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Sample records for steel vacuum chambers

  1. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 42 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Laurent, Jean Michel; Madsen, N

    2003-01-01

    In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2 MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow discharges, nonevaporable getter coating) are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H/sub 2 /, CH/sub 4/, CO, Ar, and CO/sub 2/. (16 refs).

  2. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2  MeV/u lead ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2  MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow discharges, nonevaporable getter coating are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H_{2}, CH_{4}, CO, Ar, and CO_{2}. Unexpected large values of molecular yields per incident ion up to 2×10^{4} molecules/ion have been observed. The reduction of the ion-induced desorption yield due to continuous bombardment with lead ions (beam cleaning has been investigated for five different stainless steel vacuum chambers. The implications of these results for the vacuum system of the future Low Energy Ion Ring and possible remedies to reduce the vacuum degradation are discussed.

  3. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  4. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  5. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  6. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Laurent, Jean Michel; Madsen, N

    2003-01-01

    In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2 MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow-discharges, non-evaporable getter coating) are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H2, CH4, CO, Ar and CO2. Unexpected large values of molecular yields per incident ion up to 2 104 molecules/ion have been observed. The red...

  7. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  8. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  9. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  10. Ion-stimulated gas desorption yields of coated (Au, Ag, Pd) stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Küchler, D; Malabaila, M; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy Ion Accelerator (LINAC 3), has been used to measure molecular desorption yields for 4.2 MeV/u lead ions impacting on different accelerator-type vacuum chambers. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, and palladium-coated 316LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The large effective desorption yield of 2 x 10**4 molecules/ion, previously measured for uncoated, vacuum fired stainless steel, was reduced after noble metal coating by up to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with heavy ions and the consequence of a subsequent venting on the desorption yields of a beam-scrubbed vacuum chamber are described. Practical consequences for the vacuum system of the future Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are discussed.

  11. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  12. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  13. Impedances in lossy elliptical vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwinski, A.

    1994-04-01

    The wake fields of a bunched beam caused by the resistivity of the chamber walls are investigated for a vacuum chamber with elliptical cross section. The longitudinal and transverse impedances are calculated for arbitrary energies and for an arbitrary position of the beam in the chamber. (orig.)

  14. Venturi vacuum systems for hypobaric chamber operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R; Swaby, G; Sutton, T; Fife, C; Powell, M; Butler, B D

    1997-11-01

    Physiological studies of the effects of high altitude on man often require the use of a hypobaric chamber to simulate the reduced ambient pressures. Typical "altitude" chambers in use today require complex mechanical vacuum systems to evacuate the chamber air, either directly or via reservoir system. Use of these pumps adds to the cost of both chamber procurement and maintenance, and service of these pumps requires trained support personnel and regular upkeep. In this report we describe use of venturi vacuum pumps to perform the function of mechanical vacuum pumps for human and experimental altitude chamber operations. Advantages of the venturi pumps include their relatively low procurement cost, small size and light weight, ease of installation and plumbing, lack of moving parts, and independence from electrical power sources, fossil fuels and lubricants. Conversion of three hyperbaric chambers to combined hyper/hypobaric use is described.

  15. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports

  16. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports. (author)

  17. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  18. Mega-bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersections

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The cylindrical central part covered the collision region allowing secondary particles emitted at large angle to escape thanks to its very thin wall.The two conical parts are terminated by "transparent" thin windows for letting out forward emitted secondary particles. Vacuum chambers of this shape were made in their thin parts out of 0.3 mm stainless steel or 0.28 mm titanium alloy sheet. See also 7609219, 7609221, 7507132X.

  19. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  20. Ion-stimulated Gas Desorption Yields of Electropolished, Chemically Etched, and Coated (Au, Ag, Pd, TiZrV) Stainless Steel Vacuum Chambers and St707 Getter Strips Irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Küchler, D; Malabaila, M; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy Ion Accelerator LINAC 3, has been used to measure molecular desorption yields for 4.2 MeV/u lead ions impacting under grazing incidence on different accelerator-type vacuum chambers. Desorption yields for H2, CH4, CO, and CO2, which are of fundamental interest for future accelerator applications, are reported for different stainless steel surface treatments. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, palladium-, and getter-coated 316 LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The large effective desorption yield of 2 x 104 molecules/Pb53+ ion, previously measured for uncoated, vacuum fired stainless steel, was reduced after noble-metal coating by up to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, pressure rise measurements, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with le...

  1. Safety shield for vacuum/pressure-chamber windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, R. A.; Spencer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Optically-clear shatter-resistant safety shield protects workers from implosion and explosion of vacuum and pressure windows. Plastic shield is inexpensive and may be added to vacuum chambers, pressure chambers, and gas-filling systems.

  2. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  3. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  4. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    To minimise eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical strength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The cross-section was designed for maximum strength and maximum aperture. To accept particles with simultaneous large amplitudes in both planes, the cross-section approaches a rectangular shape (see also 7402463).

  5. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown

  6. Development of Aluminium Vacuum Chambers for the LHC Experiments at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Costa-Pinto, P; Lepeule, P; Perez-Espinos, J; Marques Antunes Ferreira, L; Prever-Loiri, L; Sapountzis, A

    2014-01-01

    Beam losses may cause activation of vacuum chamber walls, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. For the High Luminosity (HL-LHC), the activation of such vacuum chambers will increase. It is therefore necessary to use a vacuum chamber material which interacts less with the circulating beam. While beryllium is reserved for the collision point, a good compromise between cost, availability and transparency is obtained with aluminium alloys; such materials are a preferred choice with respect to austenitic stainless steel. Manufacturing a thin-wall aluminium vacuum chamber presents several challenges as the material grade needs to be machinable, weldable, leak-tight for small thicknesses, and able to withstand heating to 250°C for extended periods of time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges during the manufacture of these vacuum chambers and the methods for overcoming production difficulties, including surface treatments and Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin-film coat...

  7. Conditioning of vacuum chamber by RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.I.; Nascimento, I.C. do

    1985-01-01

    A new conditioning vaccum chamber system is presented. It consists in hydrogen plasm generation by microwaves with low electronic temperature (Te approx. 5eV) and low ionization degree. The ions and neutral atoms generated in the reaction: e + H 2 -> H+ H+ e, bomb the chamber walls combinig themselves to impurities of surface and generating several compounds: H 2 O, CO, CH 4 , CO 2 etc. The vacuum system operates continuosly and remove these compounds. A microwave system using magnetron valve (f=2,45 GHz, P=800W) was constructed for TBR (Brazilian tokamak). The gas partial pressures were monitored before, during and after conditioning showing the efficiency of the process. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Gerstl, S; Grau, A W; Hagelstein, M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Boffo, C; Sikler, G; Baglin, V; Cox, M P; Schouten, J C; Cimino, R; Commisso, M; Spataro, B; Mostacci, A; Wallen, E J; Weigel, R; Clarke, J; Scott, D; Bradshaw, T; Jones, R; Shinton, I

    2011-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  9. Bi-cone vacuum chamber in the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The "bi-cone" vacuum chamber in ISR intersection I-7, for experiment R702. Made from 0.28 mm thick titanium, it was at its time the most transparent chamber ever built. Ian Wilson is standing next to the chamber. See also 7609219.

  10. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the components of the Neutral Beam Lines of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will be enclosed in a 50 cubic meter box-shaped vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented

  11. Historical review of the vacuum chamber technology for INS-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuhide

    2006-01-01

    The INS (Institute for Nuclear Study), University of Tokyo, was founded in 1955. Construction of the ES (electron synchrotron) was approved in 1956 and finished in 1961. 1.3 GeV INS-ES consists of 8 electric magnets with 3.14m length at intervals of 1.2m. It used resonant exciting current. The vacuum chamber was called donut made of ceramics at first and changed by araldite in 1964, and metal in 1970's. 53% of troubles were caused by the vacuum system in 1966. The metal donut with stainless steel welding bellows was changed by the stainless steel from SUS304 to SUS316L. These improvement methods solved the vacuum problems. The donut made of araldite, a trial piece of stainless steel welding bellows, increase of beam intensity of INS-ES and position of stainless steel welding bellows in section are shown. (S.Y.)

  12. UHV testing of upgraded vacuum chambers for Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Kumar, K.V.A.N.P.S.; Ramshiroman; Bhange, Nilesh; Yadav, D.P.; Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV, 100 mA dedicated electron storage ring operating at pressure 10 -10 mbar range without beam and 10 -9 mbar range with beam using triode sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination. Indus-1 storage ring is presently working with six operational beam lines installed at three bending magnets. To accommodate two more beam lines and to reduce number of demountable joints, up-gradation of Indus-1 UHV system was planned. Salient features of upgraded vacuum system are bending magnet vacuum chambers with one extra port for additional beam line and straight section vacuum chambers with integrated TSP body. Half of the Indus-1 storage ring vacuum envelope with two bending magnet vacuum chamber and six straight section vacuum chambers were assembled with pumps, gauges etc, leak tested and tested for its UHV performance. Ultimate vacuum 5x10 -10 mbar with SIP and 2x10 -10 mbar after TSP pumping were achieved. Residual gas analyser (RGA) spectrum recorded for residual gas analysis indicated the imprints of a typical all metal UHV system having H 2 as major gas. This paper describes UHV testing of upgraded, newly fabricated vacuum chambers for Indus-1 storage ring. (author)

  13. Oxford engineering students to study new solutions for vacuum chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Department of Engineering Science - University of Oxford

    2012-01-01

    In April, eleven engineering science students in their third year at Oxford University were invited here to present their design ideas for new vacuum chamber materials to be used in accelerators. We publish below an abstract of the article that the University of Oxford featured on its website.   The 11 Oxford students who worked at CERN on alternatives to beryllium in vacuum chambers. (Photo courtesy of the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.) Engineering Science students invited to design for CERN’s Large Hadron Collider In April, eleven Engineering Science students in their third year were invited to the CERN laboratory in Geneva to present their ideas for new vacuum chamber designs for the experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their design objectives were to propose alternatives to beryllium – the material used for some of the existing experimental vacuum chambers. Beryllium (chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4) is to...

  14. Vacuum chamber-free centrifuge with magnetic bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Centrifuges are devices that separate particles of different densities and sizes through the application of a centrifugal force. If a centrifuge could be operated under atmospheric conditions, all vacuum-related components such as the vacuum chamber, vacuum pump, diffusion pump, and sealing could be removed from a conventional centrifuge system. The design and manufacturing procedure for centrifuges could then be greatly simplified to facilitate the production of lightweight centrifuge systems of smaller volume. Furthermore, the maintenance costs incurred owing to wear and tear due to conventional ball bearings would be eliminated. In this study, we describe a novel vacuum chamber-free centrifuge supported by magnetic bearings. We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum chamber-free centrifuge by presenting experimental results that verify its high-speed support capability and motoring power capacity.

  15. Achieving ultrahigh vacuum in an unbaked chamber with glow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... An ultimate vacuum in any leak-tight chamber with a given pumping speed and ... chamber is exposed to atmospheric pressure, water vapour gets sorbed ... A variable DC power supply of 0–1000 V was con- nected in series ...

  16. Safety shield for vacuum/pressure chamber viewing port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, R. A.; Spencer, R. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Observers are protected from flying debris resulting from a failure of a vacuum or pressure chamber viewing port following an implosion or explosion by an optically clear shatter resistant safety shield which spaced apart from the viewing port on the outer surface of the chamber.

  17. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  18. He leak testing of Indus-2 dipole vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Shukla, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Centre for Advanced Technology is developing its second synchrotron radiation source INDUS-2 which is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. Dipole vacuum chambers are the vital components of Indus-2 vacuum system. Each of these chambers is approx. 3.6 m long and 0.67 m wide with 24 nos. of ports of various sizes. The dipole chambers were made by machining two halves and they are then lip welded together. The dipole chamber has approx. 14 m of total weld length and it was leak tested for leak tightness of the order of 10 -10 mbar 1/s. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD) was utilized for the leak testing. Subsequently the leaks of various orders in welding joints were repaired and leak tightness achieved. This paper describes the experiences during leak testing of 20 nos. of aluminum dipole chambers for INDUS-2

  19. Ion-induced desorption from stainless-steel vacuum chambers has been studied with a view to improving the dynamic pressure in the future LEIR ion accumulator ring for the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice Maximilien

    2002-01-01

    This picture shows part of a vacuum chamber fully equipped with St707 non-evaporable getter (NEG) strips which were bombarded in Linac3 with lead ions at 4.2 MeV/u. A change of the surface morphology is visible where the Pb53+ ions impacted under grazing incidence onto the NEG.

  20. The PEP-II Lower Pressure HER Vacuum Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBarger, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wright, D.

    2006-01-01

    This new vacuum chamber has been installed from 12 to 21 meters upstream of the BaBar detector in the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER) to reduce lost particle backgrounds. The backgrounds from HER now dominate the backgrounds in the BaBar detector and the present vacuum pressure is 1 x 10 -9 Torr. The new chamber will increase the pumping significantly by adding 18 x 2000 l/s titanium sublimation pumps to the existing 5 x 440 l/s ion pumps, and is expected to reduce the pressure by about a factor of five. Features of the chamber include improved water cooling, improved vacuum conductance through copper RF screens featuring over 15,000 small square holes and the ability to sublimate titanium while the beam is still on

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2001-01-01

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with ∼100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented

  2. The Impedance of Multi-layer Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    2003-01-01

    Many components of the LHC vacuum chamber have multi-layered walls : the copper coated cold beam screen, the titanium coated ceramic chamber of the dump kickers, the ceramic chamber of the injection kickers coated with copper stripes, only to name a few. Theories and computer programs are available for some time already to evaluate the impedance of these elements. Nevertheless, the algorithm developed in this paper is more convenient in its application and has been used extensively in the design phase of multi-layer LHC vacuum chamber elements. It is based on classical transmission line theory. Closed expressions are derived for simple layer configurations, while beam pipes involving many layers demand a chain calculation. The algorithm has been tested with a number of published examples and was verified with experimental data as well.

  3. NEG coating of the non-standard LSS vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2005-01-01

    The vacuum chambers of nearly all the warm magnets of the LHC (MBXW, MQW, MSI, MSD, etc…) will be coated with a Ti-Zr-V thin film by magnetron sputtering. The NEG coating is necessary to provide uniform pumping speed along the chambers and to suppress electron cloud instabilities and dynamic outgassing. The about 300 chambers will be coated using the existing facility, developed for the production of the standard LSS chambers, after minor modifications mainly due to the different cross sections. In order to cope with the present installation schedule, the production planning will allow processing of different families of chambers in parallel by using two or three coating systems simultaneously. After a brief introduction to the Ti-Zr-V characteristics and performances, the coating facility and strategy will be illustrated as well as the possible conflicts due to uncertainties in the planning of the experimental beam pipes and the standard LSS chambers.

  4. Photoelectron Yield and Photon Reflectivity from Candidate LHC Vacuum Chamber Materials with Implications to the Vacuum Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Gröbner, Oswald

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the photoelectron yield and photon reflectivity at grazing incidence (11 mrad) from candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials have been made on a dedicated beam line on the Electron Positron A ccumulator (EPA) ring at CERN. These measurements provide realistic input toward a better understanding of the electron cloud phenomena expected in the LHC. The measurements were made using synchrotro n radiation with critical photon energies of 194 eV and 45 eV; the latter corresponding to that of the LHC at the design energy of 7 TeV. The test materials are mainly copper, either, i) coated by co- lamination or by electroplating onto stainless steel, or ii) bulk copper prepared by special machining. The key parameters explored were the effect of surface roughness on the reflectivity and the pho toelectron yield at grazing photon incidence, and the effect of magnetic field direction on the yields measured at normal photon incidence. The implications of the results on the electron cloud phenom ena, and thus the L...

  5. Linear accelerator section alignment in a vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrov, R.M.; Vinogradskij, N.N.; Danil'tsev, E.N.; Iosseliani, D.D.; Kosyak, V.S.; Porubaj, N.I.; Ugarov, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Alignment technique for multisectional accelerating structures, that may be used in designing new accelerators for experimental and applied purposes, is described. The accuracy of the alignment of four-chamber resonator sections directly in an accelerator vacuum volume without its depressurization is not less than 100 μm. 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Impedance analysis of the PEP-II vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II high energy ring (HER) vacuum chamber consists of a copper tube with periodically spaced pumping slots. The impedance of the vacuum chamber due to the slots is analyzed. Both narrow-band and broadband impedances are considered as well as longitudinal and transverse components thereof. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance may exceed the instability limit given by the natural damping with no feedback system on. Traveling wave modes in the chamber are the major source of this high value narrow-band impedance. We also study the dependences of the impedance on the slot length and the geometrical cross section

  7. High vacuum general purpose scattering chamber for nuclear reaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar; Ojha, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    To study the nuclear reactions induced by beam from medium energy accelerators, one of the most common facility required is a scattering chamber. In the scattering chamber, projectile collides with the target nucleus and the scattered reaction products are detected with various type of nuclear detector at different angles with respect to the beam. The experiments are performed under high vacuum to minimize the background reaction and the energy losses of the charged particles. To make the chamber general purpose various requirement of the experiments are incorporated into it. Changing of targets, changing angle of various detectors while in vacuum are the most desired features. The other features like ascertaining the beam spot size and position on the target, minimizing the background counts by proper beam dump, accurate positioning of the detector as per plan etc. are some of the important requirements

  8. Bench measurement of vacuum chamber impedances with wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Particle beams travelling in an accelerator or storage ring vacuum chamber produce electric and magnetic fields which interact with the walls of the chamber. The induced wall currents in turn generate secondary fields which can interact with the beam, giving rise to both energy loss and other effects which can cause beam instability. In many simple geometries these effects can be calculated. In more complex geometries the calculations are difficult and very approximate. For this reason it is important that the effects be measured if possible prior to installation. As accelerators become larger and the number of vacuum chamber components more numerous, and as more severe beam intensity and stability requirements are placing lower limits on the longitudinal and transverse impedances, a less than adequate component will be more likely to limit machine performance

  9. Distributed remote temperature monitoring system for INDUS-2 vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhange, N.J.; Gothwal, P.; Fatnani, P.; Shukla, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Indus-2, a 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Indore has a large vacuum system. The vacuum envelope of Indus-2 ring comprises of 16 dipole chambers as vital parts. Each chamber has 4 photon absorbers and three beam line ports blanked with end flanges. Temperature monitoring of critical vacuum components during operation of Indus-2 ring is an important requirement. The paper discusses a distributed, 160 channel remote temperature monitoring system developed and deployed for this purpose using microcontroller based, modular Temperature Monitoring Units (TMU). The cabling has been extensively minimized using RS485 system and keeping trip relay contacts of all units in series. For ensuring proper signal conditioning of thermocouple outputs (K-type) and successful operation over RS485 bus, many precautions were taken considering the close proximity to the storage ring. We also discuss the software for vacuum chamber temperature monitoring and safety system. The software developed using LabVIEW, has important features like modularity, client-server architecture, local and global database logging, alarms and trips, event and error logging, provision of various important configurations, communications handling etc. (author)

  10. Vacuum chambers full of ideas for the Swedish synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group has contributed to the development of vacuum chambers for the MAX IV synchrotron, which has just been officially opened in Sweden.   A section of the new 3 GeV MAX IV synchrotron at the time of installation. In the centre of the magnets you can see the vacuum chamber developed in collaboration with CERN. (Photo: Marek Grabski, MAX IV Vacuum group) On 21 June, the King and the Prime Minister of Sweden officially opened MAX IV, a brand-new synchrotron in Lund, Sweden. The summer solstice, the longest day of the year, was deliberately chosen for the ceremony: MAX IV, a cutting-edge synchrotron, will deliver the brightest X-rays ever produced to more than 2000 users. Some 1500 kilometres away, a team at CERN followed the opening ceremony with a touch of pride. The Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group in the Technology department (TE-VSC) participated in the construction of this new synchrotron. Its contribution lies at the very hea...

  11. Design and Qualification of Transparent Beam Vacuum Chamber Supports for the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, JL; Garion, C

    2014-01-01

    Three beryllium beam vacuum chambers pass through the aperture of the large dipole magnet and particle acceptance region of the LHCb experiment, coaxial to the LHC beam. At the interior of the magnet, a system of rods and cables supports the chambers, holding them rigidly in place, in opposition to the vacuum forces caused by their conical geometry. In the scope of the current upgrade programme, the steel and aluminium structural components are replaced by a newly designed system, making use of beryllium, in addition to a number of organic materials, and are optimised for overall transparency to incident particles. Presented in this paper are the design criteria, along with the unique design developments carried out at CERN, and furthermore, a description of the technologies procured from industrial partners, specifically in obtaining the best solution for the cable components.

  12. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here

  13. First Half Of The ATLAS Vacuum Chamber Arrives

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, built to observe and record the products of head-on collisions of protons in the Large Hadron Collider, is one of the largest and most elaborate particle physics experiments ever designed. It is the product of a world-wide effort by over 1800 scientists from more than 150 laboratories and institutions in 34 countries. With the detector due to begin operation in 2005, its various components have started to arrive from their manufacturers around the world, the most recent being the first of the two vacuum chambers for the two end cap toroid magnets. As it is too big to transport all at once it is comes in two halves. Each half of the vacuum chamber weighs 40 tonnes and is about 11x5.5x5 cubic meters in size. The huge 500 cubic meter vacuum vessles are an in kind contribution to ATLAS from NIKHEF (the Netherlands Institute for High Energy Physics) following a design by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The chamber was built and delivered by the Royal Schelde Exotech shipyards i...

  14. Conditioning of the vacuum chamber of the Tokamak Novillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Gaytan G, E.

    1992-03-01

    The obtained experimental results of the implementation of two techniques of present time for the conditioning of the internal wall of the chamber of discharges of the Tokamak Novillo are presented, which has been designed, built and put in operation in the Laboratory of Plasma Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). These techniques are: the vacuum baking and the low energy pulsed discharges, which were applied after having reached an initial pressure of the order of 10 -7 Torr. with a system of turbomolecular pumping previous preparation of surfaces and vacuum seals. The analysis of residual gases was carried out with a mass spectrometer before and after conditioning. The obtained results show that the vacuum baking it was of great effectiveness to reduce the value of the initial pressure in short time, in more of a magnitude order and the low energy discharges reduced the oxygen at worthless levels with regard to the initial values. (Author)

  15. High-vacuum chamber for the irradiation of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmel, E.; Dullnig, H.

    1975-01-01

    The high vacuum chamber for irradiating targets with X-rays, electron or ion beams is connected to a magazine storage vessel for the targets through a loading duct which can be evacuated. This duct is traversed by a carriage transporting a magazine to the irradiation position. The duct can be closed by a closing valve. Inside the chamber there is a grip attached to a swivel arm which takes a frame with a target from the magazine, or vice versa, and moves it into the irradiation position. This means that the chamber must always be kept at a constant internal pressure. The swiveling shaft for the swivel arm and the transport pinion of the carriage in addition are magnetically coupled to drive shafts located outside the chamber, which obviates the need for any seals. The grip may also deposit the frame on a goniometer, which allows the target to be aligned in the irradiation position. In addition, the measuring probes used to record the amount of reflected radiation are installed in the chamber under electrically insulated conditions relative to the chamber. (DG/RF) [de

  16. Second generation "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for an ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows the part of the "Flat-Fish" chamber covering one side of the beam intersection region. The other side is covered by an equal part and both are welded toghether at their small end. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of stainless steel strings to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the atmospheric pressure forces. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature.

  17. Research regarding the vacuuming of liquid steel on steel degassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaon, M.; Radu, M.; Şerban, S.; Zgripcea, L.

    2018-01-01

    When the liquid steel comes in contact with the atmosphere of the elaboration aggregates, a process of gas diffusion into the metal bath takes place on the one hand, and on the other hand a process that allows them to pass from the metal bath into the atmosphere. The meaning of these processes is determined by a number of factors as follows: the quality of raw and auxiliary materials (moisture content, oils, etc.), the boiling intensity, the evacuation duration, the properties of used slags, the values of the casting ladle processing parameters (bubbling, vacuuming, etc.). The research was carried out at an electrical steelwork, equipped with an electric arc furnace type EBT (Electric Bottom Tapping) capacity 100t, LF (Ladle-Furnace) and VD (Vacuum Degassing) facilities, establishing some correlations between the vacuuming parameters from the V.D.facility and the amounts of hydrogen and nitrogen removed from the metal bath, as well as their removal efficiency, were taken into consideration. The obtained data was processed in MATLAB calculation program, the established correlations form was presented both in analytical and graphical form. The validity of these correlations was verified in practice, being particularly useful in research.

  18. All-metal vacuum chamber for the ZT-40 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Downing, J.N.

    1981-10-01

    We discuss the design and fabrication of the all-metal vacuum chamber presently in use in the ZT-40 device. ZT-40 is the current experiment in the Los Alamos Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) program. The new vessel, which replaces a ceramic one, is made of Inconel 625 and has major and minor diameters of 228 cm and 40 cm, respectively. It consists of 24 convoluted and straight sections welded into a single toroidal geometry. Presented are several design features showing diagnostic and vacuum port tubulations and thermal-electrical insulation isolating the unit from its conducting shell. We also discuss fabrication techniques and our procedure for cleaning and heat treatment designed to eliminate residual gas contamination in the Inconel material

  19. Elastomer seal for a large toroidal vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skellett, S.; Casey, F.; Blake, H.

    1978-07-01

    An aluminium toroidal vacuum chamber for use at 10(-6) torr, whose overall diameter is in the region of 5 metres, was built from 4 component parts which resulted in joint lines in the horizontal and vertical planes crossing each other in 4 places. A viton seal was developed which allows a vacuum tight joint to be made without the need for tightly toleranced fitting of the mating faces and also overcomes the difficulty of ensuring a reliable seal at cross-over joints. Ease of maintenance and repair in situ are important factors of the design. An assembly which presented the geometry of the sealing problem was tested and is described here. Various adhesives for bonding viton were examined for the manufacture of the seal. The most suitable adhesive was found to be Loctite S496, chosen for its bond strength and convenience in use. A device for preparing and bonding the viton in situ is described. (author)

  20. Application of EB welding to fabrication of vacuum chamber of heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Hisanao; Wada, Tatsuji; Nakazaki, Takamitsu; Akutsu, Yoji; Kazawa, Yoshiaki

    1981-01-01

    Heliotron E, which is a large-scaled device of Heliotron series, is in operation in Kyoto University. Target plasma parameters of this machine are as follows; plasma density 1 x 10 20 m -3 , electron temperature 1 keV, ion temperature 0.8 keV and n tau 10 18 -- 10 19 sec/m 3 . Plasma confining magnetic fields are produced by the helical coil current. To assure the accuracy of the helical coils, the high level of accuracy was required to the profile of the vacuum chamber. The vacuum chamber twists around the torus by 9.5 times and its poloidal cross section shows a race-track shape in any toroidal position. Major radius is 2200 mm and minor radius is 215.5 mm. The material is the high-strength non-magnetic steel which has low permeability (μ = 40 kgf/mm 2 ) and special chemical composition (25Cr-12Ni-0.3N). The thickness of the wall is from 20 to 33 mm. To make the vacuum chamber, 190 pieces were joined together by EB welding after the hot press forming. A giant apparatus (6.5 m x 6.5 m x 3.5 m) was prepared and applied and a special re-focusing coil was used for the long beam welding. The profile accuracy of the vacuum chamber has been controlled as follows; major radius +-3 mm, minor radius sub(-1.5)sup(+4.5)mm, where minus means the inner side. X-ray and dye-penetrant quality of all welds was acceptable for ASME pressure vessel code and JIS. The laekage was less than 1.3 x 10 -8 Torr. 1/sec. The final pressure is 2 x 10 -8 Torr. (author)

  1. Bending-magnet vacuum chambers for VUV ring at LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.B. de; Rodrigues, A.R.D.; Gomes, P.A.P.; Baptista, C.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss design criteria dictated by optical, thermal, electrical impedance and structural considerations. The proposed chambers will provide 3 conventional light ports. A fourth port will allow extraction of back scattered soft X-rays. Cooled absorbers will collect the unused radiation while confining the photo-stimulated desorption to a vacuum antechamber away from the electron beam path. We describe the thermal considerations relating to the cooled sapphire filters needed in the visible light ports and the cooling requirements for the copper radiation absorbers. (author)

  2. Bending-magnet vacuum chambers for VUV ring at LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Castro, A.R.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.D.; Gomes, P.A.P.; Baptista, C.A.R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses design criteria dictated by optical, thermal, electrical impedance and structural considerations. The proposed chambers will provide 3 conventional light ports. A fourth port will allow extraction of back scattered soft X-rays. Cooled absorbers will collect the unused radiation while confining the photo-stimulated desorption to a vacuum antechamber away from the electron beam path. The authors describe the thermal considerations relating to the cooled sapphire filters needed in the visible light ports and the cooling requirements for the copper radiation absorbers

  3. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  4. Residual gas analysis of a cryostat vacuum chamber during the cool down of SST - 1 superconducting magnet field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P.; Joshi, K.S.; Thankey, P.L.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important feature of Steady state Superconducting Tokamak -1 (SST-l) is the Nb-Ti superconducting magnet field coils. The coils will be kept in a high vacuum chamber (Cryostat) and liquid Helium will be flown through it to cool it down to its critical temperature of 4.5K. The coil along with its hydraulics has four types of joints (1) Stainless Steel (S.S.) to Copper (Cu) weld joints (2) S. S. to S. S. weld joints (3) Cu to Cu brazed joints and (4) G-10 to S. S. joints with Sti-cast as the binding material. The joints were leak tested with a Helium mass spectrometer leak detector in vacuum as well as in sniffer mode. However during the cool-down of the coil, these joints may develop leaks. This would deteriorate the vacuum inside the cryostat and coil cool-down would subsequently become more difficult. To study the effect of cooling on the vacuum condition of the Cryostat, a dummy Cryostat chamber was fabricated and a toroidal Field (TF) magnet was kept inside this chamber and cooled down to 4.5 K.A residual gas analyzer (RGA) was connected to the Cryostat chamber to study the behaviour of major gases inside this chamber with temperature. An analysis of the RGA data acquired during the coo-down has been presented in this chamber. (author)

  5. Status of COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerstl, Stefan; Casalbuoni, Sara; Grau, Andreas; Hagelstein, Michael; Saez de Jauregui, David; Baglin, Vincent; Boffo, Cristian; Sikler, Gunther; Bradshaw, Thomas; Cimino, Roberto; Commisso, Mario; Spataro, Bruno; Clarke, James; Scott, Duncan; Cox, Matthew; Schouten, Jos; Jones, Roger; Shinton, Ian; Mostacci, Andrea; Wallen, Erik; Weigel, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  6. Gas and plasma dynamics of RF discharge jet of low pressure in a vacuum chamber with flat electrodes and inside tube, influence of RF discharge on the steel surface parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoliubova, V. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Researches results of the characteristics of the RF discharge jet of low pressure and the discharge influence on the surface modification of high speed and structural steels are introduced in the article. Gas dynamics, power and energy parameters of the RF low pressure discharge flow in the discharge chamber and the electrode gap are studied in the presence of the materials. Plasma flow rate, discharge power, the concentration of electrons, the density of RF power, the ion current density, and the energy of the ions bombarding the surface materials are considered for the definition of basic properties crucial for the process of surface modification of materials as they were put in the plasma jet. The influence of the workpiece and effect of products complex configuration on the RF discharge jet of low pressure is defined. The correlation of the input parameters of the plasma unit on the characteristics of the discharge is established.

  7. A Large High Vacuum Reaction Chamber for Nuclear Physics Research at VECC, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, S; Bhattacharya, S; Meena, J K; Ghosh, T K; Bhattacharjee, T; Mukhopadhyay, P; Bhattacharya, C; Rana, T K; Banerjee, K; Mukherjee, G; Banerjee, S R; Bandyopadhyay, D L; Ahammed, M; Bhattacharya, P

    2012-01-01

    A large, segmented, horizontal axis, reaction chamber (SHARC) has recently been fabricated, installed and integrated with the beam line in the VECC superconducting cyclotron (SCC) experimental area. It is a cylindrical, three segment, stainless steel chamber of length 2.2 m, diameter 1 m. Two pairs of parallel rails have been provided internally for placement of the target assembly and detector systems within the chamber. The whole target assembly can be placed anywhere on the rail to facilitate optimum flight path. The nominal vacuum of ∼1×10 −7 mbar has been obtained in ∼8 hrs by means of two turbo molecular (1000 l/s) and two cryo pumps (2500 l/s) backed by mechanical pumps. The whole vacuum system as well as the target positioning (vertical and rotational movements) operations are fully automated with manual override option; both are monitored and controlled locally as well as remotely through the local and remote control units providing real time status display.

  8. A new TXRF vacuum chamber with sample changer for chemical analysis using silicon drift chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Several TXRF spectrometers for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis are commercially available. But there is no one available for chemical analysis offering the possibility to measure the samples in vacuum conditions. Vacuum of 10 -2 mbar in the sample environment helps to reduce the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits as well as to reduce the absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements and extend the elemental range to be measured and removes the Ar lines from the spectrum. The x-ray group of the Atominstitut designed and fabricated a new vacuum chamber for TXRF equipped with a 12 position sample changer from Italstructures, Riva, Italy. The detector used was a 10 mm 2 silicon drift detector (KETEK, Munich, Germany), offering the advantage of electrically cooling, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing, e.g. with a fine focus Mo-x-ray tube and uses a multilayer monochromator. Spectra are stored by a small AMTEK MCA and control between sample changer and MCA communication is done by a modified AMPTEK software. The performance is expressed in detection limits of 1 pg Rb for Mo Ka excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s lifetime, obtained from a sample containing 600 pg Rb as single element standard. Details on performance, reproducibility and light element excitation and detection are presented. (author)

  9. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gerstl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  10. Mechanical behaviour of vacuum chambers and beam screens under quench conditions in dipole and quadrupole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, C

    2002-01-01

    A method based on analytical formulas is described to calculate bending moments, stresses, and deformations of vacuum chambers and beam screens in dipole and in quadrupole fields during a magnet quench. Solutions are given for circular and racetrack shaped structures. Without the need of time consuming calculations the solutions enable a quick design and verification of vacuum chambers and beam screens.

  11. Longitudinal coupling impedance of a double-step cross section change in the vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidee, P.; Hahn, H.; Mizumachi, Y.

    1978-03-01

    The coupling impedance of a double-step cross section change in the vacuum chamber of an accelerator or storage ring is computed in first approximation. The character of the coupling impedance in the various frequency domains, that is low-frequency, above cut-off frequency of the vacuum chamber, and at resonances is discussed

  12. Tokamak DEMO-FNS: Concept of magnet system and vacuum chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E. A., E-mail: Azizov-EA@nrcki.ru; Ananyev, S. S. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, E. N.; Voronova, A. A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Golikov, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Dnestrovskij, A. Yu. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Zapretilina, E. R. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. P. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kavin, A. A.; Kedrov, I. V. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Klischenko, A. V.; Kolbasov, B. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Krasnov, S. V. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Krylov, A. I. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Krylov, V. A.; Kuzmin, E. G. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Kuteev, B. V. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Labusov, A. N. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-12-15

    The level of knowledge accumulated to date in the physics and technologies of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) makes it possible to begin designing fusion—fission hybrid systems that would involve a fusion neutron source (FNS) and which would admit employment for the production of fissile materials and for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel. Modern Russian strategies for CTF development plan the construction to 2023 of tokamak-based demonstration hybrid FNS for implementing steady-state plasma burning, testing hybrid blankets, and evolving nuclear technologies. Work on designing the DEMO-FNS facility is still in its infancy. The Efremov Institute began designing its magnet system and vacuum chamber, while the Kurchatov Institute developed plasma-physics design aspects and determined basic parameters of the facility. The major radius of the plasma in the DEMO-FNS facility is R = 2.75 m, while its minor radius is a = 1 m; the plasma elongation is k{sub 95} = 2. The fusion power is P{sub FUS} = 40 MW. The toroidal magnetic field on the plasma-filament axis is B{sub t0} = 5 T. The plasma current is I{sub p} = 5 MA. The application of superconductors in the magnet system permits drastically reducing the power consumed by its magnets but requires arranging a thick radiation shield between the plasma and magnet system. The central solenoid, toroidal-field coils, and poloidal-field coils are manufactured from, respectively, Nb{sub 3}Sn, NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, and NbTi. The vacuum chamber is a double-wall vessel. The space between the walls manufactured from 316L austenitic steel is filled with an iron—water radiation shield (70% of stainless steel and 30% of water).

  13. Secondary magnetic field harmonics dependence on vacuum beam chamber geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Shim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The harmonic magnetic field properties due to eddy currents have been studied with respect to the geometry of the vacuum beam chamber. We derived a generalized formula enabling the precise prediction of any field harmonics generated by eddy currents in beam tubes with different cross-sectional geometries. Applying our model to study the properties of field harmonics in beam tubes with linear dipole magnetic field ramping clearly proved that the circular cross section tube generates only a dipole field from eddy currents. The elliptic tube showed noticeable magnitudes of sextupole and dipole fields. We demonstrate theoretically that it is feasible to suppress the generation of the sextupole field component by appropriately varying the tube wall thickness as a function of angle around the tube circumference. This result indicates that it is possible to design an elliptical-shaped beam tube that generates a dipole field component with zero magnitude of sextupole. In a rectangular-shaped beam tube, one of the selected harmonic fields can be prevented if an appropriate wall thickness ratio between the horizontal and vertical tube walls is properly chosen. Our generalized formalism can be used for optimization of arbitrarily complex-shaped beam tubes, with respect to suppression of detrimental field harmonics.

  14. VUV photoemission studies of candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Collins, I R

    1998-01-01

    In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the LargeHadron Collider (LHC), a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUVsynchrotron radiation (SR) has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidatevacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolvedphotoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, suchas the emission of electrons that contribute to the creation of an electron cloud which may causeserious beam instabilities. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields (PY)from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and, in some cases,the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL)spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC or monochromatic light in the photon energy rangeof interest. The effects on the materials examined of WL irradiation and/or ion sputtering,simulati...

  15. Method for sequentially processing a multi-level interconnect circuit in a vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, D. E.; Sharma, G. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which includes a vacuum system having a vacuum chamber in which wafers are processed on rotating turntables. The vacuum chamber is provided with an RF sputtering system and a dc magnetron sputtering system. A gas inlet introduces various gases to the vacuum chamber and creates various gas plasma during the sputtering steps. The rotating turntables insure that the respective wafers are present under the sputtering guns for an average amount of time such that consistency in sputtering and deposition is achieved. By continuous and sequential processing of the wafers in a common vacuum chamber without removal, the adverse affects of exposure to atmospheric conditions are eliminated providing higher quality circuit contacts and functional device.

  16. RF HEATING AND TEMPERATURE OSCILLATIONS DUE TO A SMALL GAP IN A PEP-II VACUUM CHAMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Wake fields excited in a small gap of a vacuum chamber by ampere beams can have enough amplitude to heat the chamber. The electric component of these fields can be above the arcing limit. Usually flange connections in a vacuum chamber contain a vacuum gasket and an inner RF gasket. If a small gap occurs between the RF gasket and flange surface, wake fields can heat the flanges. The flanges are usually made of stainless steel, which efficiently absorbs RF power. Some flanges consist of two parts (like a vacuum valve flange) and are mechanically connected but have poor thermal contact. A temperature rise can lengthen the inner part of the flange and make firmer the thermal contact to the outer part of the flange. The heat will then flow to the outer part of the flange, which is air and water-cooled. This cooling lowers the flange temperature and the thermal contact becomes poor again. This ''quasi'' periodic mechanism can explain the nature of temperature oscillations observed at several locations in PEP-II, the SLAC B-factory

  17. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  18. Development of secondary chamber for tar cracking-improvement of wood pyrolysis performance in pre-vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, S.; Homma, H.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    Energy crisis and global warming, in other words, climate change are critical topics discussed in various parts of the world. Global warming primarily result from too much emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. To mitigate global warming, or climate change and improve electrification in rural areas, wood pyrolysis technology is developed in a laboratory scale, of which gases are directly applicable to the gas engine generator. Our laboratory has developed a prototype of wood pyrolysis plant with a pre-vacuum chamber. However, tar yield was around 40 wt% of feedstock. This research aims to reduce tar yield by secondary tar cracking. For the secondary tar cracking, a secondary pre-vacuum chamber is installed after primary pre-vacuum chamber. Gases generated in the primary pre-vacuum chamber are lead into the secondary chamber that is heated up to 1000 K. This paper reports performance of the secondary chamber for secondary tar cracking in homogeneous mode and heterogeneous mode with char.

  19. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

  20. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, G. D.; Glonti, L. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Malyshev, V. L.; Piskun, A. A.; Potrbenikov, Yu. K.; Rodionov, V. K.; Samsonov, V. A.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Shkarovskiy, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. "Self-centering" spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum.

  1. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, G.D.; Glonti, L.N.; Kekelidze, V.D.; Malyshev, V.L.; Piskun, A.A.; Potrbenikov, Yu.K.; Rodionov, V.K.; Samsonov, V.A.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Shkarovskiy, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. “Self-centering” spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum

  2. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, G.D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Glonti, L.N., E-mail: glonti@sunse.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kekelidze, V.D.; Malyshev, V.L.; Piskun, A.A.; Potrbenikov, Yu.K.; Rodionov, V.K.; Samsonov, V.A.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Shkarovskiy, S.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. “Self-centering” spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum.

  3. LHCb: Design of a Highly Optimised Vacuum Chamber Support for the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Leduc, L; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The beam vacuum chamber in the LHCb experimental area passes through the centre of a large aperture dipole magnet. The vacuum chamber and all its support systems lie in the acceptance of the detector, so must be highly optimised for transparency to particles. As part of the upgrade programme for the LHCb vacuum system, the support system has been re-designed using advanced lightweight materials. In this paper we discuss the physics motivation for the modifications, the criteria for the selection of materials and tests performed to qualify them for the particular environment of a particle physics experiment. We also present the design of the re-optimised support system.

  4. Magnetic and electrical properties of ITER vacuum vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergia, K.; Apostolopoulos, G.; Gjoka, M.; Niarchos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ferritic steel AISI 430 is a candidate material for the lTER vacuum vessel which will be used to limit the ripple in the toroidal magnetic field. The magnetic and electrical properties and their temperature dependence in the temperature range 300 - 900 K of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steels are presented. The temperature variation of the coercive field, remanence and saturation magnetization as well as electrical resistivity and the effect of annealing on these properties is discussed. (authors)

  5. A system for the study of molecular contamination. [experimental vacuum chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, C. F.; Allen, T. H.; Linford, R. M. F.; Richmond, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental vacuum chambers was designed and fabricated to provide a wide range of experimental capability. This work chamber assembly (WCA) was conceived to establish the proof-of-principle of various techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminants and their effects. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation.

  6. Using the method of statistic tests for determining the pressure in the UNC-600 vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiver, A.M.; Mirzoev, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to simulate the process of pumping-out the UNC-600 vacuum chamber. The simulation is carried out by the Monte-Carlo statistic test method. It is shown that the pressure value in every liner of the chamber may be determined from the pressure in the pump branch pipe, determined by the discharge current of this pump. Therefore, it is possible to precise the working pressure in the ion guide of the UNC-600 vacuum chamber [ru

  7. New hermetic sealing material for vacuum brazing of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, S; Wiehl, G; Silze, F

    2016-01-01

    For vacuum brazing applications such as in vacuum interrupter industry Hermetic Sealing Materials (HSM) with low partial pressure are widely used. AgCu28 dominates the hermetic sealing market, as it has a very good wetting behavior on copper and metallized ceramics. Within recent decades wetting on stainless steel has become more and more important. However, today the silver content of HSMs is more in focus than in the past decades, because it has the biggest impact on the material prices. Umicore Technical Materials has developed a new copper based HSM, CuAg40Ga10. The wettability on stainless steel is significantly improved compared to AgCu28 and the total silver content is reduced by almost 44%. In this article the physical properties of the alloy and its brazed joints will be presented compared to AgCu28. (paper)

  8. One half of a prototype titanium vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Designed and constructed in the ISR Department, it could be for general use at intersection regions. The use of titanium instead of stainless steel increases the "transparency" to particles by a factor of about two for the same wall thickness.

  9. Chromium depletion from stainless steels during vacuum annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.F.; Hales, R.

    1977-01-01

    During selective chromium oxidation of stainless steels the changes in chromium concentration at the metal surface and in the metal have an important bearing on the overall oxidation performance. It has been proposed that an analogue of chromium behaviour during selective oxidation is obtained from volatilisation of chromium during high temperature vacuum annealing. In the present report the evaporation of chromium from 316 type of steel, vacuum annealed at 1,000 0 C, has been investigated by means of energy dispersive X-ray analysis and by neutron activation analysis. It was established that chromium loss from austenitic stainless steels is rate controlled by interdiffusion in the alloy. As predicted the chromium concentration at the metal surface decreased with increasing vacuum annealing time. The chromium depletion profile in the metal was in good agreement with the previously derived model apart from an anomalous region near the surface. Here the higher resolution of the neutron activation technique indicated a zone within approximately 2μm of the surface where the chromium concentration decreased more steeply than expected. (orig.) [de

  10. Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-out

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Christian; Henrist, Bernard; Kölemeijer, Wilhelmus; Libera, Bruno; Lutkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.

  11. Strategy for allocating the MSD magnets and vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, M; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Ramberger, S

    2006-01-01

    An analogous strategy as applied for the MSI septum magnets allows an optimisation of the installation of the MSD septa regarding magnet and chamber allocation. Even if the gain in aperture is small, of the order of half a millimetre, it is not negligible and- being essentially for free - should nevertheless be implemented.

  12. Specification for the delivery of special sections made of aluminum alloy for use as vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible extension of the research facility by a large storage-ring facility is presently being planned at DESY. For preliminary engineering tests concerning the dimensions of the vacuum system, there is a need for two extruded special sections made of an aluminum alloy, which are to be fabricated as vacuum chambers in deflecting magnets and in focussing magnets. Conditions of the contract and technical requirements of the special sections are given

  13. Correlation of photon beam motion with vacuum chamber cooling on the NSLS x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Fauchet, A.M.; Zhang, Xiaohao.

    1991-01-01

    The NSLS X-ray ring exhibits a direct correlation between photon beam motion, and distortion of the ring vacuum chamber induced by fluctuations in the cooling system. We have made long term measurements of photon beam vertical position, accelerator vacuum chamber motion, process water temperatures, and angular motions of the magnets around one superperiod of the NSLS x-ray ring. Short term transients in water temperature cause deflection of the ring vacuum chamber which have in turn been shown to induce very small angular rotations of the magnets, on the order of 10 micro-radians. A larger and more difficult to correct effect is the drift in beam position over the course of a fill. This problem has been shown to be related to the thermal gradients that develop across the vacuum chamber which, as a consequence of the configuration of the chamber cooling, depend upon stored current. Orbit simulations based upon the measured rotations are in agreement with the observed beam motions, and reveal that certain patterns of correlated motions of the magnets can produce much larger errors than random motion or concerted motion of all the magnets. During the course of these measurements global orbit feedback was installed, and found to significantly reduce the orbit errors which could not be corrected at their source

  14. Things One Can Learn by Putting a Quadcopter in a Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Eric; Goff, Tori; Williams, Kirk

    2018-05-01

    Quadcopters (also known as "drones") do not fly in vacuum. This is obvious enough that experimenting on one in a vacuum chamber would seem rather uninteresting, but there is one question that may be usefully addressed by such an experiment: the mechanism for yaw control. Quadcopters control yaw (rotation about the vertical axis) by differential rotor speed, and the question of whether those changes in rotor speed create yaw torque via conservation of angular momentum or via atmospheric drag can be addressed by "flying" a quadcopter in a vacuum where there is effectively zero atmospheric drag.

  15. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  16. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10 -4 Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  17. Large area window on vacuum chamber surface for neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kenji; Suzuki, Junichi; Teraoku, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a large area window using a thin aluminum plate on the surface of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments at a pulsed neutron source was investigated. In the prototype investigation for a window with an area of 1m×1.4m and a thickness of 1 mm, the measured pressure dependence of the displacement agreed well with a calculation using a nonlinear strain–stress curve up to the plastic deformation region. In addition, we confirmed the repetition test up to 2000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which is sufficient for the lifetime of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments. Based on these investigations, an actual model of the window to be mounted on the vacuum chamber of the High Resolution Chopper Spectrometer (HRC) at J-PARC was designed. By using a calculated stress distribution on the window, the clamping structure capable of balancing the tension in the window was determined. In a model with a structure identical to the actual window, we confirmed the repetition test over more than 7000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which shows a lifetime long enough for the actual usage of the vacuum chamber on the HRC.

  18. An accurate interference refractometer based on a permanent vacuum chamber : development and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkens, M.J.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new accurate interference refractometer, without pumping device, has been developed. The refractometer is based on a commercially available laser measurement system and uses a prismatic measuring cell, containing a permanent vacuum chamber. Measurements of the refractive index of air can be

  19. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS Booster injector will perform a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B /preceq/ 10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displaced coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction. 6 figs

  20. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the AGS Booster injector that performs a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B ≤10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displace coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction

  1. True and measured outgassing rates of a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaishi, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nakasuga, M. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Funato, Y. [Suzuka National College of Technology, Suzuka, Mie (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A pump down model for a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase is presented. The outgassing equation which predicts the variation of coverage at the wall surface of a vacuum chamber with time is derived. Then the measured and the true outgassing rates are defined. The theoretical measured outgassing rate shows only a very weak dependence for pumping speed. This prediction is opposite to the experimental result that the measured outgassing rate depends significantly on pumping speed. It is discussed that the experimental measured outgassing rate must be described as the product of the effective pumping speed and the measured pressure in the pumped chamber, in which the measured pressure is equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the wall surface described by the equilibrium adsorption isotherm as a function of the shifted surface coverage {theta}-{delta}{theta} by a small coverage {delta}{theta} from the coverage of a pumping point {delta}. (author)

  2. True and measured outgassing rates of a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, K.; Nakasuga, M.; Funato, Y.

    2000-03-01

    A pump down model for a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase is presented. The outgassing equation which predicts the variation of coverage at the wall surface of a vacuum chamber with time is derived. Then the measured and the true outgassing rates are defined. The theoretical measured outgassing rate shows only a very weak dependence for pumping speed. This prediction is opposite to the experimental result that the measured outgassing rate depends significantly on pumping speed. It is discussed that the experimental measured outgassing rate must be described as the product of the effective pumping speed and the measured pressure in the pumped chamber, in which the measured pressure is equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the wall surface described by the equilibrium adsorption isotherm as a function of the shifted surface coverage θ-Δθ by a small coverage Δθ from the coverage of a pumping point Δ. (author)

  3. Semi-automated high-efficiency reflectivity chamber for vacuum UV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, James; Fleming, Brian; Renninger, Nicholas; Egan, Arika

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and theory of operation for a semi-automated reflectivity chamber for ultraviolet optimized optics. A graphical user interface designed in LabVIEW controls the stages, interfaces with the detector system, takes semi-autonomous measurements, and monitors the system in case of error. Samples and an optical photodiode sit on an optics plate mounted to a rotation stage in the middle of the vacuum chamber. The optics plate rotates the samples and diode between an incident and reflected position to measure the absolute reflectivity of the samples at wavelengths limited by the monochromator operational bandpass of 70 nm to 550 nm. A collimating parabolic mirror on a fine steering tip-tilt motor enables beam steering for detector peak-ups. This chamber is designed to take measurements rapidly and with minimal oversight, increasing lab efficiency for high cadence and high accuracy vacuum UV reflectivity measurements.

  4. H2 Equilibrium Pressure with a Neg-Coated Vacuum Chamber as a Function of Temperature and H2 Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating is used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) room-temperature sections to ensure a low residual gas pressure for its properties of distributed pumping, low outgassing and desorption under particle bombardment; and to limit or cure electron cloud build-up due to its low secondary electron emission. In certain regions of the LHC, and in particular close to the beam collimators, the temperature of the vacuum chamber is expected to rise due to energy deposition from particle losses. Hydrogen molecules are pumped by the NEG via dissociation on the surface, sorption at the superficial sites and diffusion into the NEG bulk. In the case of hydrogen, the sorption is thermally reversible, causing the dissociation pressure to increase with NEG temperature and amount of H2 pumped. Measurements were carried out on a stainless steel chamber coated with TiZrV NEG as a function of the H2 concentration and the chamber temperature, to estimate the residual gas pressure in the collimator region...

  5. Development of fast heating electron beam annealing setup for ultra high vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sadhan Chandra; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, R.; Katiyal, Sumant; Shripathi, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the design and development of a simple, electrically low powered and fast heating versatile electron beam annealing setup (up to 1000 °C) working with ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber for annealing thin films and multilayer structures. The important features of the system are constant temperature control in UHV conditions for the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 ºC with sufficient power of 330 W, at constant vacuum during annealing treatment. It takes approximately 6 min to reach 1000 °C from room temperature (∼10 −6 mbar) and 45 min to cool down without any extra cooling. The annealing setup consists of a UHV chamber, sample holder, heating arrangement mounted on suitable UHV electrical feed-through and electronic control and feedback systems to control the temperature within ±1 ºC of set value. The outside of the vacuum chamber is cooled by cold air of 20 °C of air conditioning machine used for the laboratory, so that chamber temperature does not go beyond 50 °C when target temperature is maximum. The probability of surface oxidation or surface contamination during annealing is examined by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of virgin Cu sample annealed at 1000 °C

  6. Development of fast heating electron beam annealing setup for ultra high vacuum chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sadhan Chandra [UGC-DAE Consortium For Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001, MP (India); School of Electronics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Felix Hausdroff Str. 6 (Germany); Majumdar, Abhijit, E-mail: majuabhijit@gmail.com, E-mail: majumdar@uni-greifswald.de; Hippler, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Felix Hausdroff Str. 6 (Germany); Katiyal, Sumant [School of Electronics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Shripathi, T. [UGC-DAE Consortium For Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001, MP (India)

    2014-02-15

    We report the design and development of a simple, electrically low powered and fast heating versatile electron beam annealing setup (up to 1000 °C) working with ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber for annealing thin films and multilayer structures. The important features of the system are constant temperature control in UHV conditions for the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 ºC with sufficient power of 330 W, at constant vacuum during annealing treatment. It takes approximately 6 min to reach 1000 °C from room temperature (∼10{sup −6} mbar) and 45 min to cool down without any extra cooling. The annealing setup consists of a UHV chamber, sample holder, heating arrangement mounted on suitable UHV electrical feed-through and electronic control and feedback systems to control the temperature within ±1 ºC of set value. The outside of the vacuum chamber is cooled by cold air of 20 °C of air conditioning machine used for the laboratory, so that chamber temperature does not go beyond 50 °C when target temperature is maximum. The probability of surface oxidation or surface contamination during annealing is examined by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of virgin Cu sample annealed at 1000 °C.

  7. Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen circulation thermal system for thermo vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, M C A; Nolakha, Dinesh; Saharkar, B S; Kavani, K M; Patel, D R

    2012-01-01

    In a thermo vacuum chamber, attaining and controlling low and high temperatures (-100 Deg. C to +120 Deg. C) is a very important task. This paper describes the development of 'Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen based thermal system'. System specifications, features, open loop auto reversing system, liquid nitrogen flow paths etc. are discussed in this paper. This thermal system consists of solenoid operated cryogenic valves, double embossed thermal plate (shroud), heating elements, temperature sensors and PLC. Bulky items like blowers, heating chambers, liquid nitrogen injection chambers, huge pipe lines and valves were not used. This entire thermal system is very simple to operate and PLC based, fully auto system with auto tuned to given set temperatures. This system requires a very nominal amount of liquid nitrogen (approx. 80 liters / hour) while conducting thermo vacuum tests. This system was integrated to 1.2m dia thermo vacuum chamber, as a part of its augmentation, to conduct extreme temperature cycling tests on passive antenna reflectors of satellites.

  8. An ultra-high-vacuum multiple grating chamber and scan drive with improved grating change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Holly, D.J.; Middleton, F.H.; Wallace, D.J.; Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI; Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI

    1989-01-01

    We describe a new grating chamber and scan drive which has been designed, built, and tested by Physical Sciences Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin for the new high flux, high-resolution spectroscopy branch line of the TOK hybrid wiggler/undulator on the NSLS VUV ring. The chamber will contain spherical gratings to be used in the Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) configuration introduced by Chen and Sette. The grating chamber houses five 180 mm x 35 mm x 30 mm gratings capable of scanning a range of 12 degree (-14 degree to +8 degree with respect to the incoming beam direction) for VUV and soft X-ray diffraction. The gratings can be switched and precisely indexed while under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at any scan angle and are mechanically isolated from the vacuum chamber to prevent inaccuracies due to chamber distortions. The gratings can separately be adjusted for height, yaw, pitch, and roll, with the latter three performed while in vacuo. The scan drive provides a resolution of 0.03 arc sec with linearity over the 12 degree range of ∼1.5 arc sec and absolute reproducibility of 1 arc sec. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. A drift chamber with a new type of straws for operation in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorskiy, N.; Glonti, L.; Gusakov, Yu.; Elsha, V.; Enik, T.; Kakurin, S.; Kekelidze, V.; Kislov, E.; Kolesnikov, A.; Madigozhin, D.; Movchan, S.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Danielsson, H.; Bendotti, J.; Degrange, J.; Dixon, N.; Lichard, P.; Morant, J.; Palladino, V.; Gomez, F. Perez; Ruggiero, G.; Vergain, M.

    2016-07-01

    A 2150×2150 mm2 registration area drift chamber capable of working in vacuum is presented. Thin-wall tubes (straws) of a new type are used in the chamber. A large share of these 9.80 mm diameter drift tubes are made in Dubna from metalized 36 μm Mylar film welded along the generatrix using an ultrasonic welding machine created at JINR. The main features of the chamber and some characteristics of the drift tubes are described. Four such chambers with the X, Y, U, V coordinates each, containing 7168 straws in total, are designed and produced at JINR and CERN. They are installed in the vacuum volume of the NA62 setup in order to study the ultra-rare decay K+ →π+ vv bar and to search for and study rare meson decays. In autumn 2014 the chambers were used for the first time for the data taking in the experimental run of the NA62 at CERN's SPS.

  10. Ultimate pressures achieved in TiZrV sputter-coated vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Ruzinov, V

    2001-01-01

    Two metre long, cylindrical vacuum chambers of diameter ranging from 34 to 100 mm, coated with TiZrV getter films by sputtering, have been baked for about 24 h at temperatures from 120 to 250 degrees C. The ultimate pressures achieved after bakeout were found to correspond to the ratio of the pressure gauge degassing to the effective pumping speed provided by the chamber at the location of the gauge. The results covering a pressure range from 10/sup -11/ Torr down to 10 /sup -13/ Torr are presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  11. He leaks in the CERN LHC beam vacuum chambers operating at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V

    2007-01-01

    The 27 km long large hadron collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, will collide protons beam at 14 TeV in the centre of mass. In the 8 arcs, the superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles of the FODO cells operate with superfluid He at 1.9 K. In the 8 long straight sections, the cold bores of the superconducting magnets are held at 1.9 or 4.5 K. Thus, in the LHC, 75% of the beam tube vacuum chamber is cooled with He. In many areas of the machine, He leaks could appear in the beam tube. At cryogenic temperature, the gas condenses onto the cold bores or beam screens, and interacts with the circulating beam. He leaks creates a He front propagating along the vacuum chambers, which might cause magnet quench. We discuss the consequences of He leaks, the possible means of detections, the strategies to localise them and the methods to measure their size.

  12. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cimino

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials examined of WL irradiation and /or ion sputtering, simulating the SR and ion bombardment expected in the LHC, were investigated. The studied samples exhibited significant modifications, in terms of electron emission, when exposed to the WL spectrum from the BESSY Toroidal Grating Monochromator beam line. Moreover, annealing and ion bombardment also induce substantial changes to the surface thereby indicating that such surfaces would not have a constant electron emission during machine operation. Such characteristics may be an important issue to define the surface properties of the LHC vacuum chamber material and are presented in detail for the various samples analyzed. It should be noted that all the measurements presented here were recorded at room temperature, whereas the majority of the LHC vacuum system will be maintained at temperatures below 20 K. The results cannot therefore be directly applied to these sections of the machine until

  13. Glow discharge processing vs bakeout for aluminum storage ring vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, N.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Palrang, M.T.; Walker, B.G.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on laboratory and prototype scale systems in order to establish the feasibility of argon discharge processing the PEP storage ring aluminum vacuum chambers. Electron-induced desorption rates showed significant reductions following bakeout and/or argon glow discharge treatment (>10 19 ions cm -1 ). Data are presented and discussed in relation to advantages and problems associated with: water removal, argon trapping and subsequent release, electron energy dependence, discharge distribution, and surface plasma chemical effects

  14. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  15. CFD Analysis of Evaporation-Condensation Phenomenon In an Evaporation Chamber of Natural Vacuum Solar Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Ronowikarto, A. D.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Setyawan, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Desalination technologies is one of solutions for water scarcity. With using renewable energy, like solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy, expected will reduce the energy demand. This required study on the modeling and transport parameters determination of natural vacuum solar desalination by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to simulate the model. A three-dimensional case, two-phase model was developed for evaporation-condensation phenomenon in natural vacuum solar desalination. The CFD simulation results were compared with the avalaible experimental data. The simulation results shows inthat there is a phenomenon of evaporation-condensation in an evaporation chamber. From the simulation, the fresh water productivity is 2.21 litre, and from the experimental is 2.1 litre. This study shows there’s an error of magnitude 0.4%. The CFD results also show that, vacuum pressure will degrade the saturation temperature of sea water.

  16. Super heated water generator for baking of vacuum chambers of INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Yadav, D.P.; Sindal, B.K.; Sharma, H.K.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    It is proposed to use superheated water bake out system for in-situ baking of aluminum alloy dipole and straight section chambers of INDUS-2. Heat load calculations have shown that power requirements for an in-situ bake out at 150 degC is 0.64 kW mt - 1 and 3.2 kWmt -l for straight section and dipole chamber respectively (for one baking segment 60 kW. Baking of vacuum chambers by Nichrome flexible heating tapes at 150 degC has lot of practical problems such as non uniform temperature, non accessibility of heaters to inside parts etc. This paper presents various design objectives, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation design parameters including the safety devices in the system in order to achieve a fail safe baking operation ranging almost for 72 hrs. (author)

  17. Measurement of resonance modes causative of beam position monitor signal noise in vacuum chamber of storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Hwang, Ilmoon; Park, Sungju; Kim, Changbum

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the position reading obtained from the beam position monitor (BPM) mounted at the storage ring can be corrupted by the resonance mode. We carried out a three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of vacuum chambers of the storage ring of the Pohang Light Source (PLS) without simplified modeling to measure the frequencies of resonance modes excited in the vacuum chamber. The frequencies of resonance modes obtained by the eigenmode simulation are well matched with the peak frequencies of RF transmission scattering matrix (S 21 ) graph of sector vacuum chamber measured using a network analyzer. It is found that a transverse electric (TE) resonance mode exists in the operation frequency band of BPM and the vertically oriented electric field of TE resonance mode is linked to the BPM position reading noise. Based on this study, we can easily design a vacuum chamber free from the BPM position reading noise caused by the TE resonance mode.

  18. Mimicking Mars: A vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10{sup −6} mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  19. Mimicking Mars: a vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A

    2014-03-01

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10(-6) mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  20. High vacuum test of the dynamic components of the cyclotron dee chamber at the 224 cm variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Bandopadhyay, D.K.; Ghosh, D.K.; Gowariker, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    The 224 cm Variable Energy Cyclotron constructed and commissioned at Calcutta comprises a number of dynamic components in the high vacuum Dee Chamber. The static and dynamic conditions of these components have to be tested for high vacuum worthiness prior to their installation in the Dee Tank. A special set up was fabricated and used for simulating the Dee Chamber conditions and testing the components. A high vacuum of the order of 1 x 10 -5 torr was achieved under both dynamic and static conditions with and without coolant hydraulic pressures. The details of the set up, methods employed for the various tests carried out and the results obtained are described. (auth.)

  1. One of the two end-cap vacuum chambers for the CMS experiment has been completed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This 7.5-metre-long cone-shaped object is the fruit of many years' development and its machining and assembly were performed with the utmost precision. Part of the team involved in the design and production of the end-cap vacuum chamber for CMS, standing behind the completed segment. Picture 02 from left to right : Thierry Tardy (TS/MME), Luigi Leggiero (TS/MME), Patrick Lepeule (AT/VAC), Gérard Faber (ETH Zürich), Stefano Bongiovani (CINEL Project Manager), Giuseppe Foffano (TS/MME) and Marc Thiebert (TS/MME).

  2. An automatic control of the pumping system for the vacuum chamber of the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Kumio; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kohno, Isao

    1979-01-01

    The main pumping system of the 160 cm cyclotron is composed of 32'', 14'', and 6'' oil difusion pumps connected in series and rough pumping system which consists of 1500 l/min rotary pump and 300 m 3 /h roots pump with 650 l/min rotary backing pump. Instead of manual operation an automatic control devise of the pumping system was developed and many valves were replaced with pneumatic ones. In the new control system, pumps and valves are operated automatically, according to the indication of pirani detectors, to evacuate the chamber of the cyclotron up to the pressure of 0.7 - 1.0 x 10 -6 Torr, and also to protect the pumping system against vacuum failure by accidental leakage in the chamber. The graphic handling board of the pumping system is installed on the control panel and each switch is provided with a name card showing its function briefly. (author)

  3. Heavy-ion induced desorption of a TiZrV coated vacuum chamber bombarded with 5 MeV/u Ar8+ beam at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, E.; Malyshev, O. B.; Westerberg, L.; Krasnov, A.; Semenov, A. S.; Leandersson, M.; Zajec, B.; Kollmus, H.; Bellachioma, M. C.; Bender, M.; Kraemer, A.; Reich-Sprenger, H.

    2009-01-01

    TiZrV nonevaporable getter (NEG) coated vacuum chambers is a new vacuum technology which is already used in many particle accelerators worldwide. This coating is also of interest for heavy-ion accelerator vacuum chambers. Heavy-ion desorption yields from an activated as well as a CO saturated NEG coated tube have been measured with 5 MeV/u Ar 8+ beam. The sticking probability of the NEG film was obtained by using the partial pressure ratios on two sides of the NEG coated tube. These ratios were compared to results of modeling of the experimental setup with test particle Monte Carlo and angular coefficient methods. The partial pressures inside the saturated NEG coated tube bombarded with heavy ions were up to 20 times larger than those inside the activated one. However, the partial pressure of methane remained the same. The value of the total desorption yield from the activated NEG coated tube is 2600 molecules/ion. The desorption yields after saturation for CH 4 , H 2 , and CO 2 were found to be very close to the yields measured after the activation, while CO increased by up to a factor of 5. The total desorption yield for the saturated tube is up to 7000 molecules/ion. The large value of the desorption yield of the activated NEG coated tube, an order of magnitude higher than the desorption yield from a stainless steel tube at normal incident angle, could be explained by the grazing incident angle

  4. Measurements of x-ray scattering from accelerator vacuum chamber surfaces, and comparison with an analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Dugan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares measurements and calculations of scattering of photons from technical vacuum chamber surfaces typical of accelerators. Synchrotron radiation generated by a charged particle beam in the accelerator is either absorbed, specularly reflected, or scattered by the vacuum chamber surface. This phenomenon has important implications on the operation of the accelerator. Measurements of photon scattering were made at the BESSY-II synchrotron radiation facility using samples of aluminum vacuum chamber from Cornell electron storage ring (CESR. A description of the analytic model used in the calculation is given, which takes into account the reflectivity of the material, the surface features of the sample, the wavelengths and the incident angles of the photons. The surface properties used in these calculations were obtained from measurements made from an atomic force microscope.

  5. Development of a Methodology for Conducting Hall Thruster EMI Tests in Metal Vacuum Chambers of Arbitrary Shape and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    2000-01-01

    While the closed-drift Hall thruster (CDT) offers significant improvement in performance over conventional chemical rockets and other advanced propulsion systems such as the arcjet, its potential impact on spacecraft communication signals must be carefully assessed before widespread use of this device can take place. To this end, many of the potentially unique issues that are associated with these thrusters center on its plume plasma characteristics and the its interaction with electromagnetic waves. Although a great deal of experiments have been made in characterizing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) potential of these thrusters, the interpretation of the resulting data is difficult because most of these measurements have been made in vacuum chambers with metal walls which reflect radio waves emanating from the thruster. This project developed a means of assessing the impact of metal vacuum chambers of arbitrary size or shape on EMI experiments, thereby allowing for test results to be interpreted properly. Chamber calibration techniques were developed and initially tested at RIAME using their vacuum chamber. Calibration experiments were to have been made at Tank 5 of NASA GRC and the 6 m by 9 m vacuum chamber at the University of Michigan to test the new procedure, however the subcontract to RIAME was cancelled by NASA memorandum on Feb. 26. 1999.

  6. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  7. X-ray induced gas desorption within a prototype LEP vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.M.; Le Normand, F.; Hilleret, N.; Dominichini, G.

    1982-12-01

    The present report is concerned with an experimental simulation of the process of photon induced desorption within an aluminium vacuum chamber of the same basic form as proposed for the LEP accelerator. The objectives in the work can be described in the following three-fold manner: Firstly, to establish the levels of photon induced desorption efficiency for identified gas species. Secondly, to examine the contribution of surface treatments as bakeout and glow discharge cleaning, and to correlate these responses with changes in surface activity induced by beam cleaning. Thirdly, to gain insight into the energy dependence of the desorption process so as to provide a reasonable basis for predicting conditions at the levels of critical energy in excess of 100 keV which are applicable at the full design energy of the LEP accelerator. (orig./HSI)

  8. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, R; Baglin, V

    1999-01-01

    In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR) has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL) spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials ...

  9. Design considerations in the use of stainless steel for vacuum and cryogenic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Geyari, C

    1976-01-01

    The properties making austenitic stainless steel a preferred material for the construction of high vacuum equipment are reviewed. Best results are obtained if attention is paid to the improvement of welding properties, particularly with a view to prevent intercrystalline disintegration. A review of mechanical properties, the effect of cold working and cryogenic temperatures on the strength and magnetic characteristics of stainless steel is given. During material selection for very high vacuum, attention must be paid to the porosity problem. A practical example shows the application of these considerations to the choice of materials for the CERN-ISR intersecting storage rings. (19 refs).

  10. Design considerations in the use of stainless steel for vacuum and cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyari, C.

    1976-01-01

    The properties making austenitic stainless steel a preferred material for the construction of high vacuum equipment are reviewed. Best results are obtained if attention is paid to the improvement of welding properties, particularly with a view to preventing intercrystalline disintegration. A review of mechanical properties, the effect of cold working and cryogenic temperatures on the strength and magnetic characteristics of stainless steel is given. During material selection for very high vacuum, attention must be paid to the porosity problem. A practical example shows the application of these considerations to the choice of materials for the CERN-ISR Intersecting Storage Rings. (author)

  11. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  12. Electroslag welding of rotor steels produced with vacuum-carbon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchin, M.B.; Modzhuk, M.D.; Izvekov, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Metallurgical processes of electroslag welding of rotor steels, melted with vacuum-carbon deoxidation, have been considered. It is established, that during electroslag welding of steels with carbon content 0.20...0.30%, suppression of welding bath boiling and production of dense weld metal with a high impact strength can be ensured at oxygen concentration in soldered on metal not exceeding 0.01% and silicon content 0.06...0.10%

  13. Algorithm for study on the stressed-strained state of thermonuclear device vacuum chambers under dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, A.M.; Litvinov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of dynamic analysis of stressed-strained state of vacuum chambers is vital for large thermonuclear devices during the stall of the plasma-filament apd other tpansitional operation regimes when loading for a chamber are nonstationary. To plot a mathematical model the design of the vacuum chamber is discreted on the basis of the method of final elements. To approximate vacuum shell, a plate triangular element with 3 joint points and 5 parameters in the joint is used. It is obtained due to the unity of the bemded element and the element for the flat problem. To investigate nonstationary oscillations of vacuum chambers discreted on the basis of the method of final elements, it is suggested to use the numeric conversion of the Japlace transformation. On the basis of the algorithm suggested a program of numerical function conversion is developed. Test calculations have shown a good stability of the algorithm when selecting the values of transformation parameter in the range of lower intrinsic system frequencies. The advantage of the above method is in the fact that the time-structure shift function is found instantly in the form of the series for the whole time interval and does not require temporary steps, which bring about large expenses of counting time and error accumulation

  14. Measurement of resonance modes causative of beam position monitor signal noise in vacuum chamber of storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Youngdo; Hwang, Ilmoon; Park, Sungju [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changbum, E-mail: chbkim@postech.ac.k [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-11

    It is known that the position reading obtained from the beam position monitor (BPM) mounted at the storage ring can be corrupted by the resonance mode. We carried out a three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of vacuum chambers of the storage ring of the Pohang Light Source (PLS) without simplified modeling to measure the frequencies of resonance modes excited in the vacuum chamber. The frequencies of resonance modes obtained by the eigenmode simulation are well matched with the peak frequencies of RF transmission scattering matrix (S{sub 21}) graph of sector vacuum chamber measured using a network analyzer. It is found that a transverse electric (TE) resonance mode exists in the operation frequency band of BPM and the vertically oriented electric field of TE resonance mode is linked to the BPM position reading noise. Based on this study, we can easily design a vacuum chamber free from the BPM position reading noise caused by the TE resonance mode.

  15. A full assembly and bakeout have just been successfully completed on the conical ALICE Absorber beam vacuum chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Pictures 01 & 02 : a good example of cooperation: Several of the 70 people involved in the project pose in front of the ALICE Absorber containing the beam pipe. Six CERN departments and six sub-contracting companies have participated in the design, production and testing of this vacuum chamber.

  16. Filling the vacuum chamber of a technological system with homogeneous plasma using a stationary glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metel, A. S.; Grigoriev, S. N.; Melnik, Yu. A.; Panin, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental study of a glow discharge with electrostatic confinement of electrons is carried out in the vacuum chamber volume V ∼ 0.12 m 3 of a technological system 'Bulat-6' in argon pressure range 0.005-5 Pa. The chamber is used as a hollow cathode of the discharge with the inner surface area S ∼ 1.5 m 2 . It is equipped with two feedthroughs, which make it possible to immerse in the discharge plasma interchangeable anodes with surface area S a ranging from ∼0.001 to ∼0.1 m 2 , as well as floating electrodes isolated from both the chamber and the anode. Dependences of the cathode fall U c = 0.4-3 kV on the pressure p at a constant discharge current in the range I = 0.2-2 A proved that aperture of the electron escape out of the electrostatic trap is equal to the sum S o = S a + S f of the anode surface S a and the floating electrode surface S f . The sum S o defines the lower limit p o of the pressure range, in which U c is independent of p. At p o the cathode fall U c grows up dramatically, when the pressure decreases, and the pressure p tends to the limit p ex , which is in fact the discharge extinction pressure. At p ∼ p ex electrons emitted by the cathode and the first generation of fast electrons produced in the cathode sheath spend almost all their energy up to 3 keV on heating the anode and the floating electrode up to 600-800 o C and higher. In this case the gas in the chamber is being ionized by the next generations of electrons produced in the cathode sheath, their energy being one order of magnitude lower. When S a 1/2 S, where m is the electron mass and M is the ion mass, the anode may be additionally heated by plasma electrons accelerated by the anode fall of potential U a up to 0.5 kV.

  17. ABOUT FACTORS INFLUENCING ON ELIMINATION OF HYDROGEN IN CIRCULATING VACUUMATOR OF RUP “BMZ” FOR KILLED AND UNKILLED STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the vacuum degassing process in RH-vacuumator of RUP are experimentally investigated. The profiles of vacuumator pressure, discharge of argon, metal temperatures and others for different melting processes of cord steel assortment are determined.

  18. Assembly of a Vacuum Chamber: A Hands-On Approach to Introduce Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussie`re, Guillaume; Stoodley, Robin; Yajima, Kano; Bagai, Abhimanyu; Popowich, Aleksandra K.; Matthews, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Although vacuum technology is essential to many aspects of modern physical and analytical chemistry, vacuum experiments are rarely the focus of undergraduate laboratories. We describe an experiment that introduces students to vacuum science and mass spectrometry. The students first assemble a vacuum system, including a mass spectrometer. While…

  19. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeheon; Lee, Seongwhan; Yoon, Seyoung; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho; Lee, Donghun; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-01

    TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA) is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm) in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  20. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeheon Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  1. Atom probe, AFM and STM study on vacuum fired stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupnik, A.; Frank, P.; Leisch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Stainless steel is one of the most commonly used structural materials for vacuum equipment. An efficient method to reduce the outgassing rate from stainless steel is a high temperature bakeout in vacuum (vacuum firing). This procedure reduces significantly the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the bulk. For the outgassing process the recombination rate of hydrogen atoms to the molecules plays the determining role and recombination is strongly related to the surface structure and composition. To get more detailed information about the surface morphology and composition AFM, STM and atom probe studies were carried out. Experiments on AISI 304L stainless steel samples show that the surface reconstructs completely during vacuum firing and large atomically flat terraces bounded by bunched steps and facets are formed. The large flat terraces can be assigned to (111) planes. The bunched steps and facets are corresponding in orientation almost to (110) planes and (100) planes. Surface inspection after vacuum firing by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) gives reason for a composition change indicated by a reduction of the chromium signal in relation to the iron and nickel signal. Since the information depth of AES covers several atomic layers not only the top atomic layer of the sample surface is probed. For this reason 3D atom probe was used as well suited tool to investigate the segregation behavior of this alloy with the goal to examine the change in local chemical composition due to the high temperature treatment. As a result of vacuum firing the atom probe experiments show a significant enrichment of nickel at the top surface layer. In the second atomic layer chromium enrichment is detected. After vacuum firing the average composition below the second atomic layer shows certain chromium depletion up to 2 nm in depth. The observed changes in surface chemistry influence recombination and desorption probability from the surface and may contribute to the present

  2. Radial force on the vacuum chamber wall during thermal quench in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovitov-vd@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The radial force balance during a thermal quench in tokamaks is analyzed. As a rule, the duration τ{sub tp} of such events is much shorter than the resistive time τ{sub w} of the vacuum chamber wall. Therefore, the perturbations of the magnetic field B produced by the evolving plasma cannot penetrate the wall, which makes different the magnetic pressures on its inner and outer sides. The goal of this work is the analytical estimation of the resulting integral radial force on the wall. The plasma is considered axially symmetric; for the description of radial forces on the wall, the results of V.D. Shafranov’s classical work [J. Nucl. Energy C 5, 251 (1963)] are used. Developed for tokamaks, the standard equilibrium theory considers three interacting systems: plasma, poloidal field coils, and toroidal field coils. Here, the wall is additionally incorporated with currents driven by ∂B/∂t≠0 accompanying the fast loss of the plasma thermal energy. It is shown that they essentially affect the force redistribution, thereby leading to large loads on the wall. The estimates prove that these loads have to be accounted for in the disruptive scenarios in large tokamaks.

  3. Development of a cooling system and vacuum chamber for the pion tracker for HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Joana [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe; Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    One of the future experiments planned at SIS18 with the HADES spectrometer in GSI Darmstadt envisages the employment of pion beam colliding on LH2 or nuclear target. Due to the fact that secondary pion beam has high momentum spread, since the precise knowledge of pion momentum is mandatory to carry out the planned exclusive measurements, we have to measure the momentum for each individual pion. For this purpose our group is developing a pion beam tracking system, which consists of two silicon detectors. Both detectors are located in the beamline and therefore have to cope the high-intensity secondary beam. Cooling of a silicon detector strongly improves its radiation hardness and performance. It reduces the leakage current and thus the noise, which is important for the detection of MIPs like pions. We have designed and built a complete prototype system of vacuum chamber and detector cooling. With use of the Finite Element Method we simulated the mechanical and thermal properties of the prototype. The proposed poster shows the current status and performance of the cooling system for a test-detector, focusing on the reduction of the leakage current and the noise.

  4. Magnetically Suspended Linear Pulse Motor for Semiconductor Wafer Transfer in Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi; Hiraki, Naoji; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetically suspended linear pulse motor for a semiconductor wafer transfer robot in a vacuum chamber. The motor can drive a wafer transfer arm horizontally without mechanical contact. In the construction of the magnetic suspension system, four pairs of linear magnetic bearings for the lift control are used for the guidance control as well. This approach allows us to make the whole motor compact in size and light in weight. The tested motor consists of a double-sided stator and a transfer arm with a width of 50 mm and a total length of 700 mm. The arm, like a ladder in shape, is designed as the floating element with a tooth width of 4 mm (a tooth pitch of 8 mm). The mover mass is limited to about 1.6 kg by adopting such an arm structure, and the ratio of thrust to mover mass reaches to 3.2 N/kg under a broad air gap (1 mm) between the stator teeth and the mover teeth. The performance testing was carried out with a transfer distance less than 450 mm and a transfer speed less than 560 mm/s. The attitude of the arm was well controlled by the linear magnetic bearings with a combined use, and consequently the repeatability on the positioning of the arm reached to about 2 micron. In addition, the positioning accuracy was improved up to about 30 micron through a compensation of the 128-step wave current which was used for the micro-step drive with a step increment of 62.5 micron.

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of ceramic vacuum chambers for the LHC beam dumping system

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of ceramic vacuum chambers for the LHC beam dumping system. Following a market survey carried out among 22 firms in seven Member States and one firm in the United States, a call for tenders (IT-2765/SL/LHC) was sent on 13 September 2001 to one firm. By the closing date, CERN had received a tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with KYOCERA FINECERAMICS (DE) for the supply of 36 ceramic vacuum chambers for the LHC beam dumping system for a total amount of 681 530 euros (1 013 094 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for six additional vacuum chambers, for an additional amount of 146 768 euros (218 171 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 828 298 euros (1 231 265 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that applying on the closing date of the call for tenders. The firm has indicated the following distribution by cou...

  6. Eddy Current Effect of the BNL-AGS Vacuum Chamber on the Optics of the BNL-AGS Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K. A.; Glenn, J. W.; Gardner, K.

    1999-01-01

    During the acceleration cycle of the AGS synchrotron, eddy currents are generated within the walls of the vacuum chambers of the AGS main magnets. The vacuum chambers have elliptical cross section, are made of inconel material with a wall thickness of 2 mm and are placed within the gap of the combined-function main magnets of the AGS synchrotron. The generation of eddy currents in the walls of the vacuum chambers, creates various magnetic multipoles, which affect the optics of the AGS machine. In this report these magnetic multipoles are calculated for various time interval starting at the acceleration cycle, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is ∼0.1 T, and ending before the beam extraction process, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is almost constant at ∼ 1.1 T. The calculations show that the magnetic multipoles generated by the eddy-currents affect the optics of the AGS synchrotron during the acceleration cycle and in particular at low magnetic fields of the main magnet. Their effect is too weak to affect the optics of the AGS machine during beam extraction at the nominal energies

  7. Conditioning of the vacuum chamber of the Tokamak Novillo; Acondicionamiento de la camara de vacio del Tokamak Novillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia A, R; Lopez C, R; Melendez L, L; Chavez A, E; Colunga S, S; Gaytan G, E

    1992-03-15

    The obtained experimental results of the implementation of two techniques of present time for the conditioning of the internal wall of the chamber of discharges of the Tokamak Novillo are presented, which has been designed, built and put in operation in the Laboratory of Plasma Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). These techniques are: the vacuum baking and the low energy pulsed discharges, which were applied after having reached an initial pressure of the order of 10{sup -7} Torr. with a system of turbomolecular pumping previous preparation of surfaces and vacuum seals. The analysis of residual gases was carried out with a mass spectrometer before and after conditioning. The obtained results show that the vacuum baking it was of great effectiveness to reduce the value of the initial pressure in short time, in more of a magnitude order and the low energy discharges reduced the oxygen at worthless levels with regard to the initial values. (Author)

  8. Features of Pd-Ni-Fe solder system for vacuum brazing of low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzievskij, V.N.; Kurochko, R.S.; Lotsmanov, S.N.; Rymar', V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The brazing solder of the Pd-Ni-Fe alloyed with copper and lithium, in order to decrease the melting point and provide for a better spreading, when soldered in vacuum ensures a uniform strength of soldered joints with the base metal of low-alloyed steels of 34KHNIM-type. The properties of low-alloyed steel joints brazed with the Pd-Ni-Fe-system solder little depend on the changes in the soldering parameters. The soldered joint keeps a homogeneous structure after all the stages of heat treatment (annealing, quenching and tempering)

  9. Tribological reactions of perfluoroalkyl polyether oils with stainless steel under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shigeyuki; Morales, Wilfredo

    1989-01-01

    The reaction between three types of commercial perfluoroalkyl polyether (PFPE) oils and stainless steel 440C was investigated experimentally during sliding under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature. It is found that the tribological reaction of PFPE is mainly affected by the activity of the mechanically formed fresh surfaces of metals rather than the heat generated at the sliding contacts. The fluorides formed on the wear track act as a boundary layer, reducing the friction coefficient.

  10. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutta, R.; Gerstl, S.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2016-05-01

    The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS). In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014)]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  11. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Voutta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS. In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  12. Study of cavity effect in micro-Pirani gauge chamber with improved sensitivity for high vacuum regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohe Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low pressure application of Pirani gauge needs significant improvement of sensitivity and expansion of measureable low pressure limit. However, the performance of Pirani gauge in high vacuum regime remains critical concerns since gaseous thermal conduction with high percentage is essential requirement. In this work, the heat transfer mechanism of micro-Pirani gauge packaged in a non-hermetic chamber was investigated and analyzed compared with the one before wafer-level packaging. The cavity effect, extremely important for the efficient detection of low pressure, was numerically and experimentally analyzed considering the influence of the pressure, the temperature and the effective heat transfer area in micro-Pirani gauge chamber. The thermal conduction model is validated by experiment data of MEMS Pirani gauges with and without capping. It is found that nature gaseous convection in chamber, determined by the Rayleigh number, should be taken into consideration. The experiment and model calculated results show that thermal resistance increases in the molecule regime, and further increases after capping due to the suppression of gaseous convection. The gaseous thermal conduction accounts for an increasing percentage of thermal conduction at low pressure while little changes at high pressure after capping because of the existence of cavity effect improving the sensitivity of cavity-effect-influenced Pirani gauge for high vacuum regime.

  13. SPEAKING IN LIGHT - Jupiter radio signals as deflections of light-emitting electron beams in a vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, K.

    2015-10-01

    Light emitting electron beam generated in a vacuum chamber is used as a medium for visualizing Jupiter's electromagnetic radiation. Dual dipole array antenna is receiving HF radio signals that are next amplified to radiate a strong electromagnetic field capable of influencing the propagation of electron beam in plasma. Installation aims to provide a platform for observing the characteristics of light emitting beam in 3D, as opposed to the experiments with cathode ray tubes in 2-dimensional television screens. Gas giant 'speaking' to us by radio waves bends the light in the tube, allowing us to see and hear the messages of Jupiter - God of light and sky.

  14. The Aperture and Layout of the LHC Extraction Septa and TCDS Diluter with an Enlarged MSDC Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams over the whole energy range, under all realistically possible fault conditions. These include normal operation, failure of machine elements and also abnormal performance of subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. To avoid unnecessary irradiation and even equipment damage, the MSD extraction septa must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams. In order to satisfy this requirement, a modified (enlarged) vacuum chamber design will be used for the limiting MSDC septa. The analysis of the available apertures is presented, with emphasis on the dependence on the local orbit and beam emittance.

  15. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 8 ft. by 15 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2016-01-01

    The 8 ft. by 15 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen distribution manifold for supplying the shroud and other cold surfaces to liquid nitrogen temperatures; a new power supply and distribution system for accurately controlling a quartz IR lamp suite; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; a new test article support system; signal and power feed-throughs; elimination of unnecessary penetrations; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This paper will provide a general overview of the LaRC 8 ft. by 15 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and will illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  16. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 6 ft. by 6 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Mau, Johnny C.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2014-01-01

    The 6 ft. by 6 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen thermal conditioning unit for controlling shroud temperatures from -150degC to +150degC; two horizontal auxiliary cold plates for independent temperature control from -150degC to +200degC; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; signal and power feed-throughs; new pressure gauges; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This presentation will provide a general overview of the LaRC 6 ft. by 6 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  17. Protective coating of inner surface of steel tubes via vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K.; Roos, E.; Lyutovich, A.; Boese, J.; Itskov, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA); Ashurov, Kh.; Mirkarimov, A.; Kazantsev, S.; Kadirov, Kh. [Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Arifov Inst. of Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The Vacuum Arc Deposition (VAD) technique based on sputtering a chosen electrode material and its deposition via plasma allows highly-productive technology for creating a wide class of protecting coatings on complex structures. In this work, VAD was applied as a method for the protection of the inner surface of tubes for power-plant boilers against steam oxidation. For this aim, a source cathode of an alloy with high chromium and nickel content was employed in two different VAD treatment systems: a horizontal vacuum chamber (MPA) and a vertical system where the work-piece of the tubes to be protected served as a vacuum changer (Arifov Institute of Electronics). Surface coating with variation of deposition parameters and layer thickness was performed. Characterisation of coated tubes has shown that the method realised in this work allows attainment of material transfer from the cathode to the inner surface with nearly equal chemical composition. It was demonstrated that the initial martensitic structure of the tubes was kept after the vacuum-arc treatment which can provide for both the high mechanical robustness and the corrosion-resistance of the final material. (orig.)

  18. Vacuum Plasma Spraying W-coated Reduced Activation Structural Steels for Fusion Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are considered as candidate materials for plasma facing materials of the first wall and diverter components in fusion reactor systems because of high sputtering resistance and low tritium retention in a fusion environment. Therefore, it is considered that the joining between W and reduced activation structural steels, and its evaluation, are critical issues for the development of fusion reactors. However, the joining between these materials is a very challenging process because of significant differences in their physical properties, particularly the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). For instance, the CTE of pure W is known to be about 4.3Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1}; however, that of martensitic steels reaches over three times, about 12-14Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1} at room temperature even up to 373K. Nevertheless, several joining techniques have been developed for joining between W and structural steels, such as a vapor deposition method, brazing and diffusion bonding. Meanwhile, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) is supposed to be one of the prospective methods to fabricate a sufficient W layer on the steel substrates because of the coating of a large area with a relatively high fabricating rate. In this study, the VPS method of W powders on reduced activation steels was employed, and its microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. ODS ferritic steels and F82H steel were coated by VPS-W, and the microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. A microstructure analysis revealed that pure W was successfully coated on steel substrates by the VPS process without an intermediate layer, in spite of a mismatch of the CTE between dissimilar materials. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPSW. However, the hardening of VPS-W was lesser than that of bulk W irradiated HFIR at 773K. Substrate materials, ODS ferritic steels, and F82H steel, did not show irradiation hardening

  19. Experimental Investigation of Surface Color Changes in Vacuum Evaporation Process for Gold-like Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the environmental pollution caused by the three wastes during the process of electroplating of gold-like film on stainless steel, in this paper, the "vacuum evaporation and annealing" composite technologies were adopted to evaporate gold-like film in 16 stainless steel 304 substrates, and electronic color cards and color software were also used for analyzing the color and luster of the gold-like film. Experiments shows that the negative pressure, annealing temperature and mass fraction of the double copper alloys have influence on preparation of imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film, the annealing temperature has significant effects on imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film.

  20. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  1. Study on alumina-alumina brazing for application in vacuum chambers of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Kaul, R.; Ganesh, P.; Shiroman, Ram; Tiwari, Pragya; Sridhar, R.; Kukreja, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental study to standardize vacuum brazing process to obtain satisfactory high purity alumina brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. Two different brazing routes, adopted for making alumina-alumina brazed joints, included (i) multi-step Mo-Mn metallization and brazing with BVAg-8 alloy and (ii) advanced single-step active brazing with CuSil-ABA alloy. Brazed alumina specimens, prepared by both the routes, yielded ultra high vacuum compatible, helium leak tight and bakeable joints. Active-brazed specimens exhibited satisfactory strength values in tensile and four-point bend tests. Metallized-brazed specimens, although exhibited relatively lower tensile strength than the targeted value, displayed satisfactory flexural strength in four-point bend test. The results of the study demonstrated that active brazing is the simple and cost effective alternative to conventional metallization route for producing satisfactory brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. (author)

  2. Experimental measurement of magnetic field null in the vacuum chamber of KTM tokamak based on matrix of 2D Hall sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, G.; Chektybayev, B., E-mail: chektybaev@nnc.kz; Sadykov, A.; Skakov, M.; Kupishev, E.

    2016-11-15

    Experimental technique of measurement of magnetic field null region inside of the KTM tokamak vacuum chamber has been developed. Square matrix of 36 2D Hall sensors, which used in the technique, allows carrying out direct measurements of poloidal magnetic field dynamics in the vacuum chamber. To better measuring accuracy, Hall sensor’s matrix was calibrated with commercial Helmholtz coils and in situ measurement of defined magnetic field from poloidal and toroidal coils. Standard KTM Data-Acquisition System has been used to collect data from Hall sensors. Experimental results of measurement of magnetic field null in the vacuum chamber of KTM are shown in the paper. Additionally results of the magnetic field null reconstruction from signals of inductive total flux loops are shown in the paper.

  3. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Liquid Nitrogen System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sammy; Homan, Jonathan; Montz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the “Great Observatories”, scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describes the steps performed in efforts to convert the existing the 60’s era Liquid Nitrogen System from a forced flow (pumped) process to a natural circulation (thermo-siphon) process. In addition, the paper will describe the dramatic conservation of liquid nitrogen to support the long duration thermal vacuum testing. Lastly, describe the simplistic and effective control system which results in zero to minimal human inputs during steady state conditions.

  4. Calculation of Wakefields and Higher Order Modes for the Vacuum Chamber of the ATLAS Experiment for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wanzenberg, R

    2013-01-01

    A design study for a High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) was started to extend the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC study implies also an upgraded configuration of the ATLAS detector with a new beam pipe. The trapped Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and the short range wakefields for the new design of the vacuum chamber are calculated using the computer codes MAFIA and ECHO2D. The short range wakefields are characterized in terms of kick and loss parameters. For the HOMs the frequency the R/Q and the Q-values are given which can directly converted into impedance data. The obtained data are intended to be included into the impedance database of the HL-LHC.

  5. Creep-fatigue behavior of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 5500C in air and vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, T.; Cheng, S.Z.; Asada, Y.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Tachibana, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Following studies on creep-fatigue behaviors of 304 steel at 650 0 C (Asada et al (1980) and Morishita et al (1984), (1985), (1987)), 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was studied on its creep-fatigue behaviors at 550 0 C in air and vacuum of 100 and 0.1 μPa. The present study intends to give a base for an evaluation of the environmental effect through obtaining a pure creep-fatigue behavior of this steel which is free from the environmental effect. In the previous studies on 304 steel, tests were conducted in three kinds of environment of air, 100 and 0.1 μPa vacuum. It seemed to be plausible that the 0.1 μPa vacuum shows the pure creep-fatigue behavior of 304 steel at 650 0 C which is almost completely free from the environment. A creep-fatigue life in 0.1 μPa vacuum is almost one order of magnitude higher than that in air. The 100 μPa vacuum suggested that the environmental effect of air still remains but is so small that a creep-fatigue life in 100 μPa is same to that in 0.1 μPa in some strain wave forms. The present study intends to examine if similar observations are obtained with 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 550 0 C. This paper describes the analysis of the overstress and damages, in addition to a creep-fatigue result. (orig.GL)

  6. Estimating teat canal cross-sectional area to determine the effects of teat-end and mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penry, J F; Upton, J; Mein, G A; Rasmussen, M D; Ohnstad, I; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat-end congestion. The secondary objective was to assess the interactive effects of mouthpiece chamber vacuum with teat-end vacuum and pulsation setting on teat-end congestion. The influence of system vacuum, pulsation settings, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, and teat-end vacuum on teat-end congestion were tested in a 2×2 factorial design. The low-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEL) were 40 kPa system vacuum (Vs) and 400-ms pulsation b-phase. The high-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEH) were 49 kPa Vs and 700-ms b-phase. The low-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBL) was created by venting the liner mouthpiece chamber to atmosphere. In the high-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBH) the mouthpiece chamber was connected to short milk tube vacuum. Eight cows (32 quarters) were used in the experiment conducted during 0400 h milkings. All cows received all treatments over the entire experimental period. Teatcups were removed after 150 s for all treatments to standardize the exposure period. Calculated teat canal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to assess congestion of teat tissue. The main effect of the teat-end treatment was a reduction in CA of 9.9% between TEL and TEH conditions, for both levels of teat-barrel congestion risk. The main effect of the teat-barrel treatment was remarkably similar, with a decrease of 9.7% in CA between TBL and TBH conditions for both levels of teat-end congestion risk. No interaction between treatments was detected, hence the main effects are additive. The most aggressive of the 4 treatment combinations (TEH plus TBH) had a CA estimate 20% smaller than for the most gentle treatment combination (TEL plus TBL). The conditions designed to impair circulation in the teat barrel also had a deleterious effect on circulation at the teat end. This experiment highlights the importance of elevated mouthpiece

  7. Vacuum pipe for e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, C.T.

    1982-10-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of the beryllium vacuum chamber within the Mark II detector at SLAC is described. The Be chamber encloses one interaction point of the PEP circulating ring and is a part of its beam pipe. The Be chamber is captured within the Secondary Vertex Detector (SVD), a drift chamber, which is in turn centered in the Mark II drift chamber. Both ends of the beryllium pipe are brazed to aluminum/stainless transitions for connection to stainless steel bellows. A concentric radiation-screen liner of titanium foil runs the full length of the beryllium pipe

  8. Factors determining the choice of the beam tube material and the vacuum chamber design for a superconducting high energy storage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggus, J.; Edwards, D. Jr.; Halama, H.J.; Herrera, J.

    1979-01-01

    The factors which determine the choice of the material and the basic design for the vacuum chamber of the ISABELLE Colliding Storage Accelerator are reviewed. When the physical, thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of the bulk material, as well as the various surface characteristics, are considered, it appears that a stainless tube covered with a copper sleeve is the best choice for the chambers in the magnet lattice of the rings. Aluminum is probably the most desirable material for those chambers in the experimental straight sections

  9. Robert Hooke, inventor of the vacuum pump and the first altitude chamber (1671).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Viktor

    2006-08-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703), an assistant researcher to Robert Boyle (1627-1691), invented the first functional British air pump. Applying it to scientific research, Hooke operated the world's first hypobaric chamber in 1671, using it for self-experimentation. He recorded the first physiological observations in an artificial altitude-equivalent environment up to 2400 m. Though Hooke's experiment showed some methodological insufficiencies, his imaginative experimental techniques were remarkable for their time and were indicative of the lively intellectual atmosphere of the Royal Society and the significant contributions of Hooke, who was a member. Two centuries passed before the French physiologist Paul Bert (1830-1886) conducted his famous laboratory-supported investigations of high altitude physiology. Bert played a decisive role in the discovery of the causes of decompression sickness; a contribution Hooke could not make due to the technical deficiencies of the 17th century.

  10. Effect of vacuum arc cathode spot distribution on breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Can; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2017-10-01

    A DC circuit breaker performs a key function in breaking an intermediate-frequency (IF) current since breaking a pure IF current is equivalent to breaking a very small DC with a reverse IF current. In this study, it is found that cathode spots show a ring-shaped distribution at 2000 Hz. An arc with an uneven distribution of cathode spots has been simulated. The simulation results show that the distribution of cathode spots significantly affect the microparameter distribution of arc plasma. The current distribution on the anode side differs from that on the cathode side under the total radial electric field. Specifically, the anode current distribution is both uneven and concentrated. The applied axial magnetic field, which cannot reduce the concentrated anode current distribution effectively, might increase the concentration of the anode current. Finally, the uneven distribution of cathode spots reduces the breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber.

  11. The vacuum chamber in the interaction region of particle colliders a historical study and developments implementations in the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, J R; Gamez-Mejias, L

    2004-01-01

    The history of particle colliders begins in the early 60's when an idea previously patented by R. Wideroe in 1953 is constructed. The design of the vacuum chamber in their experimental area became essential as it was the rst physical barrier that the particles to be detected needed to traverse. The interaction of the products of the collisions with the vacuum chamber structural materials, hindered the identification of the significative events. This Thesis analyses the historical evolution of the experimental vacuum chambers and summarizes the technical criteria that are to be fulfilled. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) presently under construction at CERN is the last generation of particle colliders. Four big experiments will be in operation (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) in the LHC with diferent physics objectives. In particular, LHCb will be devoted to the study of CP violation and the design of its vacuum chamber is the scope of this Thesis. Physics simulations with an initial design consisting of a conical ...

  12. Microstructural characterisation of vacuum sintered T42 powder metallurgy high-speed steel after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabadelo, V.; Gimenez, S.; Iturriza, I.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed steel powders (T42 grade) have been uniaxially cold-pressed and vacuum sintered to full density. Subsequently, the material was heat treated following an austenitising + quenching + multitempering route or alternatively austenitising + isothermal annealing. The isothermal annealing route was designed in order to attain a hardness value of ∼50 Rockwell C (HRC) (adequate for structural applications) while the multitempering parameters were selected to obtain this value and also the maximum hardening of the material (∼66 HRC). Microstructural characterisation has been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure consists of a ferrous (martensitic or ferritic) matrix with a distribution of second phase particles corresponding to nanometric and submicrometric secondary carbides precipitated during heat treatment together with primary carbides. The identification of those secondary precipitates (mainly M 3 C, M 6 C and M 23 C 6 carbides) has allowed understanding the microstructural evolution of T42 high-speed steel under different processing conditions

  13. Acetylene Flow Rate as a Crucial Parameter of Vacuum Carburizing Process of Modern Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carburizing is one of the most popular and wide used thermo-chemical treatment methods of surface modification of tool steels. It is a process based on carbon diffusive enrichment of the surface material and is applied for elements that are supposed to present higher hardness and wear resistance sustaining core ductility. Typical elements submitted to carburizing process are gears, shafts, pins and bearing elements. In the last years, more and more popular, especially in highly advanced treatment procedures used in the aerospace industry is vacuum carburizing. It is a process based on chemical treatment of the surface in lower pressure, providing much higher uniformity of carburized layer, lower process cost and much lesser negative impact on environment to compare with conventional carburizing methods, as for example gas carburizing in Endo atmosphere. Unfortunately, aerospace industry requires much more detailed description of the phenomena linked to this process method and the literature background shows lack of tests that could confirm fulfilment of all needed requirements and to understand the process itself in much deeper meaning. In the presented paper, authors focused their research on acetylene flow impact on carburized layer characteristic. This is one of the most crucial parameters concerning homogeneity and uniformity of carburized layer properties. That is why, specific process methodology have been planned based on different acetylene flow values, and the surface layer of the steel gears have been investigated in meaning to impact on any possible change in potential properties of the final product.

  14. Development of a cooling system and vacuum chamber for the pion tracker for HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Tobias [TU Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    One of the future experiments planned at SIS18 with the HADES spectrometer in GSI Darmstadt envisages the employment of a pion beam colliding on a LH2 or a nuclear target. Due to the fact that the secondary pion beam has a high momentum spread, the momentum for each individual pion has to be measured for the planned exclusive measurements. For this purpose our group develops a pion tracking system, consisting of two double sided striped silicon detectors. Both will be located at different positions in the beamline in front of the HADES experiment, therefore they have to deal with high particle rates. Considering the detection of pions (MIPs), the noise of the detectors has to have a very small level. This can be achieved by cooling. For now the final version of the detector chamber and cooling system has been built and is currently tested. The proposed poster shows the current status and performance of the cooling system for the silicon detector, focusing on the reduction of the leakage current and the noise.

  15. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  16. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  17. Demonstration of a chamber for strain mapping of steel specimens under mechanical load in a hydrogen environment by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Matthew; Park, Jun-Sang; Bradley, Peter; Lauria, Damian; Slifka, Andrew; Drexler, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate a hydrogen gas chamber suitable for lattice strain measurements and capturing radiographs of a steel specimen under a mechanical load using high energy synchrotron x-rays. The chamber is suitable for static and cyclic mechanical loading. Experiments were conducted at the 1-ID-E end station of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Diffraction patterns show a high signal-to-noise ratio suitable for lattice strain measurements for the specimen and with minimal scattering and overlap from the gas chamber manufactured from aluminum. In situ radiographs of a specimen in the hydrogen chamber show the ability to track a growing crack and to map the lattice strain around the crack with high spatial and strain resolution.

  18. The assessment of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys for ultra high vacuum applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriguet, P.J.-L.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys may create leak-paths under Ultra High Vacuum conditions. This paper shows the application of the ASTM E45 standard to the assessment of these inclusions and gives some design recommendations. Three case-histories encountered at the Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking and a possible explanation of the phenomenon are also presented. (Author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Austria and Sri Lanka. A new attachment module for secondary target excitation with sample changer and vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Smolek, S.; Streli, C.; Waduge, V.A.; Seneviratne, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new secondary target attachment vacuum chamber was developed, designed and constructed at the Atomic Institute of Vienna Technical University X ray Laboratory and installed at the Atomic Energy Authorities, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The prerequisites were that the new system had to fit physically next to the Wobistrax TXRF spectrometer and to use the same existing X ray tube and an existing uplooking LN2 cooled Si(Li) detector. This new spectrometer replaces a simple secondary target system previously installed. The new system offers a 10 position sample changer integrated in a vacuum chamber. The secondary targets are exchangeable, and Mo, Zr, Ti, Al, KBr and Teflon as Barkla polarizer are available. The system is designed for the emission-transmission method for quantification but can also be used for air filter samples where the thin film model for the quantification is applicable

  20. Calculation of Wakefields and Higher Order Modes for the New Design of the Vacuum Chamber of the ALICE Experiment for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wanzenberg, Rainer; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project was started with the goal to extend the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC study implies also an upgraded dimensions of the ALICE beam pipe. The trapped monopole and dipole Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and the short range wakefields for the new design of the ALICE vacuum chamber were calculated with help of the computer codes MAFIA and ECHO2D. The results of the short range wakefields calculations and the HOMs calculations for the ALICE vacuum chamber with new dimensions are presented in this report. The short range wakefields are presented in terms of longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and also in terms of loss and kick parameters. The frequency, the loss parameter, the R/Q and the Qvalues and also power loss parameters are presented as result of the HOMs calculations and can be converted into impedance values.

  1. Creep-fatigue behavior of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 5500C in air and vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, T.; Cheng, S.Z.; Asada, Y.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Tachibana, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Creep-fatigue tests were conducted with 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 550 0 C under various strain wave forms in air and vacuum of 100 and 0.1 μPa. No indication of environmental effect of air was observed in 0.1 μPa vacuum in which a strain rate effect diminished. However, there observed still a time/rate dependent life reduction in a case of wave forms with a longer tension going time than compression. In addition, there observed an effect of mean stress with this steel. An analysis of stress-strain response showed the response is not affected by the test environment. Internal stresses of back and drag stress were obtained with this steel and an overstress was predicted based on phenomenology. A pure creep-fatigue life reduction was predicted based on a damage model composed of the overstress. The prediction showed a scatter of a factor of two. An effect of air environment was evaluated based on the prediction procedure. The method should be improved to include the effect of mean stress on creep-fatigue behavior of this steel

  2. Development of a pulse magnet of a superconducting storage ring and degradation of the pulse magnetic field by the vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukishima, Chihiro; Nakata, Shuhei

    1993-01-01

    A pulse magnet and its modulator are developed for a superconducting storage ring commissioning at Mitsubishi Electric Corp. The magnet is a window flame type one and uses a ceramic chamber with thin metallic coating for the vacuum shielding. The modulator generates a pulse current of 5.5 kA and the magnetic field is up to 1,300 G. The rise time of the field should be less than 300 ns in order to obtain enough injection efficiency to the storage ring. The shielding effects of the pulse magnetic field by the vacuum chamber are estimated using a three dimensional transient analysis program. The program solves the magnetic charge on the yoke surface of the magnet using the boundary element method and the eddy currents on the vacuum chamber using the network circuits method. The degradation of the magnetic field is measured by the search coil for different coating thickness to check the calculations results, and the results show good agreement with the calculation results. The calculation and the measurement results show the thickness should be less than 10 nm when the pulse width of the field is 600 ns. The dependence of the ununiformity of the coating thickness on the shielding effects is also estimated and the requirements for the uniformity are not so strict when the thickness is less than 10 nm. (author)

  3. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

  4. A New Vacuum Brazing Route for Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Bhatnagar, V. K.; Yedle, K.; Ram Sankar, P.; Sindal, B. K.; Kumar, K. V. A. N. P. S.; Singh, M. K.; Rai, S. K.; Bose, A.; Veerbhadraiah, T.; Ramteke, S.; Sridhar, R.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S. C.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes a new approach for vacuum brazing of niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints for application in superconducting radiofrequency cavities. The study exploited good wettability of titanium-activated silver-base brazing alloy (CuSil-ABA®), along with nickel as a diffusion barrier, to suppress brittle Fe-Nb intermetallic formation, which is well reported during the established vacuum brazing practice using pure copper filler. The brazed specimens displayed no brittle intermetallic layers on any of its interfaces, but instead carried well-distributed intermetallic particles in the ductile matrix. The transition joints displayed room temperature tensile and shear strengths of 122-143 MPa and 80-113 MPa, respectively. The joints not only exhibited required hermeticity (helium leak rate high vacuum but also withstood twelve hour degassing heat treatment at 873 K (suppresses Q-disease in niobium cavities), without any noticeable degradation in the microstructure and the hermeticity. The joints retained their leak tightness even after undergoing ten thermal cycles between the room temperature and the liquid nitrogen temperature, thereby establishing their ability to withstand service-induced low cycle fatigue conditions. The study proposes a new lower temperature brazing route to form niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints, with improved microstructural characteristics and acceptable hermeticity and mechanical properties.

  5. Effect of vacuum oxy-nitrocarburizing on the microstructure of tool steels: an experimental and modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermochemical treatments of tool steels improve the performance of the components with respect to surface hardness, wear and tribological performance as well as corrosion resistance. Compared to the conventional gas ferritic nitrocarburizing process, the original vacuum oxy-nitrocarburizing is a time-, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly gas process. Because of the oxidizing nature of the gas atmosphere, there is no need to perform subsequent post-oxidation.In this study, a vacuum oxynitrocarburizing process was carried out onto four tool steels (AISI H10, H11, H21 and D2 at 570 °C, after hardening and single tempering. The structural analysis of the compound and diffusion layers was performed by optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES methods. A largely monophase ε- layer is formed with a carbon accumulation at the substrate adjacent area. The overlaying oxides adjacent to the ε-carbonitride phase contained Fe3O4 (magnetite as a main constituent. A thermodynamic modelling approach was also performed to understand and optimize the process. The “Equilib module” of FactSage software which uses Gibbs energy minimization method, was used to estimate the possible products during vacuum oxynitrocarburising process.

  6. Lifetime of Manet steel in load-cycling tests in vacuum at 20 and 550deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmaier, H.; Schmitz, W.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue tests in vacuum were carried out on the Manet heat of DIN 1.4914 martensitic steel (X13Cr10.7Ni0.85Mo0.75V0.22) in push-pull type, stress-controlled experiments at room temperature and 823 K. The fatigue life was determined as a function of stress amplitude, mean stress, frequency and hold time. At 823 K creep has a strong influence on the life time, particularly at low frequencies and long hold times in tension. The results are phenomenologically described by a simple linear damage summation approach. Even at room temperature the life time of specimens tested in vacuum is about an order of magnitude higher than of those tested in air. This stresses the importance of providing the correct test environment in collecting fatigue data for the design of fusion devices. (orig./MM)

  7. Structure and properties of steel case-hardened by non-vacuum electron-beam cladding of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinskaya, A. A.; Lozhkina, E. A.; Bardin, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    At the present time, the actual problem of materials science is the increase in the steels performance characteristics. In the paper some mechanical properties of the case-hardened materials received by non-vacuum electron-beam cladding of carbon fibers are determined. The depth of the hardened layers varies from 1.5 to 3 mm. The impact strength of the samples exceeds 50 J/cm2. The wear resistance of the coatings obtained exceeds the properties of steel 20 after cementation and quenching with low tempering. The results of a study of the microhardness of the resulting layers and the microstructure are also given. The hardness of the surface layers exceeds 5700 MPa.

  8. Effect of vacuum arc melting/casting parameters on shrinkage cavity/piping of austenitic stainless steel ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, J.; Feroz, M.; Sarwar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage cavity/piping at the end of the solidified ingot of steels is one of the most common casting problem in 316L austenitic stainless steel ingot, when consumable electrode is melted and cast in a water-cooled copper mould by vacuum arc re-melting furnace. In present study an effort has been made to reduce the size of shrinkage cavity/ piping by establishing the optimum value of hot topping process parameters at the end of the melting process. It is concluded that the shrinkage cavity/piping at the top of the solidified ingot can be reduced to minimum by adjusting the process parameters particularly the melting current density. (author)

  9. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  10. Cold-rolled sheets production of stainless martensite-ageing steel smelted by vacuum arc and electroslag techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, A A; Grishkov, A I; Suslin, A P; Nesterenko, A A; Lola, V N [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    In cooperation with a number of metallurgical works the production of a high strength sheet stainless maraging steel EHP678 (000KH11N10M2T) has been tested by rolling cylindrical ingots of vacuum arc smelting at the blooming (the mass of rough ingots was 5.1 to 6.0 t, that of cleaned ingots - 3.8 to 5.1 t) or rectangular ingots of electroslag smelting (13 t) at the slabbing. The recommended regimes of heating and deformation are much similar to those used for the steel-KH18N10T. The output of valid cold-rolled sheets proved to be rather low (0.24 t/t for the vacuum arc smelting and 0.30 t/t for the electroslag smelting) mainly due to the losses on cleaning and a considerable portion of wrong-size slabs. The data are presented on the steel-EHP678 properties after various heat treatments. For the production of wide cold-rolled sheets of the steel EHP678 it is recommended to use steelmaking procedure with electroslag smelting including open-hearth melting in arc furnaces, rolling of ingots at the slabbing with heating up to 1260-1280 deg C (hold-up of 4.5 to 5 hrs); electroslag smelting for rectangular section slabs, rolling of ingots of electroslag smelting at the slabbing with their heating up to 1250 deg C (hold-up of 5.5 to 6 hrs), rolling at the 1680-type mill with heating up to 1250-1260 deg C (hold-up of 4 to 4.5 hrs ensuring the rolling temperature after a rough group not below 1100 deg C), quenching of hot-rolled sheets heating up to 920-940 deg C (hold-up of 3 to 3.5 min/mm), shot peening of sheets for descaling (provided the respective equipment is available) with a subsequent short-time pickling in an acid solution and cold rolling with a summary deformation of 35 to 45 %. The steelmaking with the electroslag smelting is much more profitable as regards to the fine technology of number of the main procedures, convenient cooperation of the works and a considerably greater output of the final products out of one ton of the steel produced.

  11. Vacuum brazing of OFE Copper-316L stainless steel transition joints without electroplating stainless steel part for application in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazed transition Joints between OFE copper and type 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS) find extensive applications in particle accelerators all over the world. In contrast to excellent wettability of OFE copper, austenitic SS is well known for its poor wettability for BVAg-8 ( 72 Ag/ 28 Cu; melting point: 1052 K) braze filler metal (BFM). High surface wettability is believed to be necessary to drag molten BFM into the capillary gap between mating metallic surfaces. Therefore, the widely accepted practice for vacuum brazing of such transition joints involves electroplating of SS parts with nickel or copper to enhance its wettability. A recently concluded in-house study, involving Nb to Ni-plated 316L SS brazing, has demonstrated that satisfactory ingress of BFM into a capillary joint between two dissimilar metals is possible if the poor wettability of one of the mating surfaces is compensated by good wettability of its counterpart. In the light of these observations, the present study was undertaken to explicitly evaluate the requirement of electroplating the SS part for establishment of sound OFE copper-316L SS brazed joints suitable for service in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) of particle accelerators

  12. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Ferry, R.J.; Niemann, R.C.; Roop, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 degrees C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Ultra high vacuum fracture and transfer device for AES analysis of irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urie, M.W.; Panayotou, N.F.; Robinson, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum fracture and transfer device for analysis of irradiated and non-irradiated SS 316 fuel cladding is described. Mechanical property tests used to study the behavior of cladding during reactor transient over-power conditions are reported. The stress vs temperature curves show minimal differences between unirradiated cladding and unfueled cladding. The fueled cladding fails at a lower temperature. All fueled specimens failed in an intergranular mode

  14. Hydrogen permeation measurement of the reduced activation ferritic steel F82H by the vacuum thermo-balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hajime; Enoeda, Mikio; Abe, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Hydrogen permeation fluxes of the reduced activation ferritic steel F82H were quantitatively measured by a newly proposed method, vacuum thermo-balance method, for a precise estimation of tritium leakage in a fusion reactor. We prepared sample capsules made of F82H, which enclosed hydrogen gas. The hydrogen in the capsules permeated through the capsule wall, and subsequently desorbed from the capsule surface during isothermal heating. The vacuum thermo-balance method allows simultaneous measurement of the hydrogen permeation flux by two independent methods, namely, the net weight reduction of the sample capsule and exhaust gas analysis. Thus the simultaneous measurements by two independent methods increase the reliability of the permeability measurement. When the gas pressure of enclosed hydrogen was 0.8 atm at the sample temperature of 673 K, the hydrogen permeation flux of F82H obtained by the net weight reduction and the exhaust gas analysis was 0.75x10 18 (H 2 /m 2 s) and 2.2x10 18 (H 2 /m 2 s), respectively. The ratio of the hydrogen permeation fluxes obtained by the net weight reduction to that measured by the exhaust gas analysis was in the range from 1/4 to 1/1 in this experiment. The temperature dependence of the estimated permeation flux was similar in both methods. Taking the uncertainties of both measurements into consideration, both results are supposed to be consistent. The enhancement of hydrogen permeation flux was observed from the sample of which outer surface was mechanically polished. Through the present experiments, it has been demonstrated that the vacuum thermo-balance method is effective for the measurement of hydrogen permeation rate of F82H. (author)

  15. Metal release in a stainless steel pulsed electric field (PEF) system Part II. The treatment of orange juice; related to legislation and treatment chamber lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Morren, J.; Berg, H.E.; Haan, S.W.H.de

    2005-01-01

    In the last decennia, there is an increasing interest in pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment. The product is often treated in a continuous flow treatment chamber with stainless steel electrodes and exposed to short pulsed electric fields, typically 2-4 kV mm-1 during 1-10 μs. Due to direct contact

  16. Design and fabrication of the vacuum systems for TPS pulsed septum magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Yang, C. S.; Chen, C. S.; Lin, F. Y.; Chen, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Three in-air pulsed septum magnets were developed to inject and extract electron beams for the 3 GeV synchrotron facility, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The vacuum chamber is a novel combined aluminium-stainless steel design, using a bimetallic flange to connect the two material types. To evaluate the vacuum performances of these vacuum chambers, we set up a test bench at which we simultaneously measure the rates of thermal outgassing of the aluminium chamber and the septum tube with a throughput method. The test result indicates that the rate q72 of thermal outgassing measured after 1 day from baking at 150 °C was 1×10-13 mbar L s-1 cm-2. The magnetic leakage measurements show the combination of conductor slitting, magnetic shielding and the aluminium vacuum chamber reduce the peak value of the leakage field integral to ~10 G cm along the trajectory of the stored beam.

  17. Investigation of fretting corrosion of vacuum-chrome-plated vt3-1 titanium alloy in pair with unprotected vt3-1 alloy and 40khnma steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkh, I.L.; Koltunova, L.N.; Vejtsman, M.G.; Birman, Ya.N.; Skosarev, A.V.; Kogan, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The character of destruction of contacting surfaces in the process of fretting corrosion of titanium alloy VT3-1 chromized in vacuum in pair with unprotected alloy VT3-1 and steel 40KhNMA has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electronography, and recording the surface profile. The specific load was 200 kg/cm 2 , vibration amplitude 50 mkm and frequency 500 Hz. It has been established that pairs unprotected with coating are subjected to intensive fretting corrosion especially when they are made of titanium alloy. For the pair chromized alloy VT3-1 - unprotected alloy VT3-1 no destruction of a chromized surface is observed. Vacuum chromium coating in the pair with steel 40KhNMA reveals similar properties as in pair with a titanium alloy. The surface of a steel sample is destroyed because of fretting corrosion, though the intensity of corrosion is lower than in the case of unprotected pairs. Vacuum chromium coating is recommended for protection of titanium alloy VT3-1 from fretting corrosion in pair with steel 40KhNMA or an alloy VT3-1 especially in those cases when various organic coatings are unsuitable

  18. Ultra high vacuum systems for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to perform controlled, stable, and reproducible experiments, several research areas today require very low pressures. Maybe the most important example is the research that is performed in storage rings and accelerators where the lifetime and stability of particle beams depends critically on the vacuum conditions. Although the vacuum requirements ultimately depend on the kind of experiments that is performed, the studies of more and more rare and exotic species in storage rings and accelerators today pushes the demands on the vacuum conditions towards lower and lower pressures. The final pressure obtained in the vacuum system can often be the key factor for the outcome of an experiment. Pioneering work in vacuum technology has therefore often been performed at storage rings and accelerator facilities around the world. In order to reach pressures in the low UHV regime and lower (below 10 -11 mbar), several aspects have to be considered which implies choosing the proper materials, pumps and vacuum gauges. In the absence of gases inleaking from the outside, the rate of gas entering a vacuum system is determined by the release of molecules adsorbed on the surfaces and the outgassing from the bulk of the vacuum chamber walls. This means that the choice of material and, equally important, the pre treatment of the material, must be such that these rates are minimised. Today the most widely used material for vacuum applications are stainless steel. Besides its many mechanical advantages, it is resistant to corrosion and oxidation. If treated correctly the major gas source in a stainless steel chamber is hydrogen outgassing from the chamber walls. The hydrogen outgassing can be decreased by vacuum firing at 950 deg. C under vacuum. In addition to choosing the right materials the choice of vacuum pumps is important for the final pressure. Since no vacuum pump is capable of taking care of all kinds of gases found in the rest gas at pressures below 10 -11

  19. Microstructure and Interfacial Reactions During Vacuum Brazing of Stainless Steel to Titanium Using Ag-28 pct Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laik, A.; Shirzadi, A. A.; Sharma, G.; Tewari, R.; Jayakumar, T.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and interfacial reactions during vacuum brazing of grade-2 Ti and 304L-type stainless steel (SS) using eutectic alloy Ag-28 wt pct Cu were investigated. A thin Ni-depleted zone of -Fe(Cr, Ni) solid solution formed on the SS-side of the braze zone (BZ). Cu from the braze alloy, in combination with the dissolved Fe and Ti from the base materials, formed a layer of ternary compound , adjacent to Ti in the BZ. In addition, four binary intermetallic compounds, CuTi, CuTi, CuTi and CuTi formed as parallel contiguous layers in the BZ. The unreacted Ag solidified as islands within the layers of CuTi and CuTi. Formation of an amorphous phase at certain locations in the BZ could be revealed. The -Ti(Cu) layer, formed due to diffusion of Cu into Ti-based material, transformed to an -Ti + CuTi eutectoid with lamellar morphology. Tensile test showed that the brazed joints had strength of 112 MPa and failed at the BZ. The possible sequence of events that led to the final microstructure and the mode of failure of these joints were delineated.

  20. Fatigue-crack propagation behavior of steels in vacuum, and implications for ASME Section 11 crack growth analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1985-08-01

    Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the analysis of structures for which cracks or crack-like flaws have been discovered during inservice inspection. The Code provides rules for the analysis of both surface flaws as well as flaws that are embedded within the wall of the pressure vessel. In the case of surface flaws, the Code provides fatigue crack growth rate relationships for typical nuclear pressure vessel steels (e.g., ASTM A508-2 and A533-B) cycled in water environments typical of those in light-water reactors (LWR). However, for the case of embedded cracks, the Code provides crack growth relationships based on results from specimens that were cycled in an elevated temperature air environment. Although these latter relationships are often referred to as applying to ''inert'' environments, the results of this paper will show that an elevated temperature air environment is anything but inert, and that use of such relationships can result in overly pessimistic estimates of fatigue-crack growth lifetimes of embedded cracks. The reason, of course, is that embedded cracks grow in an environment that is probably much closer to a vacuum than an air environment

  1. Oligo-cyclic damage and behaviour of a 304 L austenitic stainless steel according to environment (vacuum, air, PWR primary water) at 300 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baglion, L.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, for nuclear power plants licensing or operating life extensions, various safety authorities require the consideration of the primary water environment effect on the fatigue life of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) components. Thus, this work focused on the study of low cycle fatigue damage kinetics and mechanisms, of a type 304L austenitic stainless steel. Several parameters effects such as temperature, strain rate or strain amplitude were investigated in air as in PWR water. Thanks to targeted in-vacuum tests, the intrinsic influence of these parameters and environments on the fatigue behaviour of the material was studied. It appears that compared with vacuum, air is already an active environment which is responsible for a strong decrease in fatigue lifetime of this steel, especially at 300 C and low strain amplitude. The PWR water coolant environment is more active than air and leads to increased damage kinetics, without any modifications of the initiation sites or propagation modes. Moreover, the decreased fatigue life in PWR water is essentially attributed to an enhancement of both initiation and micropropagation of 'short cracks'. Finally, the deleterious influence of low strain rates on the 304L austenitic stainless steel fatigue lifetime was observed in PWR water environment, in air and also in vacuum without any environmental effects. This intrinsic strain rate effect is attributed to the occurrence of the Dynamic Strain Aging phenomenon which is responsible for a change in deformation modes and for an enhancement of cracks initiation. (author)

  2. Diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type produced on steel during vacuum titanizing process combined with the electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Krolikowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion carbide layers produced on steel surface by means of vacuum titanizing process have been studied. A new technological process combining a vacuum titanizing with an electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy has been proposed to increase of corrosion resistance of carbide layers. The effect of preliminary electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy on the NC10 steel surface on the titanized layer structure and its corrosion resistance has ben investigated. As a result, diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type on NC10 steel surface have been obtained. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on NC10 steel precovered with an electrolytic Ni-Mo alloy coating (70%Ni+30%Mo) revealed a presence of titanium carbide TiC, NiTi, MoTi and trace quantity of austenite. The image of the TiC-Ni-Mo complex layer on NC10 steel surface obtained by means of joined SEM+TEM method and diagrams of elements distribution in the layer diffusion zone have been shown. Concentration of depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the joined EDS+TEM method are shown. Concentration depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the X r ay microanalysis and microhardness of the layer are shown. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on the NC10 steel, without Ni-Mo alloy layer, revealed only a substantial presence of titanium carbide TiC. For corrosion resistance tests the steel samples with various diffusion layers and without layers were used: (i) the TiC-Ni-Mo titanized complex layers on NC10 steel, (ii) the TiC titanized carbide layers on the NC10 steel, (iii) the NC10 steel without layers. Corrosion measurements of sample under test have been performed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance tests. It has been found that the corrosion resistance of titanized steel samples with the TiC and TiC-Ni-Mo layers is higher than for the steel

  3. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  4. Autoradiographic investigation of the removal of non-metallic inclusions in connection with the steel remelting process in vacuum furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaski, H.; Siewierski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled radioactive non-metallic inclusions in steel were obtained through deoxidation of steel with an activated aluminium alloy containing 1% rare earths. Quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions in the steel were determined by applying autoradiography to the longitudinal and cross sections of the steel slabs. After remelting in an electronic furnace the distribution of non-metallic inclusions was determined by autoradiography of the lateral surfaces and the cross section of the slabs. It was found that 50 - 70% of the inclusions could be removed. The results obtained from autoradiographic investigation allow the exploration of the mechanism of the removal of inclusions. (author)

  5. The vacuum system for the PEP II high energy ring straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Daly, E.; Heifets, S.A.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.; Reuter, E.; Seeman, J.T.; Belser, F.C.; Berg, J.; Holdener, F.R.; Kerns, J.A.; McDaniel, M.R.; Stoeffl, W.

    1995-01-01

    The six straight sections of the PEP II High Energy Ring (HER) serve various functions: lattice tuning, beam injection and abort, providing space for rf cavities, longitudinal and transverse feedback, beam diagnostics and the interaction point. A stainless steel vacuum system has been designed; prototypes are currently being built. Cooling is required due to radiation coming from the last arc dipole and resistive losses in the vacuum chamber. Although the nominal beam current of the HER is 1 A the vacuum system is designed for 3 A to provide margin and an upgrade path. 5 refs., 7 figs

  6. The vacuum interlock system for the CELSIUS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, K.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum interlock system has been designed and built for the CELSIUS storage ring. The ultrahigh-vacuum system of CELSIUS has a design pressure of 10 -11 mbar. This is achieved by using vacuum-fired stainless-steel chambers, baking the whole ring to 300degC and running some 50 sputter ion and titanium sublimation pumps. The turbopumps, combined with roughing pumps, are used during the pump-down and the bake-out. The pressure is monitored by Penning vacuum gauges. There is a number of programmable pressure thresholds set to trigger various events (like closing the sector valves, disabling the bake-out, etc.). The interlock system is based on the Mitsubishi programmable logic controller (PLC). An IBM PC is used as an operator's console. The operation and performance of the system is described. On the basis of present experience an upgrading of the system is suggested. (orig.)

  7. MODEL OF HYDRODYNAMIC MIXING OF CARBONIC POWDERS IN VACUUMATOR, USED IN STEEL-MAKING OF RUP “BMZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the mixing and dissolving process of carbonic powder in a system '"vacuumator-bowl” under influence of circulating argon is offered. The spatial distribution of hydrodynamic currents at mixing of carbonic powder, received on the basis of computer calculations is presented. The character of distribution of hydrodynamic speeds of melt (circulating currents in industrial bowl and vacuumator for different time slots of mixing is determined. 

  8. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  9. Gases vacuum dedusting and cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey А. Burov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Represented are the results of operating the ladle degassing vacuum plant (productivity: 120 tons of liquid steel with various dust collectors. The process gases’ cooling and dedusting, obtained in the closed loop buran study, provides opportunity to install a bag filter after that closed loop and its efficient use. Proven is the effectiveness of the cylindrical cyclone replacement with a multichannel (buran dust collector, based on a system of closed-loop (return coupling serially connected curved ducts, where the dusty gas flow rotation axis is vertically positioned. The system of closed-loop serially connected curvilinear channels creates preconditions for the emergence of a negative feedback at the curvilinear gas flow containing transit and circulating flows. These conditions are embodied with circulating flows connecting the in- and outputs of the whole system each channel. The transit flow multiple continuous filtration through the circulating dust layers leads to the formation and accumulation of particles aggregates in the collection chamber. The validity of such a dusty flow control mechanism is confirmed by experimental data obtained in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, replacing one of the two buran’s forevacuum pumps assemblies with the necessary number of curved channels (closed loop is estimated in a promising method.

  10. Shiva and Argus target diagnostics vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Mayo, S.E.; Campbell, D.; Holeman, D.

    1978-09-01

    The normal operation of LLL's Argus and Shiva laser irradiation facilities demand a main vacuum system for the target chamber and a separate local vacuum system for each of the larger appendage dianostics. This paper will describe the Argus and Shiva main vacuum systems, their respective auxiliary vacuum systems and the individual diagnostics with their respective special vacuum requirements and subsequent vacuum systems. Our latest approach to automatic computer-controlled vacuum systems will be presented

  11. ANSYS有限元法在测长绝热真空腔二维热分析中的应用%Two-dimentional Thermal Analysis of Adiabatic Vacuum Chamber with ANSYS Finite Element Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽峰; 罗志勇; 徐爱华

    2012-01-01

    According to the difficulties of measuring temperature distribution in the adiabatic vacuum chamber, the method of combing ANSYS finite element simulation with experimental study is proposed. ANSYS finite element modeling, parameter identification, meshing, applying loads, and the solution process are described. Simulation results show that changes in ambient temperature 1℃ , heat insulation vacuum chamber temperature will change 0. 085 ℃, and verify the simulation results of the experiments. Test results show that use of the simulation can be accurate and reliable analysis of insulation vacuum chamber temperature, and improve test efficiency and reduce experimental costs.%针对测长绝热真空腔内温度场测量困难的特点,提出应用ANSYS有限元仿真与实验研究相结合的方法进行二维热分析.详细介绍了真空腔的ANSYS有限元建模、参数确定、网格划分、施加载荷和求解过程.仿真结果表明外界环境温度变化1℃,绝热真空腔内温度将变化0.085℃.对仿真结果进行了实验验证,实验结果证明利用该仿真技术可准确、可靠地分析绝热真空腔内的温度场,并且提高实验效率的同时降低了实验成本.

  12. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties in selecting steels for the HYLIFE-II chamber to successful waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Cabellos, O.; Reyes, S.

    2005-01-01

    We perform the waste management assessment of the different types of steels proposed as structural material for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) HYLIFE-II concept. Both recycling options, hands-on (HoR) and remote (RR), are unacceptable. Regarding shallow land burial (SLB), 304SS has a very good performance, and both Cr-W ferritic steels (FS) and oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FS are very likely to be acceptable. The only two impurity elements that question the possibility of obtaining reduced activation (RA) steels for SLB are niobium and molybdenum. The effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on SLB assessments is proved to be important. The necessary improvement of some tungsten and niobium cross-sections is justified

  13. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  14. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chun; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10-8 Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  15. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chinchun@nsrrc.org.tw; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10{sup −8} Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  16. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  17. Physical Modelling Of The Steel Flow In RH Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieprzyca J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vacuum steel degassing using RH methods depends on many factors. One of the most important are hydrodynamic processes occurring in the ladle and vacuum chamber. It is always hard and expensive to determine the flow character and the way of steel mixing in industrial unit; thus in this case, methods of physical modelling are applied. The article presents the results of research carried out on the water physical model of RH apparatus concerning the influence of the flux value of inert gas introduced through the suck legs on hydrodynamic conditions of the process. Results of the research have visualization character and are presented graphically as a RTD curves. The main aim of such research is to optimize the industrial vacuum steel degassing process by means of RH method.

  18. Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Kenji; Satou, Osamu; Ootsuka, Michio; Abe, Tetsuya; Hara, Shigemitsu; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Enoeda, Mikio.

    1997-01-01

    Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for the blanket of fusion device were investigated. A test chamber was constructed by welding F82H ferritic steel plates. The inner surface of the chamber was buffed and electropolished. The test chamber was degassed by the prebaking at temperature of 350degC for 20 h in vacuum. Then outgassing rates of the test chamber were measured by the throughput method as a function of pumping time for the cases that the test chamber was baked and not baked. The typical outgassing rate after baking at 250degC for 24 h was 3 x 10 -9 Pa·ms -1 and it seems that this value is sufficiently small to produce pressures at least as low as 10 -9 Pa in the vacuum chamber made of F82H ferritic steel. In the pump-down of the test chamber without baking after exposure to air, the outgassing rate decreases with pumping time and reached 1 x 10 -7 Pa·ms -1 at t = 10 5 s. The activation energy of hydrogen in bulk diffusion in the F82H ferritic steel was measured and found to be 7 kcal/mol. (author)

  19. Variation of the poloidal field during a disruption and consequences on the vacuum chamber, the poloidal system and the toroidal magnet (Tore II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatineau, F.; Leloup, C.; Pariente, M.

    1977-12-01

    The currents induced into the vacuum vessel and into the poloidal field coils and the overvoltages on the generators during a plasma current disruption are calculated. The subsequent applied mechanical forces and the poloidal field variations at the toroidal field conductor are deduced. The current decrease rate considered, during a disruption, ranges from d Ip/dt=0.810 9 A/s to 0.410 11 A/s [fr

  20. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  1. Modification of vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten coating on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ozawa, Kazumi; Morisada, Yoshiaki; Noh, Sanghoon; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied on vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W to improve its low thermal conductivity and weakness due to high porosity. • FSP can achieve significant improvement both in mechanical and thermal properties of VPS-W coating. • It was indicated that the double pass FSP at 600 rpm/50 mm/min/2 ton on VPS-W show the most dense microstructure and hardest mechanical property. • Hardness test over FSPed VPS-W layer revealed that the hardness of W becomes higher than that of bulk W. • The thermal conductivity of double pass FSPed VPS-W was about 80% of bulk W at 200 °C, and it becomes equivalent to that of bulk W over 800 °C. - Abstract: Tungsten (W) is the primary candidate material as a plasma facing material in fusion devices, as for its high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity and low sputtering rate, and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique is preferred as it is applicable for large area without brittle interlayer, but the thermal conductivity of W layer is very poor, and easy to detach, mainly caused by its porous structure. W Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied on VPS-W to improve these poor properties, and it was suggested that FSP can contribute to significant improvement in both mechanical and thermal properties of the VPS-W coating.

  2. Vacuum leak detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  3. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  4. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  5. Surface quality and microstructure of low-vacuum sintered orthodontic bracket 17-4 PH stainless steel fabricated by MIM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, Bambang; Suharno, Lingga Pradinda; Saputro, Hantoro Restucondro; Irawan, Bambang; Prasetyadi, Tjokro; Ferdian, Deni; Supriyadi, Sugeng

    2018-02-01

    Surface roughness and microstructure play important role on orthodontic bracket quality. Therefore, orthodontic brackets need to have smooth surface roughness to reduce the friction and bacterial adhesion. Microstructure of orthodontic brackets also determine the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. There are two methods to produce orthodontic bracket, investment casting and metal injection molding. The purpose of this study is to observe the surface roughness and microstructure of orthodontic bracket which were made from two different fabrication methods. To produce orthodontic bracket with metal injection molding method, 17-4 PH stainless steel feedstock was injected to the orthodontic bracket mold using injection molding machine. After injection, the binder was eliminated with solvent and thermal debinding. Solvent debinding process was conducted with hexane at 50 °C on magnetic stirrer for 1.5 hours. Thermal debinding process was conducted at 510 °C with 0.5 °C/min heat rate and 120 min holding time. Hereafter, sintering process were performed with vacuum tube furnace at 1360 °C with heat rate 5 °C/min and 90 min holding time in low vacuum atmosphere. To produce orthodontic bracket with investment casting method, the wax was injected into the mold then the wax pattern was arranged into the tree form. The tree form was then dipped into ceramic slurry and allowed to harden, the ceramic slurry has a thickness in the region of 10 mm. The ceramic mold was then heated at a temperature of over than 1100°C to strengthen the ceramic mold and to remove the remaining wax. After that, the molten 17-4 PH stainless steel was poured into the ceramic mold at a temperature of over 1600°C. The natural cooling process was carried out at temperature of 25°C, after which the ceramic mold was broken away. Then, the orthodontic bracket was cut from the tree form. The results show that the orthodontic bracket which were made with investment casting fabrication

  6. Qualification of phased array ultrasonic examination on T-joint weld of austenitic stainless steel for ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.H. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.K., E-mail: love879@hanmail.net [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, S.W.; Kim, H.S.; Hong, K.H.; Lee, Y.J.; Ahn, H.J.; Chung, W. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Y.H.; Roh, B.R. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Ulsan 682-792 (Korea, Republic of); Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • PAUT techniques has been developed by Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD (HHI) and Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) to verify and settle down instrument calibration, test procedures, image processing, and so on. As the first step of development for PAUT technique, Several dozens of qualification blocks with artificial defects, which are parallel side drilled hole, embedded lack of fusion, embedded repair weld notch, and so on, have been designed and fabricated to simulate all potential defects during welding process. Real UT qualification group-1 for T-joint weld was successfully conducted in front of ANB inspector. • In this paper, remarkable progresses of UT qualification are presented for ITER vacuum vessel. - Abstract: Full penetration welding and 100% volumetric examination are required for all welds of pressure retaining parts of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) according to RCC-MR Code and French Order of Nuclear Pressure Equipment (ESPN). The NDE requirement is one of important technical issues because radiographic examination (RT) is not applicable to many welding joints. Therefore the ultrasonic examination (UT) has been selected as an alternative method. Generally the UT on the austenitic welds is regarded as a great challenge due to the high attenuation and dispersion of the ultrasonic signal. In this paper, Phased array ultrasonic examination (PAUT) has been introduced on double sided T-shape austenitic welds of the ITER VV as a major NDE method as well as RT. Several dozens of qualification blocks with artificial defects, which are parallel side drilled hole, embedded lack of fusion, embedded repair weld notch, embedded parallel vertical notch, and so on, have been designed and fabricated to simulate all potential defects during welding process. PAUT techniques on the thick austenitic welds have been developed taking into account the acceptance criteria. Test procedure including calibration of equipment is derived and qualified through

  7. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  8. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  9. Implantation of titanium, chromium, yttrium, molybdenum, silver, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum ions generated by a metal vapor vacuum ion source into 440C stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Jun; Hayashi, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kenji; Ichiko, Osami; Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro

    1992-01-01

    Titanium, yttrium, molybdenum, silver, chromium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum ions generated by a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source were implanted into 440C stainless steel in the dose region 10 17 ions cm -2 with extraction voltages of up to 70 kV. Glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS), friction coefficient, and Vickers microhardness of the specimens were studied. Grooves made by friction tests were investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). GDS showed incorporation of carbon in the yttrium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum implanted specimens, as well as titanium implanted samples. A large amount of oxygen was observed in the yttrium implanted specimen. The friction coefficient was measured by reciprocating sliding of an unimplanted 440C ball without lubricant at a load of 0.245 N. The friction decreased and achieved a stable state after implantation of titanium, hafnium and tantalum. The friction coefficient of the platinum implanted specimen showed a gradual decrease after several cycles of sliding at high friction coefficient. The yttrium implanted sample exhibited a decreased but slightly unstable friction coefficient. Results from EPMA showed that the implanted elements, which gave decreased friction, remained even after sliding of 200 cycles. Implantation of chromium, molybdenum, silver and tungsten did not provide a decrease in friction and the implants were gone from the wear grooves after the sliding tests. (orig.)

  10. The surface cleanliness of 316 L + N stainless steel studied by SIMS and AES

    CERN Document Server

    Mathewson, A G

    1974-01-01

    Some cleaning methods for 316 L+N stainless steel including solvent cleaning, high temperature treatment in vacuo and gas discharge cleaning have been studied by SIMS and AES with a view to providing a clean vacuum chamber surface with low gas desorption under ion bombardment. After solvent cleaning the main surface contaminant was found to be C and its associated compounds. Laboratory investigations on small samples of stainless steel showed that clean surfaces could be obtained by heating in vacuo to 800 degrees C followed by exposure to air and by argon or argon/10% oxygen discharge cleaning. Due to a cross contamination within the vacuum system, the 800 degrees C treated chamber gave positive desorption coefficients under ion bombardment. The pure argon discharge cleaned chambers proved stable giving negative desorption coefficients up to 2200 eV ion energy even after several weeks storage discharge treatment and installation. (10 refs).

  11. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  12. Design and fabrication of the vacuum systems for TPS pulsed septum magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, C.K.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Yang, C.S.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, F.Y.; Chen, J.R.

    2014-11-01

    Three in-air pulsed septum magnets were developed to inject and extract electron beams for the 3 GeV synchrotron facility, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The vacuum chamber is a novel combined aluminium-stainless steel design, using a bimetallic flange to connect the two material types. To evaluate the vacuum performances of these vacuum chambers, we set up a test bench at which we simultaneously measure the rates of thermal outgassing of the aluminium chamber and the septum tube with a throughput method. The test result indicates that the rate q{sub 72} of thermal outgassing measured after 1 day from baking at 150 °C was 1×10{sup −13} mbar L s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. The magnetic leakage measurements show the combination of conductor slitting, magnetic shielding and the aluminium vacuum chamber reduce the peak value of the leakage field integral to ∼10 G cm along the trajectory of the stored beam.

  13. Vacuum system of the Tokamak Novillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Alvarado, R.; Lopez Callejas, R.; Melendez Lugo, L.; Chavez Alarcon, E.

    1990-01-01

    A toroidal vacuum chamber of 28 access ports was constructed from four stainless steel 316L elbows joined together with dielectric seals to provide voltage break in the toroidal direction. All vacuum seals were viton O-rings. A 500 1/s turbomolecular pump provide a base pressure of 4 x 10 -8 mbar with light backing (∼ 60 deg C). In the regime of cleaning discharge the toroidal chamber is filled with H 2 to a pressure of 0.2 + 0.4 mbar. The ohmic heating coils are pulsed with a AF oscillator (10 kW, 17.5 kHz) for 60-80 msec, at a repetition rate of about 2 Hz. A toroidal magnetic field of roughly 600 G is added to generate the cleaning discharge. According to a residual gas analyzer installed in the system, 80% of the base pressure was given by water; the other components were hydrogen and mon- and dioxides of carbon. (Author)

  14. Synthesis of Ti-doped DLC film on SS304 steels by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique for tribological improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootkul, D.; Saenphinit, N.; Supsermpol, B.; Aramwit, C.; Intarasiri, S.

    2014-08-01

    Currently, stainless steels are widely used in various industrial applications due to their excellence in toughness and corrosion resistance. But their resistance to wear needs to be improved for appropriate use in tribological applications. The Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) is a superior technique for forming a high-density film structure of amorphous carbon, especially for a tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) type, because it can produce a plasma of highly energetic ions that can penetrate into a growing coating, resulting in densification of the film. However, this technique tends to generate high internal stress, due to serious accumulation of energy in the film structure that then leads to film delamination. In general, there are numerous solutions that have been used to reduce the internal stress. DLC with various additive elements such as Ti, Cr or W as strong-carbide-forming (SCF) metals is one of the popular methods to provide attractive combinations of properties of wear resistance and film adhesion as well as reducing the internal stress. The present study was focused on investigation of titanium-doped DLC coating on SS304 steel, mainly for adhesion improvement in optimizing for tribological applications. The synthesized films were formed by the FCVA technique at normal substrate temperature. In the experimental set-up, the films were produced by mixing the titanium and carbon ions generated by dual cathode plasma source operating in synchronous pulsed mode. Their compositions were adjusted by varying the relative duration of the pulse length from each cathode. Titanium doping concentration was varied from pure DLC deposition as the control group to titanium and graphite trigger pulses ratios of 1:16, 1:12, 1:10, 1:8 and 1:4, as the Ti-doped DLC group. The results showed that by increasing titanium trigger pulses ratio from 1:16, 1:12, 1:10 and 1:8, respectively, the film adhesion was increased while the wear rate did not change significantly as

  15. Innovative Comparison of Transient Ignition Temperature at the Booster Interface, New Stainless Steel Pyrovalve Primer Chamber Assembly "V" (PCA) Design Versus the Current Aluminum "Y" PCA Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.; McDougle, Stephen H.; Garcia,Roberto; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Sipes, William; Rickman, Steven; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of four spacecraft pyrovalve anomalies that occurred during ground testing was conducted by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) in 2008. In all four cases, a common aluminum (Al) primer chamber assembly (PCA) was used with dual NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) and the nearly simultaneous (separated by less than 80 microseconds) firing of both initiators failed to ignite the booster charge. The results of the assessment and associated test program were reported in AIAA Paper AIAA-2008-4798, NESC Independent Assessment of Pyrovalve Ground Test Anomalies. As a result of the four Al PCA anomalies, and the test results and findings of the NESC assessment, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project team decided to make changes to the PCA. The material for the PCA body was changed from aluminum (Al) to stainless steel (SS) to avoid melting, distortion, and potential leakage of the NSI flow passages when the device functioned. The flow passages, which were interconnected in a Y-shaped configuration (Y-PCA) in the original design, were changed to a V-shaped configuration (V-PCA). The V-shape was used to more efficiently transfer energy from the NSIs to the booster. Development and qualification testing of the new design clearly demonstrated faster booster ignition times compared to the legacy AL Y-PCA design. However, the final NESC assessment report recommended that the SS V-PCA be experimentally characterized and quantitatively compared to the Al Y-PCA design. This data was deemed important for properly evaluating the design options for future NASA projects. This test program has successfully quantified the improvement of the SS V-PCA over the Al Y-PCA. A phase B of the project was also conducted and evaluated the effect of firing command skew and enlargement of flame channels to further assist spacecraft applications.

  16. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10 -11 mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200 degree C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs

  17. Large scale use of brazing and high temperature brazing for the fabrication of the 6.4 km long vacuum system of the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballion, R.; Boster, J.; Giesske, W.; Hartwig, H.; Jagnow, D.; Kouptsidis, J.; Pape, R.; Prohl, W.; Schumann, G.; Schwartz, M.; Iversen, K.; Mucklenbeck, J.

    1989-01-01

    The 6.4 km long vacuum system for electrons in the large storage ring HERA at Hamburg consists of about 1,400 components having lengths between .14 and 12 m. The vacuum components are mainly made from variously shaped tubes of the copper alloy CuSn2. This alloy combines sufficient mechanical strength with the high thermal conductivity needed to remove the 6 MW dissipated power of the synchrotron-light. The vacuum components consist additionally of parts made from stainless steel such as flanges, chambers for pumps, beam monitors, etc. All of these parts are connected in a vacuum tight manner and on a large scale by using brazing and high temperature brazing both in a vacuum or in a reducing gas atmosphere. (orig.)

  18. High power spectrometer for the characterization of photovoltaic cells in a controlled atmosphere or vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, M.

    2003-01-01

    single monochromator grating. The photovoltaic sample under test is placed in a stainless-steel vacuum chamber allowing for operating pressures down to 10(-6) mbar equipped with a quartz window and electrical connections. The entire vacuum chamber was placed on a moving arm allowing for positioning...... in a selected part of the diffracted beam of the monochromator. The typical spectral resolution was 12 nm cm(-1) which gave bandwidths of 25 nm with a 2 cm sample width. The electrical characteristics of the photovoltaic device under test was measured using a source meter giving an experimental current...... sensitivity of 10 pA. We finally demonstrate the application of the instrumental setup for the characterization of a polymer based photovoltaic. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....

  19. ATLAS Supplier Award for the ECT Vacuum Vessels

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded the ATLAS Supplier Award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS End- Cap Toroid (ECT) magnets. ATLAS Supplier Award ceremonies have now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ECTs. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volume of 550 cubic metres, the ECT vacuum vessels are obviously impressive in scale. They consist of large aluminium plates and a stainless steel central bore tube. In order to obtain the required undulations, the firm had to develop a special assembly and welding technique. Despite the chambers' imposing size, a very high degree of precision has been achieved in their geometry. Moreover, the chambers, which were delivered in July 2002 to CERN, were built i...

  20. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  2. LINAC 3 experiment: This experiment is used to study some scenarios of the future LEIR (low-energy ion ring) vacuum design.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1 316LN stainless steel sheet 0.7 m thick sheet metal, with water-jet cut holes; before (sheet metal) and after rolling (tube). Photo 2 316LN stainless steel tube with water-jet cut holes. Photo 3 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 4 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 5 Same tubes but compiled on top of each other. Photo 6 The stack of tubes is put into a vacuum chamber that will be used in the LINAC 3 experiment during summer 2002 (lead-ion beam will be used for this experiment). The holes allow all-round pumping, i.e. close to the vacuum chamber walls.

  3. The fine art of preparing a vacuum

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum chambers, or beam pipes, of the LHC experiments are located right at the interface between the detectors and the accelerator, and are therefore crucial to the LHC project as a whole. In this domain, the ALICE and CMS experiments have just passed an important milestone, with the completion of the first of CMS's two end-cap vacuum chambers, together with the completion and bakeout of an 18-metre section of the ALICE vacuum chamber. These complex projects, for which CERN's AT/VAC Group is responsible, involved dozens of people over a number of years.

  4. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  5. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  6. Safety and operational aspects in in-situ electrical baking of large vacuum systems of Indus accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Bhange, Nilesh; Joshi, Sujata; Sridhar, R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve pressures in UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) range, the vacuum chambers and associated vacuum components, necessarily made of UHV compatible materials, should be baked sufficiently long enough so as to reduce outgassing rates. The baking period usually ranges from 48 hours to 72 hours for an electrical load of more than 30 kW per sector, in which baking temperatures, a characteristic parameter and specific to material, range from 150°C-180°C for Aluminium alloy and 250°C-300°C for SS (stainless steel). Indus accelerators vacuum installations include more than 300 m long vacuum chamber which are subjected to rigorous, standardized and labour intensive electrical baking procedure involving an intelligent ON-OFF distributed temperature control system with in-built defence of electrical safety and expandability as per the needs. The paper discusses various in built electrical safely features, operational aspects, work practices and challenges involved in accomplishing an interrupt free continuous electrical baking for distributed electrical load of more than 30 kW for a typical vacuum segment of Indus accelerator. (author)

  7. Vacuum simulation and characterization for the Linac4 H- source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, C.; Chiggiato, P.; Michet, A.; Hansen, J.; Lettry, J.

    2013-02-01

    At CERN, the 160 MeV H- Linac4 will soon replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. In the H- source two major sources of gas are identified. The first is the pulsed injection at about 0.1 mbar in the plasma chamber. The second is the constant H2 injection up to 10-5 mbar in the LEBT for beam space charge compensation. In addition, the outgassing of materials exposed to vacuum can play an important role in contamination control and global gas balance. To evaluate the time dependent partial pressure profiles in the H- ion source and the RFQ, electrical network - vacuum analogy and test particle Monte Carlo simulation have been used. The simulation outcome indicates that the pressure requirements are in the reach of the proposed vacuum pumping system. Preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated pressure profiles; a calibration campaign is in progress to fully benchmark the implemented calculations. Systematic outgassing rate measurements are on-going for critical components in the ion source and RFQ. Amongst them those for the Cu-coated SmCo magnet located in the vacuum system of the biased electron dump electrode, show results lower to stainless steel at room temperature.

  8. Beam Line VI REC-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chan, T.; Chin, J.W.G.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Winick, H.; Yang, J.

    1983-03-01

    A wiggler magnet with 27 periods, each 7 cm long which reaches 1.21 T at a 1.2 cm gap and 1.64 T at 0.8 cm gap has been designed and is in fabrication. Installation in SPEAR is scheduled for mid 1983. This new wiggler will be the radiation source for a new high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line at SSRL. The magnet utilizes rare-earth cobalt (REC) material and steel in a hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field with a short period. The magnet is external to a thin walled variable gap stainless steel vacuum chamber which is opened to provide beam aperture of 1.8 cm gap at injection and then closed to a smaller aperture (< 1.0 cm). Five independent drive systems are provided to adjust the magnet and chamber gaps and alignment. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented

  9. Neutronics and activation of the preliminary reaction chamber of HiPER reactor based in a SCLL blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.juarez@upm.es [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier; Lopez-Revelles, A.J. [Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, José Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic study of a proposal of a reaction chamber for HiPER reactor. • Two options for the blanket size, thin and thick, are studied and compared. • The thin blanket performs better than the thick blanket. • The proposed Vacuum Vessel is unviable as lifetime component in both cases. • Likely solutions for the Vacuum Vessel lifetime extension are explored. -- Abstract: The HiPER reactor design is exploring different reaction chambers. In this study, we tackle the neutronics and activation studies of a preliminary reaction chamber based in the following technologies: unprotected dry wall for the First Wall, self-cooled lead lithium blanket, and independent low activation steel Vacuum Vessel. The most critical free parameter in this stage is the blanket thickness, as a function of the {sup 6}Li enrichment. After a parametric study, we select for study both a “thin” and “thick” blanket, with “high” and “low” {sup 6}Li enrichment respectively, to reach a TBR = 1.1. To help to make a choice, we compute, for both blanket options, in addition to the TBR, the energy amplification factor, the tritium partial pressure, the {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Po total activity in the LiPb loop, and the Vacuum Vessel thickness required to guarantee the reweldability during its lifetime. The thin blanket shows a superior performance in the safety related issues and structural viability, but it operates at higher {sup 6}Li enrichment. It is selected for further improvements. The Vacuum Vessel shows to be unviable in both cases, with the thickness varying between 39 and 52 cm. Further chamber modifications, such as the introduction of a neutron reflector, are required to exploit the benefits of the thin blanket with a reasonable Vacuum Vessel.

  10. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  11. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  12. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  13. Vacuum mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  14. ELETTRA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, M.; Daclon, F.; Giacuzzo, F.; Miertusova, J.; Pradal, F.; Kersevan, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elettra is a third-generation synchrotron light source which is being built especially for the use of high brilliance radiation from insertion devices and bending magnets. The UHV conditions in a storage ring lead to a longer beam lifetime - one of the most important criterion. The Elettra vacuum system presents some pecularities which cannot be found in any already existing machine. The final version of bending magnet vacuum chamber is presented. After chemical and thermal conditioning the specific outgassing rate of about 1.5e-12 Torr. liters sec -1 cm -2 was obtained. A microprocessor-controlled system has been developed to perform bake-out at the uniform temperature. The etched-foil type heaters are glued to the chamber and Microtherm insulation is used. UHV pumps based on standard triode sputter-ion pumps were modified with ST 707 NEG (Non Evaporable Getter) modules. A special installation enables the resistive activation of getters and significantly increases pumping speed for hydrogen and other residual gases (except methane and argon). All these technological innovations improve vacuum conditions in Elettra storage ring and consequently also the other parameters of the light source

  15. Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H F; Pigny, G

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse

  16. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  17. TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and shield manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blateyron, J.; Lepez, R.

    1984-01-01

    TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and vacuum chamber shield manufacturing in progress at Jeumont-Schneider consists of three main phases: - Detail engineering and manufacturing fixture construction; - Prototype section manufacturing and process preparation; - Construction of the 6 production modules. The welding techniques adopted, call for three special automatic processes: TIG, MIG and PLASMA welding which guarantee mechanical strength, vacuum tightness and absence of distortion. Production of the modules began July 1984. (author)

  18. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  20. Nanoscale analysis of the influence of pre-oxidation on oxide formation and wetting behavior of hot-dip galvanized high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, M.; Duchoslav, J.; Steinberger, R.; Hesser, G.; Commenda, C.; Samek, L.; Arenholz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-oxidized hot-dip galvanized advanced high strength steel was examined. • The interface was analyzed in detail via high energy resolution Auger spectra. • Evidence for an aluminothermic reduction of the Mn oxide was found. • A new model for galvanizing high manganese steel was developed. - Abstract: Hot-dip galvanized (HDG) 2nd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS), nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) with 15.8 wt.% Mn, 0.79 wt.% C, was analyzed at the interface between steel and zinc by scanning Auger electron microscopy (AES) in order to confirm and improve an existing model of additional pre-oxidation treatment before annealing and immersion into the hot zinc bath. Furthermore these steel samples were fractured in the analysis chamber of the AES and analyzed without breaking vacuum. In these measurements the results of an aluminothermic reduction of the manganese and iron surface oxides on the steel could be confirmed by AES

  1. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  2. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  3. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  4. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The effect of ammonium partial pressure on residual stresses in surface layer of SW7M HSS steel after vacuum nitriding 'NITROVAC'79'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the nitriding atmosphere on the residual stresses in the surface layer of the SW7M HSS steel has been investigated in the work. It has been proved that the pressure influences the distribution of those stresses to a great extent. At lower pressures (20 hPa and 40 hPa) at which only one zone is being created - the one of internal nitriding, without that of ε type nitrides on the surface - the highest residual stresses are operating on the HSS steel surface itself or eventually in the subsurface region very close to the surface. In the difference, in case of higher pressure (120 hPa and 240 hPa), the highest stresses are operating at great depth 8-12 μm from the steel surface - depending on the thickness of the ε type nitride layer created on the steel surface at those pressure. All the relevant stresses are compressive one. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Cosmic vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernin, Artur D

    2001-01-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Design consideration on the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, H.; Chida, K.; Mizobuchi, A.; Miyahara, A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum production for the high-energy heavy-ion accelerator poses special problems concerning beam-gas molecule and beam-wall interactions. In this paper, summary of the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system and design criteria of the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system are presented. On-beam pressure of 4 x 10 -11 Torr is achieved in the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system, of which experiences through the construction and the operation are described and discussed. With emphasis on the application of newly developed technique in the fabrication of vacuum chamber and ultrahigh vacuum pump for the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system. (author)

  11. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10ΜA recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10ΜA average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing

  12. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  13. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  14. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  15. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  16. Installation and Commissioning of the new GLM Implantation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summer student report about the work with the new implantation chamber for the GLM branch of ISOLDE. In the context of this project an API for the vacuum system of the new chamber was developed and implemented in web application that will be used to control the new implantation chamber at some point.

  17. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  18. LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the inner 'cold bore' walls of the magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K, and thus serve as very good cryo-pumps. In order to reduce the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the vacuum chamber. The design of this beam screen represents a technological challenge in view of the numerous and often conflicting requirements and the very tight mechanical tolerances imposed. The synchrotron radiation produces strong outgassing from the...

  19. DC photogun vacuum characterization through photocathode lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcy Stutzman; Joseph Grames; Matt Poelker; Kenneth Surles-Law; Philip Adderley

    2007-01-01

    Excellent vacuum is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage photoelectron guns. Vacuum Research at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has focused on characterizing the existing vacuum systems at the CEBAF polarized photoinjector and on quantifying improvements for new systems. Vacuum chamber preprocessing, full activation of NEG pumps and NEG coating the chamber walls should improve the vacuum within the electron gun, however, pressure measurement is difficult at pressures approaching the extreme-high-vacuum (XHV) region and extractor gauge readings are not significantly different between the improved and original systems. The ultimate test of vacuum in a DC high voltage photogun is the photocathode lifetime, which is limited by the ionization and back-bombardment of residual gasses. Discussion will include our new load-locked gun design as well as lifetime measurements in both our operational and new photo-guns, and the correlations between measured vacuum and lifetimes will be investigated

  20. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  6. Vacuum system for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, O.

    1995-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is planned at CERN will be housed in the tunnel of the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) and will store two counter-rotating proton beams with energies of up to 7 TeV in a 27 km accelerator/storage ring with superconducting magnets. The vacuum system for the LHC will be at cryogenic temperatures (between 1.9 and 20 K) and will be exposed to synchrotron radiation emitted by the protons. A stringent limitation on the vacuum is given by the energy deposition in the superconducting coils of the magnets due to nuclear scattering of the protons on residual gas molecules because this may provoke a quench. This effect imposes an upper limit to a local region of increased gas density (e.g. a leak), while considerations of beam lifetime (100 h) will determine more stringent requirements on the average gas density. The proton beam creates ions from the residual gas which may strike the vacuum chamber with sufficient energy to lead to a pressure 'run-away' when the net ion induced desorption yield exceeds a stable limit. These dynamic pressure effects will be limited to an acceptable level by installing a perforated 'beam screen' which shields the cryopumped gas molecules at 1.9 K from synchrotron radiation and which also absorbs the synchrotron radiation power at a higher and, therefore, thermodynamically more efficient temperature. (author)

  7. Vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, B.D.; Priestland, C.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to vacuum gauges, particularly of the type known as Penning gauges, which are cold cathode ionisation gauges, in which a magnetic field is used to lengthen the electron path and thereby increase the number of ions produced. (author)

  8. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  9. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm 3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments. (paper)

  10. The influence of substrate temperature and spraying distance on the properties of plasma sprayed tungsten and steel coatings deposited in a shrouding chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kocmanová, Lenka; Veverka, Jakub; Halasová, Martina; Hadraba, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 217-223 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : Tungsten * Steel * Atmospheric plasma spraying * Shrouding * Substrate temperature * Fusion reactor materials * Plasma facing components Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Coating and films (UFM-A) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0257897216310520

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Shipko; S. P. Rudenko; A. L. Valko; A. N. Chichin

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  12. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shipko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  13. Improved microstructure and properties of 12Cr2Ni4A alloy steel by vacuum carburization and Ti + N co-implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meiling; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo; Wang, Haidou; Cai, Zhaobing; Song, Shengqiang

    2018-05-01

    The carburized 12Cr2Ni4A alloy steel was implanted by Ti + N double elements implantation. The microstructure, nano-hardness and corrosion properties were investigated by EPMA, TEM, XPS, nano-hardness and electrochemistry tests in detail. The results showed that the Ti + N co-implanted layer is composed of FCC TiN and TiC phases with BCC martensite. Compared with the un-implanted layer, the Ti + N implanted layer has higher nano-hardness and better corrosion resistance. In addition, the higher nano-hardness was presented below the surface of 1800 nm compared with un-implanted layer, which is far beyond the thickness of the implanted layer. The results also indicated that the generation of nanoscale ceramic phase and structures are not the only factor to impose the influence on the nano-hardness and corrosion resistance, but the radiation damage and lattice distortion will play an important role.

  14. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  15. Electrical and optical investigations on the low voltage vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braic, M.; Braic, V.; Pavelescu, G.; Balaceanu, M.; Pavelescu, D.; Dumitrescu, G.; Gherendi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a low voltage circuit breaker, adapted from a real industrial device, were carried out by electrical and optical methods. Electrical, parameters were measured in the high current arc period and in zero current moment (C.Z) and corroborated with the arc plasma spectroscopic investigations. For the first time in vacuum arc diagnostics, the paper presents results based on single shot time resolved emission spectroscopy around C.Z. The short-circuit current was produced in a special high power installation in order to reproduce exactly the short-circuit regimes developing in low voltage distribution networks. A stainless steel vacuum chamber with classical Cu-Cr electrodes was used. Tests were performed for different current values in the range 3 - 20 kA rms , the voltages being varied between 200 and 1000 V ac . Interruption processes in the different arc regimes (from the diffuse arc mode to the constricted column mode) were analyzed. The success of the arc interruption was analyzed in terms of electric arc energy achieved in the first current halfperiod. The results obtained were corroborated with arc plasma spectroscopic investigations. The emission spectroscopy setup, using an Acton spectrograph and an intensified CCD camera, allowed the spatial and time-resolved investigation of spectra emitted by the vacuum arc plasma. The first truly time-resolved spectroscopic measurements on a single half-period was proven to be a good method to investigate the vacuum arc. Using single shot time resolved spectroscopy around zero current on partial unsuccessful interruption we concluded that the Cu ions, more that Cr ions were responsible for the arc reignition. The financial support for this work comes from NATO-STI SfP /974083 and CORINT-Romania projects. (authors)

  16. Titanium nitride (TiN) precipitation in a maraging steel during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process - Inclusions characterization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, V.; Bellot, J.-P.; Perrin-Guérin, V.; Witzke, S.; Jardy, A.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium Nitride (TiN) inclusions are commonly observed in a Maraging steel containing Nitrogen and Titanium and remelted in a VAR furnace. They can be easily detected by optical microscopy. A nucleus is observed next to a large number of TiN inclusions. A TEM analysis was carried out on a biphasic nucleus composed of a calcium sulfide (CaS) and a spinel (MgAl2O4), surrounded by a TiN particle. An orientation relationship between these three phases was revealed, which suggests a heterogeneous germination of the TiN particle on the nucleus by epitaxial growth. Based on this observation, on thermodynamic considerations and on previous work, a model has been developed and coupled to a numerical simulation of the VAR process to study the formation and evolution of a TiN distribution in the VAR ingot. Microsegregation is modeled using the lever rule, while the kinetics of precipitation is mainly driven by the supersaturation of the liquid bath. This model highlights the influence of the melt rate on the final size of TiN particles.

  17. Construction of vacuum system for Tristan accumulation ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, H.; Horikoshi, G.; Kobayashi, M.; Kubo, T.; Mizuno, H.; Momose, T.; Narushima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1983-01-01

    An all aluminum-alloy vacuum system for the TRISTAN accumulation ring is now under construction. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are preferred materials for ultrahigh vacuum systems of large electron storage rings because of their good thermal conductivity, extremely low outgassing rate, and low residual radioactivity. Vacuum beam chambers for the dipole and quadrupole magnets are extruded using porthole dies. The aluminum alloy 6063-T6 provides superior performance in extrusion. For ultrahigh vacuum performance, a special extrusion technique is applied which, along with the outgassing procedure used, is described in detail. Aluminum alloy 3004 seamless elliptical bellows are inserted between the dipole and quadrupole magnet chambers. These bellows are produced by the hydraulic forming of a seamless tube. The seamless bellows and the beam chambers are joined by fully automatic welding. The ceramic chambers for the kicker magnets, the fast bump magnets, and the slow beam intensity monitor are inserted in the aluminum alloy beam chambers. The ceramic chamber (98% alumina) and elliptical bellows are brazed with brazing sheets (4003-3003-4003) in a vacuum furnace. The brazing technique is described. The inner surface of the ceramic chamber is coated with a TiMo alloy by vacuum evaporation to permit a smooth flow of the RF wall current. Other suitable aluminum alloy components, including fittings, feedthroughs, gauges, optical windows, sputter ion pumps, turbomolecular pumps, and valves have been developed; their fabrication is described

  18. Experimental investigation on the motion of cathode spots in removing oxide film on metal surface by vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zongqian; Jia Shenli; Wang Lijun; Yuan Qingjun; Song Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    The motion of vacuum arc cathode spots has a very important influence on the efficiency of removing the oxide film on the metal surface. In this paper, the characteristics of cathode spot motion are investigated experimentally. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with ac (50 Hz) arc current of 1 kA (rms). A stainless steel plate covered by an oxide layer was used as the cathode. The motion of cathode spots during the descaling process was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 μs. Experimental results indicate that the motion of cathode spots is influenced by the interaction among individual cathode jets and the position of the anode as well as the surface condition. The waveform of arc voltage is also influenced by the motion of cathode spots

  19. Thermal hydraulics analysis of LIBRA-SP target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogahed, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    LIBRA-SP is a conceptual design study of an inertially confined 1000 MWe fusion power reactor utilizing self-pinched light ion beams. There are 24 ion beams which are arranged around the reactor cavity. The reaction chamber is an upright cylinder with an inverted conical roof resembling a mushroom, and a pool floor. The vertical sides of the cylinder are occupied by a blanket zone consisting of many perforated rigid HT-9 ferritic steel tubes called PERITs (PEr-forated RIgid Tube). The breeding/cooling material, liquid lead-lithium, flows through the PERITs, providing protection to the reflector/vacuum chamber so as to make it a lifetime component. The neutronics analysis and cavity hydrodynamics calculations are performed to account for the neutron heating and also to determine the effects of vaporization/condensation processes on the surface heat flux. The steady state nuclear heating distribution at the midplane is used for thermal hydraulics calculations. The maximum surface temperature of the HT-9 is chosen to not exceed 625 degree C to avoid drastic deterioration of the metal's mechanical properties. This choice restricts the thermal hydraulics performance of the reaction cavity. The inlet first surface coolant bulk temperature is 370 degree C, and the heat exchanger inlet coolant bulk temperature is 502 degree C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  1. Feasibility study of vacuum technology integrated fused deposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vacuum pump connected will absorb the air inside the chamber until desire pressure while printing object. Mitutoyo SJ-301 portable surface roughness tester and optical microscope used to analyze the quality of surface finish. Result reveal with ...

  2. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  3. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  4. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki

    1997-07-11

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  5. Modification of Ultra-High Vacuum Surfaces Using Free Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Vorlaufer, G

    2002-01-01

    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption of surface adsorbates are usually the factors which determine pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchrotron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, surface properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly influence the performance of the accelerator. Well-established treatment methods like vacuum bake-out or glow-discharge cleaning have been successfully applied in the past to condition ultra-high vacuum surfaces, but these methods are sometimes difficult to carry out, for example if the vacuum chambers are not accessible. In this work, an alternative treatment method is investigated. This method is based on the strong chemical reactivity of free radicals, electrically neutral fragments of molecules. Free radicals (in the case of this work, nitrogen and oxygen radi...

  6. Multispecimen dual-beam irradiation damage chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packan, N.H.; Buhl, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An irradiation damage chamber that can be used to rapidly simulate fast neutron damage in fission or fusion materials has been designed and constructed. The chamber operates in conjunction with dual Van de Graaff accelerators at ORNL to simulate a wide range of irradiation conditions, including pulsed irradiation. Up to six experiments, each with up to nine 3-mm disk specimens, can be loaded into the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Specimen holders are heated with individual electron guns, and the temperature of each specimen can be monitored during bombardment by an infrared pyrometer. Three different dose levels may be obtained during any single bombardment, and the heavy-ion flux on each of the nine specimens can be measured independently with only a brief interruption of the beam. The chamber has been in service for nearly three years, during which time approximately 250 bombardments have been successfully carried out. An appendix contains detailed procedures for operating the chamber

  7. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C; Thankey, Prashant L; Dhanani, Kalpesh R; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  8. Experimental laser fusion devices and related vacuum problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Campbell, D.E.; Glaros, S.S.; Hurley, C.A.; Kobierecki, M.W.; McFann, C.B. Jr.; Monjes, J.A.; Patton, H.G.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Laser fusion experiments require hard vacuum in the laser-beam spatial filters, target chambers and for target diagnostics instruments. Laser focusing lenses and windows, and target alignment windows must hold vacuum without optical distortion, and must be protected from target debris. The vacuum must be sufficient to prevent residual gas breakdown in focused laser light, avoid arcing at high voltage terminals, minimize contamination and melting of cryogenic targets, and prevent adsorption of the target's microfusion radiation before it reaches the diagnostics instruments

  9. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  10. Leybold vacuum handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, K; Diels, Kurt

    1966-01-01

    Leybold Vacuum Handbook presents a collection of data sets that are essential for numerical calculation of vacuum plants and vacuum processes. The title first covers vacuum physics, which includes gas kinetics, flow phenomena, vacuum gauges, and vapor removal. Next, the selection presents data on vacuum, high vacuum process technology, and gas desorption and gettering. The text also deals with materials, vapor pressure, boiling and melting points, and gas permeability. The book will be of great interest to engineers and technicians that deals with vacuum related technologies.

  11. Manufacture of the ALS storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, K.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage rings has a 4.9 meter magnetic radius and an antechamber type vacuum chamber. These two requirements makes conventional bent tube manufacturing techniques difficult. The ALS sector vacuum chambers have been made by matching two halves out of aluminum plate and welding at the mid plane. Each of these chambers have over 50 penetrations with metal sealed flanges and seven metal sealed poppet valves which use the chamber wall as the valve seat. The sector chambers are 10 meter long and some features in the chambers must be located to .25 mm. This paper describes how and how successfully these features have been achieved. 2 refs., 5 figs

  12. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  14. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained

  15. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  16. Analysis of the steady-state operation of vacuum systems for fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roose, T.R.; Hoffman, M.A.; Carlson, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code named GASBAL was written to calculate the steady-state vacuum system performance of multi-chamber mirror machines as well as rather complex conventional multichamber vacuum systems. Application of the code, with some modifications, to the quasi-steady tokamak operating period should also be possible. Basically, GASBAL analyzes free molecular gas flow in a system consisting of a central chamber (the plasma chamber) connected by conductances to an arbitrary number of one- or two-chamber peripheral tanks. Each of the peripheral tanks may have vacuum pumping capability (pumping speed), sources of cold gas, and sources of energetic atoms. The central chamber may have actual vacuum pumping capability, as well as a plasma capable of ionizing injected atoms and impinging gas molecules and ''pumping'' them to a peripheral chamber. The GASBAL code was used in the preliminary design of a large mirror machine experiment--LLL's MX

  17. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  18. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  19. Vacuum system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the proposed vacuum system for the planned ISABELLE storage rings with respect to acceptability and practicality from the vacuum viewport. A comparison is made between the proposed vacuum system and the vacuum system at the CERN ISR, and some comments on various design and operational parameters are made

  20. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  1. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  2. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  3. Manufacture of the straight section chambers for the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Saeki, H.; Sakaue, H.; Ohkuma, H.; Be, S.H.; Oishi, M.; Tuchiya, M.; Nishidono, T.

    1995-01-01

    To carry out the performance test of the vacuum system, we manufactured three different straight section chambers prior to the manufacture of the 48 cell full scale vacuum systems. One of three straight section chambers contains only downstream end absorber, while the other two contain a downstream end absorber, upstream end bellows and a photon beam extraction duct. In this paper, the manufacture of these chambers and their assemblies are described in detail. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Results from beam tests of a 2.4 m straw chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizeron, R.; Fournier, D.; Noppe, J.M.; Perdereau, O.; Schaffer, A.C.

    1991-03-01

    Straw chambers have been shown to have good position resolution. By virtue of their cylindrical geometry they are capable of operating in vacuum, which opens the interesting possibility of tracking with a minimum of material. The feasibility of constructing a large surface straw chamber has been studied. A prototype chamber with 2.4 m long straws capable of operating in vacuum has been developed and tested in beams at CERN

  5. Plasma discharge in ferritic first wall vacuum vessel of the Hitachi Tokamak HT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Nakayama, Takeshi; Asano, Katsuhiko; Otsuka, Michio

    1997-01-01

    A tokamak discharge with ferritic material first wall was tried successfully. The Hitachi Tokamak HT-2 had a stainless steel SUS304 vacuum vessel and modified to have a ferritic plate first wall for experiments to investigate the possibility of ferritic material usage in magnetic fusion devices. The achieved vacuum pressure and times used for discharge cleaning was roughly identical with the stainless steel first wall or the original HT-2. We concluded that ferritic material vacuum vessel is possible for tokamaks. (author)

  6. ALICE's first vacuum bakeout a success

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of April, the ALICE central beryllium beam pipe and absorber beam pipes were successfully conditioned. The installation and bakeout shell surround the beam pipe (lower left), running through the middle of the ITS and TPC. Notice the high-tech cooling system, an additional precaution to avoid overheating the ALICE detection equipment.One end of the vacuum sector during the bakeout and pure gas refill. It is unusual for a vacuum sector to end as it does in the middle of a non-accessible detector and made the installation and cabling of the bakeout equipment a more difficult procedure. Just before Easter, the first bakeout and NEG activation of experimental chambers in the LHC was carried out, followed by ultra pure gas refill. The bakeout consisted of externally heating the chambers under vacuum in order to lower their outgassing. This same heating process also activates the NEG, a coating on the inside surface of the beam vacuum chambers, which pumps the residual gas. ALICE's bakeout was pa...

  7. Characterisation of an ionization chamber of the radioisotope metrology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, Gabriel R.; Iglicki, Flora A.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity as a function of the photon energy up to 1.9 MeV has been studied for a special ionization chamber (50 cm length, stainless steel, high pressure Ar). The response of the chamber to 16 of the most frequently used radionuclides has been also determined. (author)

  8. Evolution of gettering technologies for vacuum tubes to getters for MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiotti, M [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate, Milano (Italy)], E-mail: Marco_Amiotti@saes-group.com

    2008-05-01

    Getter materials are technically proven and industrially accepted practical ways to maintain vacuum inside hermetically sealed tubes or devices to assure high reliability and long lifetime of the operating devices. The most industrially proven vacuum tube is the cathode rays tubes (CRTs), where large surfaces are available for the deposition of an evaporated barium film by a radio frequency inductive heating of a stainless steel container filled with a BaAl{sub 4} powder mixed to Ni powder. The evolution of the CRTs manufacturing technologies required also new types of barium getters able to withstand some thermal process in air without any deterioration of the evaporation characteristics. In other vacuum tubes such as traveling waves tubes, the space available for the evaporation of a barium film and the sorption capacity required to assure the vacuum for the lifetime of the devices did not allow the use of the barium film, prompting the development of sintered non evaporable getter pills that can be activated during the manufacturing process or by flowing current through an embedded resistance. The same sintered non evaporable getter pills could find usage also in evacuated parts to thermally isolate the infrared sensors for different final applications. In high energy physics particle accelerators, the getter technology moved from localized vacuum getter pumps or getter strips to a getter coating over the surface of vacuum chambers in order to guarantee a more uniform pumping speed. With the advent of solid state electronics, new challenges faced the getter technology to assure long life to vacuum or inert gas filled hermetical packages containing microelectronic devices, especially in the telecommunication and military applications. A well known problem of GaAs devices with Pd or Pt metalization is the H{sub 2} poisoning of the metal gate: to prevent this degradation a two layer getter film has been develop to absorb a large quantity of H{sub 2} per unit of

  9. Evolution of gettering technologies for vacuum tubes to getters for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiotti, M.

    2008-05-01

    Getter materials are technically proven and industrially accepted practical ways to maintain vacuum inside hermetically sealed tubes or devices to assure high reliability and long lifetime of the operating devices. The most industrially proven vacuum tube is the cathode rays tubes (CRTs), where large surfaces are available for the deposition of an evaporated barium film by a radio frequency inductive heating of a stainless steel container filled with a BaAl4 powder mixed to Ni powder. The evolution of the CRTs manufacturing technologies required also new types of barium getters able to withstand some thermal process in air without any deterioration of the evaporation characteristics. In other vacuum tubes such as traveling waves tubes, the space available for the evaporation of a barium film and the sorption capacity required to assure the vacuum for the lifetime of the devices did not allow the use of the barium film, prompting the development of sintered non evaporable getter pills that can be activated during the manufacturing process or by flowing current through an embedded resistance. The same sintered non evaporable getter pills could find usage also in evacuated parts to thermally isolate the infrared sensors for different final applications. In high energy physics particle accelerators, the getter technology moved from localized vacuum getter pumps or getter strips to a getter coating over the surface of vacuum chambers in order to guarantee a more uniform pumping speed. With the advent of solid state electronics, new challenges faced the getter technology to assure long life to vacuum or inert gas filled hermetical packages containing microelectronic devices, especially in the telecommunication and military applications. A well known problem of GaAs devices with Pd or Pt metalization is the H2 poisoning of the metal gate: to prevent this degradation a two layer getter film has been develop to absorb a large quantity of H2 per unit of getter surface. The

  10. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D N; Ayyappan, R; Kamble, L P; Singh, J P; Muralikrishna, L V; Alex, M; Balagi, V; Mukhopadhyay, P K

    2008-01-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm 2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ∼1 x 10 -5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mmx160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face and diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6x10 -9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2x10 -7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5x10 -5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4x10 -6 mbar in the same time under the same conditions

  11. Using the Nova target chamber for high-yield targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The existing 2.2-m-radius Nova aluminum target chamber, coated and lined with boron-seeded carbon shields, is proposed for use with 1000-MJ-yield targets in the next laser facility. The laser beam and diagnostic holes in the target chamber are left open and the desired 10 -2 Torr vacuum is maintained both inside and outside the target chamber; a larger target chamber room is the vacuum barrier to the atmosphere. The hole area available is three times that necessary to maintain a maximum fluence below 12 J/cm 2 on optics placed at a radius of 10 m. Maximum stress in the target chamber wall is 73 MPa, which complies with the intent of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. However, shock waves passing through the inner carbon shield could cause it to comminute. We propose tests and analyses to ensure that the inner carbon shield survives the environment. 13 refs

  12. Characterization Of Oxide Layers Produced On The AISI 321 Stainless Steel After Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochnowski W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure, chemical composition and topography of oxide layers produced on the surface of the AISI 321 austenitic steel in the annealing process were analyzed. Heat treatment was done at 980°C temperature for 1 hour time in different conditions. The annealing was done in a ceramic furnace in oxidation atmosphere and in vacuum furnaces with cylindrical molybdenum and graphite chambers. The analysis was carried out using the following methods: a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, a secondary ion mass spectrometer with time-of-flight mass analyzer (TOF SIMS and an atomic force microscope (AFM. The oxide layer formed during annealing of the AISI 321 steel at 980°C consisted of sub-layers, diversified in the chemical composition. The thickness of the oxidized layer is depended on the annealing conditions. In a ceramic furnace in oxidation atmosphere, the thickness of the oxide layer was of 300-500 nm, in a vacuum furnace with molybdenum and graphite heating chambers, it ranged from 40 to 300 nm and from a few to 50 nm, respectively. TOF SIMS method allows to get average (for the surface of 100 μm × 100 μm depth profiles of concentration of particular elements and elements combined with oxygen. In oxide layers formed in vacuum furnaces there are no iron oxides. Titanium, apart from being bounded with carbon in carbides, is a component of the oxide layer formed on the surface of the AISI 321 steel.

  13. Design of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER vacuum vessel is a major safety barrier and must support electromagnetic loads during plasma disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDE) and withstand plausible accidents without losing confinement.The vacuum vessel has a double wall structure to provide structural and electrical continuity in the toroidal direction. The inner and outer shells and poloidal stiffening ribs between them are joined by welding, which gives the vessel the required mechanical strength. The space between the shells will be filled with steel balls and plate inserts to provide additional nuclear shielding. Water flowing in this space is required to remove nuclear heat deposition, which is 0.2-2.5% of the total fusion power. The minor and major radii of the tokamak are 3.9 m and 13 m respectively, and the overall height is 15 m. The total thickness of the vessel wall structure is 0.4-0.7 m.The inboard and outboard blanket segments are supported from the vacuum vessel. The support structure is required to withstand a large total vertical force of 200-300 MN due to VDE and to allow for differential thermal expansion.The first candidate for the vacuum vessel material is Inconel 625, due to its higher electric resistivity and higher yield strength, even at high temperatures. Type 316 stainless steel is also considered a vacuum vessel material candidate, owing to its large database and because it is supported by more conventional fabrication technology. (orig.)

  14. Internal motion in high vacuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.

    Three transfer and positioning mechanisms have been developed for the non-air exposed, multistep processing of components in vacuum chambers. The functions to be performed in all of the systems include ultraviolet/ozone cleaning, vacuum baking, deposition of thin films, and thermocompression sealing of the enclosures. Precise positioning of the components is required during the evaporation and sealing processes. The three methods of transporting and positioning the components were developed to accommodate the design criteria and goals of each individual system. The design philosophy, goals, and operation of the three mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  16. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  17. Plasma Chamber Design and Fabrication Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, B.; Bianchi, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coletti, A.; Frosi, P.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    A fabrication procedure for a typical Plasma Chamber (PC) sector has been developed to cover all the manufacturing phases, from the raw materials specification (including metallurgical processes) to the machining operations, acceptance procedures and vacuum tests. Basically, the sector is made of shaped elements (forged or rolled) welded together using special fixtures and then machined to achieve the final dimensional accuracy. An upgraded design of the plasma chamber's vertical support that can withstand the estimated electromagnetic loads (Eddy and Halo current plus horizontal net force resulting from the worst plasma disruption scenario VDE, Vertical Displacement Event) has been completed. The maintenance of the radial support can take place hands-on with a direct access from outside the cryostat. With the present design, vacuum tightness is achieved by welding conducted with automatic welding heads. On the outer surface of the PC a dedicated duct system, filled by helium gas, is included to cool down the PC to room temperature when needed.

  18. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  19. Glove box chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Cox, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An environmental chamber is described which enables an operator's hands to have direct access within the chamber without compromising a special atmosphere within such chamber. A pair of sleeves of a flexible material are sealed to the chamber around associated access apertures and project outwardly from such chamber. Each aperture is closed by a door which is openable from within the sleeve associated therewith so that upon an operator inserting his hand and arm through the sleeve, the operator can open the door to have access to the interior of the chamber. A container which is selectively separable from the remainder of the chamber is also provided to allow objects to be transferred from the chamber without such objects having to pass through the ambient atmosphere. An antechamber permitting objects to be passed directly into the chamber from the ambient atmosphere is included. (auth)

  20. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  1. UHV testing of spare straight section chambers of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, S.K.; Ratnakala, K.C.; Sridhar, R.; Bhange, N.J.; Netram; Shukla, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum system of Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2, in RRCAT has been functioning up to the mark, continuously for last 10 years. To continue the same trouble-free functioning, it was planned to procure spares for all critical vacuum components, test for UHV performance and keep ready for installation, in case of requirement. As a part of this planning, fifteen chambers made of Aluminium alloy (6063 T6), procured as spare straight section chambers for Indus-2, and were tested for UHV performance. They were tested in batches of 2 or 3 chambers, depending upon their length, and the similar testing-procedure was followed. This paper narrates the tests carried out, and the results obtained. Ultimate vacuum in the range (2 to 9) x 10 -10 mbar was achieved. (author)

  2. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N 2 and O 2 gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N 2 gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN 2 cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10 −4 mbar and 1.0 × 10 −5 mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10 −6 mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10 −5 mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10 −5 mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the vacuum vessel up to 110 °C with ±10

  3. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N{sub 2} gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN{sub 2} cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10{sup −4} mbar and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10{sup −6} mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10{sup −5} mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10{sup −5} mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the

  4. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  5. High efficient vacuum arc plant for coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of progressive technical solutions are used in the 'Bulat-9' machine designed for vacuum arc coating deposition. The features of the machine are: a dome shaped working chamber that allows to 'wash' its inner surfaces with hot nitrogen or argon gas; a system of automatic loading/unloading of articles to be treated into the chamber through its bottom; shielding of the inner surfaces of the chamber by heated panels; improved vacuum arc plasma sources including filtered one; four ported power supply for the vacuum arc discharges; LC oscillatory circuits suppressing microarcs on the substrate; the system of automatic control of a working process. The said technical features cause the apparatus originality and novelty preserved up to-day

  6. Electromagnetic fields and Green functions in elliptical vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084216; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi; Vaccaro, Vittorio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic interaction between a point charge travelling inside a waveguide of elliptical cross section, and the waveguide itself. By using a convenient expansion of the Mathieu functions, useful in particular for treating a variety of problems in applied mathematics and physics with elliptic geometry, we first obtain the longitudinal electromagnetic field of a point charge (Green function) in free space in terms of elliptical coordinates. This expression allows, then, to calculate the scattered field due to the boundary conditions in our geometry. By summing the contribution of the direct or primary field and the indirect field scattered by the boundary, after a careful choice of some expansion expressions, we derive a novel formula of the longitudinal electric field, in any transverse position of the elliptical cross section, generated by the charge moving along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide. The obtained expression is represented in a closed form, it can be diffe...

  7. Comprehensive surface treatment of high-speed steel tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey V.; Aleshin, Sergey V.; Swe, Min Htet; Abdirova, Raushan D.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Sergey B.

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising directions of hardening of high-speed steel tool is the creation on their surface of the layered structures with the gradient of physic-chemical properties between the wear-resistant coatings to the base material. Among the methods of such surface modification, a special process takes place based on the use of pulsed high-intensity charged particle beams. The high speed of heating and cooling allows structural-phase transformations in the surface layer, which cannot be realized in a stationary mode. The treatment was conducted in a RITM-SP unit, which constitutes a combination of a source of low-energy high-current electron beams "RITM" and two magnetron spraying systems on a single vacuum chamber. The unit enables deposition of films on the surface of the desired product and subsequent liquid-phase mixing of materials of the film and the substrate by an intense pulse electron beam. The article discusses features of the structure of the subsurface layer of high-speed steel M2, modified by surface alloying of a low-energy high-current electron beam, and its effect on the wear resistance of the tool when dry cutting hard to machine Nickel alloy. A significant decrease of intensity of wear of high-speed steel with combined treatment happens due to the displacement of the zone of wear and decrease the radius of rounding of the cutting edge because of changes in conditions of interaction with the material being treated.

  8. Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H; Pigny, G

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse technical generations. In order to improve the efficiency of the services provided by ICM, to vacuum experts and to accelerator operators, a Quality Management Plan is being put into place. The first step was the standardization of the naming convention across different accelerators. The traceability of problems, requests, repairs, and other actions, has also been put into place (VTL). This was combined with the effort to identify each individual device by a coded label, and register it in a central database (MTF). Occurring in parallel, was the gathering of old documents and the centralization of information concerning architectures, procedures, equipment and settings (EDMS). To describe the topology of control c...

  9. Simple structure diffusion cloud chamber for educational purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehuss, Gy.; Molnar, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple structure diffusion cloud chamber was designed and built with educational aim. The source of alpha particles is Am-241 radioisotope smeared on steel foil, the source of vapor is a felt disc saturated with methanol. Five minutes after covering the chamber the system achieves the thermodynamic equilibrium and alpha particle tracks of 5 cm length become visible in the centre of the chamber. Life-time of a track is about 0.5-1 second, the frequency is 2-3 tracks/s. The presented diffusion chamber can be built simply and easily, using cheap common materials and components. (D.Gy.)

  10. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  11. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  12. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  13. HISTRAP [Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics] vacuum test stand for pressures of 10-12 Torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.W.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed synchrotron/cooler/storage ring accelerator optimized for advanced atomic physics research. The ring has a circumference of 46.8 m, a bore diameter of about 15 cm, and requires a vacuum of 10 -12 Torr in order to decelerate highly-charged very-heavy ions down to low energies. To be able to test components and procedures to achieve this pressure, a test stand approximately modeling one-sixteenth of the ring vacuum chamber has been built. The 3.5-m-long test stand has been fabricated from 10-cm-diameter components, with 316LN stainless steel flanges. Prior to assembly, these components were vacuum fired at 950/degree/C at a pressure of 10 -4 Torr. The test stand is bakeable in situ at 300/degree/C. Pumping is achieved with two 750-L/s titanium sublimator pumps and one 60-L/s ion pump. Pressure is measured with two extractor ion gauges and a 10 -14 PP RGA. The roughing for the test stand consists of cryosorption pumps followed by a cryopump. A pressure of 4 x 10 -12 Torr has been achieved. 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  15. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  16. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, M.; Mocek, J.; Barackova, L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure. (B.S.)

  17. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepka, M; Mocek, J; Barackova, L [Skoda, Plzen (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-09-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure.

  18. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  19. Imploded test-chamber for an ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    At the ISR intersection points the vacuum chambers had to be as "transparent" as possible, for the p-p collision product particles to reach the detectors with minimum hindrance. This meant the choice of a light, yet very strong, metal; minimum thickness; and corrugation for mechanical strength. The test-chamber seen here was made of 0.6 mm thick corrugated titanium, obviously not strong enough to withstand the atmospheric pressure.

  20. Corrosion by photochemical reaction due to synchrotron radiation in TRISTAN vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Takashi; Ishimaru, Hajime

    1989-01-01

    In the electron-positron collision ring (TMR) in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, the operation at the beam energy of 30 GeV is carried out. The critical energy of synchrotron radiation corresponding to this energy is 243 keV which is the highest in the world. Consequently, the radiation damage of various substances due to this radiation has become the problem. From the viewpoint that the TMR is the vacuum system totally made of aluminum alloy for the first time in the world, the problem peculiar to aluminum alloy and the related problem of material damage and the countermeasures are discussed. Beam energy and attenuation length, the radiation dose in the TMR tunnel, the beam current-time product of TMR, the examples of radiation damage such as the atmosphere in TAR, the atmosphere in TMR, the aluminum bellows, aluminum chamber and lead radiation shield in TMR, the aluminum beam line in the atmosphere of TAR, the heat-insulating kapton film with vacuum deposited aluminum films, Teflon and polystyrene insulators, the stainless steel terminals and cables for position monitors, the O-rings for gate valves, polyvinyl chloride and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Magnetically induced vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shesheng

    2003-01-01

    We study the fermionic vacuum energy of vacua with and without application of an external magnetic field. The energetic difference of two vacua leads to the vacuum decaying and the vacuum energy being released. In the context of quantum field theories, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released by spontaneous photon emission and/or paramagnetically screening the external magnetic field. In addition, we quantitatively compute the vacuum energy released, the paramagnetic screening effect, and the rate and spectrum of spontaneous photon emission. The possibilities of experimentally detecting such an effect of vacuum-energy release and that this effect accounts for the anomalous x-ray pulsar are discussed

  2. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  3. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  4. The design and structure of the ultra-high vacuum system of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaotian; Zhang Junhui; Zhang Xinjun; Meng Jun; Zhan Wenlong

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange of very heavy ions with the residual gas molecules, ultra-high vacuum of 6x10 -9 Pa is required for the HIRFL-CSR facility, which is the lowest pressure in a large vacuum system in China up to now. The total length of the system is about 450 meters and the total inner surface is about 263 square meters. More than 500 standard vacuum components are needed and more than 400 different chambers have to be manufactured. A lot of researches have been down to try to find out the experiences to obtain the required pressure. In this article the following contents are described: the layout of the system; the structure of main vacuum chambers; the treatment method to reduce the outgassing rate of the chamber wall surfaces; vacuum equipment; pressure distribution and the progress of the system

  5. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  6. Design and construction of vacuum control system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S.; Yang, Y.; Gu, X.M.

    2008-01-01

    The construction of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) was finished at the end of 2006 in Hefei, China. Its vacuum system, an important subsystem, has been commissioned in February 2006. The design and construction of this vacuum control system are described in this paper. The requirements for remote automation, distributed control and centralized management, high reliability and expansibility have been taken into account in the design. There are three levels of control in vacuum control system. The bottom level control is performed on the local instruments manually; the medium level control is based on Siemens S7-400 PLC; the top level control is conducted on IPCs with communication through profi b us network. In addition remote handling and centralized monitoring could be realized by a remote control server. The control system could achieve pumping and fueling of the whole vacuum system. Besides that, it also includes the data acquisition of the pressure and temperature. The details are discussed on the monitoring of vacuum system states including cooling water, power and compressed air, etc., safeguards of plasma chamber and cryostat chamber and vacuum equipments, choosing of control modes corresponding to the plasma discharge and wall conditioning. At the end, the parts of EAST device protection system related to vacuum and gas injection system will also be introduced

  7. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  8. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  9. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  10. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  11. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  12. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  13. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  14. Insulation vacuum and beam vacuum overpressure release

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the incident of 19th September caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum which the existing overpressure devices could not contain. As a result, high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers developed and broke the floor and the floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barriers. The consequent large longitudinal displacements of the SSS damaged chains of adjacent dipole cryo-magnets. Estimates of the helium mass flow and the pressure build- up experienced in the incident are presented together with the pressure build-up for an even more hazardous event, the Maximum Credible Incident (MCI). The strategy of limiting the maximum pressure by the installation of addition pressure relieve devices is presented and discussed. Both beam vacuum lines were ruptured during the incident in sector 3-4 giving rise to both mechanical damage and pollution of the system. The sequence, causes and effects of this damage will be briefly reviewed. We will then an...

  15. Large vacuum system for experiences in magnetic confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R.Y.; Kayama, M.E.; Boeckelmann, H.K.; Aihara, S.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the operation method of a theta-pinch system capable of generating and confine plasmas with high densities and temperatures. Some characteristics of Tupa theta-pinch, which is operating at UNICAMP, emphasizing the cleaning mode of the vacuum chamber, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Vacuum design for a superconducting mini-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Monteiro, S.

    1991-01-01

    The phi factory (Superconducting Mini-Collider or SMC) proposed for construction at UCLA is a single storage ring with circulating currents of 2 A each of electrons and positrons. The small circumference exacerbates the difficulties of handling the gas load due to photodesorption from the chamber walls. The authors analyze the vacuum system for the phi factory to specify design choices

  17. System of multiwire proportional chambers at the separated particle channel for the Mirabelle bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, N.S.; Galyaev, N.A.; Kotov, V.I.; Prosin, B.V.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Khodyrev, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    A system of multiwire proportional chambers (MPC) operating on-line with a M-6000 computer used during tuning and monitoring of beam parameters in a separated particle channel for the Mirabelle bubble chamber is described. Peculiarities of the construction and main characteristics of two MPC versions are considered. The first version is intended for placing in a vacuum at the edges of high-frequency separator deflector, the second one - for placing outside a vacuum in ionoguide gaps. Power supply of the proportional chambers is carried out from local compact (160x95x50 mm) high-voltage sources remotely controlled from a channel panel by low voltage. A MPC position diagram in the accelerator channel, flowsheet of registering electronics for the MPC system, main circuits of high-voltage power source, analog-to-digital converter of a code and trunk amplifier are given. A graph of amplifier signal amplitude dependence on high voltage of a chamber for a different composition of a gaseous mixture is presented. It is noted that the used elements of the electronic system provide the reliable processing of data and its transmission for a great distance (approximately 400 m). It is underlined that the MPC system operation for a long time has shown its high efficiency and reliability

  18. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li 2 O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li 2 O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li 2 O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive

  19. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  20. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  2. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  3. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  4. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  5. Vacuum system for the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, K.; Henderson, T.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit most synchrotron photons to escape the electron channel and be absorbed in an antechamber. The gas generated by the photons hitting the absorbers in the antechambers will be pumped by titanium sublimation pumps located directly under the absorbers. The electron channel and the antechamber are connected by a 10-mm-high slot that offers good electrodynamic isolation of the two chambers of frequencies affecting the store electron orbit. Twelve 10-meter-long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. Machining both the inside and outside of the vacuum chamber permits the use of complex and accurate surfaces. The use of thick plates allows flanges to be machined directly into the wall of each chamber, thus avoiding much welding. 1 ref., 3 figs

  6. Modern vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Modern Vacuum Physics presents the principles and practices of vacuum science and technology along with a number of applications in research and industrial production. The first half of the book builds a foundation in gases and vapors under rarefied conditions, The second half presents examples of the analysis of representative systems and describes some of the exciting developments in which vacuum plays an important role. The final chapter addresses practical matters, such as materials, components, and leak detection. Throughout the book, the author''s explanations are presented in terms of first principles and basic physics, augmented by illustrative worked examples and numerous figures.

  7. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  8. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  9. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven's muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuth, H.C.; Snydstrup, L.; Mapes, M.

    1995-01-01

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10 -7 Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system will be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 ell/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented

  10. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  11. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  12. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  13. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  14. Comparison of cold and warm vacuum systems for intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halama, H.J.; Herrera, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    In storage rings employing superconducting magnets, the use of a cold bore as a cryopump appears, at first glance, as simple and economical. Since the selection of a cold or warm vacuum system has far-reaching implications on the basic design, each system is considered in some detail. The theoretical and practical limitations imposed on the maximum beam current by the gas desorption from the chamber walls are discussed. A realistic design of a cold vacuum chamber is developed and then compared with the proposed warm ISABELLE vacuum system. The comparison shows that the warm approach is preferable. (U.S.)

  15. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  16. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  17. Vacuum considerations: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.; Halama, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the efforts of a vacuum systems study group of the workshop on a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE) for heavy ion fusion. An inadequate knowledge of cross-sections prevents a more concrete vacuum system design. Experiments leading to trustworthy numbers for charge exchange, stripping and capture cross-sections are badly needed and should start as soon as possible. In linacs, beam loss will be almost directly proportional to the pressure inside the tanks. The tanks should, therefore, be built in such a way that they can be baked-out in situ to improve their vacuum, especially if the cross-sections turn out to be higher than anticipated. Using standard UHV techniques and existing pumps, an even lower pressure can be achieved. The vacuum system design for circular machines will be very difficult, and in some cases, beyond the present state-of-the-art

  18. Handbook of vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive, standard work has been updated to remain an important resource for all those needing detailed knowledge of the theory and applications of vacuum technology. With many numerical examples and illustrations to visualize the theoretical issues.

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  20. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. (eds.) (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  1. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  2. Ultra high vacuum technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical examples from existing CERN accelerators and discuss the novel features of the future LHC vacuum system.

  3. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  4. Operating status of TARN vacuum system and future tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Katsuhisa; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Mizobuchi, Akira

    1981-01-01

    TARN (Test Accumulation Ring for Numatron) was constructed for the purpose of obtaining the fundamental data for high energy heavy ion accelerator (Numatron) project, which accelerates heavy ions up to uranium to 1 GeV/nucleon. Its vacuum is required to be 1 x 10 - 10 Torr or less on beam. In February, 1972, only the vacuum system was temporarily assembled, and the vacuum of 2 x 10 - 11 Torr was realized by baking at 300 deg C alone. In July, 1972, the assembling of the vacuum chamber into magnets was completed, and several test experiments were performed using the H 2+ beam from the SF cyclotron. In this report, first, the outline of the vacuum system, and next, its operation are described. For the reason of the purpose of the ring, the vacuum system is required to be atmospheric pressure to attach beam monitors and other measuring instruments just before the machine time. Therefore, it is an important task to make the evacuation time as short as possible. As future tasks, the examination on the material and shape of the chamber, the investigation of pump system (appropriate combination of ion pump, titanium sublimation pump, cryo-pump, molecular pump, etc.), the study on the measuring and control systems (accurate measurement of total pressure and partial pressure and the feedback to the protecting system), the studies of problems on the vacuum wall surface (surface treatment prior to assembling the chamber into the ring and the methods and the effects of baking and electric discharge cleaning) are included. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  6. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  7. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Design of a chamber for deposit of thin films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirino O, S.

    2001-01-01

    The present work has as purpose to design a vacuum chamber, to the one that is denominated chamber of ablation, in which were carried out deposits of thin films using the well-known technique as laser ablation. To fulfill the purpose, the work has been distributed in the following way: in the chapter 1 there are discussed the generalities of the technique of ablation laser for the obtaining of materials in form of thin film, in the chapter 2 the basic concepts of the vacuum technology are mentioned that includes among other things, systems to produce vacuum and vacuum gages and in the chapter 3 the design of the chamber is presented with the accessories and specific systems. (Author)

  9. RGA studies on aluminium chambers for transport line-2 of CLIC facility at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.V.A.N.P.S.; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Sindal, B.K.; Tiwari, S.K.; Tripti, B.; Shukla, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Aluminium Chambers for Transport Line-2 (TL-2) of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) facility were developed by RRCAT, Indore under the CERN-DAE collaboration work. The ultimate vacuum required for these chambers is in 10 -10 mbar range. The design and fabrication of the chambers were done at Workshop-A, RRCAT, Indore. Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Section at RRCAT, Indore was involved in qualifying tests of these chambers for their ultimate vacuum testing and the residual gas spectrum studies as per CERN requirements. The UHV testing part was established and the RGA studies were conducted using Residual Gas Analyser (RGA, 1-100 AMU range, Make: Spectra/MKS, USA). The RGAs were used for vacuum diagnostics like checking for leaks and the vacuum quality in the chambers. Using the RGA, we could also observe out the pumping speed behaviour of a UHV Gauge (Varian UHV-24 type) and the retention-cum-evaluation of captured gases by Sputter Ion Pump was also studied. In this paper, these experiences are reported during ultimate testing of TL-2 chambers for CLIC facility. (author)

  10. Inner cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the outer cylinder already attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke.

  11. Darlington GS vacuum building - containment shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.; Ha, E.C.; Brown, D.G.; Cheng, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the consequences of new design requirements for the Darlington vacuum building on its structural configuration, analytical and reinforcing steel layout. Attention focuses on the ring girder where the juncture of dome and perimeter wall produces a complex post-tensioning layout, and attendant difficulties in design and construction. At the wall base, full fixity imposes large local stresses. Long-term, shrinkage and creep, and temperature effects become significant. A research program and in-house analytical procedure established time-dependent concrete behaviour and corresponding wall-sectional stresses. The outcome is examined in terms of reinforcement, temperature controls, and wall liner requirements. (orig.)

  12. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  13. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  14. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  15. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  16. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  17. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  18. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  19. Application of local vacuum slide sealing electron beam welding procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shozo; Takano, Genta; Minami, Masaharu; Enami, Koji; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuri, Shuhei

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam welding process is efficient and is superior in workmanship and its application to the welding of large plate structures is eagerly awaited. However, since electron beam welding is generally performed with the object of welding entirely put in a vacuum chamber, high welding cost becomes a problem. In response to this demand, two kinds of local vacuum slide sealing type electron beam welding machines have been developed. These welding machines are designed to perform welding with only the neighborhood of the weld line put in vacuum, one of which is for longitudinal joints and the other for circumferential joints. The welding machine for circumferential joints has been put to practical use for the welding of nucear fusion reactor vacuum vessels (outside diameter 3.5 m, inside diameter 1.7 m), showing that it is applicable to the welding of large structures. (author)

  20. Evaluation of supercapacitors for space applications under thermal vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keith C.; Green, Nelson W.; Brandon, Erik J.

    2018-03-01

    Commercially available supercapacitor cells from three separate vendors were evaluated for use in a space environment using thermal vacuum (Tvac) testing. Standard commercial cells are not hermetically sealed, but feature crimp or double seam seals between the header and the can, which may not maintain an adequate seal under vacuum. Cells were placed in a small vacuum chamber, and cycled between three separate temperature set points. Charging and discharging of cells was executed following each temperature soak, to confirm there was no significant impact on performance. A final electrical performance check, visual inspection and mass check following testing were also performed, to confirm the integrity of the cells had not been compromised during exposure to thermal cycling under vacuum. All cells tested were found to survive this testing protocol and exhibited no significant impact on electrical performance.

  1. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  2. The vacuum system of the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, J.; Gils, H.J.; Jelitto, H.; Krisch, J.; Ludwig, G.; Manger, D.; Rebel, H.; Seith, W.; Zagromski, S.

    1985-02-01

    The vacuum equipment of the magnetic spectrograph Little John is described. The system is characterized by the following special features: The sliding exit flange of the target chamber can be moved to the desired angle of observation without affecting the high vacuum. The pressure maintained is less by a factor of ten than the pressure in the incoming beam tubing. The vacuum system is divided into several separate pumping sections. Ground loops are strictly avoided. All actual states of relevance are fed back to the control panels. The vacuum installation is protected by hardware interlocking systems as well as by a real time program written in FORTRAN in cooperation with CAMAC interfacing. (orig.) [de

  3. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  4. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  5. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  6. Spectrographic analysis of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two spectrogaphyic solution techniques, 'Porous Cup' and 'Vacuum Cup', were investigated in order to determine the minor constituents (Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu and V) of stainless steels. Iron and cobalt were experimented as internal standards. The precision varied from 4 to 11% for both spectrographic techniques, in which cobalt was used as international standard. Certified standards from National Bureau of Standards and Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas were analysed to verify the accuracy of both techniques. The best accuracy was obtained with the Vacuum Cup techniques. (Author) [pt

  7. Application of Molecular Adsorber Coatings in Chamber A for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2017-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This presentation summarizes the background, fabrication, installation, chemical analysis test results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination. As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test

  8. Research of influence of mobile cathodic stains of the vacuum arc for reception of the adjustable roughness of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, V. N.; Dokukin, M. Yu

    2017-05-01

    In the modern technics there is a requirement in micro- and macrorough surfaces of products for improvement of their operational characteristics (improvement of adhesive properties of various coverings, decrease in deterioration of rubbing details because of the best deduction of greasing, increase of the heat exchanging coefficient from a surface, stimulation of adhesive processes on sites of contact to a bone fabric of medical implants in stomatology and orthopedy etc.). In the given work the modes of reception regulated micro- and macrorough surfaces on samples from a titanic alloy and stainless steel by electrothermal influence of moving cathodic stains in the vacuum arc discharge are investigated. Chaotically moving stains, possessing high specific power allocation (∼ 107 W/cm2), “scan” the difficult design of a product, including “shadow” sites, doing rough its blanket. The sizes of roughnesses are regulated by a current and time of influence of the discharge, pressure in the vacuum chamber and a number of other parameters. The scheme of experimental device, photo and the characteristic of rough surfaces and technological modes of their reception are resulted.

  9. The vacuum system for insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E.; Gluskin, E.; Den Hartog, P.; Klippert, T.; Wiemerslage, G.; Xu, S.

    1995-01-01

    A vacuum system for the insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source was designed, and chambers of this design were successfully manufactured and tested. Three different versions of the vacuum chamber have been developed with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8mm, and 5 mm, respectively. The chambers are fabricated by extruding 6063 aluminum alloy to form a tube with the desired internal shaped and machining the exterior to finish dimensions. The wall thickness of the completed chamber at the beam orbit position is 1 mm. The design utilizes a rigid strongback that limits deflection of the chamber under vacuum despite the thin wall. Chambers with lengths of 2.2m and 5.2 m have been fabricated. Pumping is accomplished by a combination of lumped and distributed non-evaporable getters and ion pumps. An ultimate pressure of 5.1· -11 torr was achieved with the 12-mm vertical aperture prototype. Alignment of the vacuum chamber on its support can be made with a precision of ± 25 μm in the vertical plane, which allows minimum insertion device pole gaps of 14.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 7.5 mm

  10. The Beam Line X NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    A wiggler magnet with 15 periods, each 12.85 cm long, which achieves 1.40 T at a 2.1 cm gap (2.26T at 0.8 cm) has been designed and is now in fabrication at LBL. This wiggler will be the radiation source of the high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line for the Beam Line X PRT facility at SSRL. The magnet utilizes Neodymium-Iron (NdFe) material and Vanadium Permendur (steel) in the hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field and short period. Magnetic field adjustment is with a driven chain and ball screw drive system. The magnetic structure is external to an s.s. vacuum chamber which has thin walls, 0.76 mm thickness, at each pole tip for higher field operation. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented

  11. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II

  12. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  13. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  14. Baking controller for synchrotron beamline vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, C.K.; Kane, S.R.; Dhamgaye, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron storage ring Indus-2 is a hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Source. Nearly 27 beamlines will be installed on Indus-2 and they will cater to different experiments and applications. Most of the beamlines will be in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) the only exception being hard X-rays beamlines. However the front ends of all the beamlines will be in UHV. Practicing UHV requires efforts and patience. Evacuating any chamber, volume gases can be removed easily. However, outgassing phenomena like desorption, diffusion and permeation restricts the system to attain UHV. All processes except the volume gas removal are temperature dependent. At ambient temperature, gas pressure decreases so slowly that outgassing limit (i.e. 10 -10 1/s/cm 2 ) can hardly be achieved on a practical time scale. Also there are three orders of magnitude difference in outgassing between baked and unbaked systems. Depending on the vacuum chamber and the components inside it, the thermal outgassing (baking) of system is required and can be done at various temperatures between 150 degC to 450 deg C. For whole baking cycle, constant monitoring and controlling of the systems is required which takes tens of hours. This paper describes the automation for such baking system, which will be used for SR beamlines

  15. Continuous vacuum processing system for quartz crystal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.J.; Hafner, E.

    1979-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum continuous cycle quartz crystal fabrication facility has been developed that assures an essentially contamination-free environment throughout the final manufacturing steps of the crystal unit. The system consists of five essentially tubular vacuum chambers that are interconnected through gate valves. The unplated crystal resonators, mounted in ceramic flatback frames and loaded on carrier trays, enter the vacuum system through an entrance air lock, are UV/ozone cleaned, baked at 300 0 C, plated to frequency, thermocompression sealed, and exit as completed crystal units through an exit air lock, while the bake, plate and seal chambers remain under continuous vacuum permanently. In-line conveyor belts are used, in conjunction with balanced vacuum manipulators, to move the resonator components to the various work stations. Unique high density, highly directional nozzle beam evaporation sources, capable of long term operation without reloading, are used for electroding the resonators simultaneously on both sides. The design goal for the system is a production rate of 200 units per 8 hour day; it is adaptable to automatic operation

  16. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  17. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  18. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  19. Vacuum considerations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum system for Heavy Ion Fusion machines can be divided according to pressure into 4 parts: (a) Ion Sources; (b) Linear Accelerators; (c) Circular Accelerators, Accumulators and Storage Rings; and (d) Reactors. Since ion sources will need rather conventional pumping arrangements and reactors will operate with greater pressures, depending on their mode of operation, only items b and c will be treated in this report. In particular, the vacuum system design will be suggested for the machines proposed by various scenarios arrived at during the workshop. High mass numbers will be assumed

  20. Handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    1964-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 3: Technology is a handbook of vacuum physics, with emphasis on the properties of miscellaneous materials such as mica, oils, greases, waxes, and rubber. Accurate modern tables of physical constants, properties of materials, laboratory techniques, and properties of commercial pumps, gauges, and leak detectors are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a discussion on pump oils, divided into rotary pump oils and vapor pump oils. The next chapter deals with the properties and applications of greases, including outgassing and vapor pr

  1. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of ion chamber performance using MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J D

    2012-12-01

    Ion Chambers have a generally flat energy response with some deviations at very low (2 MeV) energies. Some improvements in the low energy response can be achieved through use of high atomic number gases, such as argon and xenon, and higher chamber pressures. This work looks at the energy response of high pressure xenon-filled ion chambers using the MCNP Monte Carlo package to develop geometric models of a commercially available high pressure ion chamber (HPIC). The use of the F6 tally as an estimator of the energy deposited in a region of interest per unit mass, and the underlying assumptions associated with its use are described. The effect of gas composition, chamber gas pressure, chamber wall thickness, and chamber holder wall thicknesses on energy response are investigated and reported. The predicted energy response curve for the HPIC was found to be similar to that reported by other investigators. These investigations indicate that improvements to flatten the overall energy response of the HPIC down to 70 keV could be achieved through use of 3 mm-thick stainless steel walls for the ion chamber.

  3. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  4. Denitrogenation model for vacuum tank degasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, R.; Vetrivel Murugan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen in steel is both beneficial and detrimental depending on grade of steel and its application. To get desired low nitrogen during vacuum degassing process, VD parameters namely vacuum level, argon flow rate and holding time has to optimized depending upon initial nitrogen level. In this work a mathematical model to simulate nitrogen removal in tank degasser is developed and how various VD parameters affects nitrogen removal is studied. Ladle water model studies with bottom purging have shown two distinct flow regions, namely the plume region and the outside plume region. The two regions are treated as two separate reactors exchanging mass between them and complete mixing is assumed in both the reactors. In the plume region, transfer of nitrogen to single bubble is simulated. At the gas-liquid metal interface (bubble interface) thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the transfer of nitrogen from bulk liquid metal in the plume region to the gas-metal interface is obtained using mass transport principles. The model predicts variation of Nitrogen content in both the reactors with time. The model is validated with industrial process and the predicted results were found to have fair agreement with the measured results.

  5. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  6. Design of ITER neutron monitor using micro fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki; Ando, Toshiro; Kasai, Satoshi; Johnson, L.C.; Walker, C.

    1998-08-01

    We are designing micro fission chambers, which are pencil size gas counters with fissile material inside, to be installed in the vacuum vessel as neutron flux monitors for ITER. We found that the 238 U micro fission chambers are not suitable because the detection efficiency will increase up to 50% in the ITER life time by breading 239 Pu. We propose to install 235 U micro fission chambers on the front side of the back plate in the gap between adjacent blanket modules and behind the blankets at 10 poloidal locations. One chamber will be installed in the divertor cassette just under the dome. Employing both pulse counting mode and Campbelling mode in the electronics, we can accomplish the ITER requirement of 10 7 dynamic range with 1 ms temporal resolution, and eliminate the effect of gamma-rays. We demonstrate by neutron Monte Carlo calculation with three-dimensional modeling that we avoid those detection efficiency changes by installing micro fission chambers at several poloidal locations inside the vacuum vessel. (author)

  7. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  8. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  9. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  10. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  12. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  13. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Some of the most important components of the vacuum system are shown. At the left, the rectangular box is a sputter-ion pump inside its bake-out oven. The assembly in the centre includes a sector valve, three roughing valves, a turbomolecular pump, a rotary backing pump and auxiliary equipment. At the right, the small elbow houses a Bayard-

  14. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    A pressure of 5 x 10-11 Torr has been obtained repreatedly in this pilot section of the ISR vacuum system. The pilot section is 45 m long is pumped by 9 sputter-ion pumps pf 350 l/s pumping speed, and is baked out at 200 degrees C before each pump down.

  15. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  16. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  17. On Lovelock vacuum solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.

  18. Cryogenic vacuum pumping at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elo, D.; Morris, D.; Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    A cryogenic vacuum pumping panel has been in operation at the 88-inch cyclotron since 1974. The nude pumping panel is located in the acceleration chamber. The pumping surface consists of tubing cooled to 20 0 K by a closed loop helium refrigeration system. The pumping surfaces are shielded from radiation heat loads and water vapors by liquid nitrogen cooled baffles. The panel was designed for an average pumping speed of 14,000 liters/sec. for air. This approximately tripled the total effective pumping on the acceleration chamber from the existing diffusion pumped system, significantly reducing charge exchange losses of heavy ions during acceleration. Design, installation and performance characteristics are described

  19. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  20. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  1. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  2. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  3. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  4. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  5. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  6. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  7. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  8. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  9. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  10. Vacuum properties of TiZrV non-evaporable getter films [for LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Costa-Pinto, P; Escudeiro-Santana, A; Hedley, T; Mongelluzzo, A; Ruzinov, V; Wevers, I

    2001-01-01

    Sputter-deposited thin films of TiZrV are fully activated after 24 h "in situ" heating at 180 degrees C. This activation temperature is the lowest of some 18 different getter coatings studied so far, and it allows the use of the getter thin film technology with aluminium alloy vacuum chambers, which cannot be baked at temperatures higher than 200 degrees C. An updated review is given of the most recent results obtained on TiZrV coatings, covering the following topics: influence of the elemental composition and crystal structure on activation temperature, discharge gas trapping and degassing, dependence of pumping speed and surface saturation capacity on film morphology, ageing consequent to activation-air-venting cycles and ultimate pressures. Furthermore, the results obtained when exposing a coated particle beam chamber to synchrotron radiation in a real accelerator environment (ESRF Grenoble) are presented and discussed. (13 refs).

  11. Management of unconverted light for the National Ignition Facility target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Bletzer, K.; Burnham, A. K.; Dixit, S.; Genin, F. Y.; Hibbard, W.; Norton, J.; Scott, J. M.; Whitman, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    The NIF target chamber beam dumps must survive high x-ray, laser, ion, and shrapnel exposures without excessive generation of vapors or particulate that will contaminate the final optics debris shields, thereby making the debris shields susceptible to subsequent laser damage. The beam dumps also must be compatible with attaining and maintaining the required target chamber vacuum and must not activate significantly under high neutron fluxes. Finally, they must be developed, fabricated, and maintained for a reasonable cost. The primary challenge for the beam dump is to survive up to 20 J/cm 2 of lpm light and 1 - 2 J/cm 2 of nominally 200 - 350 eV blackbody temperature x rays. Additional threats include target shrapnel, and other contamination issues. Designs which have been evaluated include louvered hot-pressed boron carbide (B 4 C) or stainless steel (SS) panels, in some cases covered with transparent Teflon film, and various combinations of inexpensive low thermal expansion glasses backed by inexpensive absorbing glass. Louvered designs can recondense a significant amount of ablated material that would otherwise escape into the target chamber. Transparent Teflon was evaluated as an alternative way to capture ablated material. The thin Teflon sheet would need to be replaced after each shot since it exhibits both laser damage and considerable x- ray ablation with each shot. Uncontaminated B 4 C, SS, and low thermal expansion glasses have reasonably small x-ray and laser ablation rates, although the glasses begin to fail catastrophically after 100 high fluence shots. Commercially available absorbing glasses require a pre-shield of either Teflon or low thermal expansion glass to prevent serious degradation by the x-ray fluence. Advantages of the hot-pressed B 4 C and SS over glass are their performance against microshrapnel, their relative indifference to contamination, and their ability to be refurbished by aggressive cleaning using CO 2 pellets, glass beads, high

  12. Vacuum system for the Stanford-LBL storage ring (PEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostic, D.; Cummings, U.; Dean, N.; Jeong, B.; Jurow, J.

    1975-03-01

    The vacuum system for PEP will be similar in design, construction and operation to the system currently in operation at SPEAR. There will, of course, be quantitative differences since the closed path of PEP will be 10 times longer than the SPEAR path. Some qualitative differences will also arise since the radiated synchrotron power for PEP will be about 13 times greater than for SPEAR giving rise to an increased linear power density incident on the chamber wall. Other differences arise from the higher energy spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. The SPEAR vacuum system has been in operation since April 1972 and has proven satisfactory in design, construction and operation. The chamber has been subject to synchrotron radiation for approximately 300 ampere-hours and beam lifetimes are now more than several hours. The details of the PEP design and the SPEAR operating experience will be further discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 4 figs

  13. X-ray diffraction study of slags forming during corrosion resistant steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, V.N.; Shurygina, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction analysis slags, forming during corrosion-resistant 12Kh18N10T grade steel production by two flowsheets, are studied. Standard two-slag technology of steel production does not provide efficient disintegration of chromospinelides in slags, gives high steel contamination with respect to nonmetallic impurities, coarse structure and, as a consequence, presence of macrodefects on rolled products surface. One-slag steel melting technology with titanium alloying of the steel at vacuum causes fast removal of chromospinelides at the beginning of reduction period, promotes titanium absorption by the steel, refines nonmetallic inclusions, provides more fine structure and steel plasticity, removes surface defects

  14. The symmetries of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.

    1985-01-01

    The vacuum equation of state required by cosmological inflation is taken seriously as a general property of the cosmological vacuum. This correctly restricts the class of theories which admit inflation. A model of such a vacuum is presented that leads naturally to the cosmological principle. (Author) [pt

  15. Irradiation chamber and sample changer for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Daues, H.W.; Fischer, B.; Kopf, U.; Liebold, H.P.; Quis, D.; Stelzer, H.; Kiefer, J.; Schoepfer, F.; Schneider, E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an irradiaton system with which living cells of different origin are irradiated with heavy ion beams (18 <- Z <- 92) at energies up to 10 MeV/amu. The system consists of a beam monitor connected to the vacuum system of the accelerator and the irradiation chamber, containing the biological samples under atmospheric pressure. The requirements and aims of the set up are discussed. The first results with saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese Hamster tissue cells are presented. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Goncharov, Ivan; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  17. Phacoemulsification tip vacuum pressure: Comparison of 4 devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Marielle; Georgescu, Dan; Waite, Aaron N; Olson, Randall J

    2006-08-01

    To determine the vacuum pressure generated by 4 phacoemulsification devices measured at the phacoemulsification tip. University ophthalmology department. The effective vacuum pressures generated by the Sovereign (AMO), Millennium (Bausch & Lomb), Legacy AdvanTec (Alcon Laboratories), and Infiniti (Alcon Laboratories) phacoemulsification machines were measured with a device that isolated the phacoemulsification tip in a chamber connected to a pressure gauge. The 4 machines were tested at multiple vacuum limit settings, and the values were recorded after the foot pedal was fully depressed and the pressure had stabilized. The AdvanTec and Infiniti machines were tested with and without occlusion of the Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) side port (Alcon Laboratories). The Millennium machine was tested using venturi and peristaltic pumps. The machines generated pressures close to the expected at maximum vacuum settings between 100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg with few intermachine variations. There was no significant difference between pressures generated using 19- or 20-gauge tips (Millennium and Sovereign). The addition of an ABS side port decreased vacuum by a mean of 12.1% (P < .0001). Although there were some variations in vacuum pressures among phacoemulsification machines, particularly when an aspiration bypass tip was used, these discrepancies are probably not clinically significant.

  18. The Insulation Vacuum Barrier for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Magnet Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, M; Parma, Vittorio; Skoczen, Blazej; Trilhe, P

    2000-01-01

    The sectorisation of the insulation vacuum of the LHC magnet cryostats, housing the superconducting magnets, which operate in a 1.9 K superfluid helium bath, is achieved by means of vacuum barriers. Each vacuum barrier is a leak-tight austenitic stainless steel thin-wall structure, mainly composed of large diameter (between 0.6 m and 0.9 m) bellows and concentric corrugated cylinders. It is mounted in the Short Straight Section (SSS) [1], between the magnet helium enclosure and the vacuum vessel. This paper presents the design of the vacuum barrier, concentrating mostly on its expected thermal performance, to fulfil the tight LHC heat in-leak budgets. Pressure and leak test results, confirming the mechanical design of two prototypes manufactured in industry, and the preparation of one of these vacuum barriers for cryogenic testing in an SSS prototype, are also mentioned.

  19. Development of large components for the fusion reactor vacuum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinic, D.; Lorrain, C.

    1986-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities appointed in mid-1983 the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH to investigate whether large vacuum components for use in the fusion machine can be built. The following individual targets have been defined for studies under this project: - Elaboration of technical specifications for large components. - Investigation of the feasibility. - Specification of the tests required and planning of a testing facility. The plasma chamber pumping system is essentially concerned

  20. Nonperturbative QED vacuum birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, V.I.; Dolgaya, E.E.; Sokolov, V.A. [Physics Department, Moscow State University,Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper we represent nonperturbative calculation for one-loop Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum birefringence in presence of strong magnetic field. The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagating in strong magnetic field point to retention of vacuum birefringence even in case when the field strength greatly exceeds Sauter-Schwinger limit. This gives a possibility to extend some predictions of perturbative QED such as electromagnetic waves delay in pulsars neighbourhood or wave polarization state changing (tested in PVLAS) to arbitrary magnetic field values. Such expansion is especially important in astrophysics because magnetic fields of some pulsars and magnetars greatly exceed quantum magnetic field limit, so the estimates of perturbative QED effects in this case require clarification.

  1. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  2. Studies of structural material degassing in cryogenic vacuum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshmarov, Yu.A.; Kupriyanov, V.I.; Ivanov, A.E.; Chubarov, E.V.; Dryamov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The choice and design of cryogenic vacuum pumping equipment require a reliable knowledge of qualitative and quantitative gassing parameters characteristic of the structural materials now in use. The gassing study has been made on the plates of stainless steel, copper and aluminium at a pressure of 1.33 (10 -3 -10 -5 ) Pa (10 -5 -10 -7 mm Hg) at room temperature and degassing duration up to 50 hours. An approximate method is proposed for the determination of the diffusion coefficients initial concentration of dissolved in metals gases, and gaseous exchange coefficient for various components of the gas dissolved in steel copper and aluminium alloys. The data obtained permit the designing of pumping equipment for various vacuum systems

  3. In situ conditioning for proton storage ring vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.

    1978-01-01

    Average pressure and vacuum-stability limit as expected in the presence of a proton beam were measured after in situ treatments such as bakeout under various conditions, argon glow-discharge cleaning and sputter deposition of titanium. Measurements were carried out for test pipes made of stainless steel (untreated, electropolished, or cooled to 77 K), pure titanium and aluminum alloy. The measurement method used to obtain the vacuum-stability limit in the laboratory and in a prototype system is described. The results can be applied also to other systems of different geometry by use of scaling laws. In situ conditioning generally has a stronger influence on vacuum performance than a particular choice of material. Bakeout gives low average pressures and rather good vacuum stability. Glow discharges also increase the vacuum stability but have only a small effect on the static pressure. Coating the beam-pipe wall with titanium by in situ sputtering provides large linear pumping, thus a lower pressure and an extremely good vacuum stability

  4. Temperature control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The patent concerns a method for controlling the temperature of silicon wafers (or samples), during ion beam treatment of the wafers, in a vacuum. The apparatus and method are described for irradiation and temperature control of the samples. The wafers are mounted on a drum which is rotated through the ion beam, and are additionally heated by infra-red lamps to achieve the desired temperature. (U.K.)

  5. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  6. Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquin, J.-L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)

  7. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  8. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  9. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  10. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    cause of blistering is well-known, handling and finishing techniques have been developed to minimize this form of damage. Vacuum melting and degassing minimize the quantity of hydrogen in the steels. Acid pickling and other such processes that may introduce hydrogen are avoided when practical, and possible moisture ...

  11. Numerical study on the performance of vacuum cooler and evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of cooked meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, T.X.; Xu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum cooling of cooked meats is described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a modified mathematical model based on a previous model is developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of cooked meat. Validation experimentation is performed in the designed vacuum cooler. Boiling occurs inside the cooked meat. There is a boiling front, and the boiling front moves toward the center of the cooked meat as the vacuum cooling proceeds. The experimental data are compared with the simulation results. It is found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experimentation are within 5 deg. C, and the deviation of weight loss between the simulation and the experimentation is within 4%. The simulation results agree with the experimental data well. The modified model can be used to predict the variation of the vacuum pressure in the chamber, the temperature and pressure distributions and the weight loss profiles of cylindrical cooked meats

  12. Inner and outer cylinders of the CMS vacuum tank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the already installed outer cylinder, through which this photo was taken.

  13. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  14. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  15. Development of Glassy Carbon Blade for LHC Fast Vacuum Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, P

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected gas inrush in a vacuum chamber leads to the development of a fast pressure wave. It carries small particles that can compromise functionality of sensitive machine systems such as the RF cavities or kickers. In the LHC machine, it has been proposed to protect this sensitive equipment by the installation of fast vacuum valves. The main requirements for the fast valves and in particular for the blade are: fast closure in the 20 ms range, high transparency and melting temperature in case of closure with beam in, dust free material to not contaminate sensitive adjacent elements, and last but not least vacuum compatibility and adequate leak tightness across the blade. In this paper, different designs based on a vitreous carbon blade are presented and a solution is proposed. The main reasons for this material choice are given. The mechanical study of the blade behaviour under dynamic forces is shown.

  16. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  17. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  18. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  19. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  20. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.