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Sample records for stem cell concentration

  1. Different concentrations of kaempferol distinctly modulate murine embryonic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana S; Perestrelo, Tânia; Pereira, Sandro L; Ribeiro, Marcelo F; Sousa, Maria I; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2016-01-01

    Kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid with several beneficial and protective effects. It has been demonstrated that kaempferol has anticancer properties, particularly due to its effects on proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. However, possible effects on pluripotent embryonic stem cell function have not yet been addressed. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all three germ layers with potential applications in regenerative medicine and in vitro toxicology. We show that exposure of murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) to high concentrations of kaempferol (200 μM) leads to decreased cell numbers, although the resulting smaller cell colonies remain pluripotent. However, lower concentrations of this compound (20 μM) increase the expression of pluripotency markers in mESCs. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial mass are not affected, but a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis takes place. Moreover, mESC differentiation is impaired by kaempferol, which was not related to apoptosis induction. Our results show that low concentrations of kaempferol can be beneficial for pluripotency, but inhibit proper differentiation of mESCs. Additionally, high concentrations induce apoptosis and increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  3. Effects of cell concentrations on the survival and repopulation of haemopoietic stem cells in irradiated bone marrow cell culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitake, Hideki; Okamoto, Yuruko; Okubo, Hiroshi; Miyanomae, Takeshi; Kumagai, Keiko; Mori, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of cell concentrations on the survival and repopulation of haemopoietic stem cells after irradiation were studied in the long-term culture of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. No difference was observed in the survival of the stem cells among cultures in which 0 - 10 7 cells were re-inoculated on the adherent cell colonies in the culture flask. Stem cells showed a significant proliferation within 1 week and the number of the stem cells exceeded the control in 3 weeks after irradiation in the cultures with less than 10 6 re-inoculated cells per flask. In contrast, there was a considerable delay in the onset of stem cell proliferation after irradiation in the culture with 10 7 cells per flask. Based on these results, a possibility that a stimulator of stem cell proliferation, released from irradiated stromal cells, is cancelled by an inhibitory factor produced by irradiated or unirradiated haemopoietic cells is postulated. (author)

  4. Instant stem cell therapy: Characterization and concentration of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kasten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, there is an approach to avoid expansion of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC before implantation. The aim of this study was to compare methods for instant MSC therapy by use of a portable, automatic and closed system centrifuge that allows for the concentration of MSCs. The main outcome measures were the amount of MSCs per millilitre of bone marrow (BM, clusters of differentiation (CD, proliferation and differentiation capacities of the MSC. A volume reduction protocol was compared to the traditional laboratory methods of isolation using a Ficoll gradient and native BM. Fifty millilitres of BM were obtained from haematologically healthy male Caucasians (n=10, age 8 to 49 years. The number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F/ml BM was highest in the centrifuge volume reduction protocol, followed by the native BM (not significant, the centrifuge Ficoll (p=0.042 and the manual Ficoll procedure (p=0.001. The MSC of all groups could differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages without significant differences between the groups. The CD pattern was identical for all groups: CD13+; CD 44+; CD73 +; CD90+; CD105+; HLA-A,B,C+; CD14-; CD34-; CD45-; CD271-; HLA-DR-. In a further clinical pilot study (n=5 with 297 ml BM (SD 18.6, the volume reduction protocol concentrated the MSC by a factor of 14: there were 1.08 x 102 MSC/ml BM (standard deviation (SD 1.02 x 102 before concentration, 14.8 x 102 MSC/ ml BM (SD 12.4 x 102 after concentration, and on average 296 x 102 MSC (SD 248.9 x 102, range 86.4-691.5 x 102 were available for MSC therapy. The volume reduction protocol of the closed centrifuge allows for the highest concentration of the MSC, and therefore, is a promising candidate for instant stem cell therapy.

  5. [Progress in epidermal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, You-Liang; Yang, Xiao

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian skin epidermis contains different epidermal stem cell pools which contribute to the homeostasis and repair of skin epithelium. Epidermal stem cells possess two essential features common to all stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. Disturbing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cell often causes tumors or other skin diseases. Epidermal stem cell niches provide a special microenvironment that maintains a balance of stem cell quiescence and activity. This review primarily concentrates on the following points of the epidermal stem cells: the existing evidences, the self-renewal and differentiation, the division pattern, the signal pathways regulating self-renewal and differentiation, and the microenvironment (niche) and macroenvironment maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells.

  6. Treatment of AVN Using Autologous BM Stem Cells and Activated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesh, Nagaraj H; Janardhan, Kiranmayee; Subramanian, Vignesh; Ashtekar, Abhishek Bhushan; Srikruthi, Nandagiri; Koka, Prasad S; Deb, Kaushik

    Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of hip is a devastating condition seen in younger individuals. It is the ischemic death of the constituents of the bone cartilage of the hip. The femoral head (FH) is the most common site for AVN. It results from interruption of the normal blood flow to the FH that fits into the hip socket. Earlier studies using autologous bone marrow stem cell concentrate injections have shown encouraging results with average success rates. The current study was designed to improve significantly the cartilage regeneration and clinical outcome. Total of 48 patients underwent autologous bone marrow stem cell and activated platelet-rich plasma derived growth factor concentrate (PRP-GFC) therapy for early and advanced stages AVN of femoral head in a single multi-specialty center. The total treatment was divided into three phases. In the phase I, all the clinical diagnostic measurements such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) etc. with respect to the AVN patients and bone marrow aspiration from posterior iliac spine from the patients were carried out. In the phase II, isolation of stem cells and preparation from the patients were performed. Subsequently, in phase III, the stem cells and PRP- GFCs were transplanted in the enrolled patients. Ninety three percent of the enrolled AVN patients showed marked enhancement in the hip bone joint space (more than 3mm) after combined stem cells and PRP-GFC treatment as evidenced by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment MRI data thus indicative of regeneration of cartilage. The treated patients showed significant improvement in their motor function, cartilage regrowth (3 to 10mm), and high satisfaction in the two-year follow-up. Combination of stem cell and PRP-GFC therapy has shown promising cartilage regeneration in 45 out of 48 patients of AVN. This study clearly demonstrates the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Larger numbers of patients need to be evaluated to better understand the

  7. Comparison of fibroblast cell regeneration in three different concentrations of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (WJMSCs-CM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untoro, E. G.; Asrianti, D.; Usman, M.; Meidyawati, R.; Margono, A.

    2017-08-01

    Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) have gained interest as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Although many studies have characterized Wharton’s Jelly biologically, the effects of different concentrations in a cultured medium have not yet been compared. Damaged fibroblasts, the primary components of irreversible dental pulpitis, irreversibly impair the ability to regenerate and lead to the disruption of extracellular matrix. This study was performed to evaluate the potency of three WJMSCs-CM concentrations in improving serum-starved fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were cultivated in five passages, and divided into four groups. The first group (the control group) consisted of fibroblast cells that had been treated using starvation methods. The other groups (the treatment groups) were treated with various concentration of WJMSCs-CM (50%, 25% and 12.5%). Proliferative ability was evaluated using a cell count method and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. Cultivation of serum-starved fibroblasts produced significantly higher cell counts in 12.5% WJMSCs-CM compared to the 50% group. It can be concluded that 12.5% WJMSCs-CM is the most efficient concentration for fibroblast proliferation.

  8. [Effect of different oxygen concentrations on biological properties of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi-Ran; Ren, Si-Hua; He, Yu-Xin; Wang, Lin-Lin; Jin, Li; Hao, Yi-Wen

    2012-10-01

    This study purposed to investigate the effects of different oxygen concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biological characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their possible mechanisms through simulating oxygen environment to which the peripheral blood HSC are subjected in peripheral blood HSCT. The proliferation ability, cell cycle, directed differentiation ability, ROS level and hematopoietic reconstitution ability of Lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) BMHSC were detected by using in vitro amplification test, directional differentiation test, cell cycle analysis, ROS assay and transplantation of Lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) HSC from sublethally irradiated mice respectively. The results showed that oxygen concentrations lower than normal oxygen concentration, especially in hypoxic oxygen environment, could reduce ROS generation and amplify more primitive CD34(+)AC133(+) HSC and active CD34(+) HSC, and maintain more stem cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase, which is more helpful to the growth of CFU-S and viability of mice. At the same time, BMHSC exposed to normal oxygen level or inconstant and greatly changed oxygen concentrations could produce a high level of ROS, and the above-mentioned features and functional indicators are relatively low. It is concluded that ROS levels of HSC in BMHSCT are closely related with the oxygen concentration surrounding the cells and its stability. Low oxygen concentration and antioxidant intervention are helpful to transplantation of BMHSC.

  9. Particle Size Affects Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanoparticles towards Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S. S. O.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Katas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have been extensively applied in medical and pharmaceutical fields as promising drug delivery systems. Despite that, the safety of CSNPs remains inadequate and needs further investigation, particularly on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CSNPs were prepared by ionic gelation method and later were characterized for their physical characteristics (particle size and zeta potential). Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was assessed by MTT assay. Particle size was highly influenced by chitosan concentration and molecular weight (medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW)). Higher chitosan concentration and molecular weight produced larger nanoparticles. Zeta potential of CSNPs was not significantly affected by chitosan concentrations and molecular weights used in the present study. MMW had a better stability than HMW CSNPs as their particle size and zeta potential were not significantly altered after autoclaving. Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was influenced by zeta potential and particle size. On the other hand, chitosan concentration and molecular weight indirectly influenced cytotoxicity by affecting particle size and zeta potential of CSNPs. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of CSNPs was mainly attributed to their physical characteristics and this opens a strategy to ensure the safety of CSNPs applications in stem cell technology.

  10. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  11. Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartel, Dorien A.M. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Fonteyne, Liset J.J. de la; Brauers, Karen J.J.; Claessen, Sandra; Delft, Joost H. van; Kleinjans, Jos C.S.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 μM) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

  12. Ochratoxin A at nanomolar concentration perturbs the homeostasis of neural stem cells in highly differentiated but not in immature three-dimensional brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Honegger, Paul

    2011-08-28

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal contaminant of basic food commodities, is known to be highly cytotoxic, but the pathways underlying adverse effects at subcytotoxic concentrations remain to be elucidated. Recent reports indicate that OTA affects cell cycle regulation. Therefore, 3D brain cell cultures were used to study OTA effects on mitotically active neural stem/progenitor cells, comparing highly differentiated cultures with their immature counterparts. Changes in the rate of DNA synthesis were related to early changes in the mRNA expression of neural stem/progenitor cell markers. OTA at 10nM, a concentration below the cytotoxic level, was ineffective in immature cultures, whereas in mature cultures it significantly decreased the rate of DNA synthesis together with the mRNA expression of key transcriptional regulators such as Sox2, Mash1, Hes5, and Gli1; the cell cycle activator cyclin D2; the phenotypic markers nestin, doublecortin, and PDGFRα. These effects were largely prevented by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) peptide (500ngml(-1)) administration, indicating that OTA impaired the Shh pathway and the Sox2 regulatory transcription factor critical for stem cell self-renewal. Similar adverse effects of OTA in vivo might perturb the regulation of stem cell proliferation in the adult brain and in other organs exhibiting homeostatic and/or regenerative cell proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  14. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Telomere stability and telomerase in mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Kølvrå, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive genetic material that cap and thereby protect the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in high concentrations in the embryonic stem cells and in fast growing...... embryonic cells, and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extent there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but since these are the founder cells of cells of all the tissues in the body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important....... In the present communication we focus on telomere expression and telomere length in stem cells, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells. We consider different mechanisms by which stem cells can maintain telomeres and also focus on the dynamics of telomere length in mesenchymal stem cells, both the overall...

  16. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  17. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  18. Stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  19. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Lyublinskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H2DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. Keywords: Embryonic stem cells, Differentiated cells, ROS, Redox status, H2DCFDA, HyPer, Flow cytometry, Quantitative redox biology

  20. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical grade adult stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Goebel, W Scott; Woods, Erik J

    2009-07-01

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest recently generated by the potential therapeutic applications of adult stem cells in human care but there are several challenges regarding quality and safety in clinical applications and a number of these challenges relate to the processing and banking of these cells ex-vivo. As the number of clinical trials and the variety of adult cells used in regenerative therapy increases, safety remains a primary concern. This has inspired many nations to formulate guidelines and standards for the quality of stem cell collection, processing, testing, banking, packaging and distribution. Clinically applicable cryopreservation and banking of adult stem cells offers unique opportunities to advance the potential uses and widespread implementation of these cells in clinical applications. Most current cryopreservation protocols include animal serum proteins and potentially toxic cryoprotectant additives (CPAs) that prevent direct use of these cells in human therapeutic applications. Long term cryopreservation of adult stem cells under good manufacturing conditions using animal product free solutions is critical to the widespread clinical implementation of ex-vivo adult stem cell therapies. Furthermore, to avoid any potential cryoprotectant related complications, reduced CPA concentrations and efficient post-thaw washing to remove CPA are also desirable. The present review focuses on the current strategies and important aspects of adult stem cell banking for clinical applications. These include current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), animal protein free freezing solutions, cryoprotectants, freezing & thawing protocols, viability assays, packaging and distribution. The importance and benefits of banking clinical grade adult stem cells are also discussed.

  2. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  3. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  4. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  5. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  6. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  7. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyublinskaya, O G; Ivanova, Ju S; Pugovkina, N A; Kozhukharova, I V; Kovaleva, Z V; Shatrova, A N; Aksenov, N D; Zenin, V V; Kaulin, Yu A; Gamaley, I A; Nikolsky, N N

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa) maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H 2 DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  9. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  10. Muscle Stem Cells: A Model System for Adult Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies.

  11. Vitrification by Ultra-fast Cooling at a Low Concentration of Cryoprotectants in a Quartz Microcapillary: A Study Using Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Park, Eric Y.H.; Fowler, Alex; Yarmush, Martin L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Conventional cryopreservation protocols for slow-freezing or vitrification involve cell injury due to ice formation/cell dehydration or toxicity of high cryoprotectant (CPA) concentrations, respectively. In this study, we developed a novel cryopreservation technique to achieve ultra-fast cooling rates using a quartz microcapillary (QMC). The QMC enabled vitrification of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells using an intracellular cryoprotectant concentration in the range used for slowing freezing (1–2 M). The cryoprotectants used included 2 M 1,2-propanediol (PROH, cell membrane permeable) and 0.5 M extracellular trehalose (cell membrane impermeable). More than 70% of the murine ES cells post-vitrification attached with respect to non-frozen control cells, and the proliferation rates of the two groups were similar. Preservation of undifferentiated properties of the pluripotent murine ES cells post vitrification cryopreservation was verified using three different types of assays: the expression of transcription factor Oct-4, the presentation of the membrane surface glycoprotein SSEA-1, and the elevated expression of the intracellular enzyme alkaline phosphatase. These results indicate that vitrification at a low concentration (2 M) of intracellular cryoprotectants is a viable and effective approach for the cryopreservation of murine embryonic stem cells. PMID:18462712

  12. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  13. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  14. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  15. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  16. Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, Cheyann Lee; Nguyen, Nhu-Y Thi; Liu, Huinan

    2016-04-15

    This article reports the quantitative relationship between the concentration of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and its distinct biological activities towards mammalian cells and infectious bacteria for the first time. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the viability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and infectious bacteria (both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis) showed a concentration-dependent behavior in vitro. The critical concentrations of MgO nanoparticles identified in this study provided valuable guidelines for biomaterial design toward potential clinical translation. BMSCs density increased significantly when cultured in 200μg/mL of MgO in comparison to the Cells Only control without MgO. The density of BMSCs decreased significantly after culture in the media with 500μg/mL or more of MgO. Concentrations at or above 1000μg/mL of MgO resulted in complete BMSCs death. Quantification of colony forming units (CFU) revealed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of MgO for E. coli and S. epidermidis was 1200μg/mL. The addition of MgO nanoparticles into the cultures increased the pH and Mg(2+) ion concentration in the respective culture media, which might have played a role in the observed cell responses but not the main factors. E. coli and S. epidermidis still proliferated significantly at alkaline pH up to 10 or with supplemental Mg(2+) dosages up to 50mM, indicating bactericidal properties of MgO are beyond the effects of increased media pH and Mg(2+) ion concentrations. MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 200μg/mL provided dual benefits of promoting BMSC proliferation while reducing bacterial adhesion, which should be further studied for potential medical implant applications. The use of free MgO nanoparticles yielded detrimental effects to BMSCs in concentrations above 300μg/mL. We recommend further study into MgO nanoparticle as a coating material or as a part of a

  17. Carvacrol promotes angiogenic paracrine potential and endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matluobi, Danial; Araghi, Atefeh; Maragheh, Behnaz Faramarzian Azimi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Soltani, Sina; Khaksar, Majid; Siavashi, Vahid; Feyzi, Adel; Bagheri, Hesam Saghaei; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Montazersaheb, Soheila

    2018-01-01

    Phenolic monoterpene compound, named Carvacrol, has been found to exert different biological outcomes. It has been accepted that the angiogenic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was crucial in the pursuit of appropriate regeneration. In the current experiment, we investigated the contribution of Carvacrol on the angiogenic behavior of primary human mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to Carvacrol in a dose ranging from 25 to 200μM for 48h. We measured cell survival rate by MTT assay and migration rate by a scratch test. The oxidative status was monitored by measuring SOD, GPx activity. The endothelial differentiation was studied by evaluating the level of VE-cadherin and vWF by real-time PCR and ELISA analyses. The content of VEGF and tubulogenesis behavior was monitored in vitro. We also conducted Matrigel plug in vivo CAM assay to assess the angiogenic potential of conditioned media from human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to Carvacrol. Carvacrol was able to increase mesenchymal stem cell survival and migration rate (pcells by detecting vWF and VE-cadherin expression (pmesenchymal stem cells conditioned media improved angiogenesis tube formation in vitro (pmesenchymal stem cells by modulating cell differentiation and paracrine angiogenic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  19. What is a stem cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  1. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  2. Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  3. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  4. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  5. The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Choong, Chi-Jing; Yasuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  7. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  8. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  9. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  11. Development of a novel method for amniotic fluid stem cell storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, Manuela; Beretti, Francesca; Casciaro, Francesca; Comitini, Giuseppina; Franchi, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Veronica; Bertoni, Laura; De Pol, Anto; La Sala, Giovanni B; Maraldi, Tullia

    2017-08-01

    Current procedures for collection of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) indicate that cells cultured in a flask for 2 weeks can then be used for research. However, hAFSCs can be retrieved directly from a small amount of amniotic fluid that can be obtained at the time of diagnostic amniocentesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct freezing of amniotic fluid cells is able to maintain or improve the potential of a sub-population of stem cells. We compared the potential of the hAFSCs regarding timing of freezing, cells obtained directly from amniotic fluid aspiration (D samples) and cells cultured in a flask before freezing (C samples). Colony-forming-unit ability, proliferation, morphology, stemness-related marker expression, senescence, apoptosis and differentiation potential of C and D samples were compared. hAFSCs isolated from D samples expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers until later passages, had a good proliferation rate and exhibited differentiation capacity similar to hAFSCs of C samples. Interestingly, direct freezing induced a higher concentration of cells positive for pluripotency stem cell markers, without teratoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that minimal processing may be adequate for the banking of amniotic fluid cells, avoiding in vitro passages before the storage and exposure to high oxygen concentration, which affect stem cell properties. This technique might be a cost-effective and reasonable approach to the process of Good Manufacturing Process accreditation for stem-cell banks. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate...

  13. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  14. Marrow stem cell release in the autorepopulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, M A; Patt, H M [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology

    1978-01-01

    The early migration of stem cells from shielded marrow to an irradiated spleen has been re-evaluated, and the findings have been compared with the results of earlier studies. The composite data reveal a constant rate during the first 24 h after irradiation, with a slope of 1.6 cells per h and an intercept of 2.4. The positive intercept is interpreted to signify an immediate brief perturbation of CFU/sub s/ release. The low concentration of CFU/sub s/ in the bloodstream, despite their continuous migration from the shielded marrow, is indicative of a rapid, and probably greatly increased, blood turnover. Despite the constancy of stem cell seeding, it is not yet possible to determine whether the rate of stem cell release is different in shielded marrow than in normal marrow. The resolution of this question requires more precise information about spleen seeding efficiency in the autorepopulation assay and about the normal turnover rate of stem cells in the bloodstream.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stem cell clinics online: the direct-to-consumer portrayal of stem cell medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Darren; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Taylor, Benjamin; Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Caulfield, Timothy

    2008-12-04

    Despite the immature state of stem cell medicine, patients are seeking and accessing putative stem cell therapies in an "early market" in which direct-to-consumer advertising via the internet likely plays an important role. We analyzed stem cell clinic websites and appraised the relevant published clinical evidence of stem cell therapies to address three questions about the direct-to-consumer portrayal of stem cell medicine in this early market: What sorts of therapies are being offered? How are they portrayed? Is there clinical evidence to support the use of these therapies? We found that the portrayal of stem cell medicine on provider websites is optimistic and unsubstantiated by peer-reviewed literature.

  17. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  18. A Reliable and Reproducible Model for Assessing the Effect of Different Concentrations of α-Solanine on Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ordóñez-Vásquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Αlpha-solanine (α-solanine is a glycoalkaloid present in potato (Solanum tuberosum. It has been of particular interest because of its toxicity and potential teratogenic effects that include abnormalities of the central nervous system, such as exencephaly, encephalocele, and anophthalmia. Various types of cell culture have been used as experimental models to determine the effect of α-solanine on cell physiology. The morphological changes in the mesenchymal stem cell upon exposure to α-solanine have not been established. This study aimed to describe a reliable and reproducible model for assessing the structural changes induced by exposure of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to different concentrations of α-solanine for 24 h. The results demonstrate that nonlethal concentrations of α-solanine (2–6 μM changed the morphology of the cells, including an increase in the number of nucleoli, suggesting elevated protein synthesis, and the formation of spicules. In addition, treatment with α-solanine reduced the number of adherent cells and the formation of colonies in culture. Immunophenotypic characterization and staining of MSCs are proposed as a reproducible method that allows description of cells exposed to the glycoalkaloid, α-solanine.

  19. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  20. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, f...

  1. Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang W.; Lee, Hyemi; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Williams, Brent; Powers, John; Santos, Troy Dos; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Park, Heon Joo

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, and significantly enhanced the radiation-induced growth delay of FSaII tumors (s.c.) in the legs of C3H mice. Both metformin and ionizing radiation activated AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR and suppression of its downstream effectors such as S6K1 and 4EBP1, a crucial signaling pathway for proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in vitro as well as in the in vivo tumors. Conclusion: Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and eradicates radioresistant cancer stem cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR. PMID:22500211

  2. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: The other stem cells of the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaix, Florence; Nissou, Marie-France; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dreyfus, Matthieu; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul; Wion, Didier

    2014-04-26

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), have the potential to differentiate into cells of the mesenchymal lineage and have non-progenitor functions including immunomodulation. The demonstration that MSCs are perivascular cells found in almost all adult tissues raises fascinating perspectives on their role in tissue maintenance and repair. However, some controversies about the physiological role of the perivascular MSCs residing outside the bone marrow and on their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine exist. In brain, perivascular MSCs like pericytes and adventitial cells, could constitute another stem cell population distinct to the neural stem cell pool. The demonstration of the neuronal potential of MSCs requires stringent criteria including morphological changes, the demonstration of neural biomarkers expression, electrophysiological recordings, and the absence of cell fusion. The recent finding that brain cancer stem cells can transdifferentiate into pericytes is another facet of the plasticity of these cells. It suggests that the perversion of the stem cell potential of pericytes might play an even unsuspected role in cancer formation and tumor progression.

  3. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  4. Development of iPS (induced pluripotent stem cells) using natural product from extract of fish oocyte to provide stem cell for regenerative therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilany, Sofy; Firdausiyah, Qonitha S.; Naroeni, Aroem

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed a method to induce pluripotency of adult cells (fibroblast) into stem cells using a natural product, extract of fish oocyte, by comparing the extract concentration, 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. The analyses were done by measuring the Nanog gene expression in cells using qPCR and detecting fibroblast marker anti H2-KK. The results revealed existence of a colony of stem cells in the cell that was induced with 2mg/ml concentration of oocytes. Nanoggene expression was analyzed by qPCR and the results showed expression of Nanog gene compared to the control. Analysis of result of fibroblast using Tali Cytometer and anti H2KK antibody showed loss of expression of Anti H2KK meaning there was transformation from fibroblast type cell to pluripotent cell type.

  5. Physiologic oxygen concentration enhances the stem-like properties of CD133+ human glioblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Amy M; Jamal, Muhammad; Shankavaram, Uma T; Shankavarum, Uma T; Lang, Frederick F; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    In vitro investigations of tumor stem-like cells (TSC) isolated from human glioblastoma (GB) surgical specimens have been done primarily at an atmospheric oxygen level of 20%. To determine whether an oxygen level more consistent with in situ conditions affects their stem cell-like characteristics, we compared GB TSCs grown under conditions of 20% and 7% oxygen. Growing CD133(+) cells sorted from three GB neurosphere cultures at 7% O(2) reduced their doubling time and increased the self-renewal potential as reflected by clonogenicity. Furthermore, at 7% oxygen, the cultures exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate along both the glial and neuronal pathways. As compared with 20%, growth at 7% oxygen resulted in an increase in the expression levels of the neural stem cell markers CD133 and nestin as well as the stem cell markers Oct4 and Sox2. In addition, whereas hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha was not affected in CD133(+) TSCs grown at 7% O(2), hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha was expressed at higher levels as compared with 20% oxygen. Gene expression profiles generated by microarray analysis revealed that reducing oxygen level to 7% resulted in the up-regulation and down-regulation of a significant number of genes, with more than 140 being commonly affected among the three CD133(+) cultures. Furthermore, Gene Ontology categories up-regulated at 7% oxygen included those associated with stem cells or GB TSCs. Thus, the data presented indicate that growth at the more physiologically relevant oxygen level of 7% enhances the stem cell-like phenotype of CD133(+) GB cells.

  6. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sublethal concentration of H2O2 enhances the protective effect of mesenchymal stem cells in rat model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Asrin; Amiri, Iraj; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Choshali, Zoleikha Golipour; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Artimani, Tayebeh; Afshar, Saeid; Asl, Sara Soleimani

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of H 2 O 2 on the migration and antioxidant defense of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the neurotrophic effects of H 2 O 2 -treated MSCs on spinal cord injury (SCI). Sublethal concentrations of H 2 O 2 decreased cell migration and expression of CXCR4 and CCR2 as well as Nrf2 expression in MSCs. In the second phase, transplantation of treated and untreated MSCs to SCI caused minor changes in locomotor dysfunction. There was a significantly difference between cell-treated and spinal cord injury groups in expression of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Transplantation of H 2 O 2 -treated cells caused an increase in BDNF expression compared to non-treated cells. Transplantation of H 2 O 2 -treated stem cells may have protective effects against SCI through by increasing neurotrophic factors.

  8. In vitro propagation of male germline stem cells from piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Tian, Xiue; Zhang, Yaqing; Qin, Jinzhou; An, Junhui; Zeng, Wenxian

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of serum and growth factors on propagation of porcine male germline stem cells (MGSCs) in vitro and develop a culture system for these stem cells. Fresh testicular cells from neonatal piglets were obtained by mechanical dissociation and collagenase-trypsin digestion. After differential plating, non-adhering cells were cultured in media supplemented with different concentrations of serum (0, 1 %, 2 %, 5 %, 10 %). After 10 days of primary culture, the cells were maintained in media supplemented with different concentrations of growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor at 1, 5, 10 ng/ml). The number of MGSC-derived colonies with different sizes was determined in each treatment to assess the effects of serum concentrations and growth factors. The number of MGSC-derived colonies was significantly higher in the presence of 1 % rather than 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at 1, 5 ng/ml and epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 5, 10 ng/ml significantly promoted colony formation. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and xenotransplantation assays demonstrated the presence of functional stem cells in cultured cell population. In vitro propagation of porcine MGSCs could be maintained in the presence of 1 % FBS and supplementation of growth factors for 1 month.

  9. Strategies to improve homing of mesenchymal stem cells for greater efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cell-based therapeutic approach in clinical practice has been an elusive dream in medical sciences, and improvement of stem cell homing is one of major challenges in cell therapy programs. Stem/progenitor cells have a homing response to injured tissues/organs, mediated by interactions of chemokine receptors expressed on the cells and chemokines secreted by the injured tissue. For improvement of directed homing of the cells, many techniques have been developed either to engineer stem/progenitor cells with higher amount of chemokine receptors (stem cell-based strategies) or to modulate the target tissues to release higher level of the corresponding chemokines (target tissue-based strategies). This review discusses both of these strategies involved in the improvement of stem cell homing focusing on mesenchymal stem cells as most frequent studied model in cellular therapies. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. An Intelligent Neural Stem Cell Delivery System for Neurodegenerative Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Han, Fengtong; Guo, Mian; Hou, Xiaolu; Ye, Kangruo; Deng, Shuai; Shen, Yijun; Zhao, Yufang; Wei, Haiying; Song, Bing; Yao, Lifen; Tian, Weiming

    2018-05-02

    Transplanted stem cells constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that a negative microenvironment, particularly one characterized by the acute inflammation/immune response caused by physical injuries or transplanted stem cells, severely impacts the survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, to avoid the influence of the increased inflammation following physical injuries, an intelligent, double-layer, alginate hydrogel system is designed. This system fosters the matrix metalloproeinases (MMP) secreted by transplanted stem cell reactions with MMP peptide grafted on the inner layer and destroys the structure of the inner hydrogel layer during the inflammatory storm. Meanwhile, the optimum concentration of the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide is also immobilized to the inner hydrogels to obtain more stem cells before arriving to the outer hydrogel layer. It is found that blocking Cripto-1, which promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation to dopamine neurons, also accelerates this process in neural stem cells. More interesting is the fact that neural stem cell differentiation can be conducted in astrocyte-differentiation medium without other treatments. In addition, the system can be adjusted according to the different parameters of transplanted stem cells and can expand on the clinical application of stem cells in the treatment of this neurological disorder. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Monte Carlo modelling of damage to haemopoietic stem cells from internally deposited alpha-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utteridge, T.D.; University of South Australia, Pooraka, SA; Charlton, D.E.; Turner, M.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Leong, A. S-Y.; Milios, J.; Fazzalari, N.; To, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Monte Carlo modelling of alpha particle radiation dose to haemopoietic stem cells from radon decay in human marrow fat cells was undertaken following Richardson et al's (Brit J Radiol, 64, 608-624, 1991) proposition that such exposure could induce leukaemia, and epidemiological observations that uranium miners have not developed an excess of leukaemia (Tomasek L. et al, Lancet, 341, 919-923, 1993). The dose to haemopoietic stem cells from alpha emitting radiopharmaceuticals proposed for radiotherapy is also important in risk assessment. Haemopoietic stem cells (presumed to be the targets for leukaemia) were identified as CD34+CD38- mononuclear cells (Terstappen LWMM et al, Blood, 77, 1218-1227, 1991) and their diameters measured using image analysis. The distribution of stem cell distances from fat cells was also measured. The model was used with Monte Carlo treatment of the alpha particle flux from radon and its short lived decay products to estimate (a) the dose and LET distributions for the three stem cell diameters; (b) the number of passages per hit; and (c) stem cell survival. The stem cell population exhibited a trimodal distribution, with mean diameters of 5.7, 11.6 and 14.8 μm; a trimodal distribution has previously been identified in mice (Visser J et al, Exper Hematol Today, 21-27, 1977). At 40% fat in a human lumbar vertebra 3 section, approximately half the stem cells were located on, or very close to the edge, of fat cells in marrow sections. This agrees with the predicted distribution of distances between fat and stem cells obtained using a 3-D model with randomly distributed stem cells. At an air activity of 20 Bq m -3 (ie the UK average indoor radon concentration used by Richardson et al mentioned above) about 0.1 stem cells per person-year were hit and survived; at 100 Bq m -3 about 1 stem cell per person-year was hit and survived. Across the range of radon concentrations encountered in residential and underground miner exposures

  12. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni

    2018-05-04

    Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications.

  13. Stem cells in dentistry: A study regarding awareness of stem cells among dental professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Parita K Chitroda; Girish Katti; Nikhat M Attar; Syed Shahbaz; G Sreenivasarao; Ambika Patil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cel...

  14. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX promotes tumorigenesis and genesis of cells resembling glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Jun-Kyum; Jeon, Hye-Min; Oh, Se-Yeong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that deregulation of stem cell fate determinants is a hallmark of many types of malignancies. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis in the adult brain by maintaining neural stem cells. Here, we report a tumorigenic role of TLX in brain tumor initiation and progression. Increased TLX expression was observed in a number of glioma cells and glioma stem cells, and correlated with poor survival of patients with gliomas. Ectopic expression of TLX in the U87MG glioma cell line and Ink4a/Arf-deficient mouse astrocytes (Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes) induced cell proliferation with a concomitant increase in cyclin D expression, and accelerated foci formation in soft agar and tumor formation in in vivo transplantation assays. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX in Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes inhibited cell migration and invasion and promoted neurosphere formation and Nestin expression, which are hallmark characteristics of glioma stem cells, under stem cell culture conditions. Our results indicate that TLX is involved in glioma stem cell genesis and represents a potential therapeutic target for this type of malignancy.

  15. The Androgen Receptor Bridges Stem Cell-Associated Signaling Nodes in Prostate Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair H. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of stem cells relies on dissecting the complex signaling networks that are thought to regulate their pluripotency and self-renewal. Until recently, attention has focused almost exclusively on a small set of “core” transcription factors for maintaining the stem cell state. It is now clear that stem cell regulatory networks are far more complex. In this review, we examine the role of the androgen receptor (AR in coordinating interactions between signaling nodes that govern the balance of cell fate decisions in prostate stem cells.

  16. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  17. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  18. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  19. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  20. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Ethan L; Terlecki, Ryan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2018-04-06

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is substantial and continues to rise. Current therapeutics for ED consist of oral medications, intracavernosal injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile implants. While such options may manage the disease state, none of these modalities, however, restore function. Stem cell therapy has been evaluated for erectile restoration in animal models. These cells have been derived from multiple tissues, have varied potential, and may function via local engraftment or paracrine signaling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have both been used in these models with noteworthy effects. Herein, we will review the pathophysiology of ED, animal models, current and novel stem-cell based therapeutics, clinical trials and areas for future research. The relevant literature and contemporary data using keywords, "stem cells and erectile dysfunction" was reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between erectile dysfunction and adipose derived stem cells, bone marrow derived stem cells, placental stem cells, urine stem cells and stem cell therapy respectively. Placental-derived stem cells and urine-derived stem cells possess many similar properties as BMSC and ASC, but the methods of acquisition are favorable. Human clinical trials have already demonstrated successful use of stem cells for improvement of erectile function. The future of stem cell research is constantly being evaluated, although, the evidence suggests a place for stem cells in erectile dysfunction therapeutics. Matz EL, Terlecki R, Zhang Y, et al. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomaterial-stem cell interactions and their impact on stem cell response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oziemlak-Schaap, Aneta M.; Kuhn, Philipp T.; van Kooten, Theo G.; van Rijn, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this review, current research in the field of biomaterial properties for directing stem cells are discussed and placed in a critical perspective. Regenerative medicine, in which stem cells play a crucial role, has become an interdisciplinary field between cell biology and materials science. New

  2. In vitro repopulation of haemopoietic stem cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.; Kumagai, Keiko; Seto, Akira; Ito, Yohei

    1981-01-01

    A culture system was designed in which proliferation of the haemopoietic stem cells was supported by adherent 'stromal' cell colonies. Application of the culture system to studies on kinetic behaviour of the haemopoietic stem cells after irradiation revealed; i) bone marrow stromal cells were radiosensitive with D 0 = 95R, when measured as the capability to proliferate and form adherent cell colonies in vitro, ii) radiosensitivity of the pluripotent stem cells (CFUs) in vitro was within the range of the in vivo sensitivity, iii) irradiated bone marrow cells under in vitro condition could repopulate at the same rate as those under in vivo condition, thereby suggesting that the function related to the support of haemopoiesis was radioresistant, iv) concentrations of both CFUs and granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFUc) were higher in the irradiated cultures than those in unirradiated control culture at 3 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  3. Embryonic stem cells require Wnt proteins to prevent differentiation to epiblast stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. ten Berge (Derk); D. Kurek (Dorota); T. Blauwkamp (Tim); W. Koole (Wouter); A. Maas (Alex); E. Eroglu (Elif); R.K. Siu (Ronald); R. Nusse (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPluripotent stem cells exist in naive and primed states, epitomized by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the developmentally more advanced epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs; ref.). In the naive state of ESCs, the genome has an unusual open conformation and possesses a minimum of repressive

  4. Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells toward the Smooth Muscle Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The specific contractile properties of cells were verified with both a single cell contraction assay and a gel contraction assay. Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain in adipose-derived stem cell cultures after 2 weeks of induction (p < 0.01. Cells differentiated in 5% oxygen conditions showed greater contraction effect (p < 0.01. Hypoxia influences differentiation of smooth muscle cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells.

  5. The effect of stem cell factor on proliferation of human endometrial CD146+ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Fayazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stem cell factor (SCF is a transcriptional factor which plays crucial roles in normal proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of stem cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the proliferation effect of different concentrations of SCF on expansion of human endometrial CD146+ cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, total populations of isolated human endometrial suspensions after fourth passage were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS into CD146+ cells. Human endometrial CD146+ cells were karyotyped and tested for the effect of SCF on proliferation of CD146+ cells, then different concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml was carried out and mitogens-stimulated endometrial CD146+ cells proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Results: Chromosomal analysis showed a normal metaphase spread and 46XX karyotype. The proliferation rate of endometrial CD146P + P cells in the presence of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml SCF were 0.945±0.094, 0.962±0.151, 0.988±0.028, 1.679±0.012 and 1.129±0.145 respectively. There was a significant increase in stem/ stromal cell proliferation following in vitro treatment by 50 ng/ml than other concentrations of SCF (p=0.01. Conclusion: The present study suggests that SCF could have effect on the proliferation and cell survival of human endometrial CD146P+P cells and it has important implications for medical sciences and cell therapies

  6. Perinatal sources of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Piskorska-Jasiulewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton’s jelly.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  8. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...... offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models...

  9. Patterns of proliferation and differentiation of irradiated haemopoietic stem cells cultured on normal 'stromal' cell colonies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were designed to elucidate whether or not the irradiated bone marrow cells receive any stimulation for the self-replication and differentiation from normal 'stromal' cell colonies in the bone marrow cell culture in vitro. When irradiated or unirradiated bone marrow cells were overlaid on the normal adherent cell colonies, the proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells was supported, the degree of the stimulation depending on the starting cellular concentration. There was, however, no significant changes in the concentration of either CFUs or CFUc regardless of the dose of irradiation on the bone marrow cells overlaid. This was a great contrast to the dose-dependent decrease of CFUs or CFUc within the culture in which both the stem cells and stromal cells were simultaneously irradiated. These results suggest that the balance of self-replication and differentiation of the haemopoietic stem cells is affected only when haemopoietic microenvironment is perturbed. (author)

  10. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is the major pharmacologically active component of ginseng, and is reported to have various therapeutic actions. To determine whether it induces the differentiation of neural stem cells, and whether neural stem cell transplantation after induction has therapeutic effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we cultured neural stem cells in 10-80 µM ginsenoside Rg1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that of the concentrations tested, 20 mM ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest differentiation-inducing effect and was the concentration used for subsequent experiments. Whole-cell patch clamp showed that neural stem cells induced by 20 µM ginsenoside Rg1 were more mature than non-induced cells. We then established neonatal rat models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy using the suture method, and ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells were transplanted via intracerebroventricular injection. These tests confirmed that neural stem cells induced by ginsenoside had fewer pathological lesions and had a significantly better behavioral capacity than model rats that received saline. Transplanted neural stem cells expressed neuron-specific enolase, and were mainly distributed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells can promote the partial recovery of complicated brain functions in models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  12. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B.; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. PMID:26732838

  13. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  14. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  16. Stem Cells and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  17. Comparison of osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla in the presence of platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuarqoub, Duaa; Awidi, Abdalla; Abuharfeil, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla have been used for the repair of damaged tooth tissues. Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for large scale expansion of dental stem cells. However, biological effects and optimal concentrations of PL for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells remain to be elucidated. DPSCs and SCAP cells were isolated from impacted third molars of young healthy donors, at the stage of root development and identified by markers using flow cytometry. For comparison the cells were cultured in media containing PL (1%, 5% and 10%) and FBS, with subsequent induction for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for; morphology, growth characteristics, mineralization potential (Alizarin Red method) and differentiation markers using ELISA and real time -polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proliferation rates of DPSCs and SCAP significantly increased when cells were treated with 5% PL (7X doubling time) as compared to FBS. 5% PL also enhanced mineralized differentiation of DPSCs and SCAP, as indicated by the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin, calcium deposition and q-PCR. Our findings suggest that using 5% platelet lysate, proliferation and osteo/odontogenesis of DPSCs and SCAP for a short period of time (15 days), was significantly improved. This may imply its use as an optimum concentration for expansion of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aging and stem cell therapy: AMPK as an applicable pharmacological target for rejuvenation of aged stem cells and achieving higher efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorraminejad-Shirazi, Mohammadhossein; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kardeh, Bahareh; Estedlal, Alireza; Kardeh, Sina; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, tissue regeneration has become a promising field for developing stem cell-based transplantation therapies for human patients. Adult stem cells are affected by the same aging mechanisms that involve somatic cells. One of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aging of stem cells results in their impaired regenerative capacity and depletion of stem cell pools in adult tissue, which results in lower efficacy of stem cell therapy. By utilizing an effective therapeutic intervention for aged stem cells, stem cell therapy can become more promising for future application. mTORC1 inhibition is a practical approach to preserve the stem cell pool. In this article, we review the dynamic interaction between sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, AMPK, and mTORC1. We propose that using AMPK activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, A769662, metformin, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are practical ways to be employed for achieving better optimized results in stem cell-based transplantation therapies. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells...... for differentiation and/or providing bystander support for resident stromal cells. This chapter discusses the cellular and molecular properties of MSC, the mechanisms by which they can modulate immune responses and the clinical applications of MSC in disorders such as graft-versus-host disease and aplastic anaemia...

  20. Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Bonnie Fagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the lineage view of stem cells as an ontological framework for conceptualizing organismal development. This account is grounded on experimental practices of stem cell research, with emphasis on new techniques for generating biological organization in vitro. On the lineage view, a stem cell is the starting point of a cell lineage with a specific organismal source, time-interval of existence, and ‘tree topology’ of branch-points linking the stem to developmental termini. The concept of ‘enkapsis’ accommodates the cell-organism relation within the lineage view; this hierarchical notion is further explicated by considering the methods and results of stem cell experiments. Results of this examination include a (partial characterization of stem cells’ developmental versatility, and the context-dependence of developmental processes involving stem cells.

  1. Gigantol Suppresses Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Bhummaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs contribute to malignancy, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, potential of compound in inhibition of CSCs has garnered most attention in the cancer research as well as drug development fields recently. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that gigantol, a pure compound isolated from Dendrobium draconis, dramatically suppressed stem-like phenotypes of human lung cancer cells. Gigantol at nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and survival of the cancer cells. Importantly, gigantol significantly reduced the ability of the cancer cells to form tumor spheroids, a critical hallmark of CSCs. Concomitantly, the treatment of the compound was shown to reduce well-known lung CSCs markers, including CD133 and ALDH1A1. Moreover, we revealed that gigantol decreased stemness in the cancer cells by suppressing the activation of protein kinase B (Akt signal which in turn decreased the cellular levels of pluripotency and self-renewal factors Oct4 and Nanog. In conclusion, gigantol possesses CSCs suppressing activity which may facilitate the development of this compound for therapeutic approaches by targeting CSCs.

  2. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  3. Characterization and comparison of osteoblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming San; Kannan, Vishnu; de Vries, Anneriek E; Czepiel, Marcin; Wesseling, Evelyn; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Kuijer, Roelof; Vissink, Arjan; Copray, Sjef; Raghoebar, Gerry

    New developments in stem cell biology offer alternatives for the reconstruction of critical-sized bone defects. One of these developments is the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but can be generated from adult somatic cells and

  4. Hypoxia enhances proliferation and tissue formation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, Warren L.; Zhao, Feng; Bunnell, Bruce; Ma, Teng

    2007-01-01

    Changes in oxygen concentrations affect many of the innate characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were maintained under hypoxic atmospheres (2% O 2 ) for up to seven in vitro passages. This resulted in approximately 30-fold higher hMSC expansion over 6 weeks without loss of multi-lineage differentiation capabilities. Under hypoxia, hMSCs maintained their growth-rates even after reaching confluence, resulting in the formation of multiple cell layers. Hypoxic hMSCs also displayed differences in the cell and nuclear morphologies as well as enhanced ECM formation and organization. These changes in cellular characteristics were accompanied by higher mRNA levels of Oct-4 and HIF-2α, as well as increased expression levels of connexin-43, a protein used in gap junction formation. The results from this study demonstrated that oxygen concentrations affected many aspects of stem-cell physiology, including growth and in vitro development, and may be a critical parameter during expansion and differentiation

  5. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B; Sinclair, David A

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Epigenetic modulation of dental pulp stem cells: implications for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, H F; Smith, A J; Fleming, G J P; Cooper, P R

    2016-05-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) offer significant potential for use in regenerative endodontics, and therefore, identifying cellular regulators that control stem cell fate is critical to devising novel treatment strategies. Stem cell lineage commitment and differentiation are regulated by an intricate range of host and environmental factors of which epigenetic influence is considered vital. Epigenetic modification of DNA and DNA-associated histone proteins has been demonstrated to control cell phenotype and regulate the renewal and pluripotency of stem cell populations. The activities of the nuclear enzymes, histone deacetylases, are increasingly being recognized as potential targets for pharmacologically inducing stem cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Depending on cell maturity and niche in vitro, low concentration histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) application can promote dedifferentiation of several post-natal and mouse embryonic stem cell populations and conversely increase differentiation and accelerate mineralization in DPSC populations, whilst animal studies have shown an HDACi-induced increase in stem cell marker expression during organ regeneration. Notably, both HDAC and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have also been demonstrated to dramatically increase the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for use in regenerative therapeutic procedures. As the regulation of cell fate will likely remain the subject of intense future research activity, this review aims to describe the current knowledge relating to stem cell epigenetic modification, focusing on the role of HDACi on alteration of DPSC phenotype, whilst presenting the potential for therapeutic application as part of regenerative endodontic regimens. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Stem Cell Technology in Cardiac Regeneration: A Pluripotent Stem Cell Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duelen, Robin; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-02-01

    Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have emerged as attractive cell source to obtain cardiomyocytes (CMs), with potential applications, including drug discovery and toxicity screening, disease modelling and innovative cell therapies. Lessons from embryology offered important insights into the development of stem cell-derived CMs. However, the generation of a CM population, uniform in cardiac subtype, adult maturation and functional properties, is highly recommended. Moreover, hurdles regarding tumorigenesis, graft cell death, immune rejection and arrhythmogenesis need to be overcome in clinical practice. Here we highlight the recent progression in PSC technologies for the regeneration of injured heart. We review novel strategies that might overcome current obstacles in heart regenerative medicine, aiming at improving cell survival and functional integration after cell transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stem Cell Technology in Cardiac Regeneration: A Pluripotent Stem Cell Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Duelen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs have emerged as attractive cell source to obtain cardiomyocytes (CMs, with potential applications, including drug discovery and toxicity screening, disease modelling and innovative cell therapies. Lessons from embryology offered important insights into the development of stem cell-derived CMs. However, the generation of a CM population, uniform in cardiac subtype, adult maturation and functional properties, is highly recommended. Moreover, hurdles regarding tumorigenesis, graft cell death, immune rejection and arrhythmogenesis need to be overcome in clinical practice. Here we highlight the recent progression in PSC technologies for the regeneration of injured heart. We review novel strategies that might overcome current obstacles in heart regenerative medicine, aiming at improving cell survival and functional integration after cell transplantation.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  11. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  12. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T.; Han, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. PMID:25772134

  13. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  15. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-01-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133 + cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  16. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  17. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  18. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  19. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or

  20. Stem cells and cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the small units of multicellular creature. Regeneration and self-renewal are the ability of the stem cells. Each tissue is having particular stem cells, specific to it. These normal stem cells are converted into cancer stem cells through mutations in it. Although the expression of oncogenes is enhanced a lot, the tumor-supressing gene is lessened. Cancer stem cells are isolated and visualized through different techniques like immunocytochemical staining, spectral karyotyping, immunohistochemistry, induction method and dissection measures, then are performed histological procedures which include fascination, immunohistochemistry, dispensation, in situ hybridization and also quantitative examination of tissue flow cytometric analysis. For the analysis of quantization, statistical tests are also performed as two-sample t-test, Chi-square test, SD and arithmetic mean. Tumor cells generate glioma spheres. These are used in cancer study. Axin 1 is the gene suppressing cancer. Its removal causes the generation of liver cancer. Curcumin is the most effective for suppressing cancer as it increases the normal stem cell function and decreases the cancer stem cell function. Brahma-related gene 1 is crucial for the safeguarding of the stem cell residents in tissue-specific comportment. Different types of cancers originate through genetic mutation, tissue disorganization and cell proliferation. Tumor configuration is produced by the alteration in original cell culture having stem cells and progenitor cell populations. The developmental facets about cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as their personal natal functions sustain an intricate steadiness to settle on their personal donations to the efficacy or harmfulness of the biological organization.

  1. A novel method to generate and culture human mast cells: Peripheral CD34+ stem cell-derived mast cells (PSCMCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetzer, Oliver; Valentin, Patricia; Smorodchenko, Anna; Domenis, Rossana; Gri, Giorgia; Siebenhaar, Frank; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    The identification and characterization of human mast cell (MC) functions are hindered by the shortage of MC populations suitable for investigation. Here, we present a novel technique for generating large numbers of well differentiated and functional human MCs from peripheral stem cells (=peripheral stem cell-derived MCs, PSCMCs). Innovative and key features of this technique include 1) the use of stem cell concentrates, which are routinely discarded by blood banks, as the source of CD34+ stem cells, 2) cell culture in serum-free medium and 3) the addition of LDL as well as selected cytokines. In contrast to established and published protocols that use CD34+ or CD133+ progenitor cells from full blood, we used a pre-enriched cell population obtained from stem cell concentrates, which yielded up to 10(8) differentiated human MCs per batch after only three weeks of culture starting with 10(6) total CD34+ cells. The total purity on MCs (CD117+, FcεR1+) generated by this method varied between 55 and 90%, of which 4-20% were mature MCs that contain tryptase and chymase and show expression of FcεRI and CD117 in immunohistochemistry. PSCMCs showed robust histamine release in response to stimulation with anti-FcεR1 or IgE/anti-IgE, and increased proliferation and differentiation in response to IL-1β or IFN-γ. Taken together, this new protocol of the generation of large numbers of human MCs provides for an innovative and suitable option to investigate the biology of human MCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  3. Pluripotent stem cells and reprogrammed cells in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Kues, Wilfried; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-08-01

    Pluripotent cells are unique because of their ability to differentiate into the cell lineages forming the entire organism. True pluripotent stem cells with germ line contribution have been reported for mice and rats. Human pluripotent cells share numerous features of pluripotentiality, but confirmation of their in vivo capacity for germ line contribution is impossible due to ethical and legal restrictions. Progress toward derivation of embryonic stem cells from domestic species has been made, but the derived cells were not able to produce germ line chimeras and thus are termed embryonic stem-like cells. However, domestic animals, in particular the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are excellent large animals models, in which the clinical potential of stem cell therapies can be studied. Reprogramming technologies for somatic cells, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, in vitro culture in the presence of cell extracts, in vitro conversion of adult unipotent spermatogonial stem cells into germ line derived pluripotent stem cells, and transduction with reprogramming factors have been developed with the goal of obtaining pluripotent, germ line competent stem cells from domestic animals. This review summarizes the present state of the art in the derivation and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells in domestic animals.

  4. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into ... virus infection. To search the complete list of stem cell research projects funded by NIH please go to NIH ...

  5. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  6. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  7. Hypoxia is no hype: Perspectives across Phylogeny, Stem Cell differentiation & Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influence of atmospheric gases in the eco systems on the habituating living organisms, an area of focus of the geochemists and astro-biologists, have been known for eons. Though the modus operandi of the implication varies between unicellular and multi-system centered organisms up in the ladder of phylogeny, their significance though known, the intricacies to the fullest extent have not been thoroughly understood to enable us to exploit them to our best in bringing solutions to address various problems. In this issue, Ito et al have reported a simple hypoxic culture system [1] with a built-in deoxidizing agent capable of promoting stem cell proliferation, repressing cell senescence without aggravating the stem cell viability. Studying hypoxia gains significance because oxygen exerts a profound influence on life on earth. Oxygen requirements differ across cells, tissues, organisms and phylogeny. The primitive life forms on earth which formed nearly four billion years ago were able to thrive without oxygen, which became a life influencing factor only two billion years ago during when its levels in the atmosphere were actually toxic to the organisms which evolved ways to detoxify them and over time these organisms became dependant on oxygen [2]. Among cellular processes, the low energy supply during a hypoxic metabolic state allows only DNA replication or basic cell reproduction functions which are essential for a cell’s survival suppressing the specialised functions like differentiation [2]. Thus, stemness is preserved more efficiently under hypoxia and it is suggested that in vitro stem cells should ideally be maintained at oxygen concentrations lower than 1% and approaching zero which recapitulate the atmospheric oxygen concentrations that existed on earth 2-3 billion years ago, as stem cells are believed to reflect an early evolutionary stage compared to other cells [2]. Hypoxia has shown to promote stemness in various kinds of stem cells

  8. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  9. Turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorie, M J; Maloney, M A; Patt, H M

    1979-10-01

    Short-term parabiosis of male and female CBA/CaJ mice was used to investigate the turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The change and subsequent disappearance of donor stem cells were monitored by spleen colony assay and chromosome analysis of individual colonies. The results revealed an exponential disappearance of pluripotent stem cells from blood with a characteristic half time of 1.7 h. Blood-borne stem cells were shown to be equilibrated with a subpopulation of marrow stem cells exhibiting a disappearance half time of 9.5 h. Splenectomy did not change the apparent rate of stem cell removal from the blood.

  10. [Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J

    2013-08-01

    Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research.

  11. Therapeutic application of multipotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sichani, Laleh Shiri

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy is an emerging fields in the treatment of various diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and neoplastic diseases. Stem cells are an integral tool for cell therapy. Multipotent stem cells are an important class of stem cells which have the ability to self-renew through...... been showed that multipotent stem cells exert their therapeutic effects via inhibition/activation of a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways. Although the advantages of multipotent stem cells are numerous, further investigation is still necessary to clarify the biology and safety of these cells...... before they could be considered as a potential treatment for different types of diseases. This review summarizes different features of multipotent stem cells including isolation, differentiation, and therapeutic applications....

  12. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Necochea-Campion Rosalia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical use of low level laser (LLL irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed.

  13. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  14. Periarteriolar Glioblastoma Stem Cell Niches Express Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hira, Vashendriya V. V.; Wormer, Jill R.; Kakar, Hala; Breznik, Barbara; van der Swaan, Britt; Hulsbos, Renske; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Tonar, Zbynek; Khurshed, Mohammed; Molenaar, Remco J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2018-01-01

    In glioblastoma, a fraction of malignant cells consists of therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) residing in protective niches that recapitulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches in bone marrow. We have previously shown that HSC niche proteins stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α),

  15. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  16. HPV-Induced Field Cancerisation: Transformation of Adult Tissue Stem Cell Into Cancer Stem Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Borgogna, Cinzia; Gariglio, Marisa; Patel, Girish K

    2018-01-01

    Field cancerisation was originally described as a basis for multiple head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is a pre-malignant phenomenon that is frequently attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our work on β-HPV-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas identified a novel Lrig1+ hair follicle junctional zone keratinocyte stem cell population as the basis for field cancerisation. Herein, we describe the ability for HPV to infect adult tissue stem cells in order to establish persistent infection and induce their proliferation and displacement resulting in field cancerisation. By review of the HPV literature, we reveal how this mechanism is conserved as the basis of field cancerisation across many tissues. New insights have identified the capacity for HPV early region genes to dysregulate adult tissue stem cell self-renewal pathways ensuring that the expanded population preserve its stem cell characteristics beyond the stem cell niche. HPV-infected cells acquire additional transforming mutations that can give rise to intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), from environmental factors such as sunlight or tobacco induced mutations in skin and oral cavity, respectively. With establishment of IEN, HPV viral replication is sacrificed with loss of the episome, and the tissue is predisposed to multiple cancer stem cell-driven carcinomas.

  17. The Stem Cell Club: a model for unrelated stem cell donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingrut, Warren; Parmar, Simran; Cuperfain, Ari; Rikhraj, Kiran; Charman, Erin; Ptak, Emilie; Kahlon, Manjot; Graham, Alice; Luong, Susan; Wang, Yongjun George; Yu, Janice; Arora, Neha; Suppiah, Roopa; Li, Edward W; Lee, Anna; Welsh, Christopher; Benzaquen, Menachem; Thatcher, Alicia; Baharmand, Iman; Ladd, Aedan; Petraszko, Tanya; Allan, David; Messner, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Patients with blood, immune, or metabolic diseases may require a stem cell transplant as part of their treatment. However, 70% of patients do not have a suitable human leukocyte antigen match in their family, and need an unrelated donor. Individuals can register as potential donors at stem cell drives, where they provide consent and a tissue sample for human leukocyte antigen typing. The ideal donors are young, male, and from a diversity of ethnic backgrounds. However, in Canada, non-Caucasian males ages 17 to 35 years represent only 8.8% of listed donors. The Stem Cell Club is a non-profit organization founded in 2011 in Canada that aims to augment recruitment of the most needed donors. The initiative published a recruitment toolkit online (www.stemcellclub.ca). Currently, there are 12 chapters at universities across Canada. To date, the Stem Cell Club has recruited 6585 potential registrants, representing 1.63% of donors on Canada's donor-database. Of the recruited registrants, 58.3% were male; 60.3% of males self-reported as non-Caucasian, and 78.5% were ages 17 to 25 years. From 2015 to 2016, the initiative recruited 13.7% of all ethnically diverse males ages 17 to 35 years listed in Canada's donor database. Data from this initiative demonstrate sustainability and performance on key indicators of stem cell drive quality. The Stem Cell Club has developed a capacity to recruit 2600 donors annually, with the majority being males with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The initiative enhances the quality of Canada's unrelated donor-database, improving the chances that patients in need of an unrelated donor will find a match for transplant. The Stem Cell Club is a model relevant to recruitment organizations around the world. © 2017 AABB.

  18. ¬Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Jane Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell BehaviourHilary J Anderson1, Jugal Kishore Sahoo2, Rein V Ulijn2,3, Matthew J Dalby1*1 Centre for Cell Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.2 Technology and Innovation centre, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. 3 Advanced Science Research Centre (ASRC and Hunter College, City University of New York, NY 10031, NY, USA. Correspondence:*Hilary Andersonh.anderson.1@research.gla.ac.ukKeywords: mesenchymal stem cells, bioengineering, materials synthesis, nanotopography, stimuli responsive material□AbstractThe materials pipeline for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications is under continuous development. Specifically, there is great interest in the use of designed materials in the stem cell arena as materials can be used to manipulate the cells providing control of behaviour. This is important as the ability to ‘engineer’ complexity and subsequent in vitro growth of tissues and organs is a key objective for tissue engineers. This review will describe the nature of the materials strategies, both static and dynamic, and their influence specifically on mesenchymal stem cell fate.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure acts to stabilise a chondrogenic phenotype in porcine joint tissue derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Vinardell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic pressure (HP is a key component of the in vivo joint environment and has been shown to enhance chondrogenesis of stem cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between HP and TGF-β3 on both the initiation and maintenance of a chondrogenic phenotype for joint tissue derived stem cells. Pellets generated from porcine chondrocytes (CCs, synovial membrane derived stem cells (SDSCs and infrapatellar fat pad derived stem cells (FPSCs were subjected to 10 MPa of cyclic HP (4 h/day and different concentrations of TGF-β3 (0, 1 and 10 ng/mL for 14 days. CCs and stem cells were observed to respond differentially to both HP and TGF-β3 stimulation. HP in the absence of TGF-β3 did not induce robust chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. At low concentrations of TGF-β3 (1 ng/mL, HP acted to enhance chondrogenesis of both SDSCs and FPSCs, as evident by a 3-fold increase in Sox9 expression and a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. In contrast, HP had no effect on cartilage-specific matrix synthesis at higher concentrations of TGF-β3 (10 ng/mL. Critically, HP appears to play a key role in the maintenance of a chondrogenic phenotype, as evident by a down-regulation of the hypertrophic markers type X collagen and Indian hedgehog in SDSCs irrespective of the cytokine concentration. In the context of stem cell based therapies for cartilage repair, this study demonstrates the importance of considering how joint specific environmental factors interact to regulate not only the initiation of chondrogenesis, but also the development of a stable hyaline-like repair tissue.

  20. Seeding of single hemopoietic stem cells and self renewal of committed stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1986-01-01

    Single cells and two to five proliferating cells were transfused into mice whose own stem cells had been killed by irradiation. When a small inoculum of 50,000 AB marrow cells was given only 4 of 20 recipients survived, but all 4 had only PGK A enzyme in their peripheral blood cells. The results indicate that the survivors received a single pluripotential stem cell capable of proliferating. Survivors showed no deterioration in their blood picture after many months. It was concluded that there is no clonal succession in the marrow cells. Further studies with transfusions of 100,000 and 10,000,000 marrow cells after lethal irradiation suggest that there is production of committed stem cells with significant self-renewal

  1. Generation of Oligodendrogenic Spinal Neural Progenitor Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mohamad; Ahuja, Christopher S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation. Throughout, cell exposure to growth factors and patterning morphogens has been optimized for both concentration and timing, based on the literature and empirical experience, resulting in a robust and highly efficient protocol. Using this derivation procedure, it is possible to obtain millions of oligodendrogenic-NPCs within 40 days of initial cell plating which is substantially shorter than other protocols for similar cell types. This protocol has also been optimized to use translationally relevant human iPSCs as the parent cell line. The resultant cells have been extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo and express key markers of an oligodendrogenic lineage. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  2. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  3. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs, and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future.

  4. Autophagy in Stem Cell Biology: A Perspective on Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that degrades modified, surplus, or harmful cytoplasmic components by sequestering them in autophagosomes which then fuses with the lysosome for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as for remodeling during normal development. Impairment of this process has been implicated in various diseases, in the pathogenic response to bacterial and viral infections, and in aging. Pluripotent stem cells, with their ability to self-replicate and to give rise to any specialized cell type, are very valuable resources for cell-based medical therapies and open a number of promising avenues for studying human development and disease. It has been suggested that autophagy is vital for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in stem cells, and subsequently more in-depth knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in stem cell biology has been acquired recently. In this review, we describe the most significant advances in the understanding of autophagy regulation in hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as in induced pluripotent stem cells. In particular, we highlight the roles of various autophagy activities in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of these stem cells.

  5. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  6. Stem Cell Therapy: An emerging science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad M.

    2007-01-01

    The research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about the development of an organism from a single cell and to how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell therapy is emerging rapidly nowadays as a technical tool for tissue repair and replacement. The purpose of this review to provide a framework of understanding for the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology and its potential use into clinical therapies, also to give an overview on stem cell research to the scientists of Saudi Arabia in general. English language MEDLINE publications from 1980 through January 2007 for experimental, observational and clinical studies having relation with stem cells with different diseases were reviewed. Approximately 85 publications were reviewed based on the relevance, strength and quality of design and methods, 36 publications were selected for inclusion. Stem cells reside in a specific area of each tissue where they may remain undivided for several years until they are activated by disease or tissue injury. The embryonic stem cells are typically derived from four or five days old embryos and they are pluripotent. The adult tissues reported to contain stem cells brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin and liver. The promise of stem cell therapies is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research. (author)

  7. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  8. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  9. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  10. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  11. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  12. Stem Cells and Herbal Acupuncture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy implies the birth of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine signify treatment through regeneration of cells which was impossible by existing medicine. Stem cell is classified into embryonic stem cell and adult stem cell and they have distinctive benefits and limitations. Researches on stem cell are already under active progression and is expected to be commercially available in the near future. One may not relate the stem cell treatment with Oriental medicine, but can be interpreted as the fundamental treatment action of Oriental medicine is being investigated in more concrete manner. When it comes to difficult to cure diseases, there is no boundary between eastern and western medicine, and one must be ready to face and overcome changes lying ahead.

  13. Therapeutic potential of adult stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol

    2006-01-01

    is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...... cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...

  14. Semi-synthetic salinomycin analogs exert cytotoxic activity against human colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Johannes; Kattner, Sarah; Borgström, Björn; Volz, Claudia; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Martin; Oredsson, Stina; Strand, Daniel; Ulrich, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, is a well-known inhibitor of human cancer stem cells. Chemical modification of the allylic C20 hydroxyl of salinomycin has enabled access to synthetic analogs that display increased cytotoxic activity compared to the native structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of a cohort of C20-O-acyl analogs of salinomycin on human colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro. Two human colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620) were exposed to three C20-O-acylated analogs and salinomycin. The impact of salinomycin and its analogs on tumor cell number, migration, cell death, and cancer stem cell specifity was analyzed. Exposure of human colorectal cancer cells to the C20-O-acylated analogs of salinomycin resulted in reduced tumor cell number and impaired tumor cell migration at lower concentrations than salinomycin. When used at higher (micromolar) concentrations, these effects were accompanied by induction of apoptotic cell death. Salinomycin analogs further expose improved activity against cancer stem cells compared to salinomycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Y.; Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Sado, T.; Nishikawa, S.

    1985-01-01

    An assay system for the stem cell that colonizes the thymus and differentiates into T cells was developed, and by using this assay system the existence of two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage was clarified. Part-body-shielded and 900-R-irradiated C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) recipient mice, which do not require the transfer of pluripotent stem cells for their survival, were transferred with cells from B10 X Thy-1.1 (H-2b, Thy-1.1) donor mice. The reconstitution of the recipient's thymus lymphocytes was accomplished by stem cells in the donor cells and those spared in the shielded portion of the recipient that competitively colonize the thymus. Thus, the stem cell activity of donor cells can be evaluated by determining the proportion of donor-type (Thy-1.1+) cells in the recipient's thymus. Bone marrow cells were the most potent source of stem cells. By contrast, when the stem cell activity was compared between spleen and bone marrow cells of whole-body-irradiated (800 R) C57BL/6 mice reconstituted with B10 X Thy-1.1 bone marrow cells by assaying in part-body-shielded and irradiated C57BL/6 mice, the activity of these two organs showed quite a different time course of development. The results strongly suggest that the stem cells for T cell lineage in the bone marrow comprise at least two subpopulations, spleen-seeking and bone marrow-seeking cells

  16. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Fountain of Stem Cell-Based Youth? Online Portrayals of Anti-Aging Stem Cell Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachul, Christen M; Percec, Ivona; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    The hype surrounding stem cell science has created a market opportunity for the cosmetic industry. Cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments that make claims regarding stem cell technology are increasingly popular, despite a lack of evidence for safety and efficacy of such products. This study explores how stem cell-based products and services are portrayed to the public through online sources, in order to gain insight into the key messages available to consumers. A content analysis of 100 web pages was conducted to examine the portrayals of stem cell-based cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments. A qualitative discourse analysis of one web page further examined how language contributes to the portrayals of these products and treatments to public audiences. The majority of web pages portrayed stem cell-based products as ready for public use. Very few web pages substantiated claims with scientific evidence, and even fewer mentioned any risks or limitations associated with stem cell science. The discourse analysis revealed that the framing and use of metaphor obscures the certainty of the efficacy of and length of time for stem cell-based anti-aging technology to be publicly available. This study highlights the need to educate patients and the public on the current limits of stem cell applications in this context. In addition, generating scientific evidence for stem cell-based anti-aging and aesthetic applications is needed for optimizing benefits and minimizing adverse effects for the public. Having more evidence on efficacy and risks will help to protect patients who are eagerly seeking out these treatments. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  19. Deriving multipotent stem cells from mouse spermatogonial stem cells: a new tool for developmental and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Dirk G.; Mizrak, S. Canan

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells have been obtained from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These advances have shown that SSCs can transition from being the stem cell-producing cells of spermatogenesis to being multipotent cells that can differentiate into

  20. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jeong Min [Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mantalaris, Anathathios, E-mail: yshwang@khu.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  1. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jeong Min; Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Mantalaris, Anathathios

    2010-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  2. Potential feasibility of dental stem cells for regenerative therapies: stem cell transplantation and whole-tooth engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Taka

    2011-07-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow are expected to be a somatic stem cell source for the development of new cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, dental clinicians are unlikely to carry out autologous cell/tissue collection from patients (i.e., marrow aspiration) as a routine procedure in their clinics; hence, the utilization of bone marrow stem cells seems impractical in the dental field. Dental tissues harvested from extracted human teeth are well known to contain highly proliferative and multipotent stem cell compartments and are considered to be an alternative autologous cell source in cell-based medicine. This article provides a short overview of the ongoing studies for the potential application of dental stem cells and suggests the utilization of 2 concepts in future regenerative medicine: (1) dental stem cell-based therapy for hepatic and other systemic diseases and (2) tooth replacement therapy using the bioengineered human whole tooth, called the "test-tube dental implant." Regenerative therapies will bring new insights and benefits to the fields of clinical medicine and dentistry.

  3. Clinical trials for stem cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Geoff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, clinical trials with stem cells have taken the emerging field in many new directions. While numerous teams continue to refine and expand the role of bone marrow and cord blood stem cells for their vanguard uses in blood and immune disorders, many others are looking to expand the uses of the various types of stem cells found in bone marrow and cord blood, in particular mesenchymal stem cells, to uses beyond those that could be corrected by replacing cells in their own lineage. Early results from these trials have produced mixed results often showing minor or transitory improvements that may be attributed to extracellular factors. More research teams are accelerating the use of other types of adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells for diseases where beneficial outcome could result from either in-lineage cell replacement or extracellular factors. At the same time, the first three trials using cells derived from pluripotent cells have begun.

  4. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor); Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  6. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  7. Pressureless mechanical induction of stem cell differentiation is dose and frequency dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Fuhrer

    Full Text Available Movement is a key characteristic of higher organisms. During mammalian embryogenesis fetal movements have been found critical to normal tissue development. On the single cell level, however, our current understanding of stem cell differentiation concentrates on inducing factors through cytokine mediated biochemical signaling. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrogenesis were investigated as representative examples. We show that pressureless, soft mechanical stimulation precipitated by the cyclic deformation of soft, magnetic hydrogel scaffolds with an external magnetic field, can induce chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells without any additional chondrogenesis transcription factors (TGF-β1 and dexamethasone. A systematic study on the role of movement frequency revealed a classical dose-response relationship for human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation towards cartilage using mere mechanical stimulation. This effect could even be synergistically amplified when exogenous chondrogenic factors and movement were combined.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  9. Structural identity of the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkum, D.W. van; Engh, G.J. van den; Wagemaker, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of the experiments that resulted in the identification of a specific morphologic entity representing the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) in mouse bone marrow. This entity was subsequently discovered in concentrated HSC preparations from bone marrow of rats, monkeys,

  10. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  11. Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Michelle M J; Ghanbari, Mohsen

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. We further outline how these miRNAs could be regulated to influence cell cycle progression in stem cells as a potential clinical application.

  12. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  13. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate......, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies....... treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful...

  14. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  15. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  16. Stem cells for tooth engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bluteau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  17. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-01-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications

  18. Biomechanics of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, A. A.; Yuan, D.; Somers, S.; Grayson, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Stem cells play a key role in the healthy development and maintenance of organisms. They are also critically important in medical treatments of various diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that the mechanical factors such as forces, adhesion, stiffness, relaxation, etc. have significant effects on stem cell functions. Under physiological conditions, cells (stem cells) in muscles, heart, and blood vessels are under the action of externally applied strains. We consider the stem cell microenvironment and performance associated with their conversion (differentiation) into skeletal muscle cells. Two problems are studied by using mathematical models whose parameters are then optimized by fitting experiments. First, we present our analysis of the process of stem cell differentiation under the application of cyclic unidirectional strain. This process is interpreted as a transition through several (six) stages where each of them is defined in terms of expression of a set of factors typical to skeletal muscle cells. The stem cell evolution toward muscle cells is described by a system of nonlinear ODEs. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data on the time course of expression of the factors under consideration. Second, we analyse the mechanical (relaxation) properties of a scaffold that serves as the microenvironment for stem cells differentiation into skeletal muscle cells. This scaffold (surrounded by a liquid solution) is composed of unidirectional fibers with pores between them. The relaxation properties of the scaffold are studied in an experiment where a long cylindrical specimen is loaded by the application of ramp displacement until the strain reaches a prescribed value. The magnitude of the corresponding load is recorded. The specimen is considered as transversely isotropic poroelastic cylinder whose force relaxation is associated with liquid diffusion through the pores. An analytical solution for the total force applied to

  19. The Leukemic Stem Cell Niche: Adaptation to “Hypoxia” versus Oncogene Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cheloni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies based on low oxygen concentrations in the incubation atmosphere revealed that metabolic factors govern the maintenance of normal hematopoietic or leukemic stem cells (HSC and LSC. The physiological oxygen concentration in tissues ranges between 0.1 and 5.0%. Stem cell niches (SCN are placed in tissue areas at the lower end of this range (“hypoxic” SCN, to which stem cells are metabolically adapted and where they are selectively hosted. The data reported here indicated that driver oncogenic proteins of several leukemias are suppressed following cell incubation at oxygen concentration compatible with SCN physiology. This suppression is likely to represent a key positive regulator of LSC survival and maintenance (self-renewal within the SCN. On the other hand, LSC committed to differentiation, unable to stand suppression because of addiction to oncogenic signalling, would be unfit to home in SCN. The loss of oncogene addiction in SCN-adapted LSC has a consequence of crucial practical relevance: the refractoriness to inhibitors of the biological activity of oncogenic protein due to the lack of their molecular target. Thus, LSC hosted in SCN are suited to sustain the long-term maintenance of therapy-resistant minimal residual disease.

  20. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  1. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards hematopoietic cells: progress and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinghui; Kaufman, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    Hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells has been one of the most productive areas of stem cell biology. Recent studies have progressed from work with mouse to human embryonic stem cells. Strategies to produce defined blood cell populations can be used to better understand normal and abnormal hematopoiesis, as well as potentially improve the generation of hematopoietic cells with therapeutic potential. Molecular profiling, phenotypic and functional analyses have all been utilized to demonstrate that hematopoietic cells derived from embryonic stem cells most closely represent a stage of hematopoiesis that occurs at embryonic/fetal developmental stages. Generation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells comparable to hematopoietic stem cells found in the adult sources, such as bone marrow and cord blood, still remains challenging. However, genetic manipulation of intrinsic factors during hematopoietic differentiation has proven a suitable approach to induce adult definitive hematopoiesis from embryonic stem cells. Concrete evidence has shown that embryonic stem cells provide a powerful approach to study the early stage of hematopoiesis. Multiple hematopoietic lineages can be generated from embryonic stem cells, although most of the evidence suggests that hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells mimics an embryonic/fetal stage of hematopoiesis.

  2. In vitro differentiation of primordial germ cells and oocyte-like cells from stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José J N; Souza, Glaucinete B; Soares, Maria A A; Ribeiro, Regislane P; van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2018-02-01

    Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes. This review shows that stem cell therapies have opened new frontiers in medicine, especially in the reproductive area, with the possibility of regenerating fertility.

  3. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-stem cells: role of ATM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Young Kim

    Full Text Available There are contradictory observations about the different radiosensitivities of cancer stem cells and cancer non-stem cells. To resolve these contradictory observations, we studied radiosensitivities by employing breast cancer stem cell (CSC-like MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB453 cells as well as their corresponding non-stem cells. CSC-like cells proliferate without differentiating and have characteristics of tumor-initiating cells [1]. These cells were exposed to γ-rays (1.25-8.75 Gy and survival curves were determined by colony formation. A final slope, D(0, of the survival curve for each cell line was determined to measure radiosensitivity. The D(0 of CSC-like and non-stem MDA-MB-453 cells were 1.16 Gy and 1.55 Gy, respectively. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells (0.94 Gy vs. 1.56 Gy. After determination of radiosensitivity, we investigated intrinsic cellular determinants which influence radiosensitivity including cell cycle distribution, free-radical scavengers and DNA repair. We observed that even though cell cycle status and antioxidant content may contribute to differential radiosensitivity, differential DNA repair capacity may be a greater determinant of radiosensitivity. Unlike non-stem cells, CSC-like cells have little/no sublethal damage repair, a low intracellular level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and delay of γ-H2AX foci removal (DNA strand break repair. These results suggest that low DNA repair capacity is responsible for the high radiosensitivity of these CSC-like cells.

  4. Detection of Ultra-Rare Mitochondrial Mutations in Breast Stem Cells by Duplex Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Ahn

    Full Text Available Long-lived adult stem cells could accumulate non-repaired DNA damage or mutations that increase the risk of tumor formation. To date, studies on mutations in stem cells have concentrated on clonal (homoplasmic mutations and have not focused on rarely occurring stochastic mutations that may accumulate during stem cell dormancy. A major challenge in investigating these rare mutations is that conventional next generation sequencing (NGS methods have high error rates. We have established a new method termed Duplex Sequencing (DS, which detects mutations with unprecedented accuracy. We present a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA mutations in human breast normal stem cells and non-stem cells using DS. The vast majority of mutations occur at low frequency and are not detectable by NGS. The most prevalent point mutation types are the C>T/G>A and A>G/T>C transitions. The mutations exhibit a strand bias with higher prevalence of G>A, T>C, and A>C mutations on the light strand of the mitochondrial genome. The overall rare mutation frequency is significantly lower in stem cells than in the corresponding non-stem cells. We have identified common and unique non-homoplasmic mutations between non-stem and stem cells that include new mutations which have not been reported previously. Four mutations found within the MT-ND5 gene (m.12684G>A, m.12705C>T, m.13095T>C, m.13105A>G are present in all groups of stem and non-stem cells. Two mutations (m.8567T>C, m.10547C>G are found only in non-stem cells. This first genome-wide analysis of mitochondrial DNA mutations may aid in characterizing human breast normal epithelial cells and serve as a reference for cancer stem cell mutation profiles.

  5. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Legislation governing pluripotent stem cells in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting areas of medical research involves the use of stem cells for the treatment of patients with a variety of diseases and for tissue repair. Although stem cell research is accelerating rapidly in many countries, it has in the past been limited in South Africa (SA; very little has been done in this country to explore the great potential offered by stem cells to address the high disease burden. Stem cell therapy has however been practised for many years, in SA and worldwide, in the form of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mainly for haematological malignancies. From a therapeutic perspective, two types of stem cells can be defined: pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. Pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts (either from in vitro fertilisation or following somatic cell nuclear transfer are called embryonic stem (ES cells, while those derived by reprogramming adult cells are called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Adult stem cells include haematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.The purpose of this article is to critically examine the SA legislation with regard to elements that impact on pluripotent stem cell research and the use of pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic purposes. This includes (but is not limited to legislation from the National Health Act (Chapter 8 in particular and its regulations, and deals with matters related to research on embryos in the stem cell context, somatic cell nuclear transfer, reproductive and therapeutic cloning and the generation and therapeutic use of iPS and ES cells.

  7. Contribution of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Chimeras through Injection and Coculture of Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jitong; Wu, Baojiang; Li, Shuyu; Bao, Siqin; Zhao, Lixia; Hu, Shuxiang; Sun, Wei; Su, Jie; Dai, Yanfeng; Li, Xihe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocyst injection and morula aggregation are commonly used to evaluate stem cell pluripotency based on chimeric contribution of the stem cells. To assess the protocols for generating chimeras from stem cells, 8-cell mouse embryos were either injected or cocultured with mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Although a significantly higher chimera rate resulted from blastocyst injection, the highest germline contribution resulted from injection of 8-cel...

  8. Extracellular matrix production by nucleus pulposus and bone marrow stem cells in response to altered oxygen and glucose microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syeda M; Buckley, Conor T

    2015-12-01

    Bone marrow (BM) stem cells may be an ideal source of cells for intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration. However, the harsh biochemical microenvironment of the IVD may significantly influence the biological and metabolic vitality of injected stem cells and impair their repair potential. This study investigated the viability and production of key matrix proteins by nucleus pulposus (NP) and BM stem cells cultured in the typical biochemical microenvironment of the IVD consisting of altered oxygen and glucose concentrations. Culture-expanded NP cells and BM stem cells were encapsulated in 1.5% alginate and ionically crosslinked to form cylindrical hydrogel constructs. Hydrogel constructs were maintained under different glucose concentrations (1, 5 and 25 mM) and external oxygen concentrations (5 and 20%). Cell viability was measured using the Live/Dead® assay and the production of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), and collagen was quantified biochemically and histologically. For BM stem cells, IVD-like micro-environmental conditions (5 mM glucose and 5% oxygen) increased the accumulation of sGAG and collagen. In contrast, low glucose conditions (1 mM glucose) combined with 5% external oxygen concentration promoted cell death, inhibiting proliferation and the accumulation of sGAG and collagen. NP-encapsulated alginate constructs were relatively insensitive to oxygen concentration or glucose condition in that they accumulated similar amounts of sGAG under all conditions. Under IVD-like microenvironmental conditions, NP cells were found to have a lower glucose consumption rate compared with BM cells and may in fact be more suitable to adapt and sustain the harsh microenvironmental conditions. Considering the highly specialised microenvironment of the central NP, these results indicate that IVD-like concentrations of low glucose and low oxygen are critical and influential for the survival and biological behaviour of stem cells. Such findings may promote and accelerate

  9. In vivo differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into neural stem cells by chimera formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Kim, Jong Soo; Song, Hyuk; Cho, Ssang Gu; Bae, Hojae; Kim, Changsung; Byun, Sung June; Do, Jeong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Like embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into all three germ layers in an in vitro system. Here, we developed a new technology for obtaining neural stem cells (NSCs) from iPSCs through chimera formation, in an in vivo environment. iPSCs contributed to the neural lineage in the chimera, which could be efficiently purified and directly cultured as NSCs in vitro. The iPSC-derived, in vivo-differentiated NSCs expressed NSC markers, and their gene-expression pattern more closely resembled that of fetal brain-derived NSCs than in vitro-differentiated NSCs. This system could be applied for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into specialized cell types whose differentiation protocols are not well established.

  10. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TA Mitsiadis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental mesenchymal stem cells can be easily isolated and are amenable to in vitro expansion while retaining their stemness. In vivo studies realised in small and large animals have evidenced the potential of dental mesenchymal stem cells to promote pulp and periodontal regeneration, but have also underlined new important challenges. The homogeneity of stem cell populations and their quality control, the delivery method, the quality of the regenerated dental tissues and their integration to the host tissue are some of the key challenges. The use of bioactive scaffolds that can elicit effective tissue repair response, through activation and mobilisation of endogenous stem cell populations, constitutes another emerging therapeutic strategy. Finally, the use of stem cells and induced pluripotent cells for the regeneration of entire teeth represents a novel promising alternative to dental implant treatment after tooth loss. In this mini-review, we present the currently applied techniques in restorative dentistry and the various attempts that are made to bridge gaps in knowledge regarding treatment strategies by translating basic stem cell research into the dental practice.

  11. Resveratrol Exerts Dosage and Duration Dependent Effect on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Lindsay; Gomez, Jessica; Marquez, Maribel; Alencastro, Frances; Atashpanjeh, Negar; Quang, Tara; Bach, Thuy; Zhao, Yuanxiang

    2012-01-01

    Studies in the past have illuminated the potential benefit of resveratrol as an anticancer (pro-apoptosis) and life-extending (pro-survival) compound. However, these two different effects were observed at different concentration ranges. Studies of resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on the same cell type are lacking, which is necessary to comprehend its diverse and sometimes contradictory cellular effects. In this study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on cell self-renewal and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a type of adult stem cells that reside in a number of tissues, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM after both short- and long-term exposure. Our results reveal that at 0.1 µM, resveratrol promotes cell self-renewal by inhibiting cellular senescence, whereas at 5 µM or above, resveratrol inhibits cell self-renewal by increasing senescence rate, cell doubling time and S-phase cell cycle arrest. At 1 µM, its effect on cell self-renewal is minimal but after long-term exposure it exerts an inhibitory effect, accompanied with increased senescence rate. At all concentrations, resveratrol promotes osteogenic differentiation in a dosage dependent manner, which is offset by its inhibitory effect on cell self-renewal at high concentrations. On the contrary, resveratrol suppresses adipogenic differentiation during short-term exposure but promotes this process after long-term exposure. Our study implicates that resveratrol is the most beneficial to stem cell development at 0.1 µM and caution should be taken in applying resveratrol as an anticancer therapeutic agent or nutraceutical supplement due to its dosage dependent effect on hMSCs. PMID:22615926

  12. Accelerated stem cell labeling with ferucarbotran and protamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovko, Daniel M.; Henning, Tobias; Bauer, Jan S. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technical University Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Frenzel, Thomas [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Mayerhofer, Artur [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institute of Cell Biology, Munich (Germany); Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Medical Center, Contrast Agent Research Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    To develop and characterize a clinically applicable, fast and efficient method for stem cell labeling with ferucarbotran and protamine for depiction with clinical MRI. The hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential and relaxivities of ferucarbotran and varying concentrations of protamine were measured. Once the optimized ratio was found, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were labeled at varying incubation times (1-24 h). Viability was assessed via Trypan blue exclusion testing. 150,000 labeled cells in Ficoll solution were imaged with T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted sequences at 3 T, and relaxation rates were calculated. Varying the concentrations of protamine allows for easy modification of the physicochemical properties. Simple incubation with ferucarbotran alone resulted in efficient labeling after 24 h of incubation while assisted labeling with protamine resulted in similar results after only 1 h. Cell viability remained unaffected. R2 and R2* relaxation rates were drastically increased. Electron microscopy confirmed intracellular iron oxide uptake in lysosomes. Relaxation times correlated with results from ICP-AES. Our results show internalization of ferucarbotran can be accelerated in MSCs with protamine, an approved heparin antagonist and potentially clinically applicable uptake-enhancing agent. (orig.)

  13. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  14. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  15. The potential application of stem cell in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Suardita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are generally defined as cells that have the capacity to self-renewal and differentiate to specialize cell. There are two kinds of stem cell, embryonic stem cell and adult stem cells. Stem cell therapy has been used to treat diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart diseases, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Stem cells were found in dental pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone marrow. Because of their potential in medical therapy, stem cells were used to regenerate lost or damage teeth and periodontal structures. This article discusses the potential application of stem cells for dental field.

  16. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  17. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  18. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, J.; Sangwal, V.; MacNeil, S.; Matcher, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells is continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD), in which the stem cell population is depleted, can lead to blindness. LSCD can be caused by chemical and thermal burns to the eye. A popular treatment, especially in emerging economies such as India, is the transplantation of limbal stem cells onto damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region. Hence regenerating the corneal epithelium. In order to gain insights into the success rates of this treatment, new imaging technologies are needed in order to track the transplanted cells. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images of the retina. A custom OCT system has been built to image the corneal surface, to investigate the fate of transplanted limbal stem cells. We evaluate two methods to label and track transplanted cells: melanin labelling and magneto-labelling. To evaluate melanin labelling, stem cells are loaded with melanin and then transplanted onto a rabbit cornea denuded of its epithelium. The melanin displays strongly enhanced backscatter relative to normal cells. To evaluate magneto-labelling the stem cells are loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) and then imaged with a custom-built, magneto-motive OCT system.

  19. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Niamh M. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joyce, Myles R. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kerin, Michael J. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Dwyer, Roisin M., E-mail: roisin.dwyer@nuigalway.ie [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  20. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  1. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  2. Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover-Plow J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-Plow, Yanqing GongDepartments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Joseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1 improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2 identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3 development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress.Keywords: mobilization, expansion, homing, survival, engraftment

  3. Mismatch repair deficient hematopoietic stem cells are preleukemic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Qing

    Full Text Available Whereas transformation events in hematopoietic malignancies may occur at different developmental stages, the initial mutation originates in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, creating a preleukemic stem cell (PLSC. Subsequent mutations at either stem cell or progenitor cell levels transform the PLSC into lymphoma/leukemia initiating cells (LIC. Thymic lymphomas have been thought to develop from developing thymocytes. T cell progenitors are generated from HSCs in the bone marrow (BM, but maturation and proliferation of T cells as well as T-lymphomagenesis depends on both regulatory mechanisms and microenvironment within the thymus. We studied PLSC linked to thymic lymphomas. In this study, we use MSH2-/- mice as a model to investigate the existence of PLSC and the evolution of PLSC to LIC. Following BM transplantation, we found that MSH2-/- BM cells from young mice are able to fully reconstitute multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated wild-type recipients. However, all recipients developed thymic lymphomas within three and four months post transplantation. Transplantation of different fractions of BM cells or thymocytes from young health MSH2-/- mice showed that an HSC enriched fraction always reconstituted hematopoiesis followed by lymphoma development. In addition, lymphomas did not occur in thymectomized recipients of MSH2-/- BM. These results suggest that HSCs with DNA repair defects such as MSH2-/- are PLSCs because they retain hematopoietic function, but also carry an obligate lymphomagenic potential within their T-cell progeny that is dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  4. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  5. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in auditory hair cell repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Hata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of acquired hearing loss is very high. About 10% of the total population and more than one third of the population over 65 years suffer from debilitating hearing loss. The most common type of hearing loss in adults is idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL. In the majority of cases, ISSHL is permanent and typically associated with loss of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti. Following the loss of sensory hair cells, the auditory neurons undergo secondary degeneration. Sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not regenerate throughout life, and loss of these cells is irreversible and cumulative. However, recent advances in stem cell biology have gained hope that stem cell therapy comes closer to regenerating sensory hair cells in humans. A major advance in the prospects for the use of stem cells to restore normal hearing comes with the recent discovery that hair cells can be generated ex vivo from embryonic stem (ES cells, adult inner ear stem cells and neural stem cells. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that stem cells can promote damaged cell repair in part by secreting diffusible molecules such as growth factors. These results suggest that stem-cell-based treatment regimens can be applicable to the damaged inner ear as future clinical applications.Previously we have established an animal model of cochlear ischemia in gerbils and showed progressive hair cell loss up to 4 days after ischemia. Auditory brain stem response (ABR recordings have demonstrated that this gerbil model displays severe deafness just after cochlear ischemia and gradually recovers thereafter. These pathological findings and clinical manifestations are reminiscent of ISSHL in humans. In this study, we have shown the effectiveness of stem cell therapy by using this animal model of ISSHL.

  6. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ji-Ming; Duan, Hong-Tao; Kong, Jia-Hui; Wang, Yue-Xin; Dong, Meng; Bi, Xue; Song, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) analyzes. RESULTS A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2), CD73 (SH3) and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases. PMID:26949608

  7. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS: The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS, then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence (IF analyzes. RESULTS: A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2, CD73 (SH3 and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases.

  8. Effect of long-term culture of mouse embryonic stem cells under low oxygen concentration as well as on glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, M Á; Pericuesta, E; Yáñez-Mó, M; Palasz, A; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining undifferentiated stem cells in defined conditions is of critical importance to improve their in vitro culture. We have evaluated the effects of culturing mouse stem (mES) cells under physiological oxygen concentration as well as by replacing fibroblast feeder layer (mEF) with gelatin or glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), on cell proliferation and differentiation. After 3 days culture or after long-term cell culture under different conditions, levels of apoptotic cell death were determined by cell cycle and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays and levels of cell proliferation by CFSE (5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) labelling. We assessed spontaneous differentiation into cardiomyocytes and mRNA expression of pluripotency and differentiation biomarkers. After 3 days culture under hypoxic conditions, levels of proliferation and apoptosis of mES cells were higher, in correlation with increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species. However, when cells were continuously grown for 1 month under those conditions, the level of apoptosis was, in all cases, under 4%. Hypoxia reduced spontaneous differentiation of mES into cardiomyocytes. Long-term culture on HA was more effective in maintaining the pluripotent state of the mES cells when compared to that on gelatin. Level of terminal differentiation was highest on mEF, intermediate on HA and lowest on gelatin. Our data suggest that hypoxia is not necessary for maintaining pluripotency of mES cells and appeared to be detrimental during ES differentiation. Moreover, HA may offer a valuable alternative for long-term culture of mES cells in vitro. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  10. Stem cells: sources and therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical, lexical and conceptual issues embedded in stem cell biology are reviewed from technical, ethical, philosophical, judicial, clinical, economic and biopolitical perspectives. The mechanisms assigning the simultaneous capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to stem cells (immortal template DNA and asymmetric division are evaluated in the light of the niche hypothesis for the stemness state. The induction of cell pluripotency and the different stem cells sources are presented (embryonic, adult and cord blood. We highlight the embryonic and adult stem cell properties and possible therapies while we emphasize the particular scientific and social values of cord blood donation to set up cord blood banks. The current scientific and legal frameworks of cord blood banks are reviewed at an international level as well as allogenic, dedicated and autologous donations. The expectations and the challenges in relation to present-day targeted diseases like diabetes mellitus type I, Parkinson's disease and myocardial infarction are evaluated in the light of the cellular therapies for regenerative medicine.

  11. Sensing radiosensitivity of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachidi, Walid; Harfourche, Ghida; Lemaitre, Gilles; Amiot, Franck; Vaigot, Pierre; Martin, Michele T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiosensitivity of stem cells is a matter of debate. For mouse somatic stem cells, both radiosensitive and radioresistant stem cells have been described. By contrast, the response of human stem cells to radiation has been poorly studied. As epidermis is a radiosensitive tissue, we evaluated in the present work the radiosensitivity of cell populations enriched for epithelial stem cells of human epidermis. Methods and materials: The total keratinocyte population was enzymatically isolated from normal human skin. We used flow cytometry and antibodies against cell surface markers to isolate basal cell populations from human foreskin. Cell survival was measured after a dose of 2 Gy with the XTT assay at 72 h after exposure and with a clonogenic assay at 2 weeks. Transcriptome analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays was performed to assess the genomic cell responses to radiation. Results: Cell sorting based on two membrane proteins, α6 integrin and the transferrin receptor CD71, allowed isolation of keratinocyte populations enriched for the two types of cells found in the basal layer of epidermis: stem cells and progenitors. Both the XTT assay and the clonogenic assay showed that the stem cells were radioresistant whereas the progenitors were radiosensitive. We made the hypothesis that upstream DNA damage signalling might be different in the stem cells and used microarray technology to test this hypothesis. The stem cells exhibited a much more reduced gene response to a dose of 2 Gy than the progenitors, as we found that 6% of the spotted genes were regulated in the stem cells and 20% in the progenitors. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that radiation exposure induced very specific pathways in the stem cells. The most striking responses were the repression of a network of genes involved in apoptosis and the induction of a network of cytokines and growth factors. Conclusion: These results show for the first time that keratinocyte

  12. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 μ/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 ± 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 ± 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD 50/6 ) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs

  13. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Arshak R.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into β-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs

  14. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...... in the context of stem cell tracking in vivo. This review concludes with a section on the unexpected potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells to contribute to the repair of damaged tissues. The contribution of cell fusion to explain the latter phenomenon is discussed. SUMMARY: Because of exciting discoveries...

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujde Kivanc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cells derived from adipose tissue as an autologous and self-replenishing source for a variety of differentiated cell phenotypes, provides a great deal of promise for reconstructive surgery. The secret of the human body, stem cells are reserved. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in the human body placed in any body tissue characteristics that differentiate and win ever known to cross the tissue instead of more than 200 diseases and thus improve and, rejuvenates the tissues. So far, the cord blood of newborn babies are used as a source of stem cells, bone marrow, and twenty years after tooth stem cells in human adipose tissue, scientists studied more than other sources of stem cells in adipose tissue and discovered that. Increase in number of in vitro studies on adult stem cells, depending on many variables is that the stem cells directly to the desired soybean optimization can be performed.. We will conclude by assessing potential avenues for developing this incredibly promising field. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature on applications of harvest, purification, characterization and cryopreservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 399-408

  16. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  17. Embryos, Clones, and Stem Cells: A Scientific Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon S. Tweedell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give the nonspecialist an insight into the nuances of “clones”, cloning, and stem cells. It distinguishes embryonic and adult stem cells, their normal function in the organism, their origin, and how they are recovered to produce stem cell lines in culture. As background, the fundamental processes of embryo development are reviewed and defined, since the manipulation of stem cell lines into desired specialized cells employs many of the same events. Stem cells are defined and characterized and shown how they function in the intact organism during early development and later during cell regeneration in the adult. The complexity of stem cell recovery and their manipulation into specific cells and tissue is illustrated by reviewing current experimentation on both embryonic and adult stem cells in animals and limited research on human stem cell lines. The current and projected use of stem cells for human diseases and repair, along with the expanding methodology for the recovery of human embryonic stem cells, is described. An assessment on the use of human embryonic stem cells is considered from ethical, legal, religious, and political viewpoints.

  18. Skin Stem Cells: At the Frontier Between the Laboratory and Clinical Practice. Part 1: Epidermal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastushenko, I; Prieto-Torres, L; Gilaberte, Y; Blanpain, C

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin. Part I deals with the principal characteristics and potential applications of epidermal stem cells in dermatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Molly N; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-04-19

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML. Satellite cells are the native precursors to skeletal muscle tissue, and are thus the most commonly studied starting source for SMTE. However, satellite cells are difficult to isolate and purify, and it is presently unknown whether they would be a practical source in clinical SMTE applications. Alternative myogenic stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, each have myogenic potential and have been identified as possible starting sources for SMTE, although they have yet to be studied in detail for this purpose. These alternative stem cell varieties offer unique advantages and disadvantages that are worth exploring further to advance the SMTE field toward highly functional, safe, and practical VML treatments. The following review summarizes the current state of satellite cell-based SMTE, details the properties and practical advantages of alternative myogenic stem cells, and offers guidance to tissue engineers on how alternative myogenic stem cells can be incorporated into SMTE research.

  20. Mesenchymal dental stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.

  1. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed.......This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...

  2. Dental Tissue — New Source for Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have been isolated from many tissues and organs, including dental tissue. Five types of dental stem cells have been established: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and dental follicle progenitor cells. The main characteristics of dental stem cells are their potential for multilineage differentiation and self-renewal capacity. Dental stem cells can differentiate into odontoblasts, adipocytes, neuronal-like cells, glial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, melanocytes, myotubes, and endothelial cells. Possible application of these cells in various fields of medicine makes them good candidates for future research as a new, powerful tool for therapy. Although the possible use of these cells in therapeutic purposes and tooth tissue engineering is still in the beginning stages, the results are promising. The efforts made in the research of dental stem cells have clarified many mechanisms underlying the biological processes in which these cells are involved. This review will focus on the new findings in the field of dental stem cell research and on their potential use in the therapy of various disorders.

  3. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  4. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  5. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  6. Strategies for future histocompatible stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy based on the safe and unlimited self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells is envisioned for future use in tissue or organ replacement after injury or disease. A gradual decline of regenerative capacity has been documented among the adult stem cell population in some body organs...... during the aging process. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer and inducible pluripotent stem cell technologies has shown that patient-derived nuclei or somatic cells can be reprogrammed in vitro to become pluripotent stem cells, from which the three germ layer lineages can be generated......, genetically identical to the recipient. Once differentiation protocols and culture conditions can be defined and optimized, patient-histocompatible pluripotent stem cells could be directed towards virtually every cell type in the human body. Harnessing this capability to enrich for given cells within...

  7. Stem Cell Banking for Regenerative and Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Harris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source.

  8. Stem Cell Banking for Regenerative and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source. PMID:28548060

  9. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  10. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  11. When nano meets stem: the impact of nanotechnology in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Singhal, Barkha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology and biomedical treatments using stem cells are among the latest conduits of biotechnological research. Even more recently, scientists have begun finding ways to mate these two specialties of science. The advent of nanotechnology has paved the way for an explicit understanding of stem cell therapy in vivo and by recapitulation of such in vivo environments in the culture, this technology seems to accommodate a great potential in providing new vistas to stem cell research. Nanotechnology carries in its wake, the development of highly stable, efficient and specific gene delivery systems for both in vitro and in vivo genetic engineering of stem cells, use of nanoscale systems (such as microarrays) for investigation of gene expression in stem cells, creation of dynamic three-dimensional nano-environments for in vitro and in vivo maintenance and differentiation of stem cells and development of extremely sensitive in vivo detection systems to gain insights into the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and apoptosis in different disease models. The present review presents an overview of the current applications and future prospects for the use of nanotechnology in stem cell biology. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stem cell applications in military medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J

    2011-10-19

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

  13. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  14. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration : Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,

  15. Stem cells and repair of lung injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randell Scott H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems. In the present review, we concisely explore the conceptual framework of stem cell biology and recent advances pertinent to the lungs. We illustrate lung diseases in which manipulation of stem cells may be physiologically significant and highlight the challenges facing stem cell-related therapy in the lung.

  16. Facts about Stem Cells and Importance of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest, Adipose tissue (lipid cells, which requires extraction by liposuction, and Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation, and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in medical therapies, for example in bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through Somatic-cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation

  17. 14C concentrations in tree stems, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikata, Yoji; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Morishita, Fumio; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Marsoen, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    The 14 C concentrations in trees sampled at various latitudes were measured with a Tandetron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer at Nagoya University. The growing periods of the parts for 14 C measurements were estimated by the relationship between meteorological conditions and the appearance of anatomical features of annual rings such as false rings, latewood formation, and so on. The following results were obtained: 1. The latitude dependence of the 14 C variation is found in tree stems as well as in the atmosphere. 2. The 14 C concentrations in tree stems are almost equal to those in the atmosphere at the latitude where the tree had grown and at the time when the sampled section is formed. Therefore the 14 C concentrations in the atmosphere are estimated by those of the tree stems. 3. The time when the 14 C concentration in the tree showed its maximum value has difference of 1 - 2 years with that of the latitude where the tree had grown. 4. This phenomena seemed to be related closely with the mechanism of global mixing of 14 CO 2 produced by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. This mechanism causes a time lag of 14 C variation between northern and southern hemisphere. (author)

  18. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  19. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  20. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression

  2. Refined control of cell stemness allowed animal evolution in the oxic realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Påhlman, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Animal diversification on Earth has long been presumed to be associated with the increasing extent of oxic niches. Here, we challenge that view. We start with the fact that hypoxia (cells continuously-and paradoxically......-regenerate animal tissue in oxygenated settings. Novel insights from tumour biology illuminate how cell stemness nevertheless can be achieved through the action of oxygen-sensing transcription factors in oxygenated, regenerating tissue. We suggest that these hypoxia-inducible transcription factors provided animals...... with unprecedented control over cell stemness that allowed them to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations. Thus, a refinement of the cellular hypoxia-response machinery enabled cell stemness at oxic conditions and, then, animals to evolve into the oxic realm. This view on the onset of animal diversification...

  3. Organizing Organoids: Stem Cells Branch Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A

    2017-12-07

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Taguchi and Nishinakamura (2017) describe a carefully optimized method for making a branch-competent ureteric bud, a tissue fundamental to kidney development, from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells. The work illuminates embryology and has important implications for making more realistic kidney organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fundamental Principles of Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.

  5. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  6. The continuum of stem cell transdifferentiation: possibility of hematopoietic stem cell plasticity with concurrent CD45 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, V M

    2006-02-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of scientific research examining adult stem cell plasticity. For example, the hematopoietic stem cell has been shown to give rise to skin, respiratory epithelium, intestinal epithelium, renal epithelium, liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, myocardium, and central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The potential for such stem cell plasticity seems to be enhanced by stressors such as injury and neoplasia. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells may be able to adopt certain nonhematopoietic phenotypes, such as endothelial, neural, or skeletal muscle phenotypes, without entirely losing their initial hematopoietic identity. We propose that transdifferentiation can, in certain conditions, be a partial rather than a complete event, and we encourage further investigation into the phenomenon of a stem cell simultaneously expressing phenotypic features of two distinct cell fates.

  7. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay.ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells.We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue reconstitution. Using this assay, we demonstrated that ESP

  8. Organization of haemopoietic stem cells: the generation-age hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendaal, M.; Hodgson, G.S.; Bradley, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper proposes that the previous division history of each stem cell is one determinant of the functional organisation of the haemopoietic stem cell population. Older stem cell are used to form blood before younger ones. The stem cells generating capacity of a lineage is finite, and cells are eventually lost to the system by forming two committed precursors of the cell lines, and the next oldest stem cell takes over. Hence the proposed term 'generation-age hypothesis', supported by experimental evidence. Older stem cells from normal bone marrow and 13 day foetal liver were stripped away with phase-specific drugs revealing a younger population of stem cells with three-to four-fold greater stem cell generating capacity. Normal stem cells aged by continuous irradiation and serial retransplantation had eight-fold reduced generating capacity. That of stem cells in the bloodstream was half to a quarter that of normal bone marrow stem cells. There were some circulating stem cells, identified by reaction to brain-associated antigen, positive for 75% of normal femoral stem cells but not their progeny, whose capacity for stem cell generation was an eighth to one fortieth that of normal cells. (U.K.)

  9. In Vitro Derivation and Propagation of Spermatogonial Stem Cell Activity from Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Yukiko; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Shirane, Kenjiro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori

    2016-12-06

    The in vitro derivation and propagation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a key goal in reproductive science. We show here that when aggregated with embryonic testicular somatic cells (reconstituted testes), primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) induced from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiate into spermatogonia-like cells in vitro and are expandable as cells that resemble germline stem cells (GSCs), a primary cell line with SSC activity. Remarkably, GSC-like cells (GSCLCs), but not PGCLCs, colonize adult testes and, albeit less effectively than GSCs, contribute to spermatogenesis and fertile offspring. Whole-genome analyses reveal that GSCLCs exhibit aberrant methylation at vulnerable regulatory elements, including those critical for spermatogenesis, which may restrain their spermatogenic potential. Our study establishes a strategy for the in vitro derivation of SSC activity from PSCs, which, we propose, relies on faithful epigenomic regulation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Tricostantin A inhibits self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Li, Fu-Xi; Shao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Jing-Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of tricostantin A (TSA) on self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells and explore the mechanisms. Breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and SKBR3 were cultured in suspension and treated with different concentrations of TSA for 7 days, using 0.1% DMSO as the control. Secondary mammosphere formation efficiency and percentage of CD44(+)/CD24(-) sub-population in the primary mammospheres were used to evaluate the effects of TSA on self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. The breast cancer stem cell surface marker CD44(+)/CD24(-) and the percentage of apoptosis in the primary mammospheres were assayed using flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 in the primary mammospheres were assayed with quantitative PCR. TSA at both 100 and 500 nmol/L, but not at 10 nmol/L, partially inhibited the self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells from the 4 cell lines. TSA at 500 nmol/L induced cell apoptosis in the primary mammospheres. TSA down-regulated the mRNA expression of Nanog and Sox2 in the primary mammospheres. TSA can partially inhibit the self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells through a mechanism involving the down-regulation of Nanog and Sox2 expression, indicating the value of combined treatments with low-dose TSA and other anticancer drugs to achieve maximum inhibition of breast cancer stem cell self-renewal. The core transcriptional factor of embryonic stem cells Nanog and Sox2 can be potential targets of anticancer therapy.

  11. Keeping stem cells under control: new insights into the mechanisms that limit niche-stem cell signaling within the reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Buszczak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments called niches that maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated and self-renewing state. Despite extensive studies on the signaling pathways that operate within stem cells and their niches, the mechanisms that restrict niche signal exclusively to stem cells remained elusive: such a mechanism is crucially important to ensure that stem cells undergo self-renewal while their progeny, often located just one cell diameter away from the niche, ...

  12. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander; Ji, Yajing; Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot; Ash, David E.; Mohanty, Dillip K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well

  13. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  14. Stem cell facelift: between reality and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Saad, Dibo A

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells are "big business" throughout medical technology, and their potential application in cosmetic procedures is no exception. One of the latest nonsurgical facial treatments (and new catchphrases) in plastic surgery is the "stem cell facelift." It is evident from the currently available scientific literature that the use of stem cell therapy for facial rejuvenation is limited to the theoretical induction of skin tightening and can in no way be equated to a facelift. In fact, what is advertised and promoted as a new and original technique of stem cell facelifting is mostly stem cell-enriched lipofilling. Despite encouraging data suggesting that adult stem cells hold promise for future applications, the data from clinical evidence available today do not substantiate the marketing and promotional claims being made to patients. To claim that the "stem cell facelift" is a complete facial rejuvenation procedure surgery is unethical.

  15. Stem cells in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Polyak, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    The origins of the epithelial cells participating in the development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer of the human breast are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests a role for adult tissue-specific stem cells in these processes. In a hierarchical manner, these generate the two main...... mammary cell lineages, producing an increasing number of cells with distinct properties. Understanding the biological characteristics of human breast stem cells and their progeny is crucial in attempts to compare the features of normal stem cells and cancer precursor cells and distinguish these from...... nonprecursor cells and cells from the bulk of a tumor. A historical overview of research on human breast stem cells in primary tissue and in culture reveals the progress that has been made in this area, whereas a focus on the cell-of-origin and reprogramming that occurs during neoplastic conversion provides...

  16. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  17. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  18. Identification of Abnormal Stem Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Novikov, Sergey M; Beermann, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells in cell-based therapeutics for degenerative diseases requires development of criteria for defining normal stem cells to ensure safe transplantation. Currently, identification of abnormal from normal stem cells is based on extensive ex vivo and in vivo testing. Raman...... microscopy is a label-free method for rapid and sensitive detection of changes in cells' bio-molecular composition. Here, we report that by using Raman spectroscopy, we were able to map the distribution of different biomolecules within 2 types of stem cells: adult human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells...... and human embryonic stem cells and to identify reproducible differences in Raman's spectral characteristics that distinguished genetically abnormal and transformed stem cells from their normal counterparts. Raman microscopy can be prospectively employed as a method for identifying abnormal stem cells in ex...

  19. Development of New Technologies for Stem Cell Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, the stem cells have been extensively studied including embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. In the recent years, several stem cells have been initially used in the treatment of diseases, such as in bone marrow transplant. At the same time, isolation and culture experimental technologies for stem cell research have been widely developed in recent years. In addition, molecular imaging technologies including optical molecular imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and computed tomography have been developed rapidly in recent the 10 years and have also been used in the research on disease mechanism and evaluation of treatment of disease related with stem cells. This paper will focus on recent typical isolation, culture, and observation techniques of stem cells followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future applications of the new technologies in stem cells are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the paper is then concluded.

  20. Stem Cell Therapies in Orthopaedic Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucio, Ralph S.; Nauth, Aaron; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Bahney, Chelsea; Piuzzi, Nicolas S.; Muschler, George; Miclau, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells offer great promise to help understand the normal mechanisms of tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair, and also for development of cell-based therapies to treat patients after tissue injury. Most adult tissues contain stem cells and progenitor cells that contribute to homeostasis, remodeling and repair. Multiple stem and progenitor cell populations in bone are found in the marrow, the endosteum, and the periosteum. They contribute to the fracture healing process after injury and...

  1. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  2. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  3. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  4. Does the preference of peripheral versus central venous access in peripheral blood stem cell collection/yield change stem cell kinetics in autologous stem cell transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Kaya, Ali Hakan; Berber, Ilhami; Sari, İsmail; Tekgündüz, Emre; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Iskender, Dicle; Kayıkçı, Ömur; Kuku, Irfan; Kaya, Emin; Keskin, Ali; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2016-02-01

    Central venous access is often used during apheresis procedure in stem cell collection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether central or peripheral venous access has an effect on stem cell yield and the kinetics of the procedure and the product in patients undergoing ASCT after high dose therapy. A total of 327 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The use of peripheral venous access for stem cell yield was significantly more frequent in males compared to females (p = 0.005). Total volume of the product was significantly lower in central venous access group (p = 0.046). As being a less invasive procedure, peripheral venous access can be used for stem cell yield in eligible selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Alcântara, Dayane; Fratini, Paula; Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-02-22

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST) cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs) and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP) stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p53. We propose that rhBMP-2 has great

  6. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  7. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Boyette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan.

  8. Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Werner Denker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs, has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk.

  9. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; Stålman, Anders; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-09-02

    Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically.

  10. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through Mfn1 degradation in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Hirata, Naoya; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT is also known to cause various forms of cytotoxicity, including neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. However, TBT toxicity has not been identified in normal stem cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of TBT on cell growth in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found that exposure to nanomolar concentrations of TBT decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited cell viability in iPSCs. Because TBT suppressed energy production, which is a critical function of the mitochondria, we further assessed the effects of TBT on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar concentrations of TBT induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also reduced the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), and this effect was abolished by knockdown of the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 5 (MARCH5), suggesting that nanomolar concentrations of TBT could induce mitochondrial dysfunction via MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 degradation in iPSCs. Thus, mitochondrial function in normal stem cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New Advanced Technologies in Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    James, J. N. Zara , M. Corselli et al., “An abundant perivascular source of stem cells for bone tissue engineering,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine...vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 673–684, 2012. [89] A.W. James, J. N. Zara , X. Zhang et al., “Perivascular stem cells: a prospectively purified mesenchymal stem...1, pp. 54–63, 2009. [176] A. Askarinam, A. W. James, J. N. Zara et al., “Human perivas- cular stem cells show enhanced osteogenesis and

  12. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  13. Steady advance of stem cell therapies: report from the 2011 World Stem Cell Summit, Pasadena, California, October 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    Stem cell research and related therapies (including regenerative medicine and cellular therapies) could have a significant near-term impact on worldwide public health and aging. One reason is the industry's strong linkage between policy, science, industry, and patient advocacy, as was clear in the attendance and programming at the 7(th) annual World Stem Cell Summit held in Pasadena, California, October 3-5, 2011. A special conference session sponsored by the SENS Foundation discussed how stem cell therapies are being used to extend healthy life span. Stem cells are useful not only in cell-replacement therapies, but also in disease modeling, drug discovery, and drug toxicity screening. Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft). Stem cell policy issues under consideration include medical tourism, standards for large-scale stem cell manufacturing, and lingering ethical debates over the use of embryonic stem cells. Contemporary stem cell science advances include a focus on techniques for the direct reprogramming of cells from one lineage to another without returning to pluripotency as an intermediary step, improved means of generating and characterizing induced pluripotent cells, and progress in approaches to neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Effects of different concentrations of Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma on vitality and differentiation of autologous Adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthaus, Oliver; Prantl, Lukas; Skaff-Schwarze, Mona; Klein, Silvan; Anker, Alexandra; Ranieri, Marco; Kuehlmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.

  15. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... Know About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...

  16. Paramagnetic particles carried by cell-penetrating peptide tracking of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, a research in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Guo Youmin; Wu Qifei; Yang Junle; Wang Peng; Wang Sicen; Guo Xiaojuan; Qiang Yongqian; Duan Xiaoyi

    2006-01-01

    The ability to track the distribution and differentiation of stem cells by high-resolution imaging techniques would have significant clinical and research implications. In this study, a model cell-penetrating peptide was used to carry gadolinium particles for magnetic resonance imaging of the mesenchymal stem cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat bone marrow by Percoll and identified by osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cell-penetrating peptides labeled with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate and gadolinium were synthesized by a solid-phase peptide synthesis method and the relaxivity of cell-penetrating peptide-gadolinium paramagnetic conjugate on 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance was 5.7311 ± 0.0122 mmol -1 s -1 , higher than that of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid gadolinium (p < 0.05). Fluorescein imaging confirmed that this new peptide could internalize into the cytoplasm and nucleus. Gadolinium was efficiently internalized into mesenchymal stem cells by the peptide in a time- or concentration-dependent fashion, resulting in intercellular T1 relaxation enhancement, which was obviously detected by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometric analysis showed the intercellular contrast medium incorporation did not affect cell viability and membrane potential gradient. The research in vitro suggests that the newly constructed peptides could be a vector for tracking mesenchymal stem cells

  17. E-cadherin is required for centrosome and spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Inaba

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many adult stem cells reside in a special microenvironment known as the niche, where they receive essential signals that specify stem cell identity. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin and integrin plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cells within the niche. In Drosophila melanogaster, male germline stem cells (GSCs are attached to niche component cells (i.e., the hub via adherens junctions. The GSC centrosomes and spindle are oriented toward the hub-GSC junction, where E-cadherin-based adherens junctions are highly concentrated. For this reason, adherens junctions are thought to provide a polarity cue for GSCs to enable proper orientation of centrosomes and spindles, a critical step toward asymmetric stem cell division. However, understanding the role of E-cadherin in GSC polarity has been challenging, since GSCs carrying E-cadherin mutations are not maintained in the niche. Here, we tested whether E-cadherin is required for GSC polarity by expressing a dominant-negative form of E-cadherin. We found that E-cadherin is indeed required for polarizing GSCs toward the hub cells, an effect that may be mediated by Apc2. We also demonstrated that E-cadherin is required for the GSC centrosome orientation checkpoint, which prevents mitosis when centrosomes are not correctly oriented. We propose that E-cadherin orchestrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior, including polarization of stem cells toward the stem cell-niche interface and adhesion of stem cells to the niche supporting cells.

  18. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  19. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  20. Optimizing autologous cell grafts to improve stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Nikoletta; Karponi, Garyfalia; Yannaki, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, stem cell gene therapy has achieved unprecedented curative outcomes for several genetic disorders. Despite the unequivocal success, clinical gene therapy still faces challenges. Genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells are particularly vulnerable to attenuation of their repopulating capacity once exposed to culture conditions, ultimately leading to low engraftment levels posttransplant. This becomes of particular importance when transduction rates are low or/and competitive transplant conditions are generated by reduced-intensity conditioning in the absence of a selective advantage of the transduced over the unmodified cells. These limitations could partially be overcome by introducing megadoses of genetically modified CD34(+) cells into conditioned patients or by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells hematopoietic stem cells with high engrafting and repopulating potential. On the basis of the lessons gained from cord blood transplantation, we summarize the most promising approaches to date of increasing either the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation or/and their engraftability, as a platform toward the optimization of engineered stem cell grafts. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  2. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  3. Stem cells: limitations and opportunities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel-Pérez, José; Laboratorio de Cultivos Celulares, Universidad Científica del Sur. Lima, Perú.; Casado, Fanny; Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University. Hamilton, Canadá.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as rare cells that are characterized by asymmetric division, a process known as self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into more than one type of terminally differentiated cell. There is a diversity of stem cells including embryonic stem cells, which exist only during the first stages of human development, and many adult stem cells depending on the specific tissues from where they derive or the ones derived from mesenchymal or stromal tissues. On the other han...

  4. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  5. Stem cells: progressions and applications in clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseini Bereshneh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated and multi pluripotent cells which can differentiate into a variety of mature cells and tissues such as nervous tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, skeletal tissue and etc. Stem cells from all different source have three unique features: 1 Proliferative capability: Stem cells are capable of self dividing and self renewing for long periods or more than six months at least that called immortalization. 2 Undifferentiated nature: It’s considered as one of the essential characteristics of stem cell, so it doesn't have any tissue-specific construction. 3 Differentiation to the different cells from all organs: This ability can Induced by tissue specific transcription factors. Because of that, they are so important in prevention and treatment of human disease. Depending on the sources from which they derive, they have different types which can be used to produce special cells and tissues. The most significant types of stem cells are; embryonic stem cells (ESCs which are derived from embryos, adult stem cells (ASCs which are derived from differentiated cells in a specific tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs which are produced from adult differentiated cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to act resemble to an embryonic stem cell and cord blood stem cells which contains haematopoietic stem cells and derived from the umbilical cord after gestation. By providing a medium containing of special growth factor, it is possible to orientated stem cell differentiation pathway and gained certain cells from them. The important uses of stem cells includes damaged heart tissue cells improvements and bone tissue repairing, cancer treatment, damaged neurological and spinal tissue repairing, improving burns and injuries and the treatment of diabetes, infertility and spermatogenesis dysfunction. Furthermore, the application of them in gene therapy is an important issue in the modern medicine science due to the role

  6. Spermatogonial stem cells: Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Komeya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, the transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs from a mouse to other recipient mice was shown to be feasible, which clearly demonstrated the functional identity of SSCs. Since then, several important new findings and other technical developments have followed, which included a new hypothesis on their cell kinetics and spermatogonial hierarchy in the testis, a culture method allowing their self-renewal and proliferation, a testis tissue organ culture method, which induced their complete differentiation up to sperm, and the in vitro induction of germ cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These advancements reinforced or advanced our understanding of this unique cell. Nonetheless, there are many unresolved questions in the study of spermatogonial stem cells and a long road remains until these cells can be used clinically in reproductive medicine.

  7. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  8. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  9. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  10. Neural crest stem cell population in craniomaxillofacial development and tissue repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M La Noce

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells, delaminating from the neural tube during migration, undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and differentiate into several cell types strongly reinforcing the mesoderm of the craniofacial body area – giving rise to bone, cartilage and other tissues and cells of this human body area. Recent studies on craniomaxillofacial neural crest-derived cells have provided evidence for the tremendous plasticity of these cells. Actually, neural crest cells can respond and adapt to the environment in which they migrate and the cranial mesoderm plays an important role toward patterning the identity of the migrating neural crest cells. In our experience, neural crest-derived stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells, can actively proliferate, repair bone and give rise to other tissues and cytotypes, including blood vessels, smooth muscle, adipocytes and melanocytes, highlighting that their use in tissue engineering is successful. In this review, we provide an overview of the main pathways involved in neural crest formation, delamination, migration and differentiation; and, in particular, we concentrate our attention on the translatability of the latest scientific progress. Here we try to suggest new ideas and strategies that are needed to fully develop the clinical use of these cells. This effort should involve both researchers/clinicians and improvements in good manufacturing practice procedures. It is important to address studies towards clinical application or take into consideration that studies must have an effective therapeutic prospect for humans. New approaches and ideas must be concentrated also toward stem cell recruitment and activation within the human body, overcoming the classical grafting.

  11. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  12. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A H; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The recruitability and cell-cycle state of intestinal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.; Chadwick, C.; Ijiri, K.; Tsubouchi, S.; Hanson, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that the crypts of the small intestine contain at least two discrete but interdependent classes of stem cells, some with discrete cell kinetic properties and some with discrete radiation responses or radiosensitivities. Very low doses of X rays or gamma rays, or neutrons, kill a few cells in the stem cell regions of the crypt in a sensitive dose-dependent manner. Similar doses generate several different cell kinetic responses within either the clonogenic fraction or the cells at the stem cell position within the crypt. The cell kinetic responses range from apparent recruitment of G0 clonogenic cells into cycle, to a marked shortening of the average cell cycle of the cells at the stem cell position. It is suggested that the cell kinetic changes may be the consequence of the cell destruction

  14. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032

  15. Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Thomas E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b augmenting stem cell activity; and c combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  17. HMGA1 silencing reduces stemness and temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colamaio, Marianna; Tosti, Nadia; Puca, Francesca; Mari, Alessia; Gattordo, Rosaria; Kuzay, Yalçın; Federico, Antonella; Pepe, Anna; Sarnataro, Daniela; Ragozzino, Elvira; Raia, Maddalena; Hirata, Hidenari; Gemei, Marica; Mimori, Koshi; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) develops from a small subpopulation of stem-like cells, which are endowed with the ability to self-renew, proliferate and give rise to progeny of multiple neuroepithelial lineages. These cells are resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and are hence also responsible for tumor recurrence. HMGA1 overexpression has been shown to correlate with proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of GBMs and to affect self-renewal of cancer stem cells from colon cancer. The role of HMGA1 in GBM tumor stem cells is not completely understood. We have investigated the role of HMGA1 in brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) self-renewal, stemness and resistance to temozolomide by shRNA- mediated HMGA1 silencing. We first report that HMGA1 is overexpressed in a subset of BTSC lines from human GBMs. Then, we show that HMGA1 knockdown reduces self-renewal, sphere forming efficiency and stemness, and sensitizes BTSCs to temozolomide. Interestingly, HMGA1 silencing also leads to reduced tumor initiation ability in vivo. These results demonstrate a pivotal role of HMGA1 in cancer stem cell gliomagenesis and endorse HMGA1 as a suitable target for CSC-specific GBM therapy.

  18. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The long term hematologic effects of single whole body sublethal X-ray exposure, 525 rad, and the low level chronic exposure from 137 Cs gamma ray and ingested HTO were investigated in mice. The single X-ray exposure had early severe effect on bone marrows both in terms of total cellularity and the number of pluripotent stem cells. How do animals maintain normal cellularity in the absence of a normal number of the pluripotent stem cells[ The following 3 different mechanisms may be involved: additional division in the cytologically identifiable divisible pool of bone marrows; shortening of cycle time allowing more divisions in the same time with great amplification of a small number of colony-forming unit spleens; and the recruitment of G 0 stem cells into proliferation. The reduction in the number of bone marrow stem cells might be attributed to stromal injury in the marrows such that they cannot support as many stem cells as those before the radiation exposure. As an alternate to the ''niche'' hypothesis, the injury to the stem cell pool such that self-replication was not sufficient to restore normal cell concentration is a possibility. The time sequence of the transfusion of marrows may be important to the ultimate effect. Attempts to fill empty niches 10 and 12 weeks after a single and severe radiation injury may be impossible due to stromal changes which in effect have eliminated the niches. The bone marrows of animals rescued by the transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of 4 x 10 7 cells. (Yamashita, S.)

  19. Peripheral blood stem cell collection for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Practical implications after 200 consequent transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren Sahin, Deniz; Arat, Mutlu

    2017-12-01

    Proper stem cell mobilization is one of the most important steps in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this paper is to share our 6 years' experience and provide practical clinical approaches particularly for stem cell mobilization and collection within the series of more than 200 successive allogeneic HSCT at our transplant center. Two hundred and seven consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were included in this study. Age, sex, weight, complete blood counts, CD34 + cell counts, total collected amount of CD34 + cells, CD34 + cells per 10l processed, mobilization failure and adverse events were reviewed. Median age was 40.2±12.9 (21-68) years and 46.4±13.4 (17-67) years for donors and patients, respectively. The number of donors who had undergone adequate CD34 + cell harvesting and completed the procedure on the fourth day was 67 (32.8% of all patients). Only 12 patients required cell apheresis both on day 5 and 6. Apheresis was completed on day 4 and/or day 5 in 94.2% of all our donors. There was no significant association between CD34 + stem cell volume and age, gender and weight values of donors. Mobilization failure was not seen in our series. G-CSF is highly effective in 1/3 of the donors on the 4th day in order to collect enough number of stem cells. We propose that peripheral stem cell collection might start on day 4th of G-CSF treatment for avoiding G-CSF related side effects and complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells: From Developmental Biology to Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo J. F. C. do Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells. In this review, we first describe the IFP anatomy and compare and contrast it with other adipose tissues, with a particular focus on the embryological and developmental aspects of the tissue. We then discuss the recent advances in IFP stem cells for regenerative medicine. We compare their properties with other stem cell types and discuss an ontogeny relationship with other joint cells and their role on in vivo cartilage repair. We conclude with a perspective for future clinical trials using IFP stem cells.

  1. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells: From Developmental Biology to Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Ronaldo J F C; Almeida, Henrique V; Kelly, Daniel J; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kearney, Cathal J

    2017-01-01

    The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells. In this review, we first describe the IFP anatomy and compare and contrast it with other adipose tissues, with a particular focus on the embryological and developmental aspects of the tissue. We then discuss the recent advances in IFP stem cells for regenerative medicine. We compare their properties with other stem cell types and discuss an ontogeny relationship with other joint cells and their role on in vivo cartilage repair. We conclude with a perspective for future clinical trials using IFP stem cells.

  2. A population of serumdeprivation-induced bone marrow stem cells (SD-BMSC) expresses marker typical for embryonic and neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzweig, Steven; Munsch, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow represents an easy accessible source of adult stem cells suitable for various cell based therapies. Several studies in recent years suggested the existence of pluripotent stem cells within bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) expressing marker proteins of both embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. These subpopulations were referred to as MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells. Here we describe SD-BMSC (serumdeprivation-induced BMSC) which are induced as a distinct subpopulation after complete serumdeprivation. SD-BMSC are generated from small-sized nestin-positive BMSC (S-BMSC) organized as round-shaped cells in the top layer of BMSC-cultures. The generation of SD-BMSC is caused by a selective proliferation of S-BMSC and accompanied by changes in both morphology and gene expression. SD-BMSC up-regulate not only markers typical for neural stem cells like nestin and GFAP, but also proteins characteristic for embryonic cells like Oct4 and SOX2. We hypothesize, that SD-BMSC like MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells represent derivatives from a single pluripotent stem cell fraction within BMSC exhibiting characteristics of embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. The complete removal of serum might offer a simple way to specifically enrich this fraction of pluripotent embryonic like stem cells in BMSC cultures

  3. Potential Use of Stem Cells for Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yokoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of nonhematopoietic sources of stem cells (or progenitor cells have been identified, including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries have been a major step toward the use of stem cells for potential clinical applications of organ regeneration. Accordingly, kidney regeneration is currently gaining considerable attention to replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, due to anatomic complications, the kidney is believed to be the hardest organ to regenerate; it is virtually impossible to imagine such a complicated organ being completely rebuilt from pluripotent stem cells by gene or chemical manipulation. Nevertheless, several groups are taking on this big challenge. In this manuscript, current advances in renal stem cell research are reviewed and their usefulness for kidney regeneration discussed. We also reviewed the current knowledge of the emerging field of renal stem cell biology.

  4. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Polyglutamine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Liliana S; Onofre, Isabel; Miranda, Catarina Oliveira; Perfeito, Rita; Nóbrega, Clévio; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a family of neurodegenerative disorders with very heterogeneous clinical presentations, although with common features such as progressive neuronal death. Thus, at the time of diagnosis patients might present an extensive and irreversible neuronal death demanding cell replacement or support provided by cell-based therapies. For this purpose stem cells, which include diverse populations ranging from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), to fetal stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have remarkable potential to promote extensive brain regeneration and recovery in neurodegenerative disorders. This regenerative potential has been demonstrated in exciting pre and clinical assays. However, despite these promising results, several drawbacks are hampering their successful clinical implementation. Problems related to ethical issues, quality control of the cells used and the lack of reliable models for the efficacy assessment of human stem cells. In this chapter the main advantages and disadvantages of the available sources of stem cells as well as their efficacy and potential to improve disease outcomes are discussed.

  5. In vivo stem cell tracking with imageable nanoparticles that bind bioorthogonal chemical receptors on the stem cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Yoon, Hwa In; Na, Jin Hee; Jeon, Sangmin; Lim, Seungho; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sun-Woong; Park, Soon-Jung; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Taekwan; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-01

    It is urgently necessary to develop reliable non-invasive stem cell imaging technology for tracking the in vivo fate of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. Herein, we developed a simple and well controlled stem cell imaging method through a combination of metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Firstly, the exogenous chemical receptors containing azide (-N 3 ) groups were generated on the surfaces of stem cells through metabolic glycoengineering using metabolic precursor, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine(Ac 4 ManNAz). Next, bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) were prepared as imageable nanoparticles to deliver different imaging agents. Cy5.5, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were conjugated or encapsulated to BCN-CNPs for optical, MR and CT imaging, respectively. These imageable nanoparticles bound chemical receptors on the Ac 4 ManNAz-treated stem cell surface specifically via bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Then they were rapidly taken up by the cell membrane turn-over mechanism resulting in higher endocytic capacity compared non-specific uptake of nanoparticles. During in vivo animal test, BCN-CNP-Cy5.5-labeled stem cells could be continuously tracked by non-invasive optical imaging over 15 days. Furthermore, BCN-CNP-IRON- and BCN-CNP-GOLD-labeled stem cells could be efficiently visualized using in vivo MR and CT imaging demonstrating utility of our stem cell labeling method using chemical receptors. These results conclude that our method based on metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry can stably label stem cells with diverse imageable nanoparticles representing great potential as new stem cell imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...CA130273 - Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM...hypothesis, we originally proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vivo by expressing an activated form

  7. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  8. Cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of chrysin on neonate mouse spermatogenic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Pordel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: So far, many plants have been used for the treatment of infertility. Several studies have revealed that chrysin (as an active metabolite improves animals' reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chrysin on Balb/C mice spermatogenic stem cells. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study Balb/C neonate spermatogonia stem cells cultured in DMEM-F12 medium were treated with various concentrations of chrysin (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 µg/ml for 6 and 12 days. Then the cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT, Akredin orange/Propodium Idid, DAPI and antioxidant concentration DCF-DA tests. Results: Chrysin showed no remarkable cytoxicity in concentrations less than 5 µg/ml. While, after 6 days the viability of cells treated with chrysin 10, 20 and 40 µg/ml was decreased to 30, 45 and 56 % (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectiely; after 12 days the viability of cells was decreased to 44, 56 and 65 % (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectiely. DCF-DA results revealed a 80 % antioxidant capacity of chrysin in 5 and 2.5µg/ml concentrations. Conclusion: Lower concentrations of chrysin has protective effect on Balb/C mice spermatogenic through improving cell viability, decreasing cells apoptosis and inhibiting free radicals.

  9. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M.; Medina, Philippe de; Erlandsson, Anna; El-Seedi, Hesham R.; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain

  10. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M., E-mail: shaden.khalifa@ki.se [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Medina, Philippe de [Affichem, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); Erlandsson, Anna [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); El-Seedi, Hesham R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Poirot, Marc, E-mail: marc.poirot@inserm.fr [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain.

  11. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  12. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    of human hematopoietic cells for extracellular matrix protein deficiency in epidermolysis bullosa. Stem Cells 2011, 29:900–906. 18. Di Nicola M...promotes cardiogenic gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther 2013, 4:43. 57. Herrmann JL, Wang Y, Abarbanell AM, Weil BR, Tan J

  13. Pressureless mechanical induction of stem cell differentiation is dose and frequency dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuhrer, R.; Hofmann, S.; Vetsch, J.R.; Hild, N.; Herrmann, I.K.; Grass, R.N.; Stark, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Movement is a key characteristic of higher organisms. During mammalian embryogenesis fetal movements have been found critical to normal tissue development. On the single cell level, however, our current understanding of stem cell differentiation concentrates on inducing factors through cytokine

  14. Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue Liang

    2016-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem cell therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells should not be used to clone human beings, to produce human germ cells, nor to make human embryos. Informed consent should be obtained from patients in stem cell therapy.

  15. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation towards the bone forming osteoblastic lineage decreases as a function of age and may contribute to age-related...problem of age-related reduced availability of MSC we propose to examine the bone anabolic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) derived MSC

  16. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  17. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundament...

  18. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule as a potential platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sardroud, Hamed; Nemati, Sorour; Baradar Khoshfetrat, Ali; Nabavinia, Mahbobeh; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Younes

    2017-08-01

    Influence of gelatine concentration and cross-linker ions of Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ was evaluated on characteristics of alginate hydrogels and proliferation behaviours of model adherent and suspendable stem cells of fibroblast and U937 embedded in alginate microcapsules. Increasing gelatine concentration to 2.5% increased extent of swelling to 15% and 25% for barium- and calcium-cross-linked hydrogels, respectively. Mechanical properties also decreased with increasing swelling of hydrogels. Both by increasing gelatine concentration and using barium ions increased considerably the proliferation of encapsulated model stem cells. Barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule tested for bone building block showed a 13.5 ± 1.5-fold expansion for osteoblast cells after 21 days with deposition of bone matrix. The haematopoietic stem cells cultured in the microcapsule after 7 days also showed up to 2-fold increase without adding any growth factor. The study demonstrates that barium-cross-linked alginate-gelatine microcapsule has potential for use as a simple and efficient 3D platform for stem cell production and modular tissue formation.

  19. Dosage and cell line dependent inhibitory effect of bFGF supplement in human pluripotent stem cell culture on inactivated human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Tara; Marquez, Maribel; Blanco, Giselle; Zhao, Yuanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Many different culture systems have been developed for expanding human pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs). In general, 4-10 ng/ml of bFGF is supplemented in culture media in feeder-dependent systems regardless of feeder cell types, whereas in feeder-free systems, up to 100 ng/ml of bFGF is required for maintaining long-term culture on various substrates. The amount of bFGF required in native hESCs growth niche is unclear. Here we report using inactivated adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells to examine long-term parallel cultures of two hESCs lines (H1 and H9) and one hiPSCs line (DF19-9-7T) in media supplemented with 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml of bFGF for up to 23 passages, as well as parallel cultures of H9 and DF19 in media supplemented with 4, 20 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for up to 13 passages for comparison. Across all cell lines tested, bFGF supplement demonstrated inhibitory effect over growth expansion, single cell colonization and recovery from freezing in a dosage dependent manner. In addition, bFGF exerted differential effects on different cell lines, inducing H1 and DF19 differentiation at 4 ng/ml or higher, while permitting long-term culture of H9 at the same concentrations with no apparent dosage effect. Pluripotency was confirmed for all cell lines cultured in 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml bFGF excluding H1-4 ng, as well as H9 cultured in 4, 20 and 100 ng/ml bFGF. However, DF19 demonstrated similar karyotypic abnormality in both 0 and 4 ng/ml bFGF media while H1 and H9 were karyotypically normal in 0 ng/ml bFGF after long-term culture. Our results indicate that exogenous bFGF exerts dosage and cell line dependent effect on human pluripotent stem cells cultured on mesenchymal stem cells, and implies optimal use of bFGF in hESCs/hiPSCs culture should be based on specific cell line and its culture system.

  20. Propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Mizrak, Sefika C; van Daalen, Saskia K M; Korver, Cindy M; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L; Koruji, Morteza; Hovingh, Suzanne; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; van der Veen, Fulco; de Rooij, Dirk G; Repping, Sjoerd; van Pelt, Ans M M

    2009-11-18

    Young boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy are often confronted with infertility once they reach adulthood. Cryopreserving testicular tissue before chemotherapy and autotransplantation of spermatogonial stem cells at a later stage could theoretically allow for restoration of fertility. To establish in vitro propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells from small testicular biopsies to obtain an adequate number of cells for successful transplantation. Study performed from April 2007 to July 2009 using testis material donated by 6 adult men who underwent orchidectomy as part of prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells were isolated and cultured in supplemented StemPro medium; germline stem cell clusters that arose were subcultured on human placental laminin-coated dishes in the same medium. Presence of spermatogonia was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for spermatogonial markers. To test for the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells in culture, xenotransplantation to testes of immunodeficient mice was performed, and migrated human spermatogonial stem cells after transplantation were detected by COT-1 fluorescence in situ hybridization. The number of colonized spermatogonial stem cells transplanted at early and later points during culture were counted to determine propagation. Propagation of spermatogonial stem cells over time. Testicular cells could be cultured and propagated up to 15 weeks. Germline stem cell clusters arose in the testicular cell cultures from all 6 men and could be subcultured and propagated up to 28 weeks. Expression of spermatogonial markers on both the RNA and protein level was maintained throughout the entire culture period. In 4 of 6 men, xenotransplantation to mice demonstrated the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells, even after prolonged in vitro culture. Spermatogonial stem cell numbers increased 53-fold within 19 days in the testicular cell culture and

  1. Droplet Microarray Based on Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prevents Stem Cell Differentiation and Enables High-Throughput Stem Cell Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronser, Tina; Popova, Anna A; Jaggy, Mona; Bastmeyer, Martin; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades, stem cells have attracted growing interest in fundamental biological and biomedical research as well as in regenerative medicine, due to their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Long-term maintenance of the self-renewal ability and inhibition of spontaneous differentiation, however, still remain challenging and are not fully understood. Uncontrolled spontaneous differentiation of stem cells makes high-throughput screening of stem cells also difficult. This further hinders investigation of the underlying mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and the factors that might affect it. In this work, a dual functionality of nanoporous superhydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns is demonstrated in their ability to inhibit differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and at the same time enable formation of arrays of microdroplets (droplet microarray) via the effect of discontinuous dewetting. Such combination makes high-throughput screening of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells possible. The droplet microarray is used to investigate the development, differentiation, and maintenance of stemness of mESC, revealing the dependence of stem cell behavior on droplet volume in nano- and microliter scale. The inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of mESCs cultured on the droplet microarray for up to 72 h is observed. In addition, up to fourfold increased cell growth rate of mESCs cultured on our platform has been observed. The difference in the behavior of mESCs is attributed to the porosity and roughness of the polymer surface. This work demonstrates that the droplet microarray possesses the potential for the screening of mESCs under conditions of prolonged inhibition of stem cells' spontaneous differentiation. Such a platform can be useful for applications in the field of stem cell research, pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, biomedical research as well as in the field of

  2. In vitro generation of functional insulin-producing cells from lipoaspirated human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Buang, Mohamad Lizan; Seng, Heng Kien; Chung, Lee Han; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategy has been considered as an alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus due to lack of permanent pharmaceutical treatment and islet donors for transplantation. Various cell lines have been used to generate functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) including progenitor pancreatic cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCB-SCs), adult bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Human ADSCs from lipoaspirated abdominal fat tissue was differentiated into IPCs following a two-step induction protocol based on a combination of alternating high and low glucose, nicotinamide, activin A and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for a duration of 3 weeks. During differentiation, histomorphological changes of the stem cells towards pancreatic β-islet characteristics were observed via light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Dithizone (DTZ) staining, which is selective towards IPCs, was used to stain the new islet-like cells. Production of insulin hormone by the cells was analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas its hormonal regulation was tested via a glucose challenge test. Histomorphological changes of the differentiated cells were noted to resemble pancreatic β-cells, whereas DTZ staining positively stained the cells. The differentiated cells significantly produced human insulin as compared to the undifferentiated ADSCs, and its production was increased with an increase of glucose concentration in the culture medium. These initial data indicate that human lipoaspirated ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional IPCs, and could be used as a therapy to treat diabetes mellitus in the future. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  4. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; C So, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (review)

  5. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. ► Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. ► Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. ► Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. ► This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called “cancer stem cells”, within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the “stemness” of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  6. Stem cell technology for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lilian A

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to revolutionise the drug discovery process at all stages, from target identification through to toxicology studies. Their ability to generate physiologically relevant cells in limitless supply makes them an attractive alternative to currently used recombinant cell lines or primary cells. However, realisation of the full potential of stem cells is currently hampered by the difficulty in routinely directing stem cell differentiation to reproducibly and cost effectively generate pure populations of specific cell types. In this article we discuss how stem cells have already been used in the drug discovery process and how novel technologies, particularly in relation to stem cell differentiation, can be applied to attain widespread adoption of stem cell technology by the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  8. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Michaela E.; Morton, Daniel; Rossi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  9. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  10. Primer and interviews: The dynamic stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2011-03-01

    A stem cell niche is a microenvironment that supports self-renewal of a population of stem cells, and their production of differentiated cells. While the definition evokes images of a stem cell Shangri-La-where a serene stem cell pool nestles within a niche that shelters and sustains it-the reality is much more tumultuous. Niches are subject to an ever-changing maelstrom of environmental factors, the ravages of old age, and the sly tactics of disease. Presented here is a basic overview of the different ways in which stem cell niches respond to local and systemic environments, and their impact on stem cell behavior. The primer culminates with a discussion of the topic with stem cell and niche biologists D. Leanne Jones, Ph.D., and Tudorita Tumbar, Ph.D. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  12. Small Molecules Affect Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Properties Via Multiple Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habib, Mey; Yu, Zongdong

    2013-01-01

    One fundamental issue regarding stem cells for regenerative medicine is the maintenance of stem cell stemness. The purpose of the study was to test whether small molecules can enhance stem cell properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human dental pulp (hDPSCs), which have potential for multiple clinical applications. We identified the effects of small molecules (Pluripotin (SC1), 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime and rapamycin) on the maintenance of hDPSC properties in vitro and the mechanisms involved in exerting the effects. Primary cultures of hDPSCs were exposed to optimal concentrations of these small molecules. Treated hDPSCs were analyzed for their proliferation, the expression levels of pluripotent and MSC markers, differentiation capacities, and intracellular signaling activations. We found that small molecule treatments decreased cell proliferation and increased the expression of STRO-1, NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2, while diminishing cell differentiation into odonto/osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages in vitro. These effects involved Ras-GAP-, ERK1/2-, and mTOR-signaling pathways, which may preserve the cell self-renewal capacity, while suppressing differentiation. We conclude that small molecules appear to enhance the immature state of hDPSCs in culture, which may be used as a strategy for adult stem cell maintenance and extend their capacity for regenerative applications. PMID:23573877

  13. The Stem Cell Hypothesis of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is probably no single way to age. Indeed, so far there is no single accepted explanation or mechanisms of aging (although more than 300 theories have been proposed. There is an overall decline in tissue regenerative potential with age, and the question arises as to whether this is due to the intrinsic aging of stem cells or rather to the impairment of stem cell function in the aged tissue environment. CONTENT: Recent data suggest that we age, in part, because our self-renewing stem cells grow old as a result of heritable intrinsic events, such as DNA damage, as well as extrinsic forces, such as changes in their supporting niches. Mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer, such as senescence and apoptosis, which rely on telomere shortening and the activities of p53 and p16INK4a may also induce an unwanted consequence: a decline in the replicative function of certain stem cells types with advancing age. This decrease regenerative capacity appears to pointing to the stem cell hypothesis of aging. SUMMARY: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. KEYWORDS: stem cells, senescence, telomere, DNA damage, epigenetic, aging.

  14. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-06

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.

  15. Effect of nanodiamond modification of siloxane surfaces on stem cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keremidarska, M; Krasteva, N; Hikov, T; Radeva, E; Pramatarova, L

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for use in many cell therapies and tissue engineering due to their remarkable potential to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into various cell types. Many efforts have been put to study the factors controlling stem cell differentiation. However, still little knowledge has been gained to what extent biomaterials properties influence stem cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. Research utilizing bone marrow-derived MSCs has concentrated on development of specific materials which can enhance specific differentiation of stem cells e.g. osteogenic and chondrogenic. In the present work we have modified an organosilane, hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) with detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles aiming to improve adhesion, growth and osteodifferentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. HMDS/DND films were deposited on cover glass using two approaches: premixing of both compounds, followed by plasma polymerization (PP) and PP of HMDS followed by plasma deposition of DND particles. We did not observe however an increase in rMSCs adhesion and growth on DND-modified PPHMDS surfaces compared to unmodified PPHMDS. When we studied alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which is a major sign for early osteodifferentiation, we found the highest ALP activity on the PPHMDS/DND material, prepared by consequent deposition while on the other composite material ALP activity was the lowest. These results suggested that DND-modified materials were able to control osteodifferention in MSCs depending on the deposition approach. Modification of HMDS with DND particles by consequent plasma deposition seems to be a promising approach to produce biomaterials capable to guide stem cell differentiation toward osteoblasts and thus to be used in bone tissue engineering

  16. Effect of nanodiamond modification of siloxane surfaces on stem cell behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremidarska, M.; Hikov, T.; Radeva, E.; Pramatarova, L.; Krasteva, N.

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for use in many cell therapies and tissue engineering due to their remarkable potential to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into various cell types. Many efforts have been put to study the factors controlling stem cell differentiation. However, still little knowledge has been gained to what extent biomaterials properties influence stem cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. Research utilizing bone marrow-derived MSCs has concentrated on development of specific materials which can enhance specific differentiation of stem cells e.g. osteogenic and chondrogenic. In the present work we have modified an organosilane, hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) with detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles aiming to improve adhesion, growth and osteodifferentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. HMDS/DND films were deposited on cover glass using two approaches: premixing of both compounds, followed by plasma polymerization (PP) and PP of HMDS followed by plasma deposition of DND particles. We did not observe however an increase in rMSCs adhesion and growth on DND-modified PPHMDS surfaces compared to unmodified PPHMDS. When we studied alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which is a major sign for early osteodifferentiation, we found the highest ALP activity on the PPHMDS/DND material, prepared by consequent deposition while on the other composite material ALP activity was the lowest. These results suggested that DND-modified materials were able to control osteodifferention in MSCs depending on the deposition approach. Modification of HMDS with DND particles by consequent plasma deposition seems to be a promising approach to produce biomaterials capable to guide stem cell differentiation toward osteoblasts and thus to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  17. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  18. Therapeutic strategies involving uterine stem cells in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Michael; Taylor, Hugh S

    2018-04-12

    The current review provides an update on recent advances in stem cell biology relevant to female reproduction. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that often serve as a reservoir of cells to regenerate tissue in settings or injury or cell loss. The endometrium has progenitor stem cells that can replace all of the endometrium during each menstrual cycle. In addition, multipotent endometrial cells replace these progenitor cells when depleted. Recruitment of stem cells from outside of the uterus occurs in setting of increased demand such as ischemia or injury. Bone marrow-derived multipotent stem cells are recruited to the uterus by estrogen or injury-induced expression of the chemokine CXCL12. In the setting of overwhelming injury, especially in the setting of low estrogen levels, there may be insufficient stem cell recruitment to adequately repair the uterus resulting in conditions such as Asherman syndrome or other endometrial defects. In contrast, excessive recruitment of stem cells underlies endometriosis. Enhanced understanding of stem-cell mobilization, recruitment, and engraftment has created the possibility of improved therapy for endometrial defects and endometriosis through enhanced manipulation of stem-cell trafficking. Further, the normal endometrium is a rich source of multipotent stem cells that can be used for numerous applications in regenerative medicine beyond reproduction. A better understanding of reproductive stem-cell biology may allow improved treatment of endometrial disease such as Asherman syndrome and other endometrial receptivity defects. Inhibiting stem-cell mobilization may also be helpful in endometriosis therapy. Finally, endometrial derived multipotent stem cells may play a crucial role in cell therapy for regenerative medicine.

  19. Differential marker expression by cultures rich in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells have properties that make them amenable to therapeutic use. However, the acceptance of mesenchymal stem cells in clinical practice requires standardized techniques for their specific isolation. To date, there are no conclusive marker (s) for the exclusive isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. Our aim was to identify markers differentially expressed between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. We compared and contrasted the phenotype of tissue cultures in which mesenchymal stem cells are rich and rare. By initially assessing mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, we established that bone marrow and breast adipose cultures are rich in mesenchymal stem cells while, in our hands, foreskin fibroblast and olfactory tissue cultures contain rare mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, olfactory tissue cells represent non-stem cell mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, the phenotype of the tissue cultures were thoroughly assessed using immuno-fluorescence, flow-cytometry, proteomics, antibody arrays and qPCR. Results Our analysis revealed that all tissue cultures, regardless of differentiation potential, demonstrated remarkably similar phenotypes. Importantly, it was also observed that common mesenchymal stem cell markers, and fibroblast-associated markers, do not discriminate between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. Examination and comparison of the phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures revealed three differentially expressed markers – CD24, CD108 and CD40. Conclusion We indicate the importance of establishing differential marker expression between mesenchymal stem cells and non-stem cell mesenchymal cells in order to determine stem cell specific markers. PMID:24304471

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Masamitsu; Hamabe, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hisataka; Fukusumi, Takahito; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Ohta, Katsuya; Kano, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Miyuki; Noguchi, Yuko; Sakai, Daisuke; Kudoh, Toshihiro; Kawamoto, Koichi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Satoh, Taroh; Tanemura, Masahiro; Nagano, Hiroaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2013-04-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types, including osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Compared with the extraction of other stem cells such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), that of ADSCs requires minimally invasive techniques. In the field of regenerative medicine, the use of autologous cells is preferable to embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, ADSCs are a useful resource for drug screening and regenerative medicine. Here we present the methods and mechanisms underlying the induction of multilineage cells from ADSCs. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  2. Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

  3. Colon stem cell and crypt dynamics exposed by cell lineage reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems.

  4. Counting stem cells : methodological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Verovskaya, Evgenia; Zwart, Erik; Broekhuis, Mathilde; de Haan, Gerald

    The number of stem cells contributing to hematopoiesis has been a matter of debate. Many studies use retroviral tagging of stem cells to measure clonal contribution. Here we argue that methodological factors can impact such clonal analyses. Whereas early studies had low resolution, leading to

  5. Negative effects of a high tumour necrosis factor-α concentration on human gingival mesenchymal stem cell trophism: the use of natural compounds as modulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Chiara; Natali, Letizia; Nisi, Marco; De Leo, Marinella; Daniele, Simona; Costa, Barbara; Graziani, Filippo; Gabriele, Mario; Braca, Alessandra; Trincavelli, M Letizia; Martini, Claudia

    2018-05-11

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in regenerative processes. Among the different MSC types, the gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have arisen as a promising tool to promote the repair of damaged tissues secreting trophic mediators that affect different types of cells involved in regenerative processes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is one of the key mediators of inflammation that could affect tissue regenerative processes and modify the MSC properties in in-vitro applications. To date, no data have been reported on the effects of TNF-α on GMSC trophic activities and how its modulation with anti-inflammatory agents from natural sources could modulate the GMSC properties. GMSCs were isolated and characterized from healthy subjects. The effects of TNF-α were evaluated on GMSCs and on the well-being of endothelial cells. The secretion of cytokines was measured and related to the modification of GMSC-endothelial cell communication using a conditioned-medium method. The ability to modify the inflammatory response was evaluated in the presence of Ribes nigrum bud extract (RBE). TNF-α differently affected GMSC proliferation and the expression of inflammatory-related proteins (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) dependent on its concentration. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the GMSC viability and impaired the positive cross-talk between GMSCs and endothelial cells, probably by enhancing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GMSC secretome. RBE restored the beneficial effects of GMSCs on endothelial viability and motility under inflammatory conditions. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the well-being of GMSCs, modifying their trophic activities and decreasing endothelial cell healing. These data highlight the importance of controlling TNF-α concentrations to maintain the trophic activity of GMSCs. Furthermore, the

  6. Hematopoietic stem cells : Self-renewing or aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G

    2002-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their extensive self-renewal properties, and yet there is abundant evidence of erosion of stem cell functioning during aging. Whereas intracellular repair and protection mechanisms determine the lifespan of an individual cell, here an argument is made that somatic stem

  7. Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n = 363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients.

  8. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  9. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in veterinary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin E Gade

    Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507

  10. Microencapsulation of Stem Cells for Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Shirae K; Kinney, Ramsey C; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2017-01-01

    An increasing demand to regenerate tissues from patient-derived sources has led to the development of cell-based therapies using autologous stem cells, thereby decreasing immune rejection of scaffolds coupled with allogeneic stem cells or allografts. Adult stem cells are multipotent and are readily available in tissues such as fat and bone marrow. They possess the ability to repair and regenerate tissue through the production of therapeutic factors, particularly vasculogenic proteins. A major challenge in cell-based therapies is localizing the delivered stem cells to the target site. Microencapsulation of cells provides a porous polymeric matrix that can provide a protected environment, localize the cells to one area, and maintain their viability by enabling the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the encapsulated cells and the surrounding tissue. In this chapter, we describe a method to produce injectable microbeads containing a tunable number of stem cells using the biopolymer alginate. The microencapsulation process involves extrusion of the alginate suspension containing cells from a microencapsulator, a syringe pump to control its flow rate, an electrostatic potential to overcome capillary forces and a reduced Ca ++ cross-linking solution containing a nutrient osmolyte, to form microbeads. This method allows the encapsulated cells to remain viable up to three weeks in culture and up to three months in vivo and secrete growth factors capable of supporting tissue regeneration.

  11. Biocompatibility of quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS ) in human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongping; Zeng, Guangwei; Wang, Caie; Wang, Huasheng; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Dongpeng; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2015-06-01

    Amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAM-dMSCs) are a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells which could be used to repair skin damage. The use of mesenchymal stem cells to repair skin damage requires safe, effective and biocompatible agents to evaluate the effectiveness of the result. Quantum dots (QDs) composed of CdSe/ZnS are semiconductor nanocrystals with broad excitation and narrow emission spectra, which have been considered as a new chemical and fluorescent substance for non-invasively labeling different cells in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of QDs on hAM-dMSCs at different times following labeling. Using 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μL between quantum dots, labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells were collected on days 1, 2 and 4 and observed morphological changes, performed an MTT cell growth assay and flow cytometry for mesenchymal stem cells molecular markers. Quantum dot concentration 0.75 μg/mL labeled under a fluorescence microscope, cell morphology was observed, The MTT assay showed cells in the proliferative phase. Flow cytometry expression CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD105 and CD106. Within a certain range of concentrations between quantum dots labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells has good biocompatibility.

  12. Manipulation of signaling thresholds in "engineered stem cell niches" identifies design criteria for pluripotent stem cell screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Peerani

    Full Text Available In vivo, stem cell fate is regulated by local microenvironmental parameters. Governing parameters in this stem cell niche include soluble factors, extra-cellular matrix, and cell-cell interactions. The complexity of this in vivo niche limits analyses into how individual niche parameters regulate stem cell fate. Herein we use mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC and micro-contact printing (microCP to investigate how niche size controls endogenous signaling thresholds. microCP is used to restrict colony diameter, separation, and degree of clustering. We show, for the first time, spatial control over the activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway (Jak-Stat. The functional consequences of this niche-size-dependent signaling control are confirmed by demonstrating that direct and indirect transcriptional targets of Stat3, including members of the Jak-Stat pathway and pluripotency-associated genes, are regulated by colony size. Modeling results and empirical observations demonstrate that colonies less than 100 microm in diameter are too small to maximize endogenous Stat3 activation and that colonies separated by more than 400 microm can be considered independent from each other. These results define parameter boundaries for the use of ESCs in screening studies, demonstrate the importance of context in stem cell responsiveness to exogenous cues, and suggest that niche size is an important parameter in stem cell fate control.

  13. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  14. Technology advancement for integrative stem cell analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon; Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose--by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach--that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment.

  15. Immunophenotype of hematopoietic stem cells from placental/umbilical cord blood after culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pranke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification and enumeration of human hematopoietic stem cells remain problematic, since in vitro and in vivo stem cell assays have different outcomes. We determined if the altered expression of adhesion molecules during stem cell expansion could be a reason for the discrepancy. CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD38+ cells from umbilical cord blood were analyzed before and after culture with thrombopoietin (TPO, FLT-3 ligand (FL and kit ligand (KL; or stem cell factor in different combinations: TPO + FL + KL, TPO + FL and TPO, at concentrations of 50 ng/mL each. Cells were immunophenotyped by four-color fluorescence using antibodies against CD11c, CD31, CD49e, CD61, CD62L, CD117, and HLA-DR. Low-density cord blood contained 1.4 ± 0.9% CD34+ cells, 2.6 ± 2.1% of which were CD38-negative. CD34+ cells were isolated using immuno-magnetic beads and cultured for up to 7 days. The TPO + FL + KL combination presented the best condition for maintenance of stem cells. The total cell number increased 4.3 ± 1.8-fold, but the number of viable CD34+ cells decreased by 46 ± 25%. On the other hand, the fraction of CD34+CD38- cells became 52.0 ± 29% of all CD34+ cells. The absolute number of CD34+CD38- cells was expanded on average 15 ± 12-fold when CD34+ cells were cultured with TPO + FL + KL for 7 days. The expression of CD62L, HLA-DR and CD117 was modulated after culture, particularly with TPO + FL + KL, explaining differences between the adhesion and engraftment of primary and cultured candidate stem cells. We conclude that culture of CD34+ cells with TPO + FL + KL results in a significant increase in the number of candidate stem cells with the CD34+CD38- phenotype.

  16. Development of bioengineering system for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Shah, R.; Shah, C.

    2016-08-01

    From last decades, intensive research in the field of stem cells proliferation had been promoted due to the unique property of stem cells to self-renew themselves into multiples and has potential to replicate into an organ or tissues and so it's highly demanding though challenging. Bioreactor, a mechanical device, works as a womb for stem cell proliferation by providing nutritious environment for the proper growth of stem cells. Various factors affecting stem cells growth are the bioreactor mechanism, feeding of continuous nutrients, healthy environment, etc., but it always remains a challenge for controlling biological parameters. The present paper unveils the design of mechanical device commonly known as bioreactor in tissues engineering and biotech field, use for proliferation of stem cells and imparts the proper growing condition for stem cells. This high functional bioreactor provides automation mixing of cell culture and stem cells. This design operates in conjunction with mechanism of reciprocating motion. Compare to commercial bioreactors, this proposed design is more convenient, easy to operate and less maintenance is required as bioreactor culture bag is made of polyethylene which is single use purpose. Development of this bioengineering system will be beneficial for better growth and expansion of stem cell

  17. Stomach development, stem cells and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. PMID:26884394

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Rici Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p

  19. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach.

  20. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Epidermal stem cells: location, potential and contribution to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, C A; Määttä, A

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells have been classically characterized as slow-cycling, long-lived cells that reside in discrete niches in the skin. Gene expression studies of niche-resident cells have revealed a number of stem cell markers and regulators, including the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch, p63, c-Myc and Hedgehog pathways. A new study challenges the traditional developmental paradigm of slow-cycling stem cells and rapid-cycling transit amplifying cells in some epidermal regions, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that multi-lineage epidermal progenitors can be isolated from highly proliferative, non-niche regions. Whether there is a unique microenvironment surrounding these progenitors remains to be determined. Interestingly, cancer stem cells derived from epidermal tumours exist independent of the classic skin stem cell niche, yet also have stem cell properties, including multi-lineage differentiation. This review summarizes recent studies identifying the location and regulators of mouse and human epidermal stem cells and highlights the strategies used to identify cancer stem cells, including expression of normal epidermal stem cell markers, expression of cancer stem cell markers identified in other epidermal tumours and characterization of side-population tumour cells.

  2. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases. PMID:26134242

  3. Tumourigenicity and radiation resistance of mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods....... Nontumourigenic (TERT4) and tumourigenic (TRET20) cell lines, from an immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line, were grown in culture prior to irradiation and gene expression analysis. Radiation resistance was measured using a clonogenic assay. Differences in gene expression between the two cell lines, both under...... the intercellular matrix. These results also indicate that cancer stem cells are more radiation resistant than stem cells of the same origin....

  4. Characterization Of Bovine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cebo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The cells were cultured by the modified tissue-explants method developed in our laboratory and then analyzed using optical microscopy and flow cytometry. These cells were able to replicate in our cell culture conditions. cell Flow cytometry showed that bovine adipose-derived stem cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers CD73 and CD90. Meanwhile haematopoietic markers CD45 and CD34 are absent f...

  5. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Age-related Deterioration of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Seung Ah; Chang, Jae Suk

    2008-11-01

    Aging is the process of system deterioration over time in the whole body. Stem cells are self-renewing and therefore have been considered exempt from the aging process. Earlier studies by Hayflick showed that there is an intrinsic limit to the number of divisions that mammalian somatic cells can undergo, and cycling kinetics and ontogeny-related studies strongly suggest that even the most primitive stem cell functions exhibit a certain degree of aging. Despite these findings, studies on the effects of aging on stem cell functions are inconclusive. Here we review the age-related properties of hematopoietic stem cells in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic alterations, proliferative potential, signaling molecules, telomere and telomerase, senescence and cancer issues, regenerative potential and other indications of stem cell aging are discussed in detail.

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells and Platelet Concentrates: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Amabile, Giovanni

    2017-12-27

    Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK) lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents. Guidelines that assure the quality of iPS cells-derived blood products for clinical application represent a novel challenge for regulatory agencies. Considering the minimal risk of tumorigenicity and the expected significant demand of such products, ex vivo production of iPS-derived blood components can pave the way for iPS translation into the clinic.

  8. Stem cell migration - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The trafficking of stem cells is something unconsciously clear to any biologists (e.g., developmental biologists and physicians (e.g., all those taking care of hematopoietic and bone diseases and traumas; neverthless it is a phenomenon coming out as a hot topic just in these last years. Likely, the difficulties to track stem cells migration in vivo and the understanding of the elusive homing signals matching the circulating stem cells properties that makes these cells to stop and to start multiplication and differentiation....

  9. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Characterization of HSCs includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD34 and CD45, while characterization of MSC includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD90 and CD105, and the absence of hemopoietic lineage markers. Aim & methods: The aim of the present work was to study the role of bone marrow-derived HSCs and MSCs, renal progenitor cells and SCF in chronic renal allograft nephropathy in relation to renal hemodynamics and histopathological changes. We studied 30 patients with kidney transplantation for more than 6 months, divided into 15 patients with stable serum creatinine and 15 patients who developed CAN. Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and CD106, as well as immunohistochemical detection of CD34, CD133, VEGF and αSMA in transplanted kidney biopsies of patients with CAN were done. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of SCF, number of peripheral blood HSCs and MSCs in both transplanted patient groups than the controls and they were higher in patients of group Ia than patients of group Ib, (F = 39.73, P < 0.001, (F = 13.28, P < 0.001, (F = 11.94, P < 0.001, respectively and this was accompanied by evident expression of markers of renal repair. Conclusion: Stem cells might have a role in renal regeneration in CAN and this may pave the way toward the use of stem cells in correction of CAN. KEYWORDS

  10. Recovery of the Erythropoietin-Sensitive Stem-Cell Population following Total-Body X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byron, J. W. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1968-08-15

    Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. This effect may be used in polycythaemic mice to estimate changes in the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population following total-body irradiation (TBR). Generally, single doses of erythropoietin, less than that needed for maximum stem-cell response, are used to estimate changes in the stem-cell population. The validity of results using this test is based upon accepting several assumptions regarding erythropoietin kinetics. These are: (a) the contribution of endogenous erythropoietin is always negligible; (b) the origin of the dose-response curve to erythropoietin alters only because of changes in stem-cell numbers; (c) the proportion of stem cells responding to a given concentration of erythropoietin is independent of stem-cell numbers; (d) the slope of the dose-response curve does not alter; and (e) competition between erythropoietin and other factors for the stem cells remains unchanged. The studies to be reported indicate that some of these assumptions m a y not always be valid. Following 150 rad TBR, changes in erythropoietin dose-response curves were not always due to changes in the size of the stem-cell population, but also due to changes in erythropoietin kinetics. Changes in erythropoietin kinetics could be corrected for by using doses of erythropoietin which at any particular time after TBR gave maximum stem-cell response; through full dose-response studies, the nature of changes in erythropoietin kinetics following TBR could be established. These studies appear to explain discrepancies in results obtained in different laboratories using the erythropoietin test. The effect of 150 rad TBR on the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population is an initial depression within 30 min to 20% of normal followed by a second depression (post-irradiation dip) at about 12 h. Twenty-four hours after TBR there is a recovery to the initial depression. This

  11. Stem cells-the hidden treasure: A strategic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today′s scenario, medical and dental professionals face a mammoth task while treating perplexing medical situations like organ failure or tissue loss. Though, different strategies exist to replace them, but ideal one is the same natural tissue or organ. In this aspect, stem cells have emerged in a promising way to provide an ideal replacement. There are different types of stem cells starting from the embryonic stage referred to as human embryonic stem cells to adult stem cells. Though in dentistry stem cell research is lagging as compared to the medical field but still a lot progress has been achieved in recent years. The stem cells have been isolated from dental pulp, human exfoliated deciduous teeth, and apical papilla and so on. These stem cells have provided exciting results like dentin-pulp regeneration, periodontal regeneration but ambiguity still prevails. As a result, much has to be further researched before its clinical application becomes a reality. Hence, these stem cells opened a new avenue in the field of regenerative dentistry.

  12. Deconstructing stem cell population heterogeneity: Single-cell analysis and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jincheng; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Isogenic stem cell populations display cell-to-cell variations in a multitude of attributes including gene or protein expression, epigenetic state, morphology, proliferation and proclivity for differentiation. The origins of the observed heterogeneity and its roles in the maintenance of pluripotency and the lineage specification of stem cells remain unclear. Addressing pertinent questions will require the employment of single-cell analysis methods as traditional cell biochemical and biomolecular assays yield mostly population-average data. In addition to time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry, recent advances in single-cell genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling are reviewed. The application of multiple displacement amplification, next generation sequencing, mass cytometry and spectrometry to stem cell systems is expected to provide a wealth of information affording unprecedented levels of multiparametric characterization of cell ensembles under defined conditions promoting pluripotency or commitment. Establishing connections between single-cell analysis information and the observed phenotypes will also require suitable mathematical models. Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are orchestrated by the coordinated regulation of subcellular, intercellular and niche-wide processes spanning multiple time scales. Here, we discuss different modeling approaches and challenges arising from their application to stem cell populations. Integrating single-cell analysis with computational methods will fill gaps in our knowledge about the functions of heterogeneity in stem cell physiology. This combination will also aid the rational design of efficient differentiation and reprogramming strategies as well as bioprocesses for the production of clinically valuable stem cell derivatives. PMID:24035899

  13. Plasticity of spermatogonial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Cooke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant breakthroughs over the past decade in the development and use of pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine. It is likely that this methodology will begin to play an important role in human clinical medicine in the years to come. This review describes the plasticity of one type of pluripotent cell, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, and their potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and male infertility. Normally, SSCs give rise to sperm when in the testis. However, both human and murine SSCs can give rise to cells with embryonic stem (ES cell-like characteristics that can be directed to differentiate into tissues of all three embryonic germ layers when placed in an appropriate inductive microenvironment, which is in contrast to other postnatal stem cells. Previous studies have reported that SSCs expressed an intermediate pluripotent phenotype before differentiating into a specific cell type and that extended culture was necessary for this to occur. However, recent studies from our group using a tissue recombination model demonstrated that SSCs differentiated rapidly into another tissue, in this case, prostatic epithelium, without expression of pluripotent ES cell markers before differentiation. These results suggest that SSCs are capable of directly differentiating into other cell types without going through an intermediate ES cell-like stage. Because SSCs do not require reprogramming to achieve a pluripotent state, they are an attractive source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine.

  14. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramm...

  15. Transcriptional profiling of putative human epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koçer Salih S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human interfollicular epidermis is sustained by the proliferation of stem cells and their progeny, transient amplifying cells. Molecular characterization of these two cell populations is essential for better understanding of self renewal, differentiation and mechanisms of skin pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to obtain gene expression profiles of alpha 6+/MHCI+, transient amplifying cells and alpha 6+/MHCI-, putative stem cells, and to compare them with existing data bases of gene expression profiles of hair follicle stem cells. The expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I, previously shown to be absent in stem cells in several tissues, and alpha 6 integrin were used to isolate MHCI positive basal cells, and MHCI low/negative basal cells. Results Transcriptional profiles of the two cell populations were determined and comparisons made with published data for hair follicle stem cell gene expression profiles. We demonstrate that presumptive interfollicular stem cells, alpha 6+/MHCI- cells, are enriched in messenger RNAs encoding surface receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, transcripts encoding members of IFN-alpha family proteins and components of IFN signaling, but contain lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins which take part in energy metabolism, cell cycle, ribosome biosynthesis, splicing, protein translation, degradation, DNA replication, repair, and chromosome remodeling. Furthermore, our data indicate that the cell signaling pathways Notch1 and NF-κB are downregulated/inhibited in MHC negative basal cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates that alpha 6+/MHCI- cells have additional characteristics attributed to stem cells. Moreover, the transcription profile of alpha 6+/MHCI- cells shows similarities to transcription profiles of mouse hair follicle bulge cells known to be enriched for stem cells. Collectively, our data suggests that alpha 6+/MHCI- cells

  16. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E.; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  17. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  18. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells.

  19. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  20. Generation of male differentiated germ cells from various types of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingmei; Yang, Shi; Yang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yun; Hai, Yanan; Chen, Zheng; Guo, Ying; Gong, Yuehua; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2014-06-01

    Infertility is a major and largely incurable disease caused by disruption and loss of germ cells. It affects 10-15% of couples, and male factor accounts for half of the cases. To obtain human male germ cells 'especially functional spermatids' is essential for treating male infertility. Currently, much progress has been made on generating male germ cells, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids, from various types of stem cells. These germ cells can also be used in investigation of the pathology of male infertility. In this review, we focused on advances on obtaining male differentiated germ cells from different kinds of stem cells, with an emphasis on the embryonic stem (ES) cells, the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We illustrated the generation of male differentiated germ cells from ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs, and we summarized the phenotype for these stem cells, spermatocytes and spermatids. Moreover, we address the differentiation potentials of ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs. We also highlight the advantages, disadvantages and concerns on derivation of the differentiated male germ cells from several types of stem cells. The ability of generating mature and functional male gametes from stem cells could enable us to understand the precise etiology of male infertility and offer an invaluable source of autologous male gametes for treating male infertility of azoospermia patients. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy and autologous stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Yamile; Batista, Juan F.; Perera, Alejandro; Torres, Leonel A.; Sánchez, Elvia L.; Sánchez, Yolaine; Ducat, Luis; Prats, Anais; Hernández, Porfirio; Romero, Susana; Goicochea, Pedro; Quintela, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Advances of the application of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in ischemic disorders of lower limbs have increased the attention of researchers in this field. Aim: To determine the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy for the assessment the efficacy of autologous stem cell implantation in patients with chronic lymphedema of the upper and lower limbs. Methods: Sixty-five patients were included. Clinical evaluation and lymphoscintigraphy were performed before and six months after stem cells implantation. The stem cells implantations were carried out by multiple superficial and deep injections in the trajectory of the lymphatic vessels and also in the inguinal region. A volume of 0.75 to 1.00 mL of cell suspension (1.0-2.2 x 109 stem cells) was administered in each injection site. Lymphoscintigraphy: Whole-body scans were acquired at 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after administration of 185 to 259 MBq (5–7mCi) of 99m Tc-albumin nanocolloids in the interdigital space of both limbs. The anatomy and function of the lymphatic system were evaluated. Results: Functional assessment before implantation of stem cells showed that 69.2% of the patients had severe lymphatic insufficiency. The 61.5% of patients showed clinical improvement, confirmed by the results of the lymphoscintigraphy. The 46.1% of the cases evaluated showed a clear improvement. The study showed that the isotopic lymphography can evaluate the therapeutic response and its intensity. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation and monitoring of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic lymphedema. (author)

  2. Thyroid hormone regulation of adult intestinal stem cells: Implications on intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guihong; Roediger, Julia; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Organ-specific adult stem cells are essential for organ homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma thyroid hormone concentration is high. The life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium has made mammalian intestine a valuable model to study the function and regulation and adult stem cells. On the other hand, much less is known about how the adult intestinal stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Here, we will review some recent progresses on this subject, focusing mainly on the formation of the adult intestine during Xenopus metamorphosis. We will discuss the role of thyroid hormone signaling pathway in the process and potential molecular conservations between amphibians and mammals as well as the implications in organ homeostasis and human diseases.

  3. Stem cell function and maintenance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stem cell research holds a promise to treat and prevent age-related degenerative changes in humans. Literature is replete with studies showing that stem cell function declines with aging, especially in highly proliferative tissues/organs. Among others, telomerase and telomere damage is one of the intrinsic physical ...

  4. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Methods , 2014. 11(3): p. 291-3. Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into a Keratinocyte Lineage Igor Kogut...discovery of methods for reprogramming adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has raised the possibility of producing truly...2013. Generation of functional mul- tipotent keratinocytes from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells . Methods Mol Biol 961: 337–350.

  5. Stem Cell-Based Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells, a special subset of cells derived from embryo or adult tissues, are known to present the characteristics of self-renewal, multiple lineages of differentiation, high plastic capability, and long-term maintenance. Recent reports have further suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs derived from the adult hippocampal and subventricular regions possess the utilizing potential to develop the transplantation strategies and to screen the candidate agents for neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the roles of NSCs and other stem cells in neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies for neurological and psychiatric diseases. We show the evidences that NSCs play the key roles involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including depression, stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the potential and possible utilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS, reprogramming from adult fibroblasts with ectopic expression of four embryonic genes, are also reviewed and further discussed. An understanding of the biophysiology of stem cells could help us elucidate the pathogenicity and develop new treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to cell transplantation therapies, the application of stem cells can further provide a platform for drug discovery and small molecular testing, including Chinese herbal medicines. In addition, the high-throughput stem cell-based systems can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of neuroprotective candidates in translation medical research for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  7. Nanotechnology in stem cells research: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Kaushik Dilip; Griffith, May; Muinck, Ebo De; Rafat, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Human beings suffer from a myriad of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration of physiological systems leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their enormous reparative potential may be the last hope for restoring function to these failing organ or tissue systems. To harness the potential of stem cells for biotherapeutic applications, we need to work at the size scale of molecules and processes that govern stem cells fate. Nanotechnology provides us with such capacity. Therefore, effective amalgamation of nanotechnology and stem cells - medical nanoscience or nanomedicine - offers immense benefits to the human race. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role and importance of nanotechnology in stem cell research by focusing on several important areas such as stem cell visualization and imaging, genetic modifications and reprogramming by gene delivery systems, creating stem cell niche, and similar therapeutic applications.

  8. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: ► The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. ► Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). ► EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. ► Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  9. Stem Cell Therapy: Repurposing Cell-Based Regenerative Medicine Beyond Cell Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Eleonora; Lippert, Trenton; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2018-02-27

    Stem cells exhibit simple and naive cellular features, yet their exact purpose for regenerative medicine continues to elude even the most elegantly designed research paradigms from developmental biology to clinical therapeutics. Based on their capacity to divide indefinitely and their dynamic differentiation into any type of tissue, the advent of transplantable stem cells has offered a potential treatment for aging-related and injury-mediated diseases. Recent laboratory evidence has demonstrated that transplanted human neural stem cells facilitate endogenous reparative mechanisms by initiating multiple regenerative processes in the brain neurogenic areas. Within these highly proliferative niches reside a myriad of potent regenerative molecules, including anti-inflammatory cytokines, proteomes, and neurotrophic factors, altogether representing a biochemical cocktail vital for restoring brain function in the aging and diseased brain. Here, we advance the concept of therapeutically repurposing stem cells not towards cell replacement per se, but rather exploiting the cells' intrinsic properties to serve as the host brain regenerative catalysts.

  10. Müller stem cell dependent retinal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Annu; Singh, Usha; Kumar, Atul; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    Müller Stem cells to treat ocular diseases has triggered enthusiasm across all medical and scientific communities. Recent development in the field of stem cells has widened the prospects of applying cell based therapies to regenerate ocular tissues that have been irreversibly damaged by disease or injury. Ocular tissues such as the lens and the retina are now known to possess cell having remarkable regenerative abilities. Recent studies have shown that the Müller glia, a cell found in all vertebrate retinas, is the primary source of new neurons, and therefore are considered as the cellular basis for retinal regeneration in mammalian retinas. Here, we review the current status of retinal regeneration of the human eye by Müller stem cells. This review elucidates the current status of retinal regeneration by Müller stem cells, along with major retinal degenerative diseases where these stem cells play regenerative role in retinal repair and replacement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Advances in reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Yang, Shuying

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods and clinical applications of iPS cells. Viral vectors have been used to transfer transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, Klf4, and nanog) to induce reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, B lymphocytes and meningeal membrane cells towards pluripotency. Human fibroblasts, neural cells, blood and keratinocytes have also been reprogrammed towards pluripotency. In this review we have discussed the use of viral vectors for reprogramming both animal and human stem cells. Currently, many studies are also involved in finding alternatives to using viral vectors carrying transcription factors for reprogramming cells. These include using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. Applications of these techniques have been discussed in detail including its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, current clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and its limitations have also been reviewed. Thus, this review is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Multipotent stem cells of mother's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Reali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the presence of stem cells (hBSCs: human breastmilk-derived stem cells and epithelial progenitors has been demonstrated in mother’s milk (MM. Stem cells present in samples of fresh MM exhibit a high degree of vitality and this makes possible the performance of cell cultures and to evaluate the differentiation capacity of the hBSCs. The most important datum that expresses the enormous potential of the use of MM stem cells is the presence of a cell population capable of differentiating into the three mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm lines. The small number of studies and MM samples analyzed and the different sampling methods applied suggest standardization in the collection, analysis and culture of MM in future studies, in consideration of the well-known extreme variability of MM composition, also from the standpoint of cells.The analysis of literature data confirms the uniqueness of MM and its enormous potential.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  13. Concise Review: Stem Cells in Osteoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Fernando A; Nolta, Jan A; Adamopoulos, Iannis E

    2017-06-01

    Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent. Latest advances in the area of stem cell biology have enabled us to gain a better understanding of how these differentiation processes occur in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review we postulate that modulation of stem cells during inflammatory conditions is a necessary prerequisite of bone remodeling and therefore an essential new component to the field of osteoimmunology. In this context, we highlight the role of transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), because it directly links inflammation with differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Stem Cells 2017;35:1461-1467. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  14. Epidermal stem cells response to radiative genotoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Human skin is the first organ exposed to various environmental stresses, which requires the development by skin stem cells of specific mechanisms to protect themselves and to ensure tissue homeostasis. As stem cells are responsible for the maintenance of epidermis during individual lifetime, the preservation of genomic integrity in these cells is essential. My PhD aimed at exploring the mechanisms set up by epidermal stem cells in order to protect themselves from two genotoxic stresses, ionizing radiation (Gamma Rays) and ultraviolet radiation (UVB). To begin my PhD, I have taken part of the demonstration of protective mechanisms used by keratinocyte stem cells after ionizing radiation. It has been shown that these cells are able to rapidly repair most types of radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this repair is activated by the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In order to know if this protective mechanism is also operating in cutaneous carcinoma stem cells, we investigated the response to gamma Rays of carcinoma stem cells isolated from a human carcinoma cell line. As in normal keratinocyte stem cells, we demonstrated that cancer stem cells could rapidly repair radio-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 2 also mediates this repair, notably thanks to its nuclear isoforms. The second project of my PhD was to study human epidermal stem cells and progenitors responses to UVB radiation. Once cytometry and irradiation conditions were set up, the toxicity of UVB radiation has been evaluate in the primary cell model. We then characterized UVB photons effects on cell viability, proliferation and repair of DNA damage. This study allowed us to bring out that responses of stem cells and their progeny to UVB are different, notably at the level of part of their repair activity of DNA damage. Moreover, progenitors and stem cells transcriptomic responses after UVB irradiation have been study in order to analyze the global

  15. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  16. Stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide overcomes the suppressive effect of lenalidomide therapy on stem cell collection in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tomer; Stern, Jessica; Furst, Jessica R; Jayabalan, David; Zafar, Faiza; LaRow, April; Pearse, Roger N; Harpel, John; Shore, Tsiporah; Schuster, Michael W; Leonard, John P; Christos, Paul J; Coleman, Morton; Niesvizky, Ruben

    2008-07-01

    A total of 28 treatment-naïve patients with stage II or III multiple myeloma (MM) were treated with the combination of clarithromycin, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (BiRD). Stem cells were collected following granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) plus G-CSF mobilization at maximum response. Sufficient stem cells for 2 autologous stem cell transplants were collected from all patients mobilized with Cy plus G-CSF, versus 33% mobilized with G-CSF alone (P < .0001). The duration of prior lenalidomide therapy did not correlate with success of stem cell harvests (P = .91). In conclusion, Cy can be added to G-CSF for stem cell mobilization to successfully overcome the suppressive effect of prior treatment with lenalidomide.

  17. [A comparative study on inducing non-homologous mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural stem cells using non-homologous cerebrospinal fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Wan, Meirong; Geng, Deqin; Ge, Wei; Li, Jinmei; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-12-01

    In order to set up a base for stem cells to be widely used in clinical medicine, we tried to optimize, in this study, the technique that induces human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into neural stem cells by using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the different groups. After the induction, presence of neural stem cells was confirmed with microscope observation, flow cytometry analysis, immunohistochemistry and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. At the same time, we also compared and analysed the data of the number of stem cells when it totally met the requirements for clinical treatment and the days required. At last, we confirmed that hMSCs could be induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, and that the number of cells totally met the requirements for clinical treatment. But there were some differences both in the number of cells and the days required. Among the groups, the group that marrow mesenchymal stem cells from patients own induced by CSF from healthy volunteers used the shortest time and the quantity of the cells was significantly higher than those of the others.

  18. Update on small intestinal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to id...

  19. Graphene-Based Materials for Stem Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although graphene and its derivatives have been proven to be suitable for several biomedical applications such as for cancer therapy and biosensing, the use of graphene for stem cell research is a relatively new area that has only recently started to be investigated. For stem cell applications, graphene has been utilized by itself or in combination with other types of materials such as nanoparticles, nanofibers, and polymer scaffolds to take advantage of the several unique properties of graphene, such as the flexibility in size, shape, hydrophilicity, as well as its excellent biocompatibility. In this review, we will highlight a number of previous studies that have investigated the potential of graphene or its derivatives for stem cell applications, with a particular focus on guiding stem cell differentiation into specific lineages (e.g., osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, promoting stem cell growth, stem cell delivery/transplantation, and effective monitoring of their differentiation. We hope that this review promotes and accelerates the use of graphene-based materials for regenerative therapies, especially for stem cell-based approaches to cure various incurable diseases/disorders such as neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, stroke, spinal cord injuries, bone/cartilage defects, and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Steven W; Williams, David A; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine holds considerable promise for treating diseases that are currently intractable. Although many researchers are adopting the strategy of cell transplantation for tissue repair, an alternative approach to therapy is to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment, or niche, to facilitate repair by endogenous stem cells. The niche is highly dynamic, with multiple opportunities for intervention. These include administration of small molecules, biologics or biomaterials that target specific aspects of the niche, such as cell-cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, to stimulate expansion or differentiation of stem cells, or to cause reversion of differentiated cells to stem cells. Nevertheless, there are several challenges in targeting the niche therapeutically, not least that of achieving specificity of delivery and responses. We envisage that successful treatments in regenerative medicine will involve different combinations of factors to target stem cells and niche cells, applied at different times to effect recovery according to the dynamics of stem cell–niche interactions. PMID:25093887

  1. Limbal stem cell transplantation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marwan Raymond Atallah, Sotiria Palioura, Victor L Perez, Guillermo Amescua Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Regeneration of the corneal surface after an epithelial insult involves division, migration, and maturation of a specialized group of stem cells located in the limbus. Several insults, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can precipitate destruction of the delicate microenvironment of these cells, resulting in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. In such cases, reepithelialization fails and conjunctival epithelium extends across the limbus, leading to vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, and chronic inflammation. In partial LSCD, conjunctival epitheliectomy, coupled with amniotic membrane transplantation, could be sufficient to restore a healthy surface. In more severe cases and in total LSCD, stem cell transplantation is currently the best curative option. Before any attempts are considered to perform a limbal stem cell transplantation procedure, the ocular surface must be optimized by controlling causative factors and comorbid conditions. These factors include adequate eyelid function or exposure, control of the ocular surface inflammatory status, and a well-lubricated ocular surface. In cases of unilateral LSCD, stem cells can be obtained from the contralateral eye. Newer techniques aim at expanding cells in vitro or in vivo in order to decrease the need for large limbal resection that may jeopardize the “healthy” eye. Patients with bilateral disease can be treated using allogeneic tissue in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Another emerging option for this subset of patients is the use of noncorneal cells such as mucosal grafts. Finally, the use of keratoprosthesis is reserved for patients who are not candidates for any of the aforementioned options, wherein the choice of the type of keratoprosthesis depends on

  2. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  3. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

  4. Foxl1-Expressing Mesenchymal Cells Constitute the Intestinal Stem Cell NicheSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Aoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Intestinal epithelial stem cells that express leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and/or B cell specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1 continuously replicate and generate differentiated cells throughout life. Previously, Paneth cells were suggested to constitute an epithelium-intrinsic niche that regulates the behavior of these stem cells. However, ablating Paneth cells has no effect on the maintenance of functional stem cells. Here, we show definitively that a small subset of mesenchymal subepithelial cells expressing the winged-helix transcription factor forkhead box l1 (Foxl1 are a critical component of the intestinal stem cell niche. Methods: We genetically ablated Foxl1+ mesenchymal cells in adult mice using 2 separate models by expressing either the human or simian diphtheria toxin receptor under Foxl1 promoter control. Conclusions: Killing Foxl1+ cells by diphtheria toxin administration led to an abrupt cessation of proliferation of both epithelial stem- and transit-amplifying progenitor cell populations that was associated with a loss of active Wnt signaling to the intestinal epithelium. Therefore, Foxl1-expressing mesenchymal cells constitute the fundamental niche for intestinal stem cells. Keywords: Intestinal Stem Cell Niche, Wnt, Mesenchyme

  5. Resveratrol Enhances Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Du, Zhaoyu; Shen, Qiaoyan; Lei, Qijing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mengfei; Hua, Jinlian

    2017-07-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to affect the differentiation of several types of stem cells, while the detailed mechanism is elusive. Here, we aim to investigate the function of RSV in self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the related mechanisms. In contrast with its reported roles, we found unexpectedly that differentiated ESCs or iPSCs treated by RSV would not show further differentiation, but regained a naïve pluripotency state with higher expressions of core transcriptional factors and with the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers when transplanted in vivo. In accordance with these findings, RSV also enhanced cell cycle progression of ESCs via regulating cell cycle-related proteins. Finally, enhanced activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and suppressed activation of mTOR were found essential in enhancing the self-renewal of ESCs by RSV. Our finding discovered a novel function of RSV in enhancing the self-renewal of ESCs, and suggested that the timing of treatment and concentration of RSV determined the final effect of it. Our work may contribute to understanding of RSV in the self-renewal maintenance of pluripotent stem cells, and may also provide help to the generation and maintenance of iPSCs in vitro. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1928-1935, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed eBerika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric versus symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.

  7. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaqi, E-mail: Huaqi.Jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu [Department of Developmental Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75235 (United States); Edgar, Bruce A., E-mail: b.edgar@dkfz.de [ZMBH-DKFZ Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  8. Tracking of stem cells for treatment in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Jun

    2005-01-01

    Various stem cells or progenitor cells are being used to treat cardiovascular disease. In ischemic heart disease, stem cell therapy is expected to regenerate damaged myocardium. To evaluate effects of stem cell treatment, the method to image stem cell location, distribution and differentiation is necessary. Optical imaging, MRI, nuclear imaging methods have been used for tracking stem cells. The methods and problems of each imaging technique are reviewed

  9. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Stem cell therapy to treat heart ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Qayyum, Abbas; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    (CABG), morbidity and mortality is still high in patients with CAD. Along with PCI and CABG or in patients without options for revascularization, stem cell regenerative therapy in controlled trials is a possibility. Stem cells are believed to exert their actions by angiogenesis and regeneration...... of cardiomyocytes. Recently published clinical trials and meta-analysis of stem cell studies have shown encouraging results with increased left ventricle ejection fraction and reduced symptoms in patients with CAD and heart failure. There is some evidence of mesenchymal stem cell being more effective compared...... to other cell types and cell therapy may be more effective in patients with known diabetes mellitus. However, further investigations are warranted....

  11. Downregulation of mitochondrial UQCRB inhibits cancer stem cell-like properties in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Narae; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Jung, Hye Jin

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma stem cell targeted therapies have become a powerful strategy for the treatment of this deadliest brain tumor. We demonstrate for the first time that downregulation of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) inhibits the cancer stem cell-like properties in human glioblastoma cells. The synthetic small molecules targeting UQCRB significantly suppressed not only the self-renewal capacity such as growth and neurosphere formation, but also the metastatic potential such as migration and invasion of glioblastoma stem‑like cells (GSCs) derived from U87MG and U373MG at subtoxic concentrations. Notably, the UQCRB inhibitors repressed c‑Met-mediated downstream signal transduction and hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) activation, thereby reducing the expression levels of GSC markers including CD133, Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 in the GSCs. Furthermore, the UQCRB inhibitors decreased mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential in the GSCs, indicating that they regulate the mitochondrial function in GSCs. Indeed, the knockdown of UQCRB gene by UQCRB siRNA significantly inhibited the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes as well as the expression of stemness markers by blocking mitochondrial ROS/HIF‑1α/c‑Met pathway in U87MG GSCs. These findings suggest that UQCRB and its inhibitors could be a new therapeutic target and lead compounds for eliminating cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.

  12. Cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapeutic implications based on stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite advances in its diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC remains unfavorable. Recent advances in stem cell biology and associated technologies have enabled the identification of minor components of tumorigenic cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells, in cancers such as HCC. Furthermore, because CSC play a central role in tumor development, metastasis and recurrence, they are considered to be a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Hepatic CSC have been successfully identified using functional and cell surface markers. The analysis of purified hepatic CSC has revealed the molecular machinery and signaling pathways involved in their maintenance. In addition, epigenetic transcriptional regulation has been shown to be important in the development and maintenance of CSC. Although inhibitors of CSC show promise as CSC-targeting drugs, novel therapeutic approaches for the eradication of CSC are yet to be established. In this review, we describe recent progress in hepatic CSC research and provide a perspective on the available therapeutic approaches based on stem cell biology. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  13. Clinical trials for stem cell transplantation: when are they needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc

    2016-04-27

    In recent years, both stem cell research and the clinical application of these promising cells have increased rapidly. About 1000 clinical trials using stem cells have to date been performed globally. More importantly, more than 10 stem cell-based products have been approved in some countries. With the rapid growth of stem cell applications, some countries have used clinical trials as a tool to diminish the rate of clinical stem cell applications. However, the point at which stem cell clinical trials are essential remains unclear. This commentary discusses when stem cell clinical trials are essential for stem cell transplantation therapies.

  14. Nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. Results In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1 this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2 anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal

  15. Stem Cell Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a common chronic disease in children, characterized by a loss of  cells, which results in defects in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Curative therapies mainly include diet and insulin administration. Although hyperglycemia can be improved by insulin administration, exogenous insulin injection cannot successfully mimic the insulin secretion from normal  cells, which keeps blood glucose levels within the normal range all the time. Islet and pancreas transplantation achieves better glucose control, but there is a lack of organ donors. Cell based therapies have also been attempted to treat T1DM. Stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue stem cells (TSCs such as bone marrow-, adipose tissue- and cord blood-derived stem cells, have been shown to generate insulin-producing cells. In this review, we summarize the most-recently available information about T1DM and the use of TSCs to treat T1DM.

  16. Animal and plant stem cells concepts, propagation and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlović, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a multifaceted look into the world of stem cells and explains the similarities and differences between plant and human stem cells. It explores the intersection between animals and plants and explains their cooperative role in bioengineering studies. The book treats both theoretical and practical aspects of stem cell research. It covers the advantages and limitations of many common applications related to stem cells: their sources, categories, engineering of these cells, reprogramming of their functions, and their role as novel cellular therapeutic approach. Written by experts in the field, the book focuses on aspects of stem cells ranging from expansion-propagation to metabolic reprogramming. It introduces the emergence of cancer stem cells and different modalities in targeted cancer stem cell therapies. It is a valuable source of fresh information for academics and researchers, examining molecular mechanisms of animal and plant stem cell regulation and their usage for therapeutic applicati...

  17. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells, early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium, using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration, timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury, single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications.

  18. Stem cell and gene therapies for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calne, Roy Y; Gan, Shu Uin; Lee, Kok Onn

    2010-03-01

    In this Perspectives article, we comment on the progress in experimental stem cell and gene therapies that might one day become a clinical reality for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Finally, gene therapy shows some promise for the generation of insulin-producing cells. Here, we discuss two of the most frequently used approaches: in vitro gene delivery into cells which are then transplanted into the recipient and direct delivery of genes in vivo.

  19. Cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of low-concentration triclosan on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li-Wu [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wu, Qiangen [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Green, Bridgett; Nolen, Greg [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Shi, Leming [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); LoSurdo, Jessica [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Deng, Helen [Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Bauer, Steven [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fang, Jia-Long, E-mail: jia-long.fang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ning, Baitang, E-mail: baitang.ning@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Humans at all ages are continually exposed to triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial agent that can be found in many daily hygiene products, such as toothpastes and shampoos; however, the toxicological and biological effects of TCS in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are far from being well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCS on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by measuring the cytotoxicity, morphological changes, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation biomarkers during 21-day adipogenesis. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in un-induced hMSCs treated with high-concentration TCS (≥ 5.0 μM TCS), but not with low-concentration treatments (≤ 2.5 μM TCS). TCS inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner in the 0.156 to 2.5 μM range as indicated by morphological changes with Oil Red O staining, which is an index of lipid accumulation. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by a decrease in gene expression of specific adipocyte differentiation biomarkers including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that TCS inhibits adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs under concentrations that are not cytotoxic and in the range observed in human blood. -- Highlights: ► TCS is cytotoxic to un-induced hMSCs at concentrations ≥ 5.0 μM. ► TCS at concentrations ≤ 2.5 μM is not cytotoxic to induced hMSCs. ► TCS at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits lipid formation in induced hMSCs. ► TCS decreases the expression of specific biomarkers of adipocyte differentiation. ► TCS at concentrations observed in human blood inhibits adipogenesis of hMSCs.

  20. Cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of low-concentration triclosan on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li-Wu; Wu, Qiangen; Green, Bridgett; Nolen, Greg; Shi, Leming; LoSurdo, Jessica; Deng, Helen; Bauer, Steven; Fang, Jia-Long; Ning, Baitang

    2012-01-01

    Humans at all ages are continually exposed to triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial agent that can be found in many daily hygiene products, such as toothpastes and shampoos; however, the toxicological and biological effects of TCS in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are far from being well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCS on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by measuring the cytotoxicity, morphological changes, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation biomarkers during 21-day adipogenesis. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in un-induced hMSCs treated with high-concentration TCS (≥ 5.0 μM TCS), but not with low-concentration treatments (≤ 2.5 μM TCS). TCS inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner in the 0.156 to 2.5 μM range as indicated by morphological changes with Oil Red O staining, which is an index of lipid accumulation. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by a decrease in gene expression of specific adipocyte differentiation biomarkers including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that TCS inhibits adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs under concentrations that are not cytotoxic and in the range observed in human blood. -- Highlights: ► TCS is cytotoxic to un-induced hMSCs at concentrations ≥ 5.0 μM. ► TCS at concentrations ≤ 2.5 μM is not cytotoxic to induced hMSCs. ► TCS at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits lipid formation in induced hMSCs. ► TCS decreases the expression of specific biomarkers of adipocyte differentiation. ► TCS at concentrations observed in human blood inhibits adipogenesis of hMSCs.

  1. Viability and proliferation potential of adipose-derived stem cells following labeling with a positron-emitting radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhami, Esmat [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Goertzen, Andrew L.; Mzengeza, Shadreck [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); Xiang, Bo; Deng, Jixian; Stillwell, Chris; Tian, Ganghong [National Research Council Canada, Cardiac Studies Group, Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg (Canada); Arora, Rakesh C.; Freed, Darren [St. Boniface General Hospital, Cardiac Science Program, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have promising potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Our objective is to examine the biological function of the labeled stem cells following labeling with a readily available positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). In this work we characterize labeling efficiency through assessment of FDG uptake and retention by the ASCs and the effect of FDG on cell viability, proliferation, transdifferentiation, and cell function in vitro using rat ASCs. Samples of 10{sup 5} ASCs (from visceral fat tissue) were labeled with concentrations of FDG (1-55 Bq/cell) in 0.75 ml culture medium. Label uptake and retention, as a function of labeling time, FDG concentration, and efflux period were measured to determine optimum cell labeling conditions. Cell viability, proliferation, DNA structure damage, cell differentiation, and other cell functions were examined. Non-labeled ASC samples were used as a control for all experimental groups. Labeled ASCs were injected via tail vein in several healthy rats and initial cell biodistribution was assessed. Our results showed that FDG uptake and retention by the stem cells did not depend on FDG concentration but on labeling and efflux periods and glucose content of the labeling and efflux media. Cell viability, transdifferentiation, and cell function were not greatly affected. DNA damage due to FDG radioactivity was acute, but reversible; cells managed to repair the damage and continue with cell cycles. Over all, FDG (up to 25 Bq/cell) did not impose severe cytotoxicity in rat ASCs. Initial biodistribution of the FDG-labeled ASCs was 80% + retention in the lungs. In the delayed whole-body images (2-3 h postinjection) there was some activity distribution resembling typical FDG uptake patterns. For in vivo cell tracking studies with PET tracers, the parameter of interest is the amount of radiotracer that is present in the cells being labeled and consequent

  2. The advancement of stem cells in radiation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Li; Fan Hongxue

    2003-01-01

    It may result in acute radiation syndrome after body is exposed to ionizing radiation. The one of long-term effects of irradiation injury is leukemia. The bone marrow cells (BMC) transplantation including stem cells is the only effective therapy for acute radiation syndrome patients. Recently, with the advancement of stem cell research that the stem cells have multipotential and can convert each other, it may supply the new stem source for the irradiation injury patients. At the same time with the further research of radioprotective reagents, the hematopoietic stem cells proliferation after irradiation injury is promoted

  3. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  4. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  5. Engineering Hydrogel Microenvironments to Recapitulate the Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Christopher M; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2018-06-04

    Stem cells are a powerful resource for many applications including regenerative medicine, patient-specific disease modeling, and toxicology screening. However, eliciting the desired behavior from stem cells, such as expansion in a naïve state or differentiation into a particular mature lineage, remains challenging. Drawing inspiration from the native stem cell niche, hydrogel platforms have been developed to regulate stem cell fate by controlling microenvironmental parameters including matrix mechanics, degradability, cell-adhesive ligand presentation, local microstructure, and cell-cell interactions. We survey techniques for modulating hydrogel properties and review the effects of microenvironmental parameters on maintaining stemness and controlling differentiation for a variety of stem cell types. Looking forward, we envision future hydrogel designs spanning a spectrum of complexity, ranging from simple, fully defined materials for industrial expansion of stem cells to complex, biomimetic systems for organotypic cell culture models.

  6. Stem cell aging: mechanisms, regulators and therapeutic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juhyun; Lee, Yang David; Wagers, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Aging tissues experience a progressive decline in homeostatic and regenerative capacities, which has been attributed to degenerative changes in tissue-specific stem cells, stem cell niches and systemic cues that regulate stem cell activity. Understanding the molecular pathways involved in this age-dependent deterioration of stem cell function will be critical for developing new therapies for diseases of aging that target the specific causes of age-related functional decline. Here we explore key molecular pathways that are commonly perturbed as tissues and stem cells age and degenerate. We further consider experimental evidence both supporting and refuting the notion that modulation of these pathways per se can reverse aging phenotypes. Finally, we ask whether stem cell aging establishes an epigenetic ‘memory’ that is indelibly written or one that can be reset. PMID:25100532

  7. Stem cells and the evolving notion of cellular identity

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, George Q.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are but one class of the myriad types of cells within an organism. With potential to self-renew and capacity to differentiate, stem cells play essential roles at multiple stages of development. In the early embryo, pluripotent stem cells represent progenitors for all tissues while later in development, tissue-restricted stem cells give rise to cells with highly specialized functions. As best understood in the blood, skin and gut, stem cells are the seeds that sustain tissue homeost...

  8. Functional dysregulation of stem cells during aging: a focus on skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Sousa-Victor, Pedro; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2013-09-01

    Aging of an organism is associated with the functional decline of tissues and organs, as well as a sharp decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. A prevailing view holds that the aging rate of an individual depends on the ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Therefore, manipulations that favor the balance towards regeneration may prevent or delay aging. Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue composed of postmitotic myofibers that contract to generate force. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration. Recent studies on the biology of skeletal muscle and satellite cells in aging have uncovered the critical impact of systemic and niche factors on stem cell functionality and demonstrated the capacity of aged satellite cells to rejuvenate and increase their regenerative potential when exposed to a youthful environment. Here we review the current literature on the coordinated relationship between cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the function of satellite cells, and ultimately determine tissue homeostasis and repair during aging, and which encourage the search for new anti-aging strategies. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  9. Bioreactor engineering of stem cell environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-11-15

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by the development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to the translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  11. The epigenetic regulation of stem cell factors in hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reister, Sven; Kordes, Claus; Sawitza, Iris; Häussinger, Dieter

    2011-10-01

    The epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation is an important mechanism to control the expression of stem cell factors as demonstrated in tumor cells. It was recently shown that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) express stem/progenitor cell factors and have a differentiation potential. The aim of this work was to investigate if the expression of stem cell markers is regulated by DNA methylation during activation of rat HSC. It was found that CD133, Notch1, and Notch3 are regulated via DNA methylation in HSC, whereas Nestin shows no DNA methylation in HSC and other undifferentiated cells such as embryonic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells from rats. In contrast to this, DNA methylation controls Nestin expression in differentiated cells like hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line H4IIE. Demethylation by 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine was sufficient to induce Nestin in H4IIE cells. In quiescent stellate cells and embryonic stem cells, the Nestin expression was suppressed by histone H3 methylation at lysine 9, which is another epigenetic mechanism. Apart from the known induction of Nestin in cultured HSC, this intermediate filament protein was also induced after partial hepatectomy, indicating activation of HSC during liver regeneration. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that the expression of stem cell-associated factors such as CD133, Notch1, and Notch3 is controlled by DNA methylation in HSC. The regulation of Nestin by DNA methylation seems to be restricted to differentiated cells, whereas undifferentiated cells use different epigenetic mechanisms such as histone H3 methylation to control Nestin expression.

  12. Characterization of glioma stem cells through multiple stem cell markers and their specific sensitization to double-strand break-inducing agents by pharmacological inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Cappelli, Enrico; Ropolo, Monica; Poggi, Alessandro; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Mascelli, Samantha; Capra, Valeria; Kalfas, Fotios; Severi, Paolo; Frosina, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that tumor-driving glioma stem cells (GSC) may promote radio-resistance by constitutive activation of the DNA damage response started by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. We have investigated whether GSC may be specifically sensitized to ionizing radiation by inhibiting the DNA damage response. Two grade IV glioma cell lines (BORRU and DR177) were characterized for a number of immunocytochemical, karyotypic, proliferative and differentiative parameters. In particular, the expression of a panel of nine stem cell markers was quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Overall, BORRU and DR177 displayed pronounced and poor stem phenotypes, respectively. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiation on GSC, the cells were preincubated with a nontoxic concentration of the ATM inhibitors KU-55933 and KU-60019 and then irradiated. BORRU cells were sensitized to radiation and radio-mimetic chemicals by ATM inhibitors whereas DR177 were protected under the same conditions. No sensitization was observed after cell differentiation or to drugs unable to induce double-strand breaks (DSB), indicating that ATM inhibitors specifically sensitize glioma cells possessing stem phenotype to DSB-inducing agents. In conclusion, pharmacological inhibition of ATM may specifically sensitize GSC to DSB-inducing agents while sparing nonstem cells. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  13. Generation of eggs from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Saitou, Mitinori

    2013-08-01

    Oogenesis is an integrated process through which an egg acquires the potential for totipotency, a fundamental condition for creating new individuals. Reconstitution of oogenesis in a culture that generates eggs with proper function from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is therefore one of the key goals in basic biology as well as in reproductive medicine. Here we describe a stepwise protocol for the generation of eggs from mouse PSCs, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). ESCs and iPSCs are first induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) that are in turn aggregated with somatic cells of female embryonic gonads, the precursors for adult ovaries. Induction of PGCLCs followed by aggregation with the somatic cells takes up to 8 d. The aggregations are then transplanted under the ovarian bursa, in which PGCLCs grow into germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes in ∼1 month. The PGCLC-derived GV oocytes can be matured into eggs in 1 d by in vitro maturation (IVM), and they can be fertilized with spermatozoa by in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain healthy and fertile offspring. This method provides an initial step toward reconstitution of the entire process of oogenesis in vitro.

  14. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Petterson, Stine Asferg; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    and a panel of markers was used. The panel comprised of six stem cell-related markers (CD133, Musashi-1, Bmi-1, Sox-2, Nestin and Glut-3), a proliferation marker (Ki-67) as well as a chemo-resistance marker (MGMT). Computer-based automated classifiers were designed to measure the mIDH1 positive nucleus area......-fraction of the chosen markers. Moreover, orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts from five different patient-derived spheroid cultures were obtained and the tumor cells identified by human specific immunohistochemical markers. The results showed that tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas expressed stem cell...... in the periphery of patient gliomas have a stem cell phenotype, although it is less pronounced than in the tumor core. Novel therapies aiming at preventing recurrence should therefore take tumor stemness into account. Migrating cells in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts preserve expression and stem cell markers...

  17. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in

  18. Stem cell treatment for avascular necrosis of the femoral head: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdek MT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew T Houdek,1 Cody C Wyles,2 John R Martin,1 Rafael J Sierra11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 2School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. Although the exact pathophysiology of AVN has yet to be elucidated, the disease is characterized by a vascular insult to the blood supply of the femoral head, which can lead to collapse of the femoral head and subsequent degenerative changes. If AVN is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, it may be possible to attempt surgical procedures which preserve the hip joint, including decompression of the femoral head augmented with concentrated bone marrow. The use of autologous stem cells has shown promise in halting the progression of AVN of the femoral head, and subsequently preventing young patients from undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to review the current use of stem cells for the treatment of AVN of the femoral head.Keywords: avascular necrosis, femoral head, osteonecrosis, stem cells, concentrated bone marrow

  19. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  20. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  1. Socializing with the neighbors: stem cells and their niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elaine; Tumbar, Tudorita; Guasch, Geraldine

    2004-03-19

    The potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine relies upon removing them from their natural habitat, propagating them in culture, and placing them into a foreign tissue environment. To do so, it is essential to understand how stem cells interact with their microenvironment, the so-called stem cell niche, to establish and maintain their properties. In this review, we examine adult stem cell niches and their impact on stem cell biology.

  2. Investigation progress of imaging techniques monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; An Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recently stem cell therapy has showed potential clinical application in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumor and trauma. Efficient techniques of non-invasively monitoring stem cell transplants will accelerate the development of stem cell therapies. This paper briefly reviews the clinical practice of stem cell, in addition, makes a review of monitoring methods including magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging which have been used in stem cell therapy. (authors)

  3. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compar