichia coli constructed previously. First, the biotransformation conditions for growing cells were optimized (l-phenylalanine concentration 20.0 g·L−1, temperature 35°C) and a two-stage temperature control strategy (keep 20°C for 12 h and increase the temperature to 35°C until the end of biotransformation) was performed. The biotransformation conditions for resting cells were then optimized in 3-L bioreactor and the optimized conditions were as follows: agitation speed 500 rpm, aeration rate 1.5 vvm, and l-phenylalanine concentration 30 g·L−1. The total maximal production (mass conversion rate) reached 29.8 ± 2.1 g·L−1 (99.3%) and 75.1 ± 2.5 g·L−1 (93.9%) in the flask and 3-L bioreactor, respectively. Finally, a kinetic model was established, and it was revealed that the substrate and product inhibition were the main limiting factors for resting cell biotransformation. PMID:27851793

  13. PredPPCrys: accurate prediction of sequence cloning, protein production, purification and crystallization propensity from protein sequences using multi-step heterogeneous feature fusion and selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Wang

    Full Text Available X-ray crystallography is the primary approach to solve the three-dimensional structure of a protein. However, a major bottleneck of this method is the failure of multi-step experimental procedures to yield diffraction-quality crystals, including sequence cloning, protein material production, purification, crystallization and ultimately, structural determination. Accordingly, prediction of the propensity of a protein to successfully undergo these experimental procedures based on the protein sequence may help narrow down laborious experimental efforts and facilitate target selection. A number of bioinformatics methods based on protein sequence information have been developed for this purpose. However, our knowledge on the important determinants of propensity for a protein sequence to produce high diffraction-quality crystals remains largely incomplete. In practice, most of the existing methods display poorer performance when evaluated on larger and updated datasets. To address this problem, we constructed an up-to-date dataset as the benchmark, and subsequently developed a new approach termed 'PredPPCrys' using the support vector machine (SVM. Using a comprehensive set of multifaceted sequence-derived features in combination with a novel multi-step feature selection strategy, we identified and characterized the relative importance and contribution of each feature type to the prediction performance of five individual experimental steps required for successful crystallization. The resulting optimal candidate features were used as inputs to build the first-level SVM predictor (PredPPCrys I. Next, prediction outputs of PredPPCrys I were used as the input to build second-level SVM classifiers (PredPPCrys II, which led to significantly enhanced prediction performance. Benchmarking experiments indicated that our PredPPCrys method outperforms most existing procedures on both up-to-date and previous datasets. In addition, the predicted crystallization

  14. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  15. System efficiency for two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production – Part 2: Impact of gas heat recuperation and separation temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Ehrhart, Brian D.

    2016-09-22

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency is calculated for various operating conditions for a two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle using cerium(IV) oxide. An inert sweep gas was considered as the O2 removal method. Gas and solid heat recuperation effectiveness values were varied between 0 and 100% in order to determine the limits of the effect of these parameters. The temperature at which the inert gas is separated from oxygen for an open-loop and recycled system is varied. The hydrogen and water separation temperature was also varied and the effect on STH efficiency quantified. This study shows that gas heat recuperation is critical for high efficiency cycles, especially at conditions that require high steam and inert gas flowrates. A key area for future study is identified to be the development of ceramic heat exchangers for high temperature gas-gas heat exchange. Solid heat recuperation is more important at lower oxidation temperatures that favor temperature-swing redox processing, and the relative impact of this heat recuperation is muted if the heat can be used elsewhere in the system. A high separation temperature for the recycled inert gas has been shown to be beneficial, especially for cases of lower gas heat recuperation and increased inert gas flowrates. A higher water/hydrogen separation temperature is beneficial for most gas heat recuperation effectiveness values, though the overall impact on optimal system efficiency is relatively small for the values considered. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  16. Narrative ecosystems through the network analysis lens. Step one: The production of U.S. TV series, between capital and labor strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruffino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a first step in the investigation of the environment hosting narrative ecosystems through the tools offered by Social Network Analysis (SNA. The narrative ecosystem paradigm is a cross-disciplinary approach that considers vast narratives as the result of an ecosystemic design, where a general model is developed in advance as an evolutionary system. Consistently with this systemic view, our idea is to bring the relations among the components of the ecosystems and the environment that host them (i.e. the entertainment industry to the fore through the implementation of SNA. In order to do so, we focused on the relational patterns characterizing a sample of 164 U.S. TV series aired between 1984 and 2013. For each one of them, we collected data on executive producers, broadcasters, production studios, actors and writers. Through the analysis of the networks we obtained by computing the data, we drew some conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the ecological and evolutionary paradigm, the non-rigid and opportunistic patterns of alliances and coalitions among competitive firms, the relevance of the strategies of capital implemented by the firms and the strategies of labor implemented by the people.

  17. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  18. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  19. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  20. A metal-catalyzed enyne-cyclization step for the synthesis of bi- and tricyclic scaffolds amenable to molecular library production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Cohrt, Anders Emil O'Hanlon; Petersen, Rico

    2016-01-01

    A facile metal-catalyzed diversification step for the synthesis of novel bi- and tricyclic scaffolds from enyne substrates is reported in this study. From a single starting material, topologically diverse scaffolds for library synthesis can be generated and decorated in a few steps. The methodology...

  1. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holland Berry J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers’ health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability. The main goals of the POSE program are 1 providing employee’s insight into their current employability and health status, 2 offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3 improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers’ perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. Discussion This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit

  2. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; de Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra; Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-11-20

    Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment) was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers' health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability). The main goals of the POSE program are 1) providing employee's insight into their current employability and health status, 2) offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3) improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers' perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit from healthier employees, reduced sick leave (costs) and

  3. SBIR PHASE I FINAL REPORT: Adoption of High Performance Computational (HPC) Modeling Software for Widespread Use in the Manufacture of Welded Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Frederick W. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Punch, Edward F. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kurth, Elizabeth A. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kennedy, James C. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-02

    Many US manufacturing companies have moved fabrication and production facilities off shore because of cheaper labor costs. A key aspect in bringing these jobs back to the US is the use of technology to render US-made fabrications more efficient overall with higher quality. A new initiative of the current administration has the goal of enhancing competitiveness to retain manufacturing jobs in the US. One significant competitive advantage that has emerged in the US over the last two decades is the use of virtual design for fabrication of large structures in the light and heavy materials industries. Industries that have used virtual design and analysis tools have reduced material parts size, developed environmentally-friendly fabrication processes, improved product quality and performance, and reduced manufacturing costs. Indeed, Caterpillar Inc. (CAT), one of the partners in this effort, continues to have a large fabrication presence in the US because of the use of weld fabrication modeling to optimize fabrications by controlling weld residual stresses and distortions and improving fatigue, corrosion, and fracture performance. This report describes Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2's) DOE SBIR Phase I results which extended an existing, state-of-the-art software code, VFT, currently used to design and model large welded structures prior to fabrication - to a broader range of products with widespread applications for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). VFT helps control distortion, can minimize and/or control residual stresses, control welding microstructure, and pre-determine welding parameters such as weld-sequencing, pre-bending, thermal-tensioning, etc. VFT uses material properties, consumable properties, etc. as inputs. Through VFT, manufacturing companies can avoid costly design changes after fabrication. This leads to the concept of joint design/fabrication where these important disciplines are intimately linked to minimize

  4. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  5. Final report SBIR Phase II. High current density (Jc), low A.C . loss, low cost, Internal-Tin Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Final report of SBIR to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in the next generation of accelerators. The overall objective is to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in future particle accelerators. The internal-tin process has shown by others to produce high J c Nb 3 Sn material and the work here is primarily directed to lowering the AC losses, increasing piece lengths and lowering costs. In the previous reports on this Phase II work we have explored the finned restack approach. We have however encountered ductility problems when we have attempted to produce material without fins but with large numbers of subelements in the restacks. The work reported has concentrated on the scale up of the internal-tin materials without fins and we have finally made internal tin material with 40 (micro)m subelements which exhibited a J c at 12 T of 2757 A/mm 2 in the non-Cu and a J c at 14 T of 1985 A/mm 2 in the non-Cu. These results are the best we have achieved to date and are approaching those that Oxford has achieved for sometime.

  6. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capps, Scott [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  7. SBIR and STTR Programs: The Private Sector, Public Sector and University Trifecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bryan K.; Sander, Erik; Shino, Kathleen J.; Hardin, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The process of creating and transitioning the storehouse of university research and development to commercial products is by its nature a true partnership of great university innovators, experienced entrepreneurs and adequate funding sources. In the United States, the process of university innovation to commercialization begins deep in university…

  8. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  9. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  10. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  11. Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritala, A.; Dong, L.; Imseng, N.; Seppanen-Laakso, T.; Vasilev, N.; Krol, van der A.R.; Rischer, H.; Maaheimo, H.; Virkki, A.; Brandli, J.; Schillberg, S.; Eibl, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid indole alkaloids are one of the major classes of plant-derived natural products and are well known for their many applications in the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmetics industries. Hairy root cultures are useful for the production of plant secondary metabolites because of their

  12. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  13. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Computational Platform for Flux Analysis Using 13C-Label Tracing- Phase I SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dien, Stephen J.

    2005-04-12

    Isotopic label tracing is a powerful experimental technique that can be combined with metabolic models to quantify metabolic fluxes in an organism under a particular set of growth conditions. In this work we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of Methylobacterium extorquens, a facultative methylotroph with potential application in the production of useful chemicals from methanol. A series of labeling experiments were performed using 13C-methanol, and the resulting distribution of labeled carbon in the proteinogenic amino acids was determined by mass spectrometry. Algorithms were developed to analyze this data in context of the metabolic model, yielding flux distributions for wild-type and several engineered strains of M. extorquens. These fluxes were compared to those predicted by model simulation alone, and also integrated with microarray data to give an improved understanding of the metabolic physiology of this organism.

  15. Report on Performance of Prototype Dynatronix Power Supplies Developed Under a Phase I DOE SBIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Merriman, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prototype power supplies fabricated by Dynatronix, Inc. This project supports the advancement of electroforming capabilities to produce ultra-high purity copper. Ultra-high purity copper is an essential material used for a range of current and future fundamental nuclear physics programs such as the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The Mach 30 power supplies are a new design built to the specifications from the requirements of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with regard to timing, voltage, current output, and the required tolerances. The parameters used in these tests were developed empirically over a number of years based on a combination of thermodynamic and kinetics of the electroplating process. The power supplies were operated in a typical cleanroom environment for the production electroforming at PNNL. The units that were received by PNNL in July, 2010 have performed satisfactorily and have demonstrated short term durability.

  16. Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: Technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2015-12-15

    In this work, an extensive study on the recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by means of cold bonding pelletization is presented. The ash comes from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces, in which municipal, hospital and industrial wastes are treated. Fly ash from waste incineration is classified as hazardous and cannot be utilized or even landfilled without prior treatment. The pelletization process uses cement, lime and coal fly ash as components of the binding systems. This process has been applied to several mixes in which the ash content has been varied from 50% (wt.%) up to a maximum of 70%. An innovative additional pelletization step with only cementitious binder has been performed in order to achieve satisfactory immobilization levels. The obtained lightweight porous aggregates are mostly suitable for recovery in the field of building materials with enhanced sustainability properties. Density, water absorption and crushing strength ranged from 1000 to 1600 kg/m(3), 7 to 16% and 1.3 to 6.2 MPa, respectively, and the second pelletization step increased stabilization efficiency. The feasibility of the process has been analyzed by testing also concrete specimens containing the artificial aggregates, resulting in lightweight concrete of average performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The logic, experimental steps, and potential of heterologous natural product biosynthesis featuring the complex antibiotic erythromycin A produced through E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Haoran; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2013-01-13

    The heterologous production of complex natural products is an approach designed to address current limitations and future possibilities. It is particularly useful for those compounds which possess therapeutic value but cannot be sufficiently produced or would benefit from an improved form of production. The experimental procedures involved can be subdivided into three components: 1) genetic transfer; 2) heterologous reconstitution; and 3) product analysis. Each experimental component is under continual optimization to meet the challenges and anticipate the opportunities associated with this emerging approach. Heterologous biosynthesis begins with the identification of a genetic sequence responsible for a valuable natural product. Transferring this sequence to a heterologous host is complicated by the biosynthetic pathway complexity responsible for product formation. The antibiotic erythromycin A is a good example. Twenty genes (totaling >50 kb) are required for eventual biosynthesis. In addition, three of these genes encode megasynthases, multi-domain enzymes each ~300 kDa in size. This genetic material must be designed and transferred to E. coli for reconstituted biosynthesis. The use of PCR isolation, operon construction, multi-cystronic plasmids, and electro-transformation will be described in transferring the erythromycin A genetic cluster to E. coli. Once transferred, the E. coli cell must support eventual biosynthesis. This process is also challenging given the substantial differences between E. coli and most original hosts responsible for complex natural product formation. The cell must provide necessary substrates to support biosynthesis and coordinately express the transferred genetic cluster to produce active enzymes. In the case of erythromycin A, the E. coli cell had to be engineered to provide the two precursors (propionyl-CoA and (2S)-methylmalonyl-CoA) required for biosynthesis. In addition, gene sequence modifications, plasmid copy number

  18. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of production process system (Development of basic STEP standards); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Seisan process system no hyojunka (STEP kiban kikaku no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are under way to develop STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data) of ISO-10303 into specifications for expressing the total life cycle of products from designing, manufacturing, to disposition. Japan's study centers about product model expression involving 'thing-making for machine products.' In the study, the functions of the mechanical production process system ranging from designing to manufacturing were analyzed, and the results were built into an integrated application activity model (I-AAM). The I-AAM was analyzed, and an assembly model capable of expressing detailed relations between parts, such as mechanical linking and binding, was developed, and the model was accepted as a new work item at TC184/SC4 in February 2001. In relation to the parametric assembly of Part 108, moreover, the fruit of this research and development effort was adopted. In relation to manufacturing, problems were extracted involving important production designs between the processes of designing and manufacturing. They were raised at SC4, and a data model was proposed. (NEDO)

  19. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

  20. Optimization of Xylanase production from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 by a two-step statistical strategy: Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Zhao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in the medium for xylanase production by Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 and subsequent use of the response surface methodology (RSM) was further optimized for xylanase production by Box-Behnken design. The important nutrient sources in the culture medium, identified by the initial screening method of Placket-Burman, were wheat bran, yeast extract, NaNO(3), MgSO(4), and CaCl(2). The optimal amounts (in g/L) for maximum production of xylanase were: wheat bran, 32.8; yeast extract, 1.02; NaNO(3), 12.71; MgSO(4), 0.96; and CaCl(2), 1.04. Using this statistical experimental design, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached 46.50 U/mL and an increase in xylanase activity of 1.34-fold was obtained compared with the original medium for fermentation carried out in a 30-L bioreactor.

  1. Digestion with initial biological hydrolysis step for enhanced methane production in sewage and biogas plants. Exploratory; Roetning med inledande biologiskt hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrients, pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a separate

  2. Biological production of hydrogen from agricultural raw materials and residues with a subsequent methanisation step; Biologische Wasserstoffproduktion aus landwirtschaftlichen Roh- und Reststoffen mit nachfolgender Methanstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-07-01

    In order to examine the thermophile fermentative production from biohydrogen, discontinuous attempts were accomplished at a temperature of 60 C. As an inoculum, heat-treated sewage sludge was used. Glucose was used as a substrate. The fermenting residues of the hydrogen attempts were used as a substrate in a methane reactor in order to examine a two-stage system. The hydrogen attempts in the anaerobic test system were operated with a hydraulic retention time by 3.3 days and were performed during a period of 300 days. The optimal space load amounts to 5 g (l*d). The production rate at hydrogen amounts to 1.2 Nl/(l{sub R}*d). The yields amount to between 200 and 250 Nml/g oTS. In the case of an overloading of the system with substrate, the hydrogen production decreases drastically due to poor yields. Biological hydrogen production by fermentation possesses the potential to become a component for a lasting emission-free power supply. The thermophile approach ensures a simultaneous hygienization. As a fermenting remainder treatment a downstream methanation stage is possible.

  3. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish po...

  4. Work design issues in lean production from a sociotechnical systems perspective : Neo-Taylorism or the next step in sociotechnical design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niepce, W; Molleman, E

    The similarities and differences between two paradigms, Lean Production (LP) and Sociotechnical Systems (STS) thinking, which currently compete for the attention of managers and scholars interested in improving the design of work systems, are studied in this article. In order to find the logic

  5. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  6. Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    Full Text Available The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization.

  7. High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli K4 in a microfiltration bioreactor: a step towards improvement of chondroitin precursor production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Mario

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. Results The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial cells growth and K4 CPS production was studied in shake flask conditions, while a new approach, that combined the optimization of the feeding profiles, the improvement of aeration conditions and the use of a microfiltration bioreactor, was investigated in three different types of fermentation processes. High polysaccharide concentrations (4.73 ± 0.2 g·L-1, with corresponding average yields (0.13 ± 0.006 gK4 CPS·gcdw-1, were obtained; the increase of K4 CPS titre, compared to batch and fed-batch results, was of 16-fold and 3.3-fold respectively, while average yield was almost 3.5 and 1.4 fold higher. Conclusion The increase of capsular polysaccharide titre confirmed the validity of the proposed fermentation strategy and opened the way to the use of the microfiltration bioreactor for the biotechnological production of chondroitin.

  8. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  9. Supporting study product use and accuracy in self-report in the iPrEx study: next step counseling and neutral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Amico, K; McMahan, Vanessa; Goicochea, Pedro; Vargas, Lorena; Marcus, Julia L; Grant, Robert M; Liu, Albert

    2012-07-01

    The recent successes of biomedical HIV prevention approaches have sparked considerable debate over the scalability, feasibility, and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a widespread prevention strategy for men who have sex with men and trans-gender. Anticipated difficulties with PrEP adherence and concerns about resources required to best support it have tempered enthusiasm of PrEP demonstration projects and roll-out. While no evidence-based approach for supporting PrEP use is presently available, a number of approaches have been developed in the context of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of PrEP that can provide guidance in moving forward with real world support of open label PrEP use. We present the development, implementation and evaluation of feasibility and acceptability of next-step counseling (NSC) and neutral assessment (NA), the adherence support and promotion of accurate reporting approaches used in the late phases of the iPrEx study. Evaluation of the approach from the perspective of implementers of over 15,000 NSC sessions in seven different countries with almost 2,000 iPrEx participants provided support for NSC, its brevity (averaging ~14 min per follow-up session) and overall acceptability and feasibility. NA also was generally well supported, with a majority of study staff believing this approach was feasible and acceptable; however, lower acceptability for certain aspects of NA was noted amongst staff reporting NA was different from their previous interview approach. Quantitative and qualitative data gathered from implementers were used to make modifications for supporting PrEP use in the open-label extension of iPrEx.

  10. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  11. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  12. Extreme thermophilic ethanol production from rapeseed straw: using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and combining it with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a two-step process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karagöz, Pınar; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2013-01-01

    from the liquid fraction of pretreated rapeseed straw, without any dilution or need for additives. However, when the hydrolysate was used undiluted the ethanol yield was only 37% compared to yield of the control, in which pure sugars in synthetic medium were used. The decrease of ethanol yield...... showed that the two strains together could achieve up to 85% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw, which was 14% and 50% higher compared to the yield with the yeast or the bacteria alone, respectively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......The newly isolated extreme thermophile Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus was used for ethanol production from alkaline-peroxide pretreated rapeseed straw (PRS). Both the liquid and solid fractions of PRS were used. T. pentosaceus was able to metabolize the typical process inhibitors present...

  13. Phenol Is the Initial Product Formed during Growth and Degradation of Bromobenzene by Tropical Marine Yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 via an Early Dehalogenation Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsal, Aakanksha A; Zinjarde, Smita S; RaviKumar, Ameeta

    2017-01-01

    Bromobenzene (BrB), a hydrophobic, recalcitrant organic compound, is listed by the environmental protection agencies as an environmental and marine pollutant having hepatotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. The tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 3589 was seen to grow aerobically on BrB and displayed a maximum growth rate (μ max ) of 0.04 h -1 . Furthermore, we also observed an increase in cell size and sedimentation velocity for the cells grown on BrB as compared to the glucose grown cells. The cells attached to the hydrophobic bromobenzene droplets through its hydrophobic and acid-base interactions. The BrB (0.5%, 47.6 mM) was utilized by the cells with the release of a corresponding amount of bromide (12.87 mM) and yielded a cell mass of 1.86 g/L after showing 34% degradation in 96 h. Maximum dehalogenase activity of 16.16 U/mL was seen in the cell free supernatant after 24 h of growth. Identification of metabolites formed as a result of BrB degradation, namely, phenol, catechol, cis, cis muconic acid, and carbon dioxide were determined by LC-MS and GC-MS. The initial attack on bromobenzene by Y. lipolytica cells lead to the transient accumulation of phenol as an early intermediate which is being reported for the first time. Degradation of phenol led to catechol which was degraded by the ortho- cleavage pathway forming cis, cis muconic acid and then to Krebs cycle intermediates eventually leading to CO 2 production. The study shows that dehalogenation via an extracellular dehalogenase occurs prior to ring cleavage with phenol as the preliminary degradative compound being produced. The yeast was also able to grow on the degradative products, i.e., phenol and catechol, to varying degrees which would be of potential relevance in the degradation and remediation of xenobiotic environmental bromoaromatic pollutants such as bromobenzene.

  14. Phenol Is the Initial Product Formed during Growth and Degradation of Bromobenzene by Tropical Marine Yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 via an Early Dehalogenation Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakanksha A. Vatsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromobenzene (BrB, a hydrophobic, recalcitrant organic compound, is listed by the environmental protection agencies as an environmental and marine pollutant having hepatotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. The tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 3589 was seen to grow aerobically on BrB and displayed a maximum growth rate (μmax of 0.04 h-1. Furthermore, we also observed an increase in cell size and sedimentation velocity for the cells grown on BrB as compared to the glucose grown cells. The cells attached to the hydrophobic bromobenzene droplets through its hydrophobic and acid–base interactions. The BrB (0.5%, 47.6 mM was utilized by the cells with the release of a corresponding amount of bromide (12.87 mM and yielded a cell mass of 1.86 g/L after showing 34% degradation in 96 h. Maximum dehalogenase activity of 16.16 U/mL was seen in the cell free supernatant after 24 h of growth. Identification of metabolites formed as a result of BrB degradation, namely, phenol, catechol, cis, cis muconic acid, and carbon dioxide were determined by LC–MS and GC–MS. The initial attack on bromobenzene by Y. lipolytica cells lead to the transient accumulation of phenol as an early intermediate which is being reported for the first time. Degradation of phenol led to catechol which was degraded by the ortho- cleavage pathway forming cis, cis muconic acid and then to Krebs cycle intermediates eventually leading to CO2 production. The study shows that dehalogenation via an extracellular dehalogenase occurs prior to ring cleavage with phenol as the preliminary degradative compound being produced. The yeast was also able to grow on the degradative products, i.e., phenol and catechol, to varying degrees which would be of potential relevance in the degradation and remediation of xenobiotic environmental bromoaromatic pollutants such as bromobenzene.

  15. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  16. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  17. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: A Successful Validation of a Department of Defense (DoD) Funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Technology on Board the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Khodadad, Christina; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Pollack, Lawrence; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR EX (Registered Trademark) PCR unit was initially developed by the DoD as part of an SBIR project to detect and identify biothreats during field deployment. The system was evaluated by NASA as a commercial technology for future microbial monitoring requirements and has been successfully demonstrated in microgravity on-board the International Space Station.

  18. The use of solar energy can enhance the conversion of carbon dioxide into energy-rich products: stepping towards artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela; Angelini, Antonella

    2013-08-13

    The need to cut CO₂ emission into the atmosphere is pushing scientists and technologists to discover and implement new strategies that may be effective for controlling the CO₂ atmospheric level (and its possible effects on climate change). One option is the capture of CO₂ from power plant flue gases or other industrial processes to avoid it entering the atmosphere. The captured CO₂ can be either disposed in natural fields (geological cavities, spent gas or oil wells, coal beads, aquifers; even oceans have been proposed) or used as a source of carbon in synthetic processes. In this paper, we present the options for CO₂ utilization and make an analysis of possible solutions for the conversion of large volumes of CO₂ by either combining it with H₂, that must be generated from water, or by directly converting it into fuels by electrolysis in water using solar energy. A CO₂-H₂-based economy may address the issue of reducing the environmental burden of energy production, also saving fossil carbon for future generations. The integration of CO₂ capture and utilization with CO₂ capture and storage would result in a more economically and energetically viable practice of CO₂ capture.

  19. Production of artifact methylmercury during the analysis of certified reference sediments: Use of ionic exchange in the sample treatment step to minimise the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz; Diego, Alberto de; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Production of artifact methylmercury (MeHg + ) during the analysis of two certified reference sediments, CRM-580 and IAEA-405, was investigated. Leaching of the analyte from the solid sample was achieved by ultrasound assisted acidic extraction. The aqueous leachate was either ethylated (NaBEt 4 ) or phenylated (NaBPh 4 ) using acetic/acetate or citric/citrate to buffer the solution. Preconcentration of the volatile compounds was carried out by extraction with an organic solvent (n-hexane) or solid phase microextraction (SPME). MeHg + was finally separated and detected by gas chromatography with atomic emission or mass spectrometry detection (GC-MIP-AED or GC-MS). In all the cases the concentrations obtained for MeHg + in the CRM-580 were significantly higher than the certified value. For the IAEA-405, however, the MeHg + concentration found was always statistically indistinguishable from the certified value. Experiments were also conducted with synthetic samples, such as aqueous mixtures of MeHg + and inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) or silica-gel spiked with both compounds. The methylation rates found (defined as the percentage of Hg 2+ present in the sample which methylates to give artifact MeHg + ) ranged from not observable (in certain synthetic aqueous mixtures) to 0.57% (analysis of CRM-580 under certain conditions). As the amount of Hg 2+ available in the sample seems to be the main factor controlling the magnitude of the artifact, several experiments were conducted using an ionic exchange resin (Dowex M-41) in order to minimise the concentration of this chemical in the reaction medium. First, a hydrochloric leachate of the sample was passed through a microcolumn packed with the exchanger. Second, the resin was mixed with the sample prior to extraction with HCl. In both cases, the predominant Hg 2+ species, HgCl 4 2- , was adsorbed on the resin, whereas MeHg + , mainly as MeHgCl, remained in solution. Following the second option, a new method to analyse MeHg + in

  20. Production of artifact methylmercury during the analysis of certified reference sediments: Use of ionic exchange in the sample treatment step to minimise the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alejandra [Kimika Analitikoa Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Prieto, Ailette [Kimika Analitikoa Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Zuloaga, Olatz [Kimika Analitikoa Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Diego, Alberto de [Kimika Analitikoa Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: alberto.dediego@ehu.es; Madariaga, Juan Manuel [Kimika Analitikoa Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-01-16

    Production of artifact methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) during the analysis of two certified reference sediments, CRM-580 and IAEA-405, was investigated. Leaching of the analyte from the solid sample was achieved by ultrasound assisted acidic extraction. The aqueous leachate was either ethylated (NaBEt{sub 4}) or phenylated (NaBPh{sub 4}) using acetic/acetate or citric/citrate to buffer the solution. Preconcentration of the volatile compounds was carried out by extraction with an organic solvent (n-hexane) or solid phase microextraction (SPME). MeHg{sup +} was finally separated and detected by gas chromatography with atomic emission or mass spectrometry detection (GC-MIP-AED or GC-MS). In all the cases the concentrations obtained for MeHg{sup +} in the CRM-580 were significantly higher than the certified value. For the IAEA-405, however, the MeHg{sup +} concentration found was always statistically indistinguishable from the certified value. Experiments were also conducted with synthetic samples, such as aqueous mixtures of MeHg{sup +} and inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) or silica-gel spiked with both compounds. The methylation rates found (defined as the percentage of Hg{sup 2+} present in the sample which methylates to give artifact MeHg{sup +}) ranged from not observable (in certain synthetic aqueous mixtures) to 0.57% (analysis of CRM-580 under certain conditions). As the amount of Hg{sup 2+} available in the sample seems to be the main factor controlling the magnitude of the artifact, several experiments were conducted using an ionic exchange resin (Dowex M-41) in order to minimise the concentration of this chemical in the reaction medium. First, a hydrochloric leachate of the sample was passed through a microcolumn packed with the exchanger. Second, the resin was mixed with the sample prior to extraction with HCl. In both cases, the predominant Hg{sup 2+} species, HgCl{sub 4} {sup 2-}, was adsorbed on the resin, whereas MeHg{sup +}, mainly as MeHgCl, remained in

  1. Prototyping and dissemination of ecological olive production systems : a methodology for designing and a first step towards validation and dissemination of prototype Ecological Olive Productions Systems (EOPS) in Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabourakis, E.

    1996-01-01


    The olive sector in Crete, Greece, as in many other olive producing regions in Mediterranean European Union, faces agronomic, ecological and socioeconomic problems. These problems to a large extent are due to one sided ways of production aimed at maximum levels of production while

  2. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  3. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  4. FEM simulation of multi step forming of thick sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    A case study has been performed on the forming of an industrial product. This product, a bracket, is made of 5mm thick sheet in multiple steps. The process exists of a bending step followed by a drawing and a flanging step. FEM simulations have been used to investigate this forming process. First,

  5. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  6. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  7. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  8. Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  9. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Towards Production of Additive Manufacturing Grade Metallic Powders on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    costs due to reduced transportation costs, especially for well-established industries and, support of local businesses and resource bases [1...reduce the burden of these hindrances. ARL submitted a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) entitled, “Production of AM-Grade Metallic Powder on...the melt chamber to increase the duty cycle to 50% and thus achieve a melt rate of 1 kg/hour with the current coil design. It is anticipated that

  11. Final Report: DoE SBIR Phase 2 Low-Cost Small Diameter NMR Technologies for In-Situ Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David Oliver [Vista Clara Inc., Mukilteo, WA (United States)

    2010-09-03

    In this Phase 2 SBIR program, Vista Clara successfully developed and field-tested small diameter NNR logging tools for subsurface characterization and monitoring. This effort involved the design and development surface electronics, a winch with 470ft cable, and three interchangeable downhole probes: a 3.5â diameter borehole NMR probe, a 1.67â diameter borehole NMR probe, and a 2.5â diameter NMR probe that can be deployed using a Geoprobe direct push machine. The 3.5â probe was tested extensively over a 6 week period including 4â to 8â boreholes in Washington, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The field test campaign was highly successful. The 1.67â probe was assembled, tested and calibrated in the laboratory. The 2.5â Geoprobe probe is in final assembly and testing at the time of this report. The completed Phase 2 R&D program has resulted in the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes of 4â diameter, the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes on 2â diameter, and the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed by a direct push machine. These small diameter tools make NMR logging technically and economically feasible, for the first time. Previously available NMR logging tools were developed for oilfield applications and are prohibitively large and expensive for the majority of near surface groundwater characterization problems.

  12. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  13. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  14. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Whaley, A.M.; Kelly, D.L.; Boring, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  15. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  16. Expedient multi-step synthesis of organometallic complexes of Tc and Re in high effective specific activity. A new platform for the production of molecular imaging and therapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Patrick W; Besanger, Travis R; Schaffer, Paul; Valliant, John F

    2008-09-15

    For over thirty years, instant labeling kits which involve no purification steps have been the only method used to prepare (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. To address the limitations imposed by instant kits, which is hindering the development of molecularly targeted Tc- and Re-based imaging and therapy agents, a new strategy for the rapid multistep synthesis and purification of organometallic technetium-based molecular probes and corresponding rhenium-based therapeutic analogues was developed. Beginning with MO4(-) (M = (99m)Tc, (186/188)Re), the carbonyl precursor [M(CO)3(H2O)3](+) was synthesized in 3 min in quantitative yield in a microwave reactor. A dipicolyl ligand was added and the chelate complex was formed in high yield in 2 min using microwave heating at 150 degrees C. This was followed by a new purification strategy to remove unlabeled ligand which entailed using a copper resin/C18 solid phase extraction protocol giving the desired product in greater than 78% decay corrected yield (dcy). Conversion to the corresponding succinimidyl active ester was achieved following a 5 min microwave irradiation at 120 degrees C and C18 solid phase extraction purification in 60% dcy. A series of amides were prepared subsequently by microwave heating at 120 degrees C for 5 min producing the desired targets in greater than 86% dcy. The reported method represents a move away from traditional instant kits toward more versatile platform synthesis and purification technologies that are better suited for producing modern molecular imaging and therapy agents.

  17. Direct Detection of Complex Organic Products in Ultraviolet (Lyα) and Electron-irradiated Astrophysical and Cometary Ice Analogs Using Two-step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bryana L.; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2015-02-01

    As discovery of complex molecules and ions in our solar system and the interstellar medium has proliferated, several groups have turned to laboratory experiments in an effort to simulate and understand these chemical processes. So far only infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy has been able to directly probe these reactions in ices in their native, low-temperature states. Here we report for the first time results using a complementary technique that harnesses two-step two-color laser ablation and ionization to measure mass spectra of energetically processed astrophysical and cometary ice analogs directly without warming the ices—a method for hands-off in situ ice analysis. Electron bombardment and UV irradiation of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 ices at 5 K and 70 K led to complex irradiation products, including HCO, CH3CO, formamide, acetamide, methyl formate, and HCN. Many of these species, whose assignment was also strengthened by isotope labeling studies and correlate with IR-based spectroscopic studies of similar irradiated ices, are important ingredients for the building blocks of life. Some of them have been detected previously via astronomical observations in the interstellar medium and in cometary comae. Other species such as CH3CO (acetyl) are yet to be detected in astrophysical ices or interstellar medium. Our studies suggest that electron and UV photon processing of astrophysical ice analogs leads to extensive chemistry even in the coldest reaches of space, and lend support to the theory of comet-impact-induced delivery of complex organics to the inner solar system.

  18. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  19. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  20. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  1. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  2. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  3. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  4. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  5. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... the whole family healthy! Here are four key steps to help you control your diabetes and live ...

  6. Human exposure assessment for biocides in the EU development of step by step guidance and worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, R.M.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC(1) concerns EU harmonisation of placing biocidal products on the market. In the present short paper the preliminary results of an ongoing project are presented in which step by step guidance on human exposure assessment with worked examples is developed. For all 23 biocidal product

  7. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  8. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  9. COUPLING STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE SUBSURFACE SIMULATION WITH ADVANCED USER INTERFACE AND PARALLEL VISUALIZATION: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, B.; Swenson, D.; Finsterle, S.; Zhou, Q.

    2008-01-01

    This is a Phase I report on a project to significantly enhance existing subsurface simulation software using leadership-class computing resources, allowing researchers to solve problems with greater speed and accuracy. Subsurface computer simulation is used for monitoring the behavior of contaminants around nuclear waste disposal and storage areas, groundwater flow, environmental remediation, carbon sequestration, methane hydrate production, and geothermal energy reservoir analysis. The Phase I project was a collaborative effort between Thunderhead Engineering (project lead and developers of a commercial pre- and post-processor for the TOUGH2 simulator) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (developers of the TOUGH2 simulator for subsurface flow). The Phase I project successfully identified the technical approaches to be implemented in Phase II.

  10. Organic photochemical reactions on solid surfaces: Enrichment and separation of isotopes. Final report. SBIR-1988, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, W.; Fehlner, J.; Spencer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Phase II program were to: (1) investigate organic photochemical reactions on solid porous silica surfaces, (2) utilize the magnetic isotope effect to develop a (13)C enrichment process using a fluidized bed reactor, and (3) investigate the possibility of enrichment of heavier isotopes having a nuclear spin. Although researchers were able to demonstrate a continuous fluidized bed (13)C enrichment process, analysis showed that the process could not compete with low temperature distillation of CO because of the high cost of the starting material, dibenzylketone (DBK), and the difficulty of converting the photochemical decomposition products back to DBK. However, the process shows promise for the separation of heavier isotopes such as (29)Si. The photochemical studies led to the discovery that the selectivity for terminal chlorination of alkanes can be increased more than 25 fold by sorbing the alkanes on ZSM-5 zeolites in a fluidized bed. The selectivity is ascribed to the presence of interfaces within the crystals

  11. Rock Melt Borehole Sealing System, Final Technical Report for SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-SC0011888

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnes, John D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Vining, Cody A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Nopola, Jay R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Roggenthen, William M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2015-03-19

    required heat generation, container materials that can withstand the anticipated temperatures, and a system capable of providing power to the heater. Evaluating the feasibility of performing field-scale experiments resulted in the following major findings: • The Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) has been identified as a host site for field testing of prototype heaters. The technical and logistical requirements for performing the rock melt tests can be met by using or expanding the existing infrastructure at SURF with on-site personnel and contractors. • In situ hydraulic conductivity test using packers can test the effectiveness of the rock melt seal, while a mine back performed from a lower level can further evaluate the recrystallized melt. • Preliminary costing indicates that a field-scale melting experiment at SURF is feasible within a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research budget while allowing sufficient budget for refining the heater design, coordinating the test program, and interpreting the results. Application of Research The rock melt sealing concept has the potential to reduce uncertainty associated with the long-term storage of nuclear waste. Preliminary efforts of this study defined the requirements of a downhole heater system capable of melting rock and indicated that developing such a system is feasible using available technology. The next logical step is designing and manufacturing prototype heaters. Concurrent with prototype development is coordinating robust field-scale experiments that are capable of validating the design for marketing to potential users.

  12. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. I. Final Report for DOE SBIR Phase I Project DE-SC0013795 Final Report for DOE SBIR Phase I Project DE-SC0013795 Microtron-based Compact, Portable Gamma-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, Robert J. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-09

    versions of microtrons with various energies, sizes and types would be produced and marketed, including a more compact and more portable 6 MeV battery-powered model that more closely meets the requirements in the original FOA topic description. In the course of the Phase I study, we also identified another microtron version, one that was larger (not compact) and more powerful than that of the Phase II prototype, which could serve as an intense source of photo- neutrons, up to 4 x 1012 n/s for use in nuclear medicine, short-lived isotope production, or other applications. In addition, it could produce gamma dose rates up to 130 kR/min-m with a heavy metal bremsstrahlung target. The results and specifications of this were submitted to IPAC16 (Reference [12]) the paper is included in Addendum B. Because this version was beyond the scope of the Phase I project, there is no additional description in the Final Report.

  14. GRAIL-genQuest: A comprehensive computational system for DNA sequence analysis. Final report, DOE SBIR Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Ruth Ann

    1999-01-05

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing and genome mapping technologies are making it possible, for the first time in history, to find genes in plants and animals and to elucidate their function. This means that diagnostics and therapeutics can be developed for human diseases such as cancer, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular problems. Crop and animal strains can be developed that are hardier, resistant to diseases, and produce higher yields. The challenge is to develop tools that will find the nucleotides in the DNA of a living organism that comprise a particular gene. In the human genome alone it is estimated that only about 51% of the approximately 3 billion pairs of nucleotides code for some 100,000 human genes. In this search for nucleotides within a genome which are active in the actual coding of proteins, efficient tools to locate and identify their function can be of significant value to mankind. Software tools such as ApoCom GRAIL{trademark} have assisted in this search. It can be used to analyze genome information, to identify exons (coding regions) and to construct gene models. Using a neural network approach, this software can ''learn'' sequence patterns and refine its ability to recognize a pattern as it is exposed to more and more examples of it. Since 1992 versions of GRAIL{trademark} have been publicly available over the Internet from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Because of the potential for security and patent compromise, these Internet versions are not available to many researchers in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies who cannot send proprietary sequences past their data-secure firewalls. ApoCom is making available commercial versions of the GRAIL{trademark} software to run self-contained over local area networks. As part of the commercialization effort, ApoCom has developed a new Java{trademark}-based graphical user interface, the ApoCom Client Tool for Genomics (ACTG){trademark}. Two products, ApoCom GRAIL

  15. Clinical evaluation of the Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA, a new assay measuring the serum concentration of bone-derived degradation products of type I collagen C-telopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, S; Rosenquist, C; Alexandersen, P

    1998-01-01

    The Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA is a sandwich assay using two monoclonal antibodies specific for a beta-aspartate form of the epitope EKAHDGGR derived from the carboxy-terminal telopeptide region of type I collagen alpha1-chain. Our objective was to assess the clinical value of the Serum Cross...

  16. One-step fabrication of multifunctional micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-08-01

    Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications.Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Videos S1-S4 and Fig. S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03574k

  17. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  18. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this...Scheifler, R., Gettys, J., and Newman, P., X Window System: C Library and Protocol Reference. Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, 1988. [Schenck90] Schenck, D

  19. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  20. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  1. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

  2. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  3. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  4. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a production process system (development of STEP standards); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan process system no hyojunka (STEP kiban kikaku no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were carried out of the standards of assembly models in design-production process and machining process data models for production preparation, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. Integrated AAM is a reference model to make relations with AP clear, and therefore, study was made with much higher accuracy. As to resource models to express product models which make change in design possible, studied were measures for changes in shape/dimension of parts, measures for changes related to connection in assembly, etc. As to resource models required to express the process of changes from design models to production models, arrangement was made of characteristics of the shape of design models and characteristics of production process models, and study was made of models to express the seamless work from design to processing. Study was also made of the method of conversion among design models and production preparation models. The results obtained were reported as N830 and N448 of ISOTC184/SC4/WG3. (NEDO)

  5. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  6. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  7. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  8. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  9. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  10. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat......Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  11. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  12. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  13. Experimental investigation of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out. • Effect of storage tank and cotton absorber on productivity was investigated. • Efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than conventional still by 20%. • The day and night efficiency increases by 5% and 3.5% for salt and sea water. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank for sea and salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water before desalination is 57,100 and 2370 mg/l. A comparison study between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The effect of installing a storage tank and cotton black absorber for modified stepped solar still on the distillate productivity was investigated. The results indicate that, the productivity of the modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 43% and 48% for sea and salt water with black absorber respectively, while 53% and 47% of sea and salt water, respectively with cotton absorber. Also, the daily efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 20%. The maximum efficiency of modified stepped still is occurring at a feed water flow rate of 1 LPM for sea water and 3 LPM for salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water after desalination is 41, and 27 mg/l

  14. Performance analysis in stepped solar still for effluent desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Naveen Kumar, K.J.; Noorul Haq, T.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a stepped solar still and an effluent settling tank are fabricated and tested for desalinating the textile effluent. The effluent is purified in an effluent settling tank. In this tank, large and fine solid particles are settled and clarified. The settled effluents are used as raw water in the stepped solar still. For better performance, the stepped solar still consists of 50 trays with two different depths. First 25 trays with 10 mm height and the next 25 trays with 5 mm height are used. Fin, sponge, pebble and combination of the above are used for enhancing the productivity of the stepped solar still. A maximum increase in productivity of 98% occurs in stepped solar still when fin, sponge and pebbles are used in this basin. Theoretical analysis agrees well with experimental results. (author)

  15. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  16. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  17. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  18. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  19. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  20. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Michilsens

    2012-02-01

    In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4% and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13, regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

  1. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  2. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  3. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.

  4. Time step MOTA thermostat simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The report details the logic, program layout, and operating procedures for the time-step MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) thermostat simulation program known as GYRD. It will enable prospective users to understand the operation of the program, run it, and interpret the results. The time-step simulation analysis was the approach chosen to determine the maximum value gain that could be used to minimize steady temperature offset without risking undamped thermal oscillations. The advantage of the GYRD program is that it directly shows hunting, ringing phenomenon, and similar events. Programs BITT and CYLB are faster, but do not directly show ringing time

  5. A mechanism for leader stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, U.; Carlson, B. E.; Koehn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The stepping of negative leaders is well observed, but not well understood. A major problem consists of the fact that the streamer corona is typically invisible within a thunderstorm, but determines the evolution of a leader. Motivated by recent observations of streamer and leader formation in the laboratory by T.M.P. Briels, S. Nijdam, P. Kochkin, A.P.J. van Deursen et al., by recent simulations of these processes by J. Teunissen, A. Sun et al., and by our theoretical understanding of the process, we suggest how laboratory phenomena can be extrapolated to lightning leaders to explain the stepping mechanism.

  6. Minimization of social and environmental risks of biodiesel production companies in Brazil: one step in the search for corporate social responsibility; Minimizacao do risco socioambiental para empresas produtoras de biodiesel no Brasil: um passo na busca da responsabilidade social corporativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffel, Silvia Blajberg; Sousa, Denise da Silva [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA); La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The National Biodiesel Production and Use Program and the Social Fuel Seal were developed to stimulate the family farmer's inclusion in the new productive chain of biodiesel, based on the basic principles of social inclusion promotion, job and income generation and the attenuation of the regional disparities, producing oilseeds suitable to each region of the country. Great challenges are in place for each stakeholder, like government, biodiesel producing companies, family farmers, syndicates and social movements, evidencing that the Seal is important, but not enough to assure the sustainable inclusion of family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel. This paper presents some social and environmental risks that emerge for the producing companies, followed by management proposals. The Corporate Social Responsibility concept is evoked, in a sense that the producing companies not only control its social and environmental risks, but not only minimizing its negative impacts and its negative externalities that results from its operations on the environment, society and stakeholders. But that they create and aggregate value, maximizing its positive impacts in the communities where they actuate, experiencing new business models and creating new institutional shapes. (author)

  7. Minimization of social and environmental risks of biodiesel production companies in Brazil: one step in the search for corporate social responsibility; Minimizacao do risco socioambiental para empresas produtoras de biodiesel no Brasil: um passo na busca da responsabilidade social corporativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffel, Silvia Blajberg; Sousa, Denise da Silva [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA); La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The National Biodiesel Production and Use Program and the Social Fuel Seal were developed to stimulate the family farmer's inclusion in the new productive chain of biodiesel, based on the basic principles of social inclusion promotion, job and income generation and the attenuation of the regional disparities, producing oilseeds suitable to each region of the country. Great challenges are in place for each stakeholder, like government, biodiesel producing companies, family farmers, syndicates and social movements, evidencing that the Seal is important, but not enough to assure the sustainable inclusion of family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel. This paper presents some social and environmental risks that emerge for the producing companies, followed by management proposals. The Corporate Social Responsibility concept is evoked, in a sense that the producing companies not only control its social and environmental risks, but not only minimizing its negative impacts and its negative externalities that results from its operations on the environment, society and stakeholders. But that they create and aggregate value, maximizing its positive impacts in the communities where they actuate, experiencing new business models and creating new institutional shapes. (author)

  8. New approaches to the measurement of chlorophyll, related pigments and productivity in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C. R.; Keifer, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    In the 1984 SBIR Call for Proposals, NASA solicited new methods to measure primary production and chlorophyll in the ocean. Biospherical Instruments Inc. responded to this call with a proposal first to study a variety of approaches to this problem. A second phase of research was then funded to pursue instrumentation to measure the sunlight stimulated naturally occurring fluorescence of chlorophyll in marine phytoplankton. The monitoring of global productivity, global fisheries resources, application of above surface-to-underwater optical communications systems, submarine detection applications, correlation, and calibration of remote sensing systems are but some of the reasons for developing inexpensive sensors to measure chlorophyll and productivity. Normally, productivity measurements are manpower and cost intensive and, with the exception of a very few expensive multiship research experiments, provide no contemporaneous data. We feel that the patented, simple sensors that we have designed will provide a cost effective method for large scale, synoptic, optical measurements in the ocean. This document is the final project report for a NASA sponsored SBIR Phase 2 effort to develop new methods for the measurements of primary production in the ocean. This project has been successfully completed, a U.S. patent was issued covering the methodology and sensors, and the first production run of instrumentation developed under this contract has sold out and been delivered.

  9. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  10. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  11. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies for the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Powers, J. H.; Chiller, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed......The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important...

  12. Using renewables and the co-production of hydrogen and electricity from CCS-equipped IGCC facilities, as a stepping stone towards the early development of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D'haeseleer, William

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, specific cases for the interaction between the future electricity-generation mix and a newly-developing hydrogen-production infrastructure is modelled with the model E-simulate. Namely, flexible integrated-gasification combined-cycle units (IGCC) are capable of producing both electricity and hydrogen in different ratios. When these units are part of the electricity-generation mix and when they are not operating at full load, they could be used to produce a certain amount of hydrogen, avoiding the costly installation of new IGCC units for hydrogen production. The same goes for the massive introduction of renewable energies (especially wind), possibly generating excess electricity from time to time, which could then perhaps be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. However, although contra-intuitive, the interaction between both 'systems' turns out to be almost negligible. Firstly, it is shown that it is more beneficial to use IGCC facilities to produce hydrogen with, rather than (excess) wind-generated electricity due to the necessary electrolyser investment costs. But even flexible IGCC facilities do not seem to contribute substantially to the early development of a hydrogen economy. Namely, in most scenarios - which are combinations of a wide range of fuel prices and carbon taxes - one primary-energy carrier (natural gas or coal) seems to be dominant, pushing the other, and the corresponding technologies such as reformers or IGCCs, out of the market. (author)

  13. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  14. Two-step processing for activation of the cytolysin/hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (hlyA) and characterization of the processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Ichinose, Y; Shinagawa, H; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Iwanaga, M; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1990-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor produces and secretes a 65-kDa cytolysin/hemolysin into the culture medium. We cloned the structural gene (hlyA) for the cytolysin from the total DNA of a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain, N86. Nucleotide sequence analysis of hlyA revealed an open reading frame consisting of 2,223 bp which can code for a protein of 741 amino acids with a molecular weight of 81,961. Consistent with this, a 79-kDa protein was identified as the product of hlyA by maxicell analysis in Escherichia coli. N-terminal amino acids of this 79-kDa HlyA protein and those of a 65-kDa El Tor cytolysin purified from V. cholerae were Asn-26 and Asn-158, respectively. The 82- and 79-kDa precursors of the 65-kDa mature cytolysin were found in V. cholerae by pulse-chase labeling and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of hlyA products. Hemolytic activity of the 79-kDa HlyA protein from E. coli was less than 5% that for the 65-kDa cytolysin from V. cholerae. Our results suggest that in V. cholerae, the 82-kDa preprotoxin synthesized in the cytoplasm is secreted through the membranes into the culture medium as the 79-kDa inactive protoxin after cleavage of the signal peptide and is then further processed into the 65-kDa active cytolysin by release of the N-terminal 15-kDa fragment.

  15. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  16. The STEP standard as an approach for design and prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Plantec , Alain; Ribaud , Vincent

    1998-01-01

    International audience; STEP is an ISO standard (ISO-10303) for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product data. Parts of STEP standardize conceptual structures and usage of information in generic or specific domains. The standardization process of these constructs is an evolutionary approach , which uses generated prototypes at different phases of the process. This paper presents a method for the building of prototype generators, inspired by this standardization proces...

  17. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  18. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a step-by-step guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Porter, James; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig

    2014-08-01

    To describe a step-by-step guide for successful implementation of the retroperitoneal approach to robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient is placed in the flank position and the table fully flexed to increase the space between the 12th rib and iliac crest. Access to the retroperitoneal space is obtained using a balloon-dilating device. Ports include a 12-mm camera port, two 8-mm robotic ports and a 12-mm assistant port placed in the anterior axillary line cephalad to the anterior superior iliac spine, and 7-8 cm caudal to the ipsilateral robotic port. Positioning and port placement strategies for successful technique include: (i) Docking robot directly over the patient's head parallel to the spine; (ii) incision for camera port ≈1.9 cm (1 fingerbreadth) above the iliac crest, lateral to the triangle of Petit; (iii) Seldinger technique insertion of kidney-shaped balloon dilator into retroperitoneal space; (iv) Maximising distance between all ports; (v) Ensuring camera arm is placed in the outer part of the 'sweet spot'. The retroperitoneal approach to RPN permits direct access to the renal hilum, no need for bowel mobilisation and excellent visualisation of posteriorly located tumours. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  19. An approach to next step device optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpietro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for ITER EDA were to achieve ignition with a good safety margin, and controlled long inductive burn. These requirements lead to a big device, which requested a too ambitious step to be undertaken by the world fusion community. More realistic objectives for a next step device shall be to demonstrate the net production of energy with a high energy gain factor (Q) and a high boot strap current fraction (>60%) which is required for a Fusion Power Plant (FPP). The Next Step Device (NSD) shall also allow operation flexibility in order to explore a large range of plasma parameters to find out the optimum concept for the fusion power plant prototype. These requirements could be too demanding for one single device and could probably be better explored in a strongly integrated world programme. The cost of one or more devices is the decisive factor for the choice of the fusion power development programme strategy. The plasma elongation and triangularity have a strong impact in the cost of the device and are limited by the plasma vertical position control issue. The distance between plasma separatrix and the toroidal field conductor does not vary a lot between devices. It is determined by the sum of the distance between first wall-plasma sepratrix and the thickness of the nuclear shield required to protect the toroidal field coil insultation. The thickness of the TF coil is determined by the allowable stresses and superconducting characteristics. The outer radius of the central solenoid is the result of an optimisation to provide the magnetic flux to inductively drive the plasma. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives for Q and boot-strap current fractions at the minimum cost, the plasma aspect ratio and magnetic field value shall be determined. The paper will present the critical issues for the next device and will make considerations on the optimal way to proceed towards the realisation of the fusion power plant

  20. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  1. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  2. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  3. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  4. A step toward nuclear sanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Long, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Reykjavik formally ended as a diplomatic failure, but it has begun an overdue revolution in perceptions. At long last, both superpowers have the in concrete terms that vastly smaller nuclear arsenals would make them safer. Implicitly, they are saying that nuclear weapons are not useful weapons. Those insights are a prerequisite to nuclear sanity. The United States has proposed to eliminate all strategic ballistic missiles, on land and submarines, in two five-year steps. During that period, we (and presumably the Soviet Union) would develop missile defenses to be deployed in ten years. The first part of this plan makes excellent sense. Ballistic missiles explode on their targets ten to thirty minutes after launch. Today's huge and accurate missile arsenals have forced both superpowers to adopt a hair-trigger stance: they might launch missiles simply on warning of attack

  5. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  6. Boris push with spatial stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G; Stoltz, P H; Cary, J R; Wurtele, J

    2003-01-01

    The Boris push is commonly used in plasma physics simulations because of its speed and stability. It is second-order accurate, requires only one field evaluation per time step, and has good conservation properties. However, for accelerator simulations it is convenient to propagate particles in z down a changing beamline. A 'spatial Boris push' algorithm has been developed which is similar to the Boris push but uses a spatial coordinate as the independent variable, instead of time. This scheme is compared to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, for two simplified muon beam lattices: a uniform solenoid field, and a 'FOFO' lattice where the solenoid field varies sinusoidally along the axis. Examination of the canonical angular momentum, which should be conserved in axisymmetric systems, shows that the spatial Boris push improves accuracy over long distances

  7. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  8. Linking pedestrian flow characteristics with stepping locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Boltes, Maik; Seyfried, Armin; Zhang, Jun; Ziemer, Verena; Weng, Wenguo

    2018-06-01

    While properties of human traffic flow are described by speed, density and flow, the locomotion of pedestrian is based on steps. To relate characteristics of human locomotor system with properties of human traffic flow, this paper aims to connect gait characteristics like step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and synchronization with speed and density and thus to build a ground for advanced pedestrian models. For this aim, observational and experimental study on the single-file movement of pedestrians at different densities is conducted. Methods to measure step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and step synchronization are proposed by means of trajectories of the head. Mathematical models for the relations of step length or frequency and speed are evaluated. The problem how step length and step duration are influenced by factors like body height and density is investigated. It is shown that the effect of body height on step length and step duration changes with density. Furthermore, two different types of step in-phase synchronization between two successive pedestrians are observed and the influence of step synchronization on step length is examined.

  9. Syngas Production By Thermochemical Conversion Of H2o And Co2 Mixtures Using A Novel Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, Howard [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc, Lancaster, PA (United States); Chen, Chien-Hua [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2014-08-27

    The Department of Energy awarded Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) an SBIR Phase II contract (#DE-SC0004729) to develop a high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor for syngas production using water and/or carbon dioxide as feedstocks. The technology aims to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, promote energy independence and mitigate adverse issues associated with climate change by essentially recycling carbon from carbon dioxide emitted by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. To commercialize the technology and drive down the cost of solar fuels, new advances are needed in materials development and reactor design, both of which are integral elements in this program.

  10. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  11. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  12. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  13. Step dynamics and terrace-width distribution on flame-annealed gold films: The effect of step-step interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoni, Nira; Ayal, Shai; Millo, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Dynamics of atomic steps and the terrace-width distribution within step bunches on flame-annealed gold films are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The distribution is narrower than commonly observed for vicinal planes and has a Gaussian shape, indicating a short-range repulsive interaction between the steps, with an apparently large interaction constant. The dynamics of the atomic steps, on the other hand, appear to be influenced, in addition to these short-range interactions, also by a longer-range attraction of steps towards step bunches. Both types of interactions promote self-ordering of terrace structures on the surface. When current is driven through the films a step-fingering instability sets in, reminiscent of the Bales-Zangwill instability

  14. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  15. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  16. The Power of STEP for the Exchange of Engineering Information between CA(X) Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Conrad, Finn

    1999-01-01

    ISO10303 STEP, is the only standard that provides information resources and methodologies needed for the definition and management of engineering product information for efficient Integrated Product Development (IPD).This paper describes the most important concepts related to these powerful STEP...... resources and methodologies, and the paper further addresses how to use STEP for IPD of hydraulic components and systems based upon the concurrent engineering of different computer aided CA(X) systems.International standardization based on ISO10303, STEP, is playing a key role in promoting a modern approach...... to the neutral Product Data Technology by use of the open systems' architecture. The initial release of STEP, consisting of twelve essential parts, has been approved and published (in 1994) as an International Standard. The introduction of STEP based software and its application in industry is thus on the verge...

  17. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular genetics: Step by step implementation in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in plant breeding is determined primarily by the ability to screen for genetic polymorphism, productivity and yield stability early in program. Dependent on the knowledge about the biochemical bases of the trait and nature of its genetic control, trait could be modified either through mutagenesis of genes controlling it or through the transfer of already existing mutant genes, controlling desired trait to different plant genotypes by classic crossing. Objective of this report is to present partly results on the investigation of the possibilities to apply ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, γ -rays and chemical mutagens (EI, iPMS, EMS, ENU to get maize and wheat mutants with increased amount and improved protein quality. Besides this approach in mutation breeding, results on the very early investigation of biochemical background of opaque -2 mutation including use of coupled cell - free RNA and protein synthesis containing components from both wild and opaque - 2 maize genotypes (chromatin, RNA polymerase, microsomall fraction, protein bodies will be presented. Partial results on opaque - 2 gene incorporation in different genetic background are reviewed. Part of report is dealing with different classes of molecular markers (proteins, RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, and SSR application in maize genome polymorphism investigation. Besides application of different molecular markers classes in the investigation of heterosis phenomena they are useful in biochemical pathway of important traits control determination as well. .

  19. ISOLDE steps up a gear

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE project (HIE-ISOLDE), an important upgrade of the ISOLDE facility, was approved at the Research Board’s December meeting. Thanks to a new superconducting linear accelerator and an improved target installation, HIE-ISOLDE will be able to provide higher energy and higher intensity beams to the experiments. New opportunities will open up for nuclear physics with radioactive ion beams at CERN.   A view of the Miniball experiment installed at the ISOLDE facility. Since 1967, the ISOLDE facility has been dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for many different experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. Protons from the PS Booster hit the ISOLDE targets and produce radioactive elements, which are then ionized, mass-separated and delivered to the experiments. Over the years, experiments at ISOLDE have produced many valuable results in different fields, f...

  20. Nanocellulose steps up on stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.

    2010-07-15

    Canadian researchers and manufacturers are world leaders in the development of new applications for nanocellulose, a principal component of trees. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a natural substance first isolated in 1949. The cellulose in pulp is approximately 70 per cent NCC. Canadian researchers have found a way to extract NCC from wood in industrial quantities. A batch process has been developed at a demonstration plant in Windsor. Other researchers are now developing new NCC applications for strengthening wood varnish, improving paint texture, and adding it to polymers for additional strength. A consortium of industry partners and researchers are now preparing joint agreements with manufacturers to investigate wood coatings and composites; improve NCC's compatibility with polymers; and examine applications of its optical properties in pulp and paper processes. NCC may also be used in aircraft design as well as in automotive products. 1 fig.

  1. The First Steps to EURISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the results and recommendations of the EURISOL RTD conceptual design study performed within FP5, the EURISOL Design Study http://www.eurisol.org aims to carry out detailed engineering-oriented studies and technical prototyping work for the next-generation ISOL Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility in Europe. Such a world-class facility, complementary to the '' in-flight '' FAIR facility being constructed at GSI, is expected to come into operation in the next decade. It would provide unique world-class research opportunities in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and other applications of radioactive beam science. The Design Study addresses the major technological problems which are expected to arise in the creation of a facility able to provide exotic ions in quantities which are orders of magnitude higher than those currently available anywhere else in the world. A feasibility study into the use of the EURISOL facility for the production of pure electron-neutrinos is an integral part of the design study, the so-called '' beta-beam '' proposal. Synergies which exist between the proposed infrastructure and other European ISOL developments - MAFF, HIE-ISOLDE, SPES, and SPIRAL2 - will be exploited to mutual advantage. Twenty institutes within Europe take part in the design study as full participants, with an additional 20 in Europe, North America and Asia collaborating in the project. In this Design Study the members of the collaboration provide specific technological expertise on superconducting linear accelerators, high-power targetry, RIB production, ion sources and beam manipulation, radiation safety and nuclear instrumentation. (author)

  2. Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step......) with and Without pre-treatment respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy Produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would...

  3. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Interactive Video, The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L. R.; Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.; Brinkhuis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Video has the ingredients to reach us emotionally - with amazing images, enthusiastic interviews, music, and video game-like animations-- and it's emotion that motivates us to learn more about our new interest. However, watching video is usually passive. New web-based technology is expanding and enhancing the video experience, creating opportunities to use video with more direct interaction. This talk will look at an Educaton and Outreach team's experience producing video-centric curriculum using innovative interactive media tools from TED-Ed and FlixMaster. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy has partnered with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) to send educators and a video producer aboard three deep sea research expeditions to the Juan de Fuca plate to install and service sub-seafloor observatories. This collaboration between teachers, students, scientists and media producers has proved a productive confluence, providing new ways of understanding both ground-breaking science and the process of science itself - by experimenting with new ways to use multimedia during ocean-going expeditions and developing curriculum and other projects post-cruise.

  5. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kelly; Weir, Patricia L.; Azar, Dory; Azar, Nadia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1) a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2) a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3) an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily accessed and used by a spectrum of people without specialized adaptations. Thus, a universally designed environment creates opportunities for older adults to participate in these activities without the stigmatization associated with adapted or accessible designs. Providing older adults with specific universal design options (e.g., lever handle faucets) has the potential to increase the ease of completing activities of daily living, which promotes a continual engagement in life. Literature regarding universal design is promising; however, its theory requires further attention from professionals designing the built environment, evidence of the significance of its application from academics, and the embracement of its core principles from society. Overall, universal design has the potential to provide a stepping stone toward successful aging. PMID:23431446

  6. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  7. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  8. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  9. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  10. Steps and dislocations in cubic lyotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S; Pieranski, P

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown recently that lyotropic systems are convenient for studies of faceting, growth or anisotropic surface melting of crystals. All these phenomena imply the active contribution of surface steps and bulk dislocations. We show here that steps can be observed in situ and in real time by means of a new method combining hygroscopy with phase contrast. First results raise interesting issues about the consequences of bicontinuous topology on the structure and dynamical behaviour of steps and dislocations

  11. STEPS: A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF A GABAPENTIN SEEDING TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D.; Egilman, David S.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. Methods We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing v. Pfizer and Franklin v. Warner-Lambert, the majority of which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial, in order to identify key themes related to the trial’s conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Results Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company’s marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that several external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in two published papers. Conclusions The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation. PMID:21709111

  12. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  13. Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.

    2017-08-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of 〈110〉 steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because 〈110〉 (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than 〈100〉 (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for 〈110〉 steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for 〈100〉-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of 〈110〉-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.

  14. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  15. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  16. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF HOLE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FROM STEP FILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of Hole Recognition System (HRS for Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP using a neutral data format produced by CAD system. The geometrical data of holes is retrieved from STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP. Rule-based algorithm is used during recognising process. Current implementation of feature recognition is limited to simple hole feat ures. Test results are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the feature recognition algorithm.

  18. A large number of stepping motor network construction by PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Kai; Hongqiang, Guo

    2017-11-01

    In the flexible automatic line, the equipment is complex, the control mode is flexible, how to realize the large number of step and servo motor information interaction, the orderly control become a difficult control. Based on the existing flexible production line, this paper makes a comparative study of its network strategy. After research, an Ethernet + PROFIBUSE communication configuration based on PROFINET IO and profibus was proposed, which can effectively improve the data interaction efficiency of the equipment and stable data interaction information.

  19. Two Step Synthesis of a Non-symmetric Acetylcholinesterase Reactivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Koleckar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed and very promising acetylcholinesterase reactivator (E-1- (2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium-4-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium-but-2-ene dibromide was prepared using two different pathways via a two-step synthesis involving the appropriate (E-1-(4-bromobut-2-enyl-2- or 4-hydroxyiminomethyl-pyridinium bromides. Afterwards, purities and yields of the desired product prepared by both routes were compared. Finally, its potency to reactivate several nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterases was tested.

  20. Verification steps for the CMS event-builder software

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The CMS event-builder software is used to assemble event fragments into complete events at 100 kHz. The data originates at the detector front-end electronics, passes through several computers and is transported from the underground to the high-level trigger farm on the surface. I will present the testing and verifications steps a new software version has to pass before it is deployed in production. I will discuss the current practice and possible improvements.

  1. Improving Urogenital Function with Step Training after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    closed with suture, the skin closed with Michel clips, and topical antibiotic applied. Animals were single housed on a 12 : 12 light : dark cycle. 2.2...dysfunction are among the highest priorities after injury, yet few studies are being done. Our study uses a clinically relevant chronic SCI animal ...participants that step training can have beneficial outcomes on bladder maintenance, including polyuria (over- production of urine resulting in the need to

  2. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts

  3. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  4. Step-wise refolding of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumoto, Kouhei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Chen, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Protein refolding is still on trial-and-error basis. Here we describe step-wise dialysis refolding, in which denaturant concentration is altered in step-wise fashion. This technology controls the folding pathway by adjusting the concentrations of the denaturant and other solvent additives to induce sequential folding or disulfide formation.

  5. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  6. Random Walks with Anti-Correlated Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dirk; Noga, John

    2005-01-01

    We conjecture the expected value of random walks with anti-correlated steps to be exactly 1. We support this conjecture with 2 plausibility arguments and experimental data. The experimental analysis includes the computation of the expected values of random walks for steps up to 22. The result shows the expected value asymptotically converging to 1.

  7. Steps in Performing a Communication Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; And Others

    This paper develops the step-by-step processes necessary to conduct a communication audit in order to determine the communication effectiveness of an organization. The authors stress the responsibilities of both the audit team and the organization's top management as they interact during progressive phases of the audit. Emphasis is placed on…

  8. Step patterns on vicinal reconstructed surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilfan, Igor

    1996-04-01

    Step patterns on vicinal (2 × 1) reconstructed surfaces of noble metals Au(110) and Pt(110), miscut towards the (100) orientation, are investigated. The free energy of the reconstructed surface with a network of crossing opposite steps is calculated in the strong chirality regime when the steps cannot make overhangs. It is explained why the steps are not perpendicular to the direction of the miscut but form in equilibrium a network of crossing steps which make the surface to look like a fish skin. The network formation is the consequence of competition between the — predominantly elastic — energy loss and entropy gain. It is in agreement with recent scanning tunnelling microscopy observations on vicinal Au(110) and Pt(110) surfaces.

  9. Enhancing the stepped solar still performance using internal and external reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omara, Z.M.; Kabeel, A.E.; Younes, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Stepped solar still with internal and external reflectors have been investigated. • The productivity of the modified stepped solar still is higher than conventional by 103%. • The productivity of stepped still with external mirror is higher than that for conventional still by 88%. - Abstract: The performance of stepped solar still with internal and external reflectors have been investigated in the current study. The reflectors are used to enhance energy input to the stepped still. The influence of internal and external (top and bottom) reflectors on the performance of the stepped solar still is investigated. A comparison between modified stepped solar still and conventional solar still is carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The results indicated that, during experimentation the productivity of the modified stepped solar still with internal and external (top and bottom) reflectors is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 125%. In this case the estimated cost of 1 l of distillate for stepped still with reflectors and conventional solar stills is approximately 0.031$ and 0.049$, respectively

  10. Step changes and deactivation behaviour in the continuous decarboxylation of stearic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmyslowicz, B.; Simakova, I.

    2011-01-01

    % conversion of pure stearic acid. Deactivation took place in H-2-deficient gas atmosphere, probably as a result of the formation of unsaturated products and coking in the pore system. Transient experiments with step changes were performed: 1 h was required for the step change to be visible in liquid sampling...

  11. Interstellar Probe: First Step to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The idea of an "Interstellar Probe," a robotic spacecraft traveling into the nearby interstellar medium for the purpose of scientific investigation, dates to the mid-1960s. The Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), an "accidental" 40-year-old by-product of the Grand Tour of the solar system, has provided initial answers to the problem of the global heliospheric configuration and the details of its interface with interstellar space. But the twin Voyager spacecraft have, at most, only another decade of lifetime, and only Voyager 1 has emerged from the heliosheath interaction region. To understand the nature of the interaction, a near-term mission to the "near-by" interstellar medium with modern and focused instrumentation remains a compelling priority. Imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) by the Ion Neutral CAmera (INCA) on Cassini and from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in Earth orbit have provided significant new insights into the global interaction region but point to discrepancies with our current understanding. Exploring "as far as possible" into "pristine" interstellar space can resolve these. Hence, reaching large heliocentric distances rapidly is a driver for an Interstellar Probe. Such a mission is timely; understanding the interstellar context of exoplanet systems - and perhaps the context for the emergence of life both here and there - hinges upon what we can discover within our own stellar neighborhood. With current spacecraft technology and high-capability launch vehicles, such as the Space Launch System (SLS), a small, but extremely capable spacecraft, could be dispatched to the near-by interstellar medium with at least twice the speed of the Voyagers. Challenges remain with payload mass and power constraints for optimized science measurements. Mission longevity, as experienced by, but not designed into, the Voyagers, communications capability, and radioisotope power system performance and lifetime are solvable engineering challenges. Such

  12. Efficient One-Step Fusion PCR Based on Dual-Asymmetric Primers and Two-Step Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Jinjin; Thygesen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Gene splicing by fusion PCR is a versatile and widely used methodology, especially in synthetic biology. We here describe a rapid method for splicing two fragments by one-round fusion PCR with a dual-asymmetric primers and two-step annealing (ODT) method. During the process, the asymmetric...... intermediate fragments were generated in the early stage. Thereafter, they were hybridized in the subsequent cycles to serve as template for the target full-length product. The process parameters such as primer ratio, elongation temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. In addition, the fusion products...

  13. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...... modeling, and shows that at least for a series of example flight missions there is reasonable agreement between the two very different methods....

  15. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  16. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site Dan Step by Step Untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru Dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ichrom, Moch. Sholeh Y.A

    1996-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  17. Implementation of a variable-step integration technique for nonlinear structural dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, P.; Park, K.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of a recently developed unconditionally stable implicit time integration method into a production computer code for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structural dynamic systems. The time integrator is packaged with two significant features; a variable step size that is automatically determined and this is accomplished without additional matrix refactorizations. The equations of motion solved by the time integrator must be cast in the pseudo-force form, and this provides the mechanism for controlling the step size. Step size control is accomplished by extrapolating the pseudo-force to the next time (the predicted pseudo-force), then performing the integration step and then recomputing the pseudo-force based on the current solution (the correct pseudo-force); from this data an error norm is constructed, the value of which determines the step size for the next step. To avoid refactoring the required matrix with each step size change a matrix scaling technique is employed, which allows step sizes to change by a factor of 100 without refactoring. If during a computer run the integrator determines it can run with a step size larger than 100 times the original minimum step size, the matrix is refactored to take advantage of the larger step size. The strategy for effecting these features are discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  18. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  19. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  20. Two-step chemical decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved two-step chemical decontamination technique was recently developed at INEL. This memorandum documents the addition of this technology to the SRTC arsenal of decontamination technology. A two-step process using NAOH, KMnO 4 followed by HNO 3 was used for cleaning doorstops (small casks) in the SRTC High Level Caves in 1967. Subsequently, more aggressive chemical techniques have been found to be much more effective for our applications. No further work on two-step technology is planned

  1. New Step Underground in Universe Origins Quest

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Europe's top particle physics research center has taken a major step in its plan to build the world's biggest "particle smasher" which it hopes will eventually unlock the secrets of the origins of the universe (½ page)

  2. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  3. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  4. Self-Adaptive Step Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the standard firefly algorithm, each firefly has the same step settings and its values decrease from iteration to iteration. Therefore, it may fall into the local optimum. Furthermore, the decreasing of step is restrained by the maximum of iteration, which has an influence on the convergence speed and precision. In order to avoid falling into the local optimum and reduce the impact of the maximum of iteration, a self-adaptive step firefly algorithm is proposed in the paper. Its core idea is setting the step of each firefly varying with the iteration, according to each firefly’s historical information and current situation. Experiments are made to show the performance of our approach compared with the standard FA, based on sixteen standard testing benchmark functions. The results reveal that our method can prevent the premature convergence and improve the convergence speed and accurateness.

  5. Two steps sintering alumina doped with niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Hatzfeld, J.; Heck, M.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, high surface area commercial alumina was doped with niobia and sintered in two steps in order to obtain dense materials with lower processing temperatures. The powders were milled and uniaxially pressed (200 MPa). The first step of sintering took place at 1100°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, followed by the second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The relative density, porosity and water absorption of the samples were determined by the Archimedes method. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the morphology of the samples after sintering, evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the use of niobia combined with the two steps sintering promotes an increase in the density of the material, even at lower sintering temperatures. (author)

  6. Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)

  7. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  8. IT project management 30 steps to success

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand

    2011-01-01

    This pocket guide is designed to help IT project managers to succeed, and is based on the author's years of experience in IT project management. The guide's step-by-step approach will enable those new to IT project management, or intending to make a career in this field, to master the essential skills. For seasoned professionals, the pocket guide offers an invaluable concise reference guide.

  9. Steps in formulating an environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the process of establishing a complete equipment environmental monitoring program; the step by step process is also illustrated in Table 3 of the Summary. The following decisions must be made in defining the program: an initial characterization of plant environment, how to integrate with existing programs to realize the maximum benefits, identification of the specific monitoring locations, determining the monitoring techniques, frequency of recording data, monitoring duration, quality assurance requirements, and finally, establishing the recordkeeping requirements

  10. Does my step look big in this? A visual illusion leads to safer stepping behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping is a common factor in falls and a typical safety strategy to avoid tripping on steps or stairs is to increase foot clearance over the step edge. In the present study we asked whether the perceived height of a step could be increased using a visual illusion and whether this would lead to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy, in terms of greater foot clearance over the step edge. The study also addressed the controversial question of whether motor actions are dissociated from visual perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 21 young, healthy subjects perceived the step to be higher in a configuration of the horizontal-vertical illusion compared to a reverse configuration (p = 0.01. During a simple stepping task, maximum toe elevation changed by an amount corresponding to the size of the visual illusion (p<0.001. Linear regression analyses showed highly significant associations between perceived step height and maximum toe elevation for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The perceived height of a step can be manipulated using a simple visual illusion, leading to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy in terms of greater foot clearance over a step edge. In addition, the strong link found between perception of a visual illusion and visuomotor action provides additional support to the view that the original, controversial proposal by Goodale and Milner (1992 of two separate and distinct visual streams for perception and visuomotor action should be re-evaluated.

  11. Recovery of forward stepping in spinal cord injured patients does not transfer to untrained backward stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    Six spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support for 1.5-3 months. At the end of training, foot motion recovered the shape and the step-by-step reproducibility that characterize normal gait. They were then asked to step backward on the treadmill belt that moved in the opposite direction relative to standard forward training. In contrast to healthy subjects, who can immediately reverse the direction of walking by time-reversing the kinematic waveforms, patients were unable to step backward. Similarly patients were unable to perform another untrained locomotor task, namely stepping in place on the idle treadmill. Two patients who were trained to step backward for 2-3 weeks were able to develop control of foot motion appropriate for this task. The results show that locomotor improvement does not transfer to untrained tasks, thus supporting the idea of task-dependent plasticity in human locomotor networks.

  12. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  13. [Collaborative application of BEPS at different time steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Fan, Wen Yi; Tian, Tian

    2016-09-01

    BEPSHourly is committed to simulate the ecological and physiological process of vegetation at hourly time steps, and is often applied to analyze the diurnal change of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) at site scale because of its more complex model structure and time-consuming solving process. However, daily photosynthetic rate calculation in BEPSDaily model is simpler and less time-consuming, not involving many iterative processes. It is suitable for simulating the regional primary productivity and analyzing the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks. According to the characteristics and applicability of BEPSDaily and BEPSHourly models, this paper proposed a method of collaborative application of BEPS at daily and hourly time steps. Firstly, BEPSHourly was used to optimize the main photosynthetic parameters: the maximum rate of carboxylation (V c max ) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J max ) at site scale, and then the two optimized parameters were introduced into BEPSDaily model to estimate regional NPP at regional scale. The results showed that optimization of the main photosynthesis parameters based on the flux data could improve the simulate ability of the model. The primary productivity of different forest types in descending order was deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed forest, coniferous forest in 2011. The collaborative application of carbon cycle models at different steps proposed in this study could effectively optimize the main photosynthesis parameters V c max and J max , simulate the monthly averaged diurnal GPP, NPP, calculate the regional NPP, and analyze the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks.

  14. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics of resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprint runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Gamble, Paul

    2018-03-26

    This investigation examined step-by-step kinematics of sprint running acceleration. Using a randomised counterbalanced approach, 37 female team handball players (age 17.8 ± 1.6 years, body mass 69.6 ± 9.1 kg, height 1.74 ± 0.06 m) performed resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprints within a single session. 20-m sprint times and step velocity, as well as step length, step frequency, contact and flight times of each step were evaluated for each condition with a laser gun and an infrared mat. Almost all measured parameters were altered for each step under the resisted and assisted sprint conditions (η 2  ≥ 0.28). The exception was step frequency, which did not differ between assisted and normal sprints. Contact time, flight time and step frequency at almost each step were different between 'fast' vs. 'slow' sub-groups (η 2  ≥ 0.22). Nevertheless overall both groups responded similarly to the respective sprint conditions. No significant differences in step length were observed between groups for the respective condition. It is possible that continued exposure to assisted sprinting might allow the female team-sports players studied to adapt their coordination to the 'over-speed' condition and increase step frequency. It is notable that step-by-step kinematics in these sprints were easy to obtain using relatively inexpensive equipment with possibilities of direct feedback.

  15. Ethylene dissociation on flat and stepped Ni(111): A combined STM and DFT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, R.T.; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Dahl, S.

    2006-01-01

    The dissociative adsorption of ethylene (C(2)H(4)) on Ni(111) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The STM studies reveal that ethylene decomposes exclusively at the step edges at room temperature. However, the step edge sites...... are poisoned by the reaction products and thus only a small brim of decomposed ethylene is formed. At 500 K decomposition on the (111) facets leads to a continuous growth of carbidic islands, which nucleate along the step edges. DFT calculations were performed for several intermediate steps...... in the decomposition of ethylene on both Ni(111) and the stepped Ni(211) surface. In general the Ni(211) surface is found to have a higher reactivity than the Ni(111) surface. Furthermore, the calculations show that the influence of step edge atoms is very different for the different reaction pathways. In particular...

  16. Railgun armature velocity improvement, SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Leo E.; Bauer, David P.

    1992-08-01

    Railgun hypervelocity performance has not been repeatably demonstrated at velocities over 6 km/s. A significant performance limiting phenomena is the formation of secondary current paths in parallel with the main projectile accelerating plasma. A confined plasma armature technique was developed to prevent secondary armature formation. Confinement prevents loss of ionized material from the plasma armature and thereby prevents formation of a low rail-to-rail conductance. We controlled pressure in the confined armature via controlled venting through ports in the rails. Railgun tests with the confined armature show that sealing at the rail-confinement vessel interface is critical and difficult to achieve. Our tests show that during low seal leakage operation secondaries are prevented. However, maintaining good seal for the entire launch is very difficult.

  17. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  18. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  19. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  20. Rapid decay of vacancy islands at step edges on Ag(111): step orientation dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Mingmin; Thiel, P A; Jenks, Cynthia J; Evans, J W

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established that vacancy islands or pits fill much more quickly when they are in contact with a step edge, such that the common boundary is a double step. The present work focuses on the effect of the orientation of that step, with two possibilities existing for a face centered cubic (111) surface: A- and B-type steps. We find that the following features can depend on the orientation: (1) the shapes of islands while they shrink; (2) whether the island remains attached to the step edge; and (3) the rate of filling. The first two effects can be explained by the different rates of adatom diffusion along the A- and B-steps that define the pit, enhanced by the different filling rates. The third observation-the difference in the filling rate itself-is explained within the context of the concerted exchange mechanism at the double step. This process is facile at all regular sites along B-steps, but only at kink sites along A-steps, which explains the different rates. We also observe that oxygen can greatly accelerate the decay process, although it has no apparent effect on an isolated vacancy island (i.e. an island that is not in contact with a step).

  1. Seven steps to curb global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

  2. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  3. Step-by-step seeding procedure for preparing HKUST-1 membrane on porous α-alumina support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jiangpu; Dong, Xueliang; Wang, Wenjin; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    2011-04-19

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted considerable attention because of their striking advantages in small-molecule separation. The preparation of an integrated MOF membrane is still a major challenge. Depositing a uniform seed layer on a support for secondary growth is a main route to obtaining an integrated MOF membrane. A novel seeding method to prepare HKUST-1 (known as Cu(3)(btc)(2)) membranes on porous α-alumina supports is reported. The in situ production of the seed layer was realized in step-by-step fashion via the coordination of H(3)btc and Cu(2+) on an α-alumina support. The formation process of the seed layer was observed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. An integrated HKUST-1 membrane could be synthesized by the secondary hydrothermal growth on the seeded support. The gas permeation performance of the membrane was evaluated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Jeff [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-08-03

    One-step hydrogen generation, using Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) technology, is an innovative means of providing critical energy and environmental improvements to US manufacturing processes. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a Compact Hydrogen Generator (CHG) process, based on SER technology, which successfully integrates previously independent process steps, achieves superior energy efficiency by lowering reaction temperatures, and provides pathways to doubling energy productivity with less environmental pollution. GTI’s prior CHG process development efforts have culminated in an operational pilot plant. During the initial pilot testing, GTI identified two operating risks- 1) catalyst coating with calcium aluminate compounds, 2) limited solids handling of the sorbent. Under this contract GTI evaluated alternative materials (one catalyst and two sorbents) to mitigate both risks. The alternate catalyst met performance targets and did not experience coating with calcium aluminate compounds of any kind. The alternate sorbent materials demonstrated viable operation, with one material enabling a three-fold increase in sorbent flow. The testing also demonstrated operation at 90% of its rated capacity. Lastly, a carbon dioxide co-production study was performed to assess the advantage of the solid phase separation of carbon dioxide- inherent in the CHG process. Approximately 70% lower capital cost is achievable compared to SMR-based hydrogen production with CO2 capture, as well as improved operating costs.

  5. A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Thyfault, John P; Spence, John C

    2013-02-01

    Step counting (using pedometers or accelerometers) is widely accepted by researchers, practitioners, and the general public. Given the mounting evidence of the link between low steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviours, how few steps/day some populations actually perform, and the growing interest in the potentially deleterious effects of excessive sedentary behaviours on health, an emerging question is "How many steps/day are too few?" This review examines the utility, appropriateness, and limitations of using a reoccurring candidate for a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: 10 000) to lower (sedentary lifestyle index for adults is appropriate for researchers and practitioners and for communicating with the general public. There is little evidence to advocate any specific value indicative of a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index in children and adolescents.

  6. Comparing the efficacy of metronome beeps and stepping stones to adjust gait: steps to follow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Roerdink, Melvyn; Peper, C E

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic metronomes and visual targets have been used in rehabilitation practice to improve pathological gait. In addition, they may be instrumental in evaluating and training instantaneous gait adjustments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two cue types in inducing gait adjustments, viz. acoustic temporal cues in the form of metronome beeps and visual spatial cues in the form of projected stepping stones. Twenty healthy elderly (aged 63.2 ± 3.6 years) were recruited to walk on an instrumented treadmill at preferred speed and cadence, paced by either metronome beeps or projected stepping stones. Gait adaptations were induced using two manipulations: by perturbing the sequence of cues and by imposing switches from one cueing type to the other. Responses to these manipulations were quantified in terms of step-length and step-time adjustments, the percentage correction achieved over subsequent steps, and the number of steps required to restore the relation between gait and the beeps or stepping stones. The results showed that perturbations in a sequence of stepping stones were overcome faster than those in a sequence of metronome beeps. In switching trials, switching from metronome beeps to stepping stones was achieved faster than vice versa, indicating that gait was influenced more strongly by the stepping stones than the metronome beeps. Together these results revealed that, in healthy elderly, the stepping stones induced gait adjustments more effectively than did the metronome beeps. Potential implications for the use of metronome beeps and stepping stones in gait rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  7. Biomass pyrolysis liquid to citric acid via 2-step bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiguang; Bai, Zhihui; Sun, Hongyan; Yu, Zhisheng; Li, Xingxing; Guo, Yifei; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-12-31

    The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic biomass into desirable value added products. However, such bioprocesses require tolerance to inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment of biomass. In this study, the process of sequential two-step bio-conversion of biomass pyrolysis liquid containing levoglucosan (LG) to citric acid without chemical detoxification has been explored, which can greatly improve the utilization efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. The sequential two-step bio-conversion of corn stover pyrolysis liquid to citric acid has been established. The first step conversion by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) is desirable to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan as a pretreatment for the second conversion. The remaining levoglucosan in solution was further converted into citric acid by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) CBX-209. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology. Under experimental conditions, levoglucosan yield is 12% based on the feedstock and the citric acid yield can reach 82.1% based on the levoglucosan content in the pyrolysis liquid (namely 82.1 g of citric acid per 100 g of levoglucosan). The study shows that P. chrysosporium and A. niger have the potential to be used as production platforms for value-added products from pyrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass. Selected P. chrysosporium is able to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan and levoglucosan can be further converted into citric acid in the residual liquids by A. niger. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology.

  8. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  9. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  10. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  11. Comparison study on mechanical properties single step and three step artificial aging on duralium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Puspitasari, Poppy; Andoko, Sasongko, M. Ilman N.; Yazirin, Cepi

    2017-09-01

    Duralium is kind of non-ferro alloy that used widely in industrial. That caused its properties such as mild, high ductility, and resistance from corrosion. This study aimed to know mechanical properties of duralium on single step and three step articial aging process. Mechanical properties that discussed in this study focused on toughness value, tensile strength, and microstructure of duralium. Toughness value of single step artificial aging was 0.082 joule/mm2, and toughness value of three step artificial aging was 0,0721 joule/mm2. Duralium tensile strength of single step artificial aging was 32.36 kgf/mm^2, and duralium tensile strength of three step artificial aging was 32,70 kgf/mm^2. Based on microstructure photo of duralium of single step artificial aging showed that precipitate (θ) was not spreading evenly indicated by black spot which increasing the toughness of material. While microstructure photo of duralium that treated by three step artificial aging showed that it had more precipitate (θ) spread evenly compared with duralium that treated by single step artificial aging.

  12. Crowdsourcing step-by-step information extraction to enhance existing how-to videos

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu Tran; Weir, Sarah; Guo, Philip J.; Miller, Robert C.; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Kim, Ju Ho

    2014-01-01

    Millions of learners today use how-to videos to master new skills in a variety of domains. But browsing such videos is often tedious and inefficient because video player interfaces are not optimized for the unique step-by-step structure of such videos. This research aims to improve the learning experience of existing how-to videos with step-by-step annotations. We first performed a formative study to verify that annotations are actually useful to learners. We created ToolScape, an interac...

  13. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  14. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  15. Isolated step-down DC -DC converter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovinets, O. V.; Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.

    2018-02-01

    Modern motor-vehicle industrial sector is moving rapidly now towards the electricity-driving cars production, improving their range and efficiency of components, and in particular the step-down DC/DC converter to supply the onboard circuit 12/24V of electric vehicle from the high-voltage battery. The purpose of this article - to identify the best circuitry topology to design an advanced step-down DC/DC converters with the smallest mass, volume, highest efficiency and power. And this will have a positive effect on driving distance of electric vehicle (EV). On the basis of computational research of existing and implemented circuit topologies of step-down DC/DC converters (serial resonant converter, full bridge with phase-shifting converter, LLC resonant converter) a comprehensive analysis was carried out on the following characteristics: specific volume, specific weight, power, efficiency. The data obtained was the basis for the best technical option - LLC resonant converter. The results can serve as a guide material in the process of components design of the traction equipment for electric vehicles, providing for the best technical solutions in the design and manufacturing of converting equipment, self-contained power supply systems and advanced driver assistance systems.

  16. Adaptive time-stepping Monte Carlo integration of Coulomb collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkimäki, K.; Hirvijoki, E.; Terävä, J.

    2018-01-01

    We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-Jüttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. The Monte Carlo method is implemented for both the three-dimensional particle momentum space and the five-dimensional guiding center phase space. Detailed description is provided for both the physics and implementation of the operator. The focus is in adaptive integration of stochastic differential equations, which is an overlooked aspect among existing Monte Carlo implementations of Coulomb collision operators. We verify that our operator converges to known analytical results and demonstrate that careless implementation of the adaptive time step can lead to severely erroneous results. The operator is provided as a self-contained Fortran 95 module and can be included into existing orbit-following tools that trace either the full Larmor motion or the guiding center dynamics. The adaptive time-stepping algorithm is expected to be useful in situations where the collision frequencies vary greatly over the course of a simulation. Examples include the slowing-down of fusion products or other fast ions, and the Dreicer generation of runaway electrons as well as the generation of fast ions or electrons with ion or electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  17. Stepped frequency imaging for flaw monitoring: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of research into the usefulness of stepped frequency imaging (SFI) to nuclear power plant inspection. SFI is a method for producing ultrasonic holographic images without the need to sweep a two-dimensional aperture with the transducer. Instead, the transducer may be translated along a line. At each position of the transducer the frequency is stepped over a finite preselected bandwidth. The frequency stepped data is then processed to synthesize the second dimension. In this way it is possible to generate images in regions that are relatively inaccessible to two-dimensional scanners. This report reviews the theory and experimental work verifying the technique, and then explores its possible applications in the nuclear power industry. It also outlines how this new capability can be incorporated into the SDL-1000 Imaging System previously developed for EPRI. The report concludes with five suggestions for uses for the SFI method. These are: monitoring suspect or repaired regions of feedwater nozzles; monitoring pipe cracks repaired by weld overlay; monitoring crack depth during test block production; imaging flaws where access is difficult; and imaging flaws through cladding without distortion

  18. Step growth of two flexible ABf monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional lattice model was used to simulate the competition between the growth of hyperbranched structures and cycle formation that occurs when flexible ABf monomers undergo step growth. The monomers in the model are mapped onto several lattice sites. The effect of functionality...

  19. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  20. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  1. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network.

  2. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  3. Randomness in multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a quantum-statistical framework that provides an integrated perspective on the differences and similarities between the many current models for multi-step direct reactions in the continuum. It is argued that to obtain a statistical theory two physically different approaches are conceivable to postulate randomness, respectively called leading-particle statistics and residual-system statistics. They present a new leading-particle statistics theory for multi-step direct reactions. It is shown that the model of Feshbach et al. can be derived as a simplification of this theory and thus can be founded solely upon leading-particle statistics. The models developed by Tamura et al. and Nishioka et al. are based upon residual-system statistics and hence fall into a physically different class of multi-step direct theories, although the resulting cross-section formulae for the important first step are shown to be the same. The widely used semi-classical models such as the generalized exciton model can be interpreted as further phenomenological simplification of the leading-particle statistics theory

  4. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs

  5. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  6. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  7. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  8. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  9. Steps, Choices and Moral Accounting: Observations from a Step-Counting Campaign in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm, Nanna; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace...

  10. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  11. Action research: A practical step-by-step guide for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, the extensionists will be able to identify the action required to improve upon the existing situation. This calls for knowledge and skills in action oriented research. This paper provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step guidelines which should be suitable for many situations in extension research ...

  12. Accuracy of Single-Step versus 2-Step Double-Mix Impression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Herrera, Francyle Simões

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the accuracy of dies obtained from single-step and 2-step double-mix impressions. Material and Methods. Impressions (n = 10) of a stainless steel die simulating a complete crown preparation were performed using a polyether (Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body) and a vinyl...

  13. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities.Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video.All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025. The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both. The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both.As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping

  14. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Quinlan, Leo R

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P positive steps during the cycling exercises (P positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping physical activities can result in the false detection of steps. This can negatively affect the quantification of physical

  15. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  16. Self-sustained oscillations with acoustic feedback in flows over a backward-facing step with a small upstream step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Yuichi; Kato, Chisachi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    Self-sustained oscillations with acoustic feedback take place in a flow over a two-dimensional two-step configuration: a small forward-backward facing step, which we hereafter call a bump, and a relatively large backward-facing step (backstep). These oscillations can radiate intense tonal sound and fatigue nearby components of industrial products. We clarify the mechanism of these oscillations by directly solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that vortices are shed from the leading edge of the bump and acoustic waves are radiated when these vortices pass the trailing edge of the backstep. The radiated compression waves shed new vortices by stretching the vortex formed by the flow separation at the leading edge of the bump, thereby forming a feedback loop. We propose a formula based on a detailed investigation of the phase relationship between the vortices and the acoustic waves for predicting the frequencies of the tonal sound. The frequencies predicted by this formula are in good agreement with those measured in the experiments we performed.

  17. Intestinal digestibility of protein of adapted forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast by three-steps technique Digestão intestinal da proteína de forrageiras e co-produtos da agroindústria produzidos no Nordeste Brasileiro por intermédio da técnica de três estágios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Lousada Regadas Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to estimate the intestinal digestibility (ID of rumen-undegradable protein (RUDP of several feeds by a three-steps procedure. The evaluated forages were algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, canafístula (Pithecellobium multiflorum, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, jitirana (Ipomea sp., juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro, mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth, palma gigante (Opuntia ficus indica and xique-xique (Cereus gounellei, and the agroindustry byproducts were pineapple (Ananas comosus L., barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, coconut (Cocos nucifera L., melon (Cucumis melo, passion fruit (Passiflora eduli, grape (Vitis labrusca and anatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.. The feeds were incubated in rumen during 16 hours to determine the RUDP, and the residue was submitted to the digestion with pepsin solution during one hour, and pancreatic solution during 24 hours at 38ºC, those residues were analyzed for total nitrogen. The estimative of RUDP forage ranged from 13.37 to 83.6%, and the RUDP by-product ranged from 39.14 to 89.06%. The intestinal digestion of RUDP of the forages ranged from 26.09 to 80.68%, while for by-products varied from 22.26 to 76.82%. The sabiá was the forage that presented the highest intestinal digestibility and digestive rumen-undegradable protein (RUDPd, and the flor-de-seda, the lowest digestibility; while for by-products, melon and cashew presented, respectively, the highest values for DI and RUDP. The coconut presented the lowest values for ID and RUDPd. Although, some formulation systems of diets for ruminant consider that the RUDP present constant ID, the data obtained in this work suggest variation among the different feeds.A pesquisa objetivou estimar a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR de alimentos por intermédio da técnica de três estágios. As forragens avaliadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora

  18. Stepped piezoresistive microcantilever designs for biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu; Urban, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of a piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor strongly depends on its ability to convert the surface stress-induced deflections into large resistance change. To improve the sensitivity, we present stepped microcantilever biosensor designs that show significant resistance change compared with commonly used rectangular designs. The cantilever is made of silicon dioxide with a u-shaped silicon piezoresistor. The surface stress-induced deflections, bimorph deflection, fundamental resonant frequency and self-heating properties of the cantilever are studied using the FEM software. The surface stress-induced deflections are compared against the analytical model derived in this work. Results show that stepped designs have better signal-to-noise ratio than the rectangular ones and cantilevers with l/L between 0.5 and 0.75 are better designs for improving sensitivity. (paper)

  19. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  20. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  1. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  2. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power model is proposed as the statistical model of the color shift (CS) process of LED products. Consequently, a CS mechanism constant is obtained for detecting the consistency of CS mechanisms among various s...

  3. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaka, Mohamed Saad; Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this con...

  4. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this condition. PMID:28293510

  5. STeP : Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Organizzazione del corso di formazione sulla sicurezza dei dati e l'applicazione del 'Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali - D.lgs. 196/2003', 'STeP: Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy'. Il corso, suddiviso in due giornate (di 4 ore) ? stato rivolto principalmente ai respondabili del trattamento dei dati personali, agli addetti al trattamento ed ai responsabili della sicurezza dei sistemi informatici. Il corso si prefigge di fornire un quadro completo della normativa ( D.Lgs. 196/2003) ...

  6. Tandem mirror next step: remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Hanson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study of the next proposed experiment in the Mirror Fusion Program, the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS), has included serious consideration of the maintenance requirements of such a large source of high energy neutrons with its attendant throughput of tritium. Although maintenance will be costly in time and money, our conclusion is that with careful attention to a design for maintenance plan such a device can be reliably operated

  7. NEW STEPS IN SKETCHING MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocariu Liliana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new and main steps in sketching machine part, by using the Solid Edge program. The traditional method applied in the technical drawing is appreciably altered in the case of the computer-assisted and modern design. These modifications involve others: e.g., use of classic drawing rule in tool sketching. The author deals with them from three points of view, namely: technical drawing, technical education and advantages.

  8. Voltage-Step Transient on Circular Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0428; GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ohmic loss * voltage-step transient * cottrell asymptote Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2011

  9. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  10. Step Density Profiles in Localized Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Dhar, Abhishek; Huveneers, François; Schütz, Marius

    2017-06-01

    We consider two types of strongly disordered one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems coupled to baths (energy or particle reservoirs) at the boundaries: strongly disordered quantum spin chains and disordered classical harmonic oscillators. These systems are believed to exhibit localization, implying in particular that the conductivity decays exponentially in the chain length L. We ask however for the profile of the (very slowly) transported quantity in the steady state. We find that this profile is a step-function, jumping in the middle of the chain from the value set by the left bath to the value set by the right bath. This is confirmed by numerics on a disordered quantum spin chain of 9 spins and on much longer chains of harmonic oscillators. From theoretical arguments, we find that the width of the step grows not faster than √{L}, and we confirm this numerically for harmonic oscillators. In this case, we also observe a drastic breakdown of local equilibrium at the step, resulting in a heavily oscillating temperature profile.

  11. Novel Instrumentation for Lunar Regolith Oxygen Production Facilities, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop, test and deploy three novel compact, rugged and easy-to-use multi-gas analysis instruments, based...

  12. Temperature-modulated annealing of c-plane sapphire for long-range-ordered atomic steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    High-quality single-crystalline sapphire is used to prepare various semiconductors because of its thermal stability. Here, we applied the tempering technique, which is well known in the production of chocolate, to prepare a sapphire substrate. Surprisingly, we successfully realised millimetre-range ordering of the atomic step of the sapphire substrate. We also obtained a sapphire atomic step with nanometre-scale uniformity in the terrace width and atomic-step height. Such sapphire substrates will find applications in the preparation of various semiconductors and devices. (paper)

  13. Microsoft® Visual Basic® 2010 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Your hands-on, step-by-step guide to learning Visual Basic® 2010. Teach yourself the essential tools and techniques for Visual Basic® 2010-one step at a time. No matter what your skill level, you'll find the practical guidance and examples you need to start building professional applications for Windows® and the Web. Discover how to: Work in the Microsoft® Visual Studio® 2010 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)Master essential techniques-from managing data and variables to using inheritance and dialog boxesCreate professional-looking UIs; add visual effects and print supportBuild com

  14. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-11-24

    To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian neighbourhoods was not associated with more total walking. Utilitarian walking and daily steps were, however, correlated and walkability demonstrated a positive graded relationship with utilitarian walking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  15. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  16. Follow These Step-by-Step Instructions to Prevent Avoidable Tumbles at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Almost a quarter of disabling work injuries among school employees are caused by slips and falls. Outlines prevention steps and safety programs that can help lower the possibilities of accidents from falls in schools. (MD)

  17. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  18. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.17 Requirements for the... must include a cooking step. Controlled intermediate step(s) applied to raw product may form part of...

  19. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  20. Stepping stability: effects of sensory perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs David E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few tools exist for quantifying locomotor stability in balance impaired populations. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a technique for quantifying stability of stepping in healthy people and people with peripheral (vestibular hypofunction, VH and central (cerebellar pathology, CB balance dysfunction by means a sensory (auditory perturbation test. Methods Balance impaired and healthy subjects performed a repeated bench stepping task. The perturbation was applied by suddenly changing the cadence of the metronome (100 beat/min to 80 beat/min at a predetermined time (but unpredictable by the subject during the trial. Perturbation response was quantified by computing the Euclidian distance, expressed as a fractional error, between the anterior-posterior center of gravity attractor trajectory before and after the perturbation was applied. The error immediately after the perturbation (Emax, error after recovery (Emin and the recovery response (Edif were documented for each participant, and groups were compared with ANOVA. Results Both balance impaired groups exhibited significantly higher Emax (p = .019 and Emin (p = .028 fractional errors compared to the healthy (HE subjects, but there were no significant differences between CB and VH groups. Although response recovery was slower for CB and VH groups compared to the HE group, the difference was not significant (p = .051. Conclusion The findings suggest that individuals with balance impairment have reduced ability to stabilize locomotor patterns following perturbation, revealing the fragility of their impairment adaptations and compensations. These data suggest that auditory perturbations applied during a challenging stepping task may be useful for measuring rehabilitation outcomes.

  1. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  2. Working together in future: next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Some questions about public trust have to find answers: the language of safety, how much is enough, how much is too much for stake holder interaction, how do you deal with the issue of responding, i.e. demonstrating action on issues when the licensing decision is not what public groups want, how do you measure the success of consultations, what are the indicators for trust, benchmarking and measuring public perceptions, need for consistency of approach (can determine public confidence by differences between countries) are so many questions that could help for next steps. (N.C.)

  3. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  4. Angular momentum in multi-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Adachi, Hajime; Kuwako, Akira; Nittoh, Koichi; Araki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoguchi, Itaru.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the angular momenta on the multi-step laser-ionization efficiency was investigated numerically for cases with and without the hyperfine interactions. For either cases the ionization efficiency proved to depend appreciably on the values of J in the excitation ladder. In this respect, we elaborated a simple and efficient method of determining J, which was based on the laser polarization dependence of the excitation rate. Application of this method to a couple of real excitation ladders proved its usefulness and reliability. (author)

  5. Electronic dental records: start taking the steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoff, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Converting paper patient records charts into their electronic counterparts (EDRs) not only has many advantages, but also could become a legal requirement in the future. Several steps key to a successful transition includes assessing the needs of the dental team and what they require as a part of the implementation Existing software and hardware must be evaluated for continued use and expansion. Proper protocols for information transfer must be established to ensure complete records while maintaining HIPAA regulations regarding patient privacy. Reduce anxiety by setting realistic dead-lines and using trusted back-up methods.

  6. The quality step; La demarche qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellenoue, K. [Awiplan (France); Noyon, N. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Bourmeau, E. [OVAL, France (FR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 25 and 26 may 2000, took place at Lille two discussion days on the quality step concerning the collecting, processing and valorization of the domestic wastes, facing the environmental and energy policy. The organic wastes concerned were the domestic wastes and also the wastes from the gardens. This document presents all the papers discussed during these two days and makes the state of the art in the domain. A special interest is given to the quality insurance management, its objectives and its operating. Many european examples and the QUALORG program are provided and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Stability study in one step steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es

  8. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  9. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  10. Effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount before a practical simulation of fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagge, Marcelo; Uliana, Christiano Saliba; Fischer, Sergei Taggesell; Kojima, Kodi Edson

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount by residents before the final execution of a practical exercise simulating a surgical fixation of a radial diaphyseal fracture. The study included 10 residents of orthopaedics and traumatology (four second- year and six first-year residents) divided into two groups with five residents each. All participants initially gathered in a room in which a video was presented demonstrating the practical exercise to be performed. One group (Group A) was referred directly to the practical exercise room. The other group (Group B) attended an extra session before the practical exercise, in which they were invited by instructors to recount all the steps that they would perform during the practical exercise. During this session, the instructors corrected the residents if any errors in the step-by-step recount were identified, and clarified questions from them. After this session, both Groups A and B gathered in a room in which they proceeded to the practical exercise, while being video recorded and evaluated using a 20-point checklist. Group A achieved a 57% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 7 to 15 points out of a total of a possible 20 points. Group B achieved an 89% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 15 to 20 points out of 20. An oral step-by-step recount by the residents before the final execution of a practical simulation exercise of surgical fixation of a diaphyseal radial fracture improved the technique and reduced the execution time of the exercise. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  12. 40 CFR 35.917 - Facilities planning (step 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facilities planning (step 1). 35.917... Facilities planning (step 1). (a) Sections 35.917 through 35.917-9 establish the requirements for facilities... the facilities planning provisions of this subpart before award of step 2 or step 3 grant assistance...

  13. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step one. 14.503-1 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... use the two step method. (3) The requirements of the technical proposal. (4) The evaluation criteria...

  14. 48 CFR 14.503-2 - Step two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step two. 14.503-2 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-2 Step two. (a) Sealed bidding... submitting acceptable technical proposals in step one; (2) Include the provision prescribed in 14.201-6(t...

  15. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  16. The Polytopic-k-Step Fibonacci Sequences in Finite Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Deveci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences, the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences modulo m, and the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in finite groups. Also, we examine the periods of the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in semidihedral group SD2m.

  17. REVIEW: A STEP AWAY FROM PARADISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Konchok Gelek (Dkon mchog dge legs དཀོན་མཆོག་དགེ་ལེགས། (Gengqiu Gelai 更求格来

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas K. Shor. 2012. A Step Away from Paradise: A Tibetan Lama's Extraordinary Journey to a Land of Immortality. [Kindle version]. ASIN B006TR0Y7W (7.03USD; ISBN 0999291890 (paperback 19.95USD. The author was fascinated by the account of Tulshuk Lingpa's disciple, Dorje Wangmo, a Bhutanese nun and a disciple who abandoned her worldly possessions to pursue the land of dreams and imagined paradise. The author dug deeper by interviewing Kungsang, Tulshuk Lingpa's son, and other key disciples who were participants in the search of the same hidden realm on the slope of a glacier. Elements of this tale resemble magical realism with its narration detailing participants' experiences of magic, a parallel world, and a portal to the hidden land. The story centers on a continuing search for locating this paradise with each step holding the possibility of drawing nearer to the destination. This holds readers' curiosity to the end. In 1962, Tulshuk Lingpa led 300 followers from Sikkim and Bhutan to an adjacent area along the Nepal-Sikkim border. He then took a few close disciples to Kangchenjunga, a remote area located on the border between Sikkim and Nepal, and attempted to pass through a gate that he believed led to a heavenly place, paralleling our own existence. At that moment, an avalanche enveloped them, killing Tulshuk and injuring the two others with him. ...

  18. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  19. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  20. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy