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Sample records for steam-exploded wheat straw

  1. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Pejo, Elia; Oliva, Jose M.; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw using different process configurations was evaluated using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, F12 and Red Star. The strain F12 has been engineerically modified to allow xylose consumption as cereal straw contain considerable ...

  2. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billard Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a, CBH2 (Cel6a, EG1 (Cel7b, EG2 (Cel5a, as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25% which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw.

  3. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-11-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h -1 ) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyethylenimine functionalized Fe3O4/steam-exploded rice straw composite as an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Zhikai; Chen, Haoyu; Kai, Chengcheng; Jiang, Man; Wang, Qun; Zhou, Zuowan

    2018-05-01

    Polyethyleneimine functionalized Fe3O4/steam-exploded rice straw composite (Fe3O4-PEI-SERS), which combines magnetic separation with adsorption of PEI functionalized biosorbent, was successfully prepared via a simple glutaraldehyde crosslinking method. Its adsorption potential for the removal of Cr(VI) was systematically studied in batch mode. Results showed that Cr(VI) adsorption on Fe3O4-PEI-SESERS was highly pH-dependent, and the optimum pH was 2.0. The time to reach equilibrium was related to initial Cr(VI) concentration and was 1 and 6 h for 200 and 300 mg/L of Cr(VI), respectively. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 280.11, 317.46 and 338.98 mg/g at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The competitive uptake from coexisting ions (K+, Na+, Cu2+, Cl- and NO3-) was insignificant except SO42-. After six adsorption/desorption cycles, the adsorbent retained good adsorption capacity. The Cr(VI) removal involved its partial reduction into Cr(III). Due to the properties of high adsorption capacity, strong magnetic responsiveness, good reusability and Cr(VI) detoxification, the Fe3O4-PEI-SESERS has a potential application in Cr(VI) removal from wastewater.

  5. Mild chemical pretreatments are sufficient for complete saccharification of steam-exploded residues and high ethanol production in desirable wheat accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lingqiang; Xia, Tao; Sun, Dan; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Yanting; Li, Ying; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Tong; Madadi, Meysam; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a combined pretreatment was performed in four wheat accessions using steam explosion followed with different concentrations of H 2 SO 4 or NaOH, leading to increased hexoses yields by 3-6 folds from enzymatic hydrolysis. Further co-supplied with 1% Tween-80, Talq90 and Talq16 accessions exhibited an almost complete enzymatic saccharification of steam-exploded (SE) residues after 0.5% H 2 SO 4 or 1% NaOH pretreatment, with the highest bioethanol yields at 18.5%-19.4%, compared with previous reports about wheat bioethanol yields at 11%-17% obtained under relatively strong pretreatment conditions. Furthermore, chemical analysis indicated that much enhanced saccharification in Talq90 and Talq16 may be partially due to their relatively low cellulose CrI and DP values and high hemicellulose Ara and H-monomer levels in raw materials and SE residues. Hence, this study has not only demonstrated a mild pretreatment technology for a complete saccharification, but it has also obtained the high ethanol production in desirable wheat accessions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  7. Comparing cell viability and ethanol fermentation of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on steam-exploded biomass treated with laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Ballesteros, Ignacio; González, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875 was compared to the industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red for lignocellulosic ethanol production. For it, whole slurry from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as raw material, and two process configurations, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF), were evaluated. Compared to S. cerevisiae, which was able to produce ethanol in both process configurations, K. marxianus was inhibited, and neither growth nor ethanol production occurred during the processes. However, laccase treatment of the whole slurry removed specifically lignin phenols from the overall inhibitory compounds present in the slurry and triggered the fermentation by K. marxianus, attaining final ethanol concentrations and yields comparable to those obtained by S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  9. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  10. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  11. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  12. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  13. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...

  14. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  16. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  17. Biodegradation of wheat straw by different isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Astaraei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of agricultural wastes due to their recycling and possible production of cost effective materials, have economic and ecological advantages. A biological method used for degrading agricultural wastes is a new method for improving the digestibility of these materials and favoring the ease of degradation by other microorganisms. This research was carried out to study the possible biodegradation of wheat straw by different species and isolates of Trichoderma fungi. Two weeks after inoculation of wheat straw by different isolates, oven drying in 75◦C, the samples were weighted and (Acid Detergent Fiber ADF and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber reductions of each sample under influence of fungal growth were compared with their controls. The results showed that biodegradation of wheat straw were closely related to fungi species and also its isolates. The Reductions in NDF and ADF of wheat straw by T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum were more pronounced compared to others, although T. reesei was superior in ADF of wheat straw reduction. It is concluded that for improving in digestibility and also shortening the timing of composting process, it is recommended to treat the wheat straw with Trichoderma fungi and especially with T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum that performed well and had excellent efficiencies.

  18. Hydration properties of briquetted wheat straw biomass feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fredriksson, Maria; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Biomass densification elevates the bulk density of the biomass, providing assistance in biomass handling, transportation, and storage. However, the density and the chemical/physical properties of the lignocellulosic biomass are affected. This study examined the changes introduced by a briquetting...... process with the aim of subsequent processing for 2nd generation bioethanol production. The hydration properties of the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw were characterized for water absorption via low field nuclear magnetic resonance and sorption balance measurements. The water was absorbed more...... rapidly and was more constrained in the briquetted straw compared to the unprocessed straw, potentially due to the smaller fiber size and less intracellular air of the briquetted straw. However, for the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw there was no difference between the hygroscopic sorption...

  19. Allelopathic appraisal effects of straw extract wheat varieties on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Ben HM, Ghorbal H, Kremer RJ, Oussama O (2001). Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, 21: 65-71. Dias LS (1991). Allelopathic activity of decomposing straw of wheat and oat and associated soil on some crop species. Soil Till.

  20. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  1. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  2. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to use wheat-straw in diets, this study was conducted (i) to determine the degree whereto the inclusion of wheat-straw in finishing diets for lambs affected digestibility, N retention and animal performance, and (ii) to evaluate ammoniated wheat straw as roughage component in a balanced diet, containing. >60% concentrates ...

  3. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  4. Characteristics and community diversity of a wheat straw-colonizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A microbial community named WSD-5 was successfully selected from plant litter and soil after longterm directed acclimation at normal temperature. After 15 days of cultivation at 30°C, the degradation rate of wheat straw by WSD-5 was 75.6%. For cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the degradation rates were 94.2, 81.9 ...

  5. Substitution of lucerne hay by ammoniated wheat straw in growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucerne hay (LH) was substituted by urea-ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) in four lamb-growth diets, all containing 60% roughage. ... Die ekonomiese voordeel van die verplasing van 'n hoë kwaliteit ruvoer, soos LH, met'n goedkoper bron (AKS), moet opgeweeg word teen die laer DMI en GDT, sowel as die nadelige effek ...

  6. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  7. Dehalogenation and decolorization of wheat straw- basedbleachery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Differences in the persistence of various bleachery effluent lignins against attack by white-rot fungi. Biotechnol. Lett. 14: 869-874. Nonwood (2000). Biological Materials for Nonwood Products, Upgrading straw into pulp, pulp and polymeric material. available at http://www.nf-2000.org/secure/Eclair/F141.htm.

  8. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...

  9. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  10. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM STEAM-EXPLODED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Ibrahim; Foster A. Agblevor; Waleed K. El-Zawawy

    2010-01-01

    The isolation of cellulose from different lignocellulosic biomass sources such as corn cob, banana plant, cotton stalk, and cotton gin waste, was studied using a steam explosion technology as a pre-treatment process for different times followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching. The agricultural residues were steam-exploded at 220 ºC for 1-4 min for the corn cob, 2 and 4 min for the banana plant, 3-5 min for the cotton gin waste, and for 5 min for the cotton stalk. The steamed fibers were water ...

  11. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıc Unal; Gulecyuz Emre

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV) and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD) of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws), 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available) and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses) in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial...

  12. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  13. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wu, Min; Lin, Xiaobo; Huang, Pei; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe 3 O 4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe 3 O 4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe 3 O 4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L -1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  14. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  15. Fibres and energy from wheat straw by simple practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leponiemi, A.

    2011-06-15

    The overall purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibilities of wheat straw for fibre and energy production and address the question of whether or not it is possible to develop a cost-effective process for producing good quality pulp from wheat straw for current paper or paperboard products. In addition, in light of the green energy boom, the question of whether fibre production could give added value to energy production using wheat straw is addressed. Due to the logistics of the bulky raw material, the process should be applied on a small scale that determines the requirements for the process. The process should be simple, have low chemical consumption and be environmentally safe. The processes selected for the study were based on an initial hot water treatment. Actual defibration in the 'chemical' approach was then performed using a subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching process or in the 'mechanical' approach through mechanical refining. In both approaches, energy can be produced from lower quality material such as dissolved solids or fines. In this work, one of the primary aims besides the development of the above-mentioned process is to investigate the chemical storage of wheat straw which decays easily between harvesting periods and examine its effects on pulping and pulp properties. In addition, the aim of this work is to determine the market potential for non-wood pulp and evaluate non-wood pulp production. The results showed that the 'chemical' approach produced fibres for printing and writing. The quality of the pulp was relatively good, but the chemical consumption at the target brightness of 75% was high, indicating that a chemical recovery would be needed unless the brightness target could be significantly reduced. The 'mechanical' approach produced unbleached fibres for fluting and the energy production from fines and dissolved solids generated additional income. The results also showed that it is possible

  16. Ethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw and the process simulation using artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talebnia, Farid; Mighani, Moein; Rahimnejad, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    and 67% of maximum theoretical value. Next, data of the experimental runs were exploited for modeling the processes by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and performance of the developed models was evaluated. The ANN-based models showed a great potential for time-course prediction of the studied processes....... Efficiency of the joint network for simulating the whole process was also determined and promising results were obtained....

  17. Determining In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics and Methane Production of Wheat Straw and Soybean Straw Pelleted with Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEÇYÜZ, Emre; KILIÇ, Ünal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed todetermine the effects of pelletting on the invitro gas productions (IVGP), invitro digestibilities and methane productions of wheat straw and soy strawpelletted with different additives such as molasses, guar meal and sepolite. Inthe study, 2x2x4 factorial experimental design was used and total 16 groups (2straws (wheat-soybean), 2 different sepiolite applications (absent-present) and4 additives (control, guar meal,molasses and guar meal +molasses) wereformed.The...

  18. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıc Unal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws, 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial design. A Daisy incubator was used to determine the IVTD of the feeds. According to the results, molasses and guar meal increased the RFV of soybean straws, while molasses and guar meal treatments and sepiolite did not affect the RFV of wheat straws. It was observed that sepiolite increased the RFV’s of soybean straw for guar meal and guar meal+molasses. The higher IVTD’s were found for guar meal (without sepiolite treatment of soybean straw and guar meal (with sepiolite treatment of wheat straw. Molasses and guar meal addition to wheat and soybean straws improved the crude protein contents. In conclusion, straw pelleting can be used as an alternative forage conservation method to close the gap in forage supply during the winter.

  19. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    2014) at 3.50 and 3.95 $ per kg product (for S1 and S2 respectively) and a plant capacity of 10,000 tonnes indicated an internal rate of return of 14.92% and 12.42% and payback time of 4.28 and 4.70 years for S1 and S2 respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that under the assumptions of the present......The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification...

  20. Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH - /kg volatile solids, at 90 0 C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 0 C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemicellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium- and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments

  1. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  2. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Ulrik B. Henriksen; Anand R. Sanadi

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing wood biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit...

  3. Intrinsic kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw during torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2013-01-01

    analyzer by coupling with a mass spectrometer. The kinetic parameters obtained by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking initial dynamic heating period into account can accurately describe the experimental results with different heating programs. Activation energies and pre......-exponential parameters obtained for the two steps are: 71.0 and 76.6 kJ mol−1, 3.48 × 104 and 4.34 × 103 s−1, respectively. The model and these parameters were also proven to be able to predict the residual mass of wheat straw in a batch scale torrefaction reactor. By analyzing the gas products in situ, the formation...... of water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, methyl chloride, traces of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were found at torrefaction temperatures of 250 and 300 °C. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  4. Treatment of wheat straw pulp wastewater by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianmin; Deng Yu; Li Lanqingzi

    2005-01-01

    A microwave treatment has been developed for decoloration of wheat straw pulp wastewater. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and steel slag are used as catalyst. Effective factors on chrominance removal, such as quantity and ratio of the mixed catalyst, microwave power, and reaction time, were studied. Over 95% of chrominance removal from 50 mL wastewater could be achieved by putting in it 10 gram of GAC and steel slag at a ratio of 1:23 and operating the microwave oven at 800 W for 10 minutes. It was find that when the catalyst was used for the fourth time, the chrominance removal could still be more than 80%. A kinetics study on the treatment suggested that the decoloration process accorded to a fist-order reaction. (authors)

  5. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  7. Recycling cellulases during the hydrolysis of steam exploded and ethanol pretreated Lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Chandra, Richard P; Saddler, Jack N

    2007-01-01

    Recycling of cellulases is one way of reducing the high cost of enzymes during the bioconversion process. The effects of surfactant addition on enzymatic hydrolysis and the potential recycling of cellulases were studied during the hydrolysis of steam exploded Lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol pretreated Lodgepole pine (EPLP). Three cellulase preparations (Celluclast, Spezyme CP, and MSUBC) were evaluated to determine their hydrolysis efficiencies over multiple rounds of recycling. The surfactant, Tween 80, significantly increased the yield from 63% to 86% during the hydrolysis of the SELP substrate. The addition of surfactant to the hydrolysis of the EPLP substrate increased the free enzymes in the supernatant from 71% of the initial protein to 96%. Based on the Langmuir adsorption constants, cellulases (Celluclast and Spezyme CP) from Trichoderma reesei showed a higher affinity (3.48 mL/mg and 3.17 mL/mg) for the EPLP substrate than did the Penicillium enzyme (0.62 mg/mg). The Trichoderma reesei enzyme was used in four successive rounds of enzyme recycling using surfactant addition and readsorption onto fresh substrates during the hydrolysis of EPLP. In contrast, the Penicillium-derived enzyme preparation (MSUBC) could only be recycled once. When the same recycling strategy was carried out using the SELP substrate, the hydrolysis yield declined during each enzyme recycling round. These results suggested that the higher lignin content of the SELP substrate, and the low affinity of cellulases for the SELP substrate limited enzyme recycling by readsorption onto fresh substrates.

  8. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  9. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...... of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0...... increased.Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C.The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw...

  10. Characteristics of Wheat Straw Lignins from Ethanol-based Organosolv Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Telysheva, G.; Arshanitsa, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Wild, de P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-purified lignins resulting from ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw were characterized for the presence of impurities (carbohydrates and ash), functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl), phenyl-propanoid structural moieties, molar mass distribution and thermal

  11. Effect of gamma ray radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunping; Shen Zhiqiang; Yu Guoce; Wang Jianlong

    2009-01-01

    The effect and aftereffect of radiation pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma ray were studied. It is shown that irradiation can cause significant breakdown of the structure of wheat straw. The mass loss of wheat straw increases and the size distribution after crushing moves to fine particles at elevated irradiation doses. A synergistic effect between irradiation and crushing was observed, with a glucose yield of 10.2% at a dose of 500 kGy with powder of 0.109 mm. The aftereffect of irradiation has important impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The aftereffect of 400 kGy irradiation accounts for 20.1% of the initial effect for glucose production, and the aftereffects of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kGy account for 12.9%, 14.9%, 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively, for reducing sugar production. (authors)

  12. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation–alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules. - Highlights: • Pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH was investigated. • Irradiation pretreatment can significantly decrease NaOH consumption. • Reducing sugar yield reached 72.67% at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h.

  13. The Effect of wheat straw particle size on the mechanical and water absorption properties of wheat straw/low density polyethylene biocomposites for packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Tajeddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural composites with biodegradability properties can be used as a renewable alternative to replacing conventional plastics. Thus, to reduce the plastics applications in the packaging industry, biocomposites content of wheat straw (with 40, 100, 140 mesh as a natural biodegradable composite and low density polyethylene (LDPE as a common synthetic polymer in the packaging industry were prepared and characterized by the mechanical and water absorption properties. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride was used as a compatibilizer material. Morphology of wheat straw flour was studied by optical microscope to obtain the aspect ratio (L/D. The tensile and flexural tests were applied for determining mechanical properties and scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for particles distribution and sample structures. The water absorption of the samples was calculated by weight difference. The results indicated that the particle size of wheat straw four and the L/D amount are Significantly affected on the tensile strength and water absorption of the samples. However, the effect of wheat sraw particle size on the flexural strength was not significant. Overall conclusions show that by increasing the particle size of the filler (wheat straw, can prepare the biocomposite with better tensile strength and less water absorption compared with smaller particle size.

  14. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  15. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  16. Predicting the ethanol potential of wheat straw using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Åsmund; Bruun, Sander; Lindedam, Jane

    2017-01-01

    of using near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the ethanol potential of wheat straw by analyzing more than 1000 samples from different wheat varieties and growth conditions. During the calibration model development, the prime emphasis was to investigate the correlation structure between the two major...

  17. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  18. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Saha, B.C.; Cotta, M.A.; Singh, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An economic evaluation of bioconversion of wheat straw to butanol was performed. ► Wheat straw and utilities impact butanol economics significantly. ► Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide affect butanol production cost adversely. ► Annexation of butanol plant to an existing distillery improves butanol economics. ► Butanol production cost from wheat straw was estimated to be $1.31–1.00/kg. - Abstract: A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 × 10 6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw (WS) was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 × 10 6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 × 10 6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital cost for this plant was $193.07 × 10 6 . This exercise was based in part on data generated in our laboratory and in part on data obtained from literature. The design, mass balance, and energy balance simulations were performed using SuperPro Designer (Version 8.5003, 2012). For butanol production wheat straw would be pretreated with dilute (1% v/v) sulfuric acid at 121 °C for 1 h followed by separate hydrolysis (using enzymes), fermentation and recovery. Enzyme cost for wheat straw hydrolysis was adapted from literature ($0.16/kg butanol). Utilities which included steam/high pressure steam, cooling/chilling water, and electricity represented the major cost of the operation (49.18%) followed by raw materials (26.81%). Based on batch fermentation of wheat straw hydrolysate and distillative recovery of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE), butanol production cost was estimated to be $1.30/kg for a grass-rooted/green-field plant. Application of a membrane recovery process could reduce this price to $1.00/kg for a plant annexed to an existing distillery.

  19. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2012-01-01

    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  20. Pyrolysis Kinetic Modelling of Wheat Straw from the Pannonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pešenjanski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis/devolatilization is a basic step of thermochemical processes and requires fundamental characterization. In this paper, the kinetic model of pyrolysis is specified as a one-step global reaction. This type of reaction is used to describe the thermal degradation of wheat straw samples by measuring rates of mass loss of solid matter at a linear increase in temperature. The mentioned experiments were carried out using a derivatograph in an open-air environment. The influence of different factors was investigated, such as particle size, humidity levels, and the heating rate in the kinetics of devolatilization. As the measured values of mass loss and temperature functions transform in Arrhenius coordinates, the results are shown in the form of saddle curves. Such characteristics cannot be approximated with one equation in the form of Arrhenius law. For use in numerical applications, transformed functions can be approximated by linear regression for three separate intervals. Analysis of measurement resulting in granulation and moisture content variations shows that these factors have no significant influence. Tests of heating rate variations confirm the significance of this impact, especially in warmer regions. The influence of this factor should be more precisely investigated as a general variable, which should be the topic of further experiments.

  1. WHEAT STRAW CONVERSION BY ENZYMATIC SYSTEM OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stajic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of whether various nitrogen sources and concentrations affect characteristics of selected G. lucidum ligninolytic enzymes participating in wheat straw fermentation. This is the first study reporting the presence of versatile peroxidase activity in crude extract of G. lucidum culture, as well as isoforms profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. NH4NO3 was the optimum nitrogen source for laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activity, while peptone was the optimum one for versatile peroxidase activity. Four bands with laccase activity were obtained by native PAGE and IEF separations from medium enriched with inorganic nitrogen source, and only two bands from medium containing organic source. Medium composition was not shown to affect isoenzyme patterns of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Four isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and three of versatile peroxidase were obtained on native PAGE. By IEF separation, five isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and only two of versatile peroxidase were observed. The results demonstrated that G. lucidum has potential for mineralization and transformation of various agricultural residues and should take more significant participation in large-scale biotechnological processes.

  2. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  3. Adsorption of Pb(II from Aqueous Solutions on Wheat Straw: Effects of Humification and Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is one of the methods used for the separation of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to investigate wheat straw humification and the capability of its microorganisms for the biosorption of Pb from aqueous solutions. Wheat straw (3 solution (0.001 N with different Pb concentrations at pH 6. Among the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkine models, only the latter failed to fit Pb adsorption data. The highest sorption capacities (qmax were obtained by the Langmuir model for the humified and unsterile sample (108.41 mg g‒1 and the lowest was obtained for the fresh and sterile sample (63.36 mg g‒1. Lead adsorption increased significantly with incubation time and its highest values were recorded with unsterile straw samples taken on days 1, 20, and 60 which were equal to 32.21, 43, and 60.96%, respectively, for the highest Pb concentration. The Langmuir constant (Kl and Freundlich constants (Kf and n were significantly higher for the more humified wheat straw samples compared to those for raw straw. All the adsorption parameters recorded higher values with the unsterile wheat straw compared to the sterile one, indicating the ability of the microorganisms to adsorb Pb from aqueous solutions.

  4. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. STUDY ON POZZOLANA ACTIVITY OF WHEAT STRAW ASH AS POTENTIAL ADMIXTURE FOR BLENDED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Jankovsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw ash coming from combustion of packed wheat straw was studied as a potential pozzolana active admixture for blended cements. X-Ray fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to examine chemical and mineralogical composition, morphology and elemental distribution of a raw untreated ash. Due to high carbon content, the wheat straw ash was thermally treated for 2 hours at 700 °C and analyzed again using the same analytic techniques. Thermal treatment process was monitored using simultaneous thermal analysis and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The pozzolana activity was assessed using Chapelle and Frattini tests. In the next step, wheat straw ash was used for preparation of blended cement pastes. The content of ash in the blends was 10, 15, and 20% by mass. For the hardened pastes, basic physical properties, mechanical parameters, and pore size distribution were measured. For fresh past mixes, workability was tested. Moreover, leachability of chlorides, nitrates, sulfates and alkalis from paste samples was studied. The experimentally obtained data pointed to the high pozzolana activity of wheat straw ash and sufficient mechanical properties of cement pastes with the ash content up to 20 mass% of cement. In summary, the analyzed waste product from biomass combustion was found to be applicable as a part of cement-based blended binder providing economic and environmental benefits for concrete industry.

  6. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Estrine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals.

  7. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  8. Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass residues: Comparative study of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Pandey, Nidhi; Bisht, Yashasvi; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-08-01

    Pyrolysis studies on conventional biomass were carried out in fixed bed reactor at different temperatures 300, 350, 400 and 450°C. Agricultural residues such as corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk showed that the optimum temperatures for these residues are 450, 400, 400 and 450°C respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield in case of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk are 47.3, 36.7, 28.4 and 38.1wt% respectively. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. All bio-oils contents were mainly composed of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The higher area percentages of phenolic compounds were observed in the corn cob bio-oil than other bio-oils. From FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups for all bio-oils and distribution of products is different due to differences in the composition of agricultural biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayan, N.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. Methods and Results: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analysed for ergosterol content, in vitro

  10. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  11. Wheat straw as ruminant feed : effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw

  12. External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Laetitia Andrée; Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops for food and feed and its straw is a potential feedstock for biorefinery purposes. Nitrogen (N) is an essential input factor in wheat agriculture but no information is available on how it affects straw composition during maturation and at harvest....... To investigate this, we conducted a large scale field experiment in which wheat plants were cultivated at three levels of externally applied N. The plants were harvested at different stages of maturation, spanning green straw at heading (ear emergence) to fully yellow straw at final maturity. Defined parts...

  13. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Bruchem, van J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM).

  14. The effect of temperature on the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheat straw. Urea was added at 75 g/kg throughout. Treated straw was sealed in 96 airtight plastic bottles of. 1000 ml for periods of 0, 1,2,4,6 and 8 weeks. Samples were dried at 59°Cin a fan-oven and subsequently analysed according to the in vitro technique (Engels & Van der. Merwe, 1967) for organic matter digestibility ...

  15. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  17. Potential of pelleted wheat straw as an alternative bedding material for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chickens are commonly placed on wood shavings as litter, but alternative litter sources are required due to the scarcity of wood shavings in many parts of the world. This study aimed to compare pelleted straw, chopped wheat straw, wood shavings, rice hulls, and shredded paper as litter candidates. Three-hundred-sixty Ross 308 one-day-old male chicks were used in this study. There were 5 litter treatments with 6 replicate pens, each with 12 birds. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds reared on pelleted straw was improved compared (P Litter source did not affect the occurrence of breast blisters at d 24, 29, or 35. On d 24, 29, and 35, pelleted straw litter was less caked than chopped straw and shredded paper (P broiler health, performance, and welfare are needed to determine the economic benefits of pelleted litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  19. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  20. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  1. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Naveed, S.; Yousaf, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  2. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zhiyuan; Long, Donglei; Mao, Hongxiang; Wen, Jiangnan; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure, while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 dry matter (DM), respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in three replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment pro...

  5. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel approach for delignification of wheat straw for paper manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Mandar P; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Csoka, Levente

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with application of hydrodynamic cavitation for intensification of delignification of wheat straw as an essential step in the paper manufacturing process. Wheat straw was first treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 48 h and subsequently alkali treated wheat straw was subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation reactor used in the work is basically a stator and rotor assembly, where the rotor is provided with indentations and cavitational events are expected to occur on the surface of rotor as well as within the indentations. It has been observed that treatment of alkali treated wheat straw in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for 10-15 min increases the tensile index of the synthesized paper sheets to about 50-55%, which is sufficient for paper board manufacture. The final mechanical properties of the paper can be effectively managed by controlling the processing parameters as well as the cavitational parameters. It has also been established that hydrodynamic cavitation proves to be an effective method over other standard digestion techniques of delignification in terms of electrical energy requirements as well as the required time for processing. Overall, the work is first of its kind application of hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the effectiveness of delignification and presents novel results of significant interest to the paper and pulp industry opening an entirely new area of application of cavitational reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing lambs. TS Brand, SWP Cloete, F Franck, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Preservation of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes treated wheat straw under anaerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Lei; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No attention has been paid so far to the preservation of fungal-treated lignocellulose for longer periods. In the present study, we treated wheat straw (WS) with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8weeks and assessed changes in pH, chemical

  8. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase

  9. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas

  10. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  12. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  13. The fIXationof nitrogen in urea ammoniated wheat straw by means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fixation of nitrogen in urea ammoniated wheat straw by means of different acids was investigated in two laboratory trials and in a voluntary-intake trial with adult SA Mutton Merino wethers. Results from the laboratory trials showed hydrochloric and sulphuric acid to be superior to phosphoric and acetic acid as fixation ...

  14. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  15. Utilization of agriculture wastes. part I. production of fungal protein from rice and wheat straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, N.; Hussain, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Agricultural waste of rice and wheat straws were studied for the production of protein and biomass. As these wastes have low protein contents as attempt is made to increase the protein and biomass content of these wastes so as to produce a better product for consumption as food. The studies were conducted using various media and various incubation periods. Some inorganic salts and molasses were added to improve the cultivation of fungi. Aspergillus oryzae produced the results due to its rapid growth which minimized the chance of contamination. Seven days incubation gave the most favourable results in both the agricultural wastes. The maximum production of biomass (33.33%) with a protein value of 20% was obtained with 450 g of rice straw in media no. 2 whereas 400 g of wheat straw on 6 litres of medium produced the best results with 20% biomass and a protein value of 20%. (author)

  16. Steam-exploded biomass saccharification is predominately affected by lignocellulose porosity and largely enhanced by Tween-80 in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Alam, Aftab; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Yanting; Xia, Tao; Huang, Jiangfeng; Li, Ying; Zahoor; Wei, Xiaoyang; Hao, Bo; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, total ten Miscanthus accessions exhibited diverse cell wall compositions, leading to largely varied hexoses yields at 17%-40% (% cellulose) released from direct enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded (SE) residues. Further supplied with 2% Tween-80 into the enzymatic digestion, the Mis7 accession showed the higher hexose yield by 14.8-fold than that of raw material, whereas the Mis10 had the highest hexoses yield at 77% among ten Miscanthus accessions. Significantly, this study identified four wall polymer features that negatively affect biomass saccharification as pbiomass enzymatic digestion. Hence, this study provides the potential strategy to enhance biomass saccharification using optimal biomass process technology and related genetic breeding in Miscanthus and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  18. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  19. The effect of wheat straw quality on the rate of its mineralisation in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatuśko Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

  20. Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyson, E.; Verachtert, H. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven (Belgium). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1991-12-01

    The influence of the growth of three higher fungi on the composition of wheat straw was investigated. Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. sajor-caju and Lentinus edodes grew very well on lignocellulosic substrates, breaking down a considerable amount of lignin. The initial lignin concentration of straw was halved after 12 weeks of fungal growth, doubling the enzymic digestibility. Together with lignin, the higher fungi consumed half of the amount of hemicellulose (i.e. 15%), leaving cellulose fairly intact, which should remain as an energy source for ruminants. (orig.).

  1. Environmentally Friendly Utilization of Wheat Straw Ash in Cement-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The open burning of biomass residue constitutes a major portion of biomass burning and leads to air pollution, smog, and health hazards. Various alternatives have been suggested for open burning of crop residue; however, each of them has few inherent drawbacks. This research suggests an alternative method to dispose wheat straw, i.e., to calcine it in a controlled environment and use the resulting ash as a replacement of cement by some percentage in cement-based composites. When wheat straw, an agricultural product, is burned, it is very rich in SiO2, which has a pozzolanic character. However, the pozzolanic character is sensitive to calcination temperature and grinding conditions. According to the authors’ best knowledge, until now, no systematic study has been devised to assess the most favorable conditions of burning and grinding for pozzolanic activity of wheat straw ash (WSA. Hence, a systematic experimental program was designed. In Phase I, calcination of WS was carried out at 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C for 2 h. The resulting ashes were tested for color change, weight loss, XRD, XRF, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and pozzolanic activity index (PAI tests. From test results, it was found that beyond 600 °C, the amorphous silica transformed into crystalline silica. The WSA calcined at 600 °C was found to satisfy Chapelle and Fratini tests requirements, as well as the PAI requirement of ASTM at 28 days. Therefore, WSA produced at 600 °C (WSA600 showed the best pozzolanic performance. In Phase II, WSA600 was ground for various intervals (15–240 min. These ground ashes were tested for SEM, Blaine fineness, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and PAI tests. From test results, it was observed that after 120 min of grinding, there was an increase of 48% in Blaine surface area, with a consequence that WSA-replaced cement cubes achieved a compressive strength almost similar to that of the control mix. Conclusively, wheat straw calcined at

  2. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Sadeghi; Reza Valizadeh; Abasali naserian; Abdolmansoor Tahmasebi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for the...

  3. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Robert; Fourtis, Lukas; Limbeck, Andreas; Gamauf, Christian; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing ...

  4. Fungal strain and incubation period affect chemical composition and nutrient availability of wheat straw for rumen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyen, Van Dinh; Cone, J.W.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Eleven white-rot fungi were examined for their potency to degrade lignin and to improve the rumen fermentability of wheat straw. The straw was inoculated with the fungi and incubated under solid state conditions at 24 °C for 0–49 days to determine changes in in vitro gas production and chemical

  5. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  6. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  7. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  8. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  9. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  10. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigations of the in-sacco digestibility of variously pretreated and γ-irradiated wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Ochrimenko, W.I.; Flachowsky, G.; Hennig, A.; Baer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ dry matter loss after rumen incubation of chemically pretreated and γ-irradiated wheat straw was measured using the nylon bag method. Pretreatment consisted of NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 and a mixture of NaOH and KOH (2 and 4% of straw dry matter), and irradiation doses were 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 MGy. Chemical treatment increased the dry matter dissappearance and it was further increased by irradiation. The dose-related effect of γ-rays was influenced by the kind of pretreatment. Increased washout due to solubilizing and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The microbial utilization of H 2 O-insoluble straw dry matter was largely affected by chemical treatment. (author)

  12. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    . By preparing samples of various leaf-to-stem (L/S) ratios, we found shifting conversion behavior as processing parameters were modified. Increasing the enzyme dosage, pretreatment temperature and pretreatment time all significantly improved conversion rates in samples with more than 50% leaf content, whereas...... less impact was observed on samples with less than 50% leaf content. Enzyme affinity, desorption and readsorption with leaf and stem fractions may affect the sugar yield in wheat straw saccharification. The data suggest that the L/S ratio is an important parameter when adjusting or optimizing...... conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  13. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  14. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  15. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ENHANCEMENT IN IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT STRAW OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS DURING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh K. Sharma; Daljit S. Arora

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out to find out the differences in the chemical composition of wheat straw obtained from three different regions of India, to compare their susceptibility to fungal degradation, and subsequently to evaluate the correlation between lignin loss and improvement in in vitro digestibility. Four Phlebia species were used to degrade different wheat straw samples during 30 days of incubation. In wheat straw obtained from central zone of India, most of the fungi were more selecti...

  17. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pre-treated wheat straw with white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Albino A; Freitas, Gil S; Marques, Guilhermina S M; Sampaio, Ana; Fraga, Irene S; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Bezerra, Rui M F

    2010-08-01

    Wheat straw was submitted to a pre-treatment by the basidiomycetous fungi Euc-1 and Irpex lacteus, aiming to improve the accessibility of cellulose towards enzymatic hydrolysis via previous selective bio-delignification. This allowed the increase of substrate saccharification nearly four and three times while applying the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively. The cellulose/lignin ratio increased from 2.7 in the untreated wheat straw to 5.9 and 4.6 after the bio-treatment by the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively, thus evidencing the highly selective lignin biodegradation. The enzymatic profile of both fungi upon bio-treatment of wheat straw have been assessed including laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, avicelase and feruloyl esterase activities. The difference in efficiency and selectivity of delignification within the two fungi treatments was interpreted in terms of specific lignolytic enzyme profiles and moderate xylanase and cellulolytic activities. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (pintake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

  19. Potential Application of Ganoderma lucidum in Solid State Fermentation of Primary Sludge and Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Furlan de Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes and sugars by the fungus Ganoderma lucidum during solid state fermentation (SSF using primary sludge (PS and wheat straw (WS as substrates at different concentration ratios. For fungal growth on SSF, 20 g of each blended substrate was added to Erlenmeyer flasks, which were autoclaved and maintained at room temperature prior to inoculation, whereas for submerged fermentation (SF, flasks containing 25 mL of potato dextrose broth (PDB were used as standard to check the differences between both methods of growth, and then all flasks were incubated at 25 °C in the dark, during 8 and 16 days. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis from the protein extract obtained from solid state fermentation strongly suggested that G. lucidum could produce lignocellulolytic enzymes to degrade primary sludge and wheat straw. Among the sugars, the production of xylose and mannose was disturbed by adding primary sludge. With the addition of primary sludge, high glucuronic acid content was observed. The results suggest that the combination of primary sludge and wheat straw, at concentration ratios of 1:1 to 1:3, respectively, can be used as a raw material in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes and the bioconversion of other types of biomass by G. lucidum.

  20. Biological upgrading of wheat straw through solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces cyaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, M.; Hernandez, M.; Perez-Leblie, M.I.; Arias, M.E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia; Ball, A.S. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Huerta, S. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia; Barrasa, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal

    2000-07-01

    The biological upgrading of wheat straw with Streptomyces cyaneus was examined through the analysis of chemical and structural changes of the transformed substrate during solid-state fermentation. Analysis of enzymes produced during the growth of S. cyaneus showed that phenol oxidase was the predominant enzyme. The reduction in Klason lignin content (16.4%) in the transformed substrate indicated the ability of this strain to delignify lignocellulose residues and suggests a role for phenol oxidase in the bacterial delignification process. Microscopic examination of the transformed substrate showed that the initial attack occurred at the less lignified cell walls (phloem and parenchyma), while xylem and sclerenchyma were slowly degraded. The pattern of degradation of sclerenchymatic tissues by S. cyaneus showed delamination between primary and secondary walls and between S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} due to partial removal of lignin. In the later stages of the decay a disorganization of the secondary walls was detected on account of fibrillation of this layer. A comparison of the properties of the pulp from wheat straw transformed by S. cyaneus with untreated wheat straw showed that pretreatment improved the characteristics that determine the quality of pulp. This was indicated by an increase in pulp brightness and by a decrease in the kappa number. These changes occurred without significantly affecting the viscosity, a measure of the quality of the cellulose fibres. These results support the potential application of this organism or its oxidative enzymes in biopulping. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  2. Combined bioaugmentation with anaerobic ruminal fungi and fermentative bacteria to enhance biogas production from wheat straw and mushroom spent straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Alberto; Dottorini, Giulia; Massini, Giulia; Mazzurco Miritana, Valentina; Signorini, Antonella; Lembo, Giuseppe; Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2018-07-01

    Bioaugmentation with anaerobic ruminal fungi and a pool of hydrogen-producing fermenting bacteria was tested on wheat straw (WS) and mushroom spent straw (MSS) with the aim of improving anaerobic digestion performance. Batch tests were set up to simulate a Bioaugmentation Anaerobic Digestion (BAD) treatment comparing single- (I-BAD) and two-stage (II-BAD) process configurations, at two reactor scales, 120 and 1200 ml (×10). In both cases, higher CH 4 cumulative production was obtained in the II-BAD configuration on WS (65.1 ± 8.9 Nml and 922 ± 73.8 Nml respectively). The II-BADx10 tests allowed increasing CH 4 production (≃290% and ≃330% on WS and MSS, respectively) when compared to the unaugmented condition. Final results highlighted the achievable advantages of the two stage configuration in terms of CH 4 production enhancement. Microbial community investigations confirmed the efficiency of the bioaugmentation treatment and revealed that such a result was mainly related to the Methanosarcinales increase, mostly composed by Methanosaeta. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  4. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  5. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  6. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  7. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirmal, Chumangalah; Dahman, Yaser [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment). This represented {approx}5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied). Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  8. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-10-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed.

  9. In-situ injection of potassium hydroxide into briquetted wheat straw and meadow grass - Effect on biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Moset, Veronica; Li, Wanwu; Chen, Chang; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass. The highest biomethane yield from wheat straw briquettes of 353mL.g -1 VS was obtained with 6.27% (w/w) potassium hydroxide injection, which was 14% higher than from untreated wheat straw. The hydrolysis rates of wheat straw and meadow grass increased from 4.27×10 -2 to 5.32×10 -2 d -1 and 4.19×10 -2 to 6.00×10 -2 d -1 , respectively. The low water usage and no wastewater production make this a promising technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different strategies for degradation of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Santana, Eliane Silva; Zanini, Guilherme Keppe; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; de Oliveira Pontes, Angélica; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Dal'Mas, Roberta Maria Menegaldo Tavares Soares; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2017-06-30

    Second generation (2G) ethanol is produced by breaking down lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In Brazil, sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as the lignocellulosic residue for this biofuel production. The enzymatic cocktails for the degradation of biomass-derived polysaccharides are mostly produced by fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. However, it is not yet fully understood how these microorganisms degrade plant biomass. In order to identify transcriptomic changes during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, we conducted a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling of both fungi growing on SEB as carbon source. Particular attention was focused on CAZymes, sugar transporters, transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins related to lignocellulose degradation. Although genes coding for the main enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction were expressed by both fungal strains since the beginning of the growth in SEB, significant differences were found in their expression profiles. The expression of these enzymes is mainly regulated at the transcription level, and A. niger and T. reesei also showed differences in TFs content and in their expression. Several sugar transporters that were induced in both fungal strains could be new players on biomass degradation besides their role in sugar uptake. Interestingly, our findings revealed that in both strains several genes that code for proteins of unknown function and pro-oxidant, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were induced during growth in SEB as carbon source, but their specific roles on lignocellulose degradation remain to be elucidated. This is the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the degradation of pretreated bagasse by two important fungi using the RNA-seq technology. It was possible to identify a set of genes that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. The data suggest that these two microorganisms employ different strategies for biomass

  12. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and steam-exploded Salix with recirculation of liquid digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Sapci, Zehra; Linjordet, Roar; Schnürer, Anna; Morken, John

    2014-04-01

    The effects of recirculating the liquid fraction of the digestate during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of steam-exploded Salix and cow manure were investigated in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors. An average organic loading rate of 2.6 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days were employed. Co-digestion of Salix and manure gave better methane yields than digestion of manure alone. Also, a 16% increase in the methane yield was achieved when digestate was recirculated and used instead of water to dilute the feedstock (1:1 dilution ratio). The reactor in which the larger fraction of digestate was recirculated (1:3 dilution ratio) gave the highest methane yields. Ammonia and volatile fatty acids did not reach inhibitory levels, and some potentially inhibitory compounds released during steam explosion (i.e., furfural and 5-hydroxy methyl furfural) were only detected at trace levels throughout the entire study period. However, accumulation of solids, which was more pronounced in the recycling reactors, led to decreased methane yields in those systems after three HRTs. Refraining from the use of fresh water to dilute biomass with a high-solids content and obtaining a final digestate with increased dry matter content might offer important economic benefits in full-scale processes. To ensure long-term stability in such an approach, it would be necessary to optimize separation of the fraction of digestate to be recirculated and also perform proper monitoring to avoid accumulation of solids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-harvest processing methods for reduction of silica and alkali metals in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Shaw, Peter G; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2003-01-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950 degrees C is desirable, corresponding to an SiO2:K2O weight ratio of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, % solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  14. Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

    2002-04-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  15. Size exclusion chromatography for the removal of pigments from extracellular ligninolytic enzyme extracts from decayed wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dharmendra; Patel, Bhavesh; Modi, Hasmukh; Vyas, Bharat Rajiv Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw was carried out by a native white rot basidiomycete Daedaleopsis flavida strain 5A. Extract prepared from the 12-day decayed wheat straw contained extracellular ligninolytic enzymes like manganese peroxidase (MnP), manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase along with straw-degraded products and pigments. Sephacryl S-200 size exclusion chromatography in 16/100 column was used for the separation of these ligninolytic enzymes and straw-degraded products and pigments. Recovery of pigment-free ligninolytic enzyme activities as protein was 40% of the total proteins loaded and specific LiP activity increased 34 fold after size exclusion chromatography. Thus accurate estimation of LiP by veratryl alcohol oxidation assay was possible only after the removal of interfering pigments. The reproducibility of size exclusion chromatography is adjudged satisfactory from the consistent results obtained after seven repetitive uses of matrices.

  16. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  17. Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van M.P.; Toth, K.; Schols, H.A.; Szakacs, G.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and

  18. Registration of 'Linkert' spring wheat with good straw strength and field resistance to the Ug99 family of stem rust races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw strength is one of the most important criteria for spring wheat cultivar selection in the north central U.S. ‘Linkert’ (PI 672164) hard red spring wheat was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2013 and has very good straw strength, high grain protein con...

  19. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension suppleme......The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...... hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass...

  20. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Saady, N.M.C.; Gilbert, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a novel psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (feces) and wheat straw (WS). Three feeding strategies (WS, feces, and feces plus WS) were assessed in pseudo sequential batch reactors (PSBR) during three successive cycles of around 21 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Average specific methane yields on VS fed (L kg −1 ) of 129 ± 17 (WS only), 164 ± 23 (feces only (10–11% TS)) and 152 ± 6 (a mixture of feces plus WS (16% TS)) were obtained during the last three successive cycles. The average methane production rates on VS fed were 3.5 ± 1.5 and 3.6 ± 1.3 and 4.1 ± 0.4 L kg −1  d −1 for the three feeding strategies, respectively. The successive cycles revealed that the psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of high-solid content of cow feces and wheat straw is a reproducible process, practically feasible, and as efficient as mesophilic dry anaerobic digestion given that a well-adapted inoculum is developed and maintained. - Highlights: • Cow feces and wheat straw (CFWS) psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD). • PDAD of CFWS (TS 16% mass fraction) is feasible and as efficient as mesophilic DAD. • VS OLR 1.5 g kg −1  d −1 produced VS-based SMY of 152 ± 6 L kg −1 • Inoculum adaptation is a prerequisite to a stable PDAD

  1. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  2. Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Chromium from Waste-Water Using Wheat Straw and Eupatorium adenophorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagang Song

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a serious issue worldwide posing threats to humans, animals and plants and to the stability of overall ecosystem. Chromium (Cr is one of most hazardous heavy metals with a high carcinogenic and recalcitrant nature. Aim of the present study was to select low-cost biosorbent using wheat straw and Eupatorium adenophorum through simple carbonization process, capable of removing Cr (VI efficiently from wastewater. From studied plants a low cost adsorbent was prepared for removing Cr (VI from aqueous solution following very simple carbonization method excluding activation process. Several factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dosage and temperature were investigated for attaining ideal condition. For analysis of adsorption equilibrium isotherm data, Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were used while pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external diffusion and intra-particle diffusion models were used for the analysis of kinetic data. The obtained results revealed that 99.9% of Cr (VI removal was observed in the solution with a pH of 1.0. Among all the tested models Langmuir model fitted more closely according to the data obtained. Increase in adsorption capacity was observed with increasing temperature revealing endothermic nature of Cr (VI. The maximum Cr (VI adsorption potential of E. adenophorum and wheat straw was 89.22 mg per 1 gram adsorbent at 308K. Kinetic data of absorption precisely followed pseudo-second-order model. Present study revealed highest potential of E. adenophorum and wheat straw for producing low cost adsorbent and to remove Cr (VI from contaminated water.

  3. High-performance removal of acids and furans from wheat straw pretreatment liquid by diananofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueb, Mohd Shafiq Mohd; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-01-01

    of 20ºC (range: 20–50ºC) were found to provide the best results in terms of retention. A subsequent nanodiafiltration consisting of five cycles enabled one to recover 90% of the monosaccharides (purity >99%). This result showed that diananofiltration could be a promising strategy for the recovery......Two model solutions and a real stream from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw were subjected to nanofiltration, and permeate flux, retention and resistance to fouling were evaluated. Three commercial NF membranes were tested, and a pressure of 4 bars (range: 1–20 bars) and a temperature...

  4. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Ling Zhang; Yong Chen; Xiao Li Xu; Yu Xia Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  5. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid-statenucle......), which led to the formation of a glassy char shell, resulting in a preserved particlesize and shape of chars. The high alkali content in the wheat straw resulted in higher char reactivity,whereas the lower silicon content caused variations in the char shape from cylindrical to near...

  6. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using...... this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose...

  7. Effect of fertilizer prepared from human feces and straw on germination, growth and development of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianlei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui; Hu, Dawei; Qin, Youcai; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste treatment is one of the most important rate-limiting steps in the material circulation and energy flow of Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In our previous work, an efficient and controllable solid waste bio-convertor has been built and a solid waste degradation efficiency of 41.0% has been reached during a 105-d BLSS experiment. However, the fermented residues should be further utilized to fulfill the closure of the system. One solution might be to use the residues as the fertilizer for plant cultivation. Thus in this study, substrates were prepared using different ratios of the fermented residues to the vermiculite. And the influences of different ratios of the fermented residues on the seed germination, growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant capacity of wheat were studied. The results showed that the optimal rate of the fermented residue was 5%. With this ratio, the seed germination reached 97.3% with the root length, shoot length and biomass production as 59 mm, 52 mm and 150 mg, respectively, at the 4th day. Besides, the highest straw height of 25.1 cm was obtained at the 21st day. The salinity adversely affected the growth and some relevant metabolic processes of wheat. The Group-40% led to the lowest seed germination of 34.7% and the minimum straw height of 15 cm. This inhibition might be caused by the high Na content of 2118 mg/kg in the fermented residues. Chlorophyll b was more sensitive to the mineral nutrition stress and affects the wheat photosynthetic characteristics. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and reduced antioxidant enzymes may contribute, directly and/or indirectly, to the decline in the observed pigment contents in wheat.

  8. Isolation and characterization of lignocellulose nanofibers from different wheat straw pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Loaiza, Javier Mauricio; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Wheat straw was cooked under different pulping processes: Soda (100°C, 7% NaOH, 150min), Kraft (170°C, 16% alkalinity, 25% sulfidity, 40min) and Organosolv (210°C, 60% ethanol, 60min). Once the pulps were obtained, lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) were isolated by mechanical process and TEMPO-mediated oxidation followed by a high pressure homogenization. After pulping process, the different pulps were characterized and its chemical composition was determined. The pulps characterization indicates that the Soda process is the process that, despite producing less delignification, retains much of the hemicelluloses in the pulp, being this content a key factor in the nanofibrillation process. Regarding the LCNF obtained by mechanical process, those nanofibers isolated from Organosolv wheat pulp (OWP) and Kraft wheat pulp (KWP) show low values for nanofibrillation yield, specific surface area and greater diameter. However, those nanofibers isolated from Soda wheat pulp (SWP) reach much higher values for these parameters and presents a diameter of 14nm, smaller than those obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation from OWP. Smaller diameters are generally obtained in TEMPO-oxidized LCNF. This work concludes that the lignin content does not affect greatly to obtain LCNF as does the hemicellulose content, so it is accurate to use a soft pulping process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of wheat straw incorporation on the availability of soil nutrients and enzyme activities in semiarid areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wei

    Full Text Available Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four-year (2007-2011 field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm(-2, M: 6000 kg hm(-2, and L: 3000 kg hm(-2 and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK. The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC, soil labile organic carbon (LOC, and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0-40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1-30.5%, 9.8-69.5%, 10.3-27.3%, 0.7-23.4%, and 44.4-49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0-40 cm soil layers were 24.4-31.3%, 9.9-36.4%, and 42.9-65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively.

  10. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  11. Ammonia volatilization and atmospheric N deposition following straw and urea application from a rice-wheat rotation in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Wu, Zhen; Ma, Yuchun; Liu, Yinglie; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-05-01

    Ammonia is a vital component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems in terms of volatilization and deposition. Here, a field experiment was undertaken to simultaneously investigate the effects of rice straw and urea incorporation on ammonia volatilization, atmospheric N deposition, yields and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) under a rice-wheat system in China. The experiment involved four treatments: control (0 N, 0 straw), NS0 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 0 straw), NS1 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 3 t ha-1 yr-1 straw), and NS2 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 6 t ha-1 yr-1 straw) in the rice-wheat annual rotation system. The results indicated that the NS0, NS1 and NS2 treatments emitted cumulative ammonia of 14.0%, 16.4%, and 19.2%, respectively in the rice season and 7.6%, 11.1%, and 12.3%, respectively in the wheat season among the total urea-N application. Compared to the NS0 treatment, the NS1 and NS2 treatments significantly increased the cumulative ammonia emissions by 15.5% (p NH4+-N deposition accounted for 56.1% of the total inorganic N deposition during the whole rice-wheat system. The bulk NH4+-N deposition during the period of fertilization contributed 73.9% and 5.7% to the total NH4+-N deposition in the rice and wheat season, respectively. Overall, straw incorporation increased ammonia volatilization, not affecting the crop grain yield or NUE. The seasonal variation in NH4+-N bulk deposition was closely related to N fertilizer application.

  12. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  13. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid-steam-exploded

  14. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  16. Improvement Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw for Bioethanol Production by Combined Treatment of Radiation and Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    The cost of ethanol production from starch and sucrose for use as a vehicle fuel is ultimately high. Consequently, it has been suggested that the large-scale use of ethanol as a fuel will require the utilization of cellulosic feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost and renewable feedstock for bioconversion into fermentable sugars, which can be further utilized for biofuel production. It is estimated that there is over one billion tons of biomass available for conversion into biofuels on a renewable basis to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Among different pretreatment methods such as biological, physical, chemical, and physic-chemical pretreatments, chemical pretreatment using dilute acid as catalyst, which has been extensively evaluated for treating a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, is reported as one of the leading pretreatment technologies. Ionizing radiation can easily penetrate lignocellulosic structure and undoubtedly produce free radicals useful in modification of lignin structure as well as breakdown cellulose crystal regions. Phenoxy radicals appeared to be important radical intermediates that ultimately transformed into o-quinonoid structures in lignin. Therefore, ionizing radiation such as gamma ray and electron beam can be a great alternative. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation of wheat straw prior to dilute sulfuric acid treatment is investigated. The combined pretreatment for wheat straw was performed to evaluate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and compared with that of the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis by individual pretreatment

  17. Structural Changes of Lignin from Wheat Straw by Steam Explosion and Ethanol Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol were evaluated relative to the structural changes of lignin from the pretreated pulp. The lignin from steam explosion pulp (LS, lignin from steam blasting residual liquid (LL, lignin from ethanol pretreatment pulp (LE, lignin from black liquor (LB, and lignin from wheat straw (LW were separated, and the structural characteristics of the lignin fractions were compared based on analyses of Fourier transform-infrared, ultraviolet, thermogravimetric, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The proportions of the three structural units in all lignin fractions clearly changed during the pretreatment process because of inter-conversion reactions. The conjugated structure of lignin was destroyed in the pretreatment process and was also affected by the alkali extraction process. The alcoholic hydroxyl links on the aliphatic side chain were partly transformed into carbonyl groups during ethanol pretreatment. Demethoxylation occurred in all lignin fractions during the ethanol pretreatment and steam explosion process. The thermal stability of the LB fraction was relatively high because of the condensation reaction.

  18. Wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron for removal of trichloroethylene from groundwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available This study synthesized the wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (BC-nZVI via in-situ reduction with NaBH4 and biochar pyrolyzed at 600°C. Wheat straw biochar, as a carrier, significantly enhanced the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE by nZVI. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of TCE removal by BC-nZVI (1.079 h-1 within 260 min was 1.4 times higher and 539.5 times higher than that of biochar and nZVI, respectively. TCE was 79% dechlorinated by BC-nZVI within 15 h, but only 11% dechlorinated by unsupported nZVI, and no TCE dechlorination occurred with unmodified biochar. Weakly acidic solution (pH 5.7-6.8 significantly enhanced the dechlorination of TCE. Chloride enhanced the removal of TCE, while SO42-, HCO3- and NO3- all inhibited it. Humic acid (HA inhibited BC-nZVI reactivity, but the inhibition decreased slightly as the concentration of HA increased from 40 mg∙L-1 to 80 mg∙L-1, which was due to the electron shutting by HA aggregates. Results suggest that BC-nZVI was promising for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater.

  19. Combined Mechanical Destruction and Alkaline Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Enhanced Enzymatic Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw was pretreated by combined mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatments to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Four strategies were employed to evaluate the potential of wheat straw as a feedstock for fermentable sugar production. The effects of the pretreatments on the substrate morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, and cellulose crystallinity, along with the subsequent enzymatic digestibility, were investigated. Optical microscope images showed that mechanical pretreatment alone resulted in poor fiber defibrillation, wherein samples mostly consisted of rigid fiber bundles, while integrated mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatment led to relatively good fiber defibrillation. Low temperature NaOH/urea pretreatment can fibrillate the rigid fiber bundles into a relatively loose network and alter the structure of the treated substrate to make cellulose more accessible. The glucan conversion rates were 77% and 95% for integrated mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatments and mechanical destruction followed by low temperature NaOH/urea and ammonium/urea pretreatments, respectively, after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis with enzyme loadings of 10 FPU cellulase per g of oven-dry substrate.

  20. Bioethanol and lipid production from the enzymatic hydrolysate of wheat straw after furfural extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jule; Poppele, Ieva; Blomqvist, Johanna; Puke, Maris; Pickova, Jana; Sandgren, Mats; Rapoport, Alexander; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Passoth, Volkmar

    2018-05-26

    This study investigates biofuel production from wheat straw hydrolysate, from which furfural was extracted using a patented method developed at the Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry. The solid remainder after furfural extraction, corresponding to 67.6% of the wheat straw dry matter, contained 69.9% cellulose of which 4% was decomposed during the furfural extraction and 26.3% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis released 44% of the glucose monomers in the cellulose. The resulting hydrolysate contained mainly glucose and very little amount of acetic acid. Xylose was not detectable. Consequently, the undiluted hydrolysate did not inhibit growth of yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Rhodotorula babjevae. In the fermentations, average final ethanol concentrations of 23.85 g/l were obtained, corresponding to a yield of 0.53 g ethanol per g released glucose. L. starkeyi generated lipids with a rate of 0.08 g/h and a yield of 0.09 g per g consumed glucose. R. babjevae produced lipids with a rate of 0.18 g/h and a yield of 0.17 per g consumed glucose. In both yeasts, desaturation increased during cultivation. Remarkably, the R. babjevae strain used in this study produced considerable amounts of heptadecenoic, α,- and γ-linolenic acid.

  1. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  2. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether 137 Cs and 90 Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with 137 Cs and 90 Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. - Highlights: ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.

  3. Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity producing microbial communities developed in two chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1000 mg-COD/L while...

  4. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g

  6. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass and wheat straw with and without thermo-alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Garfí, Marianna; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass grown in wastewater and wheat straw. To this end, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests were carried out testing different substrate proportions (20-80, 50-50 and 80-20%, on a volatile solid basis). In order to improve their biodegradability, the co-digestion of both substrates was also evaluated after applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment (10% CaO at 75°C for 24h). The highest synergies in degradation rates were observed by adding at least 50% of wheat straw. Therefore, the co-digestion of 50% microalgae - 50% wheat straw was investigated in mesophilic lab-scale reactors. The results showed that the methane yield was increased by 77% with the co-digestion as compared to microalgae mono-digestion, while the pretreatment only increased the methane yield by 15% compared to the untreated mixture. Thus, the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgae and wheat straw was successful even without applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Martínez, Angel T; Tien, Ming; López-Lucendo, María F; García, Francisco; de Los Ríos, Vivian; Martínez, María Jesús; Prieto, Alicia

    2013-08-10

    Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of β-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis.

  9. Cellulase stability, adsorption/desorption profiles and recycling during successive cycles of hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The potential of enzymes recycling after hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw under a variety of conditions was investigated, monitoring the activity of the enzymes in the solid and liquid fractions, using low molecular weight substrates. A significant amount of active enzymes could be reco...

  10. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  11. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations....... Inclusion of the oil radish catch crop could offset this loss by 2–3 percentage points. Earlier sowing of wheat increased straw production by 18% and reduced loss of soil C by 3–5 percentage points compared to normal sowing time with full straw export. Catch crops and early sowing also reduced N...

  12. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  13. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  14. Reinforcement of the bio-gas conversion from pyrolysis of wheat straw by hot caustic pre-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lilong; Chen, Keli; He, Liang; Peng, Lincai

    2018-01-01

    Pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a versatile means to convert biomass into valuable products. Wheat straw has been considered to be a promising biomass resource due to its low price and easy availability. However, most of the products obtained from wheat straw pyrolysis are usually of low quality. Hot soda extraction has the advantage of selective dissolution of lignin whilst retaining the carbohydrates. This can selectively convert biomass into high-quality desired products and suppress the formation of undesirable products. The aim of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis properties of wheat straw under different hot caustic pretreatment conditions. Compared with the untreated straw, a greater amount of gas was released and fewer residues were retained in the extracted wheat straw, which was caused by an increase in porosity. When the NaOH loading was 14%, the average pore size of the extracted straw increased by 12% and the cumulative pore volume increased by 157% compared with the untreated straw. The extracted straw obtained from the 14% NaOH extraction was clearly selective for pyrolysis products. On one hand, many lignin pyrolysis products disappeared, and only four main lignin-unit-pyrolysis products were retained. On the other hand, polysaccharide pyrolysis products were enriched. Both propanone and furfural have outstanding peak intensities that could account for approximately 30% of the total pyrolysis products. However, with the excessive addition of NaOH (i.e. > 22% w/w) during pretreatment, the conversion of bio-gas products decreased. Thermogravimetric and low-temperature nitrogen-adsorption analysis showed that the pore structure had been seriously destroyed, leading to the closing of the release paths of the bio-gas and thus increasing the re-polymerisation of small bio-gas molecules. After suitable extraction (14% NaOH loading extraction), a considerable amount (25%) of the soluble components dissolved out of the straw. This

  15. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and

  16. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added......% of the theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...... yield by co-inoculation of both strains. Xylulose was the main sugar released after enzymatic treatment of HH with Celluclast(R). Lb. brevis was able to degrade xylobiose, but was unable to assimilate xylulose, whereas Lb. pentosus was able to assimilate xylulose but unable to degrade xylobiose. (C...

  17. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... in 95% degradation of the xylan and glucan. The study demonstrates that lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used for co-treatment with domestic wastewater for power generation in microbial fuel cells....... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  18. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    Only little research on butyric acid fermentation has been carried out in relationship to bio-refinery perspectives involving strain selection, development of adapted strains, physiological analyses for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. However, a major step towards the development...... strain could grow in up to 80% pre-treated wheat straw and can ferment both glucose and xylose. The yield of butyric acid without optimization was 0,37±0,051 g butyric acid/g sugar monomers and the acetate yield was 0,06±0,021 g acetic acid/g sugar monomers. Moreover, the strain could grow without...... addition of yeast extract. Further optimization of yield and productivity is under investigation....

  19. Improving lead adsorption through chemical modification of wheat straw by lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ruimin; Wang, Minxiang; Bu, Qingwei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the creation of a new cellulosic material derived from wheat straw modified by lactic acid for adsorption of lead in aqueous solution, called 0.3LANS (the concentration of the lactic acid were 0.3mol/L). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Elemental analysis, BET surface area and Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the chemical modification. Adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich were used to analyse the equilibrium data, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the best correlation, means that the adsorption was chemical monolayer adsorption and the adsorption capacity qm was increased with increasing temperature, and reached 51.49mg/g for 0.3LANS at 35°C, showing adsorption was exothermic.

  20. Characterization of the newly isolated Geobacillus sp. T1, the efficient cellulase-producer on untreated barley and wheat straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Bakhshi Khaniki, Gholamreza

    2012-09-01

    A thermophile cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated and identified as closely related to Geobacillus subterraneus. The strain, named Geobacillus sp. T1, was able to grow and produce cellulase on cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), barley straw, wheat straw and Whatman No. 1 filter paper. However, barley and wheat straws were significantly better substrates for cellulase production. When Geobacillus sp. T1 was cultivated in the presence of 0.5% barley straw, 0.1% Tween 80 and pH 6.5 at 50°C, the maximum level of free cellulase up to 143.50 U/mL was produced after 24h. This cellulase (≈ 54 kDa) was most active at pH 6.5 and 70°C. The enzyme in citrate phosphate buffer (10mM) was stable at 60°C for at least 1h. Geobacillus sp. T1 with efficient growth and cellulase production on straws seems a potential candidate for conversion of agricultural biomass to fuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, Maria; Angelidaki, Irini [Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Building 115, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324 ml/g-(volatile solids) VS{sub added} were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8 g-VS/L than at 25.6 g-VS/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at 55 C with 2 days hydraulic retention time. Results showed that both substrate concentration and organic loading rate (OLR) influenced process performance and methane yields. Maximum methane yield of 155 ml CH{sub 4}/g-COD was obtained at stillage mixtures with water of 25% (v/v) in the feed and at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal at this OLR was 76% (w/w). Increase in OLR to 41.2 g-COD/(l.d) and/or stillage concentration in the feed to 33-50% (v/v) resulted in low methane yields or complete process failure. The results showed that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage alone for methane production is feasible in UASB reactor at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d) and at substrate concentration of 25% in the feed. The produced methane could improve the process energy and economics of a bioethanol plant and also enable to utilize the stillage in a sustainable manner. (author)

  2. Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, Maria; Angelidaki, Irini

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324 ml/g-(volatile solids) VS added were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8 g-VS/L than at 25.6 g-VS/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at 55 o C with 2 days hydraulic retention time. Results showed that both substrate concentration and organic loading rate (OLR) influenced process performance and methane yields. Maximum methane yield of 155 ml CH 4 /g-COD was obtained at stillage mixtures with water of 25% (v/v) in the feed and at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal at this OLR was 76% (w/w). Increase in OLR to 41.2 g-COD/(l.d) and/or stillage concentration in the feed to 33-50% (v/v) resulted in low methane yields or complete process failure. The results showed that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage alone for methane production is feasible in UASB reactor at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d) and at substrate concentration of 25% in the feed. The produced methane could improve the process energy and economics of a bioethanol plant and also enable to utilize the stillage in a sustainable manner.

  3. Preliminary results on optimization of pilot scale pretreatment of wheat straw used in coproduction of bioethanol and electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thygesen, A.; Christensen, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    , and steam pretreatment) with a capacity of 100 kg/h was constructed and tested for pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Highest hemicellulose (C5 sugar) recovery and extraction of hemicellulose sugars was obtained at 190 degrees C whereas highest C6 sugar yield was obtained at 200 degrees C....... Lowest toxicity of hydrolysates was observed at 190 degrees C; however, addition of H2O2 improved the fermentability and sugar recoveries at the higher temperatures. The estimated total ethanol production was 223 kg/t straw assuming utilisation of both C6 and C5 during fermentation, and 0.5 g ethanol....../g sugar....

  4. Effects of Corn Straw Returning and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Methods on N2O Emission from Wheat Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a wheat field experiment, the effect of four treatments such as no-straw returning (SN, straw returning (SR, control release fertilizer application(SRC and nitrogen drilling(SRR on N2O emission was studied using the static chamber method and the gas chromatographic technique. The results indicated that the wheat field was the sources of N2O emission. The N2O emission peaks followed each time of fertilizer application and irrigation, and usually continued for 1~2 weeks. N2O emissions accounted for more than 40% of total emissions during the N2O emission peak. The amount of N2O emission during three growing stage of wheat from high to low was arranged in turn pre-wintering period, post-wintering period and wintering period. N2O emission could be increased by straw returning. Compared with SN, N2O emission could be enhanced by 48.6% under SR. Both SRC and SRR could decrease the N2O emission, increase wheat yield and economic benefit, especially the latter. Nitrogen drilling is a good method for yield increment and N2O abatement.

  5. Effect of wheat-maize straw return on the fate of nitrate in groundwater in the Huaihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfu; Ruan, Xiaohong; Bai, Ying; Ma, Tianhai; Liu, Congqiang

    2017-08-15

    Straw return is becoming a routine practice in disposing of crop residues worldwide. However, the potential effect of such operation on the chemistry of local groundwater is not well documented. Here, shallow groundwater in an area where wheat-maize straw return is practiced was analyzed, and the seasonal changes in the nitrate concentration and the isotope compositions of NO 3 - and H 2 O were determined along two flow paths. Measured δD and δ 18 O in waters indicated that the groundwater was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, while measured δ 15 N and δ 18 O in nitrate suggested that the sources for groundwater NO 3 - included urea fertilizer, soil nitrogen, and sewage/manure. Reduced NO 3 - concentrations coincided with an enrichment of organic matter in the groundwater of the straw return area, revealing an environmental condition that facilitates nitrate reduction, whereas increased δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - along the flow path suggested the occurrence of denitrification. Further analyses showed that, compared to the cases in the absence of straw return, as much as 80% and 90% of groundwater nitrate was removed in low and high water seasons in the straw return area, pointing to a potential positive effect of straw return to groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  7. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal ( sp. Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1, 33 (TMR2, 67 (TMR3, and 100% (TMR4 fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6 according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  8. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  10. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Olsson, Lisbeth; Thomsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195degreesC) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low......-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested...

  11. Bioprocessing of Proximally Analyzed Wheat Straw for Enhanced Cellulase Production through Process Optimization with Trichodermaviride under SSF

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaq Ahmed; Muhammad Anjum Zia; Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the production and process parameters optimization for the synthesis of cellulase from Trichoderma viride in solid state fermentation (SSF) using an agricultural wheat straw as substrates; as fungal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for cellulase production is one among the major increasing demand for various biotechnological applications. An optimization of process parameters is a necessary step to get higher yield of prod...

  12. Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat straw was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone, and 5% sulphur dioxide at 70 C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on the composition and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) by rumen microorganisms was studied. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ solubilised most or all of the straw hemicellulose, converting it into cell solubles, whereas sodium hydroxide exerted a limited effect in this direction. The level of cell solubles increased from 31.8 to 48.2 and 52.2% and that of the reducing sugars from 2.2 to 15.6 and 24.3%, by ozone and SO/sub 2/ treatments, respectively. The IVOMD of straw was significantly increased by 80% (from 44 to 80%) with SO/sub 2/, whereas NaOH and ozone improved the IVOMD by only 50% (from 44 to 66%). The initial digestibility (ID at 6 h) suggested to represent substrate fermentability was significantly increased by SO/sub 2/ from 7.4 to 29.3%. In the present study, SO/sub 2/ was found to be the most efficient treatment for wheat straw in terms of overall degradability and fermentability. The technological advantage of the proposed treatment lies in the low moisture content (40%) and the moderate temperature required (70/sup 0/C), conditions which could be attained by solar systems. 19 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-03-07

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44 g/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and rice straw to ethanol without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol concentrations of 9.1, 4.3 and 3.0 g/l, corresponding to 89.2%, 78.8% and 57.4% of the theoretical yield, were obtained when the fungus was grown in a medium containing 20 g/l starch, wheat bran or rice straw, respectively. The fermentation of rice straw pretreated with ball milling led to a small improvement in the ethanol yield: 3.4 g ethanol/20 g ball-milled rice straw. As T. hirsuta is an efficient microorganism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to fermentable sugars and directly converting them to ethanol, it may represent a suitable microorganism in consolidated bioprocessing applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential and simultaneous strategies for biorefining of wheat straw using room temperature ionic liquids, xylanases and cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Eric; Auxenfans, Thomas; Herbaut, Mickael; Baralle, Manon; Lambertyn, Virginie; Rakotoarivonina, Harivoni; Rémond, Caroline; Sarazin, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    Sequential and simultaneous strategies for fractioning wheat straw were developed in combining 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc], endo-xylanases from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus and commercial cellulases. After [C2mim][OAc]-pretreatment, hydrolysis catalyzed by endo-xylanases of wheat straw led to efficient xylose production with very competitive yield (97.6 ± 1.3%). Subsequent enzymatic saccharification allowed achieving a total degradation of cellulosic fraction (>99%). These high performances revealed an interesting complementarity of [C2mim][OAc]- and xylanase-pretreatments for increasing enzymatic digestibility of cellulosic fraction in agreement with the structural and morphological changes of wheat straw induced by each of these pretreatment steps. In addition a higher tolerance of endo-xylanases from T. xylaniliticus to [C2mim][AcO] until 30% v/v than cellulases from T. reesei was observed. Based on this property, a simultaneous strategy combining [C2mim][OAc]- and endo-xylanases as pretreatment in a one-batch produced xylose with similar yield than those obtained by the sequential strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sorption of nitrate onto amine-crosslinked wheat straw: characteristics, column sorption and desorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xu; Gao, Bao-Yu; Zhong, Qian-Qian; Yue, Qin-Yan; Li, Qian

    2011-02-15

    The nitrate removal process was evaluated using a fixed-bed column packed with amine-crosslinked wheat straw (AC-WS). Column sorption and desorption characteristics of nitrate were studied extensively. Solid-state (13)C NMR and zeta potential analysis validated the existence of crosslinked amine groups in AC-WS. Raman shift of the nitrate peaks suggested the electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed ions and positively charged amine sites. The column sorption capacity (q(ed)) of the AC-WS for nitrate was 87.27 mg g(-1) in comparison with the raw WS of 0.57 mg g(-1). Nitrate sorption in column was affected by bed height, influent nitrate concentration, flow rate and pH, and of all these, influent pH demonstrated an essential effect on the performance of the column. In addition, desorption and dynamic elution tests were repeated for several cycles, with high desorption rate and slight losses in its initial column sorption capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Karakus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF filled thermoplastic compositeswere measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanningcalorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanningelectron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF inthermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WFand one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphologicalstudy showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs andthermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improvedadhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seenon the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties ofWF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensileand flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties ofthermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPPcoupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with thecombination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with theuse of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties requiredby the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  18. TiO2 assisted photo-oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awais, Muhammad; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Photo-catalytic oxidation is an advanced oxidation process in which a catalyst is used to absorb light energy and oxidize the target substrates such as organic polymers. A number of metal oxides and metal ions can efficiently increase substrate’s depolymerisation during the process of photo...... to be markedly higher in the pretreated samples that were exposed for 180min with 1.5 wt% and 2 wt% of TiO2 compared to the untreated wheat straw. Moreover, it was concluded that the products of lignin oxidation and also, the presence of TiO2 did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, UV treatment or TiO2 alone......-catalytic oxidation. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a photo-catalyst that in its rutile and anatase forms presents the property to enhance the photo-oxidation of lignin-containing substrates. Due to lignin is one of the major obstacles in methane production from lignocellulosic biomass, its destruction is a necessary step...

  19. Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw pellets and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yunhui; McMillan, Oliver; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Ni 2+ on four-standard biochars produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP550, WSP700) and rice husk (RH550, RH700) at 550 and 700 °C, respectively, were investigated. The kinetic results show that the adsorption of Ni 2+ on the biochars reached an equilibrium within 5 min. The increase of the solid to liquid ratio resulted in an increase of Ni 2+ removal percentage but a decrease of the adsorbed amount of Ni 2+ per weight unit of biochar. The Ni 2+ removal percentage increased with the increasing of initial solution pH values at the range of 2-4, was relatively constant at the pH range of 4-8, and significantly increased to ≥98% at pH 9 and stayed constantly at the pH range of 9-10. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Ni 2+ for the biochars follow the order of WSP700 > WSP550 > RH700 > RH550. Both cation exchange capacity and pH of biochar can be a good indicator of the maximum adsorption capacity for Ni 2+ showing a positively linear and exponential relationship, respectively. This study also suggests that a carefully controlled standardised production procedure can make it reliable to compare the adsorption capacities between different biochars and investigate the mechanisms involved.

  20. Remediation of Wheat-Straw-Biochar on Petroleum-Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Wen-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochar was made from wheat straw at 300 ℃ for 3, 6, 8 hours respectively. The productivity, pH, ash content and C, H, N content of these biochar were compared. The surface morphology of the 300 ℃-6 h biochar was characterized, and it was used to remediate the petroleum-polluted soil of Dagang oil field. Results showed that, as the extension of pyrolisis time, the productivity of biochar decreased, pH increased, ash content increased, H/C decreased. But productivity, pH, ash content and H/C changed significantly from 3 h to 6 h, unsignificantly from 6 h to 8 h. C content showed a downward trend after the first rise. After remediation of biochar for 14 and 28 days, the TPH degradation rate were 45.48% and 46.88% respectively, higher than control group. After 14 days remediation, content of naphthalene, acenaphthene, Benzo [a] anthracene, chrysene, Benzo [b] fluoranthene, Benzo [k] fluoranthene, Benzo [a] pyrene, Indene and [1,2,3-CD] pyrene were decreased to various degrees, with the Benzo [a] pyrene content decreased by 98.18%, and the degradation rate of other PAH higher than control group. After 28 days remediation however, content of these PAH showed a rising trend. It suggested that pyrolisis time had influence on biochar’ s characteristics, and 300 ℃-6 h biochar could be used to remediate petroleum-polluted soil.

  1. Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw combined with SI-MCM-41 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Funda; Putun, Ayse Eren [Anadolu University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (Turkey)], e-mail: fdivrikl@anadolu.edu.tr, email: aeputun@anadolu.edu.tr; Tophanecioglu, Sibel [Erkurt Holding (Turkey)], email: sibel8888@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the results of an experiment in which the respective results from fast pyrolysis of wheat straw catalyzed with Si-MCM-4, and in the non-catalytic condition were compared. This experiment was carried out in a well-swept fixed-bed reactor with a heating rate of 300 degree C/min and in a nitrogen atmosphere after which, the main characteristics of pyrolyzed feedstock were determined by proximate, ultimate and component analysis. As the results of this experiment show, the maximum oil yield was 31.9% in a non-catalytic pyrolysis procedure and this gas yield increased in the pyrolysis experiment with catalyst, although the bio-oil yield decreased. On the other hand, the use of catalyst had the benefit of reducing the percentage of oxygen, the presence of which in the fuel is not desirable. Through testing pyrolysis oils, it was established that the use of a catalyst in the pyrolysis can improve fuel quality and produce valuable chemicals.

  2. Method of Black Liquor Combustion to Remove Silicon from Wheat Straw Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate on physical and chemical properties of wheat straw pulp black liquor were studied. Results showed that the expansion rate was enhanced by increasing the aluminum salt content; furthermore, the effect of sodium aluminate was better than that of aluminum sulfate. The maximum desilication rate of 92.31% was reached with the addition of 3% sodium aluminate. A rheometer showed that aluminum salt had little impact on the viscosity of thick black liquor, so even at a high temperature it could be conveyed by pumps in paper mill at 110 °C. The effect of aluminium salt on the silicon removal rate during black liquor combustion was also studied. The experimental results showed that both aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate helped to remove silicon. The desilication rate of sodium aluminate reached 62.33%, higher than that of aluminum sulphate. SEM-EDX illustrated that the aluminum and silicon ions were formed into insoluble precipitates. It was optimal to use 3% sodium aluminate as desilication agent.

  3. Dynamic modeling the composting process of the mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Ivan; Mustafić, Nesib

    2015-09-15

    Due to lack of understanding of the complex nature of the composting process, there is a need to provide a valuable tool that can help to improve the prediction of the process performance but also its optimization. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive mathematical model of the composting process based on microbial kinetics. The model incorporates two different microbial populations that metabolize the organic matter in two different substrates. The model was validated by comparison of the model and experimental data obtained from the composting process of the mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw. Comparison of simulation results and experimental data for five dynamic state variables (organic matter conversion, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, substrate temperature and moisture content) showed that the model has very good predictions of the process performance. According to simulation results, the optimum values for air flow rate and ambient air temperature are 0.43 l min(-1) kg(-1)OM and 28 °C, respectively. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, the maximum organic matter conversion is the most sensitive among the three objective functions. Among the twelve examined parameters, μmax,1 is the most influencing parameter and X1 is the least influencing parameter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Functionalization and Characterization of Cellulose Extracted from Wheat Straw Using Acid Hydrolysis Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemar J. Huntley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonuniform distribution of cellulose into many composite materials is attributed to the hydrogen bonding observed by the three hydroxyl groups located on each glucose monomer. As an alternative, chemical functionalization is performed to disrupt the strong hydrogen bonding behavior without significant altering of the chemical structure or lowering of the thermal stability. In this report, we use wheat straw as the biomass source for the extraction of cellulose and, subsequently, chemical modification via the Albright-Goldman and Jones oxidation reactions. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that upon oxidation a slight change in the cellulose polymorphic structure (CI to CII can be observed when compared to its unmodified counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy analyses show that the oxidized cellulose structure exhibits fiber-like crystals with lengths and diameters on the micrometer scale. Thermal analyses (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis show an increase in the thermal stability for the modified cellulose at extremely high temperatures (>300°C.

  5. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Production of Micro- and Nanoscale Lignin from Wheat Straw Using Different Precipitation Setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisl, Stefan; Loidolt, Petra; Miltner, Angela; Harasek, Michael; Friedl, Anton

    2018-03-11

    Micro- and nanosize lignin has recently gained interest due to its improved properties compared to standard lignin available today. As the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, lignin is readily available but used for rather low-value applications. Applications for lignin in micro- to nanoscale however, ranging from improvement of mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites, have bactericidal and antioxidant properties and impregnations to hollow lignin drug carriers for hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. This research represents a whole biorefinery process chain and compares different precipitation setups to produce submicron lignin particles from lignin containing an organosolv pretreatment extract from wheat straw. A batch precipitation in a stirred vessel was compared with continuous mixing of extract and antisolvent in a T-fitting and mixing in a T-fitting followed by a static mixer. The precipitation in the combination of T-fitting and static mixer with improved precipitation parameters yields the smallest particle size of around 100 nm. Furthermore, drying of particles did not influence the particle sizes negatively by showing decreased particle diameters after the separation process.

  7. Effects of ditch-buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen leaching and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haishui; Xu, Mingmin; Koide, Roger T; Liu, Qian; Dai, Yajun; Liu, Ling; Bian, Xinmin

    2016-03-15

    Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice-wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1-wheat-rice2 rotation. Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha(-1) reduced, but at 1000 kg ha(-1) and at 1500 kg ha(-1) straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha(-1) buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice-wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Expression of Aspergillus niger CAZymes is determined by compositional changes in wheat straw generated by hydrothermal or ionic liquid pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paul; van Munster, Jolanda M; Blythe, Martin J; Ibbett, Roger; Kokolski, Matt; Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Lindquist, Erika; Singan, Vasanth R; Barry, Kerrie W; Lipzen, Anna; Ngan, Chew Yee; Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Pullan, Steven T; Delmas, Stéphane; Waldron, Paul R; Grigoriev, Igor V; Tucker, Gregory A; Simmons, Blake A; Archer, David B

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, to degrade lignocellulose is harnessed in biotechnology to generate biofuels and high-value compounds from renewable feedstocks. Most feedstocks are currently pretreated to increase enzymatic digestibility: improving our understanding of the transcriptomic responses of fungi to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates could help to improve the mix of activities and reduce the production costs of commercial lignocellulose saccharifying cocktails. We investigated the responses of A. niger to untreated, ionic liquid and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw over a 5-day time course using RNA-seq and targeted proteomics. The ionic liquid pretreatment altered the cellulose crystallinity while retaining more of the hemicellulosic sugars than the hydrothermal pretreatment. Ionic liquid pretreatment of straw led to a dynamic induction and repression of genes, which was correlated with the higher levels of pentose sugars saccharified from the ionic liquid-pretreated straw. Hydrothermal pretreatment of straw led to reduced levels of transcripts of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes as well as the derived proteins and enzyme activities. Both pretreatments abolished the expression of a large set of genes encoding pectinolytic enzymes. These reduced levels could be explained by the removal of parts of the lignocellulose by the hydrothermal pretreatment. The time course also facilitated identification of temporally limited gene induction patterns. The presented transcriptomic and biochemical datasets demonstrate that pretreatments caused modifications of the lignocellulose, to both specific structural features as well as the organisation of the overall lignocellulosic structure, that determined A. niger transcript levels. The experimental setup allowed reliable detection of substrate-specific gene expression patterns as well as hitherto non-expressed genes. Our data suggest beneficial effects of using untreated and IL

  9. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  10. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  11. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ling Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001. However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001. The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05. Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01 with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001 by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001 increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L.

  12. EFFECT OF TARTARIC ACID ADDITION ON RUMEN FERMENTATION, METHANE PRODUCTION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN DIFFERENT DIETS CONTAINING WHEAT STRAW IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. SIROHI; P. PANDEY; N. GOEL; M. MOHINI; S.S. KUNDU

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of tartaric acid addition in diets on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Different levels of tartaric acid (5, 10, and 15 ppm) were tested for their effect on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and digestibility in three wheat straw containing diets i.e. Low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C), medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C) and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C). Evaluation of tartaric acid was carried out using in vitro ga...

  13. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migwi, P.K; Gallanga, J.R; Barneveld, R.J

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some

  14. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  15. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (Triticum aestevum L. STRAW SODA-OXYGEN PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; pulp was produced with soda-oxygen process by using wheat (Triticum aestevum L. straw as raw material and this pulp bleached with hypocholoride (H and peroxyde (P stages. It was found that crystalline properties of unbleached and bleached pulp samples increased by removing amorphous components. In addition, paper sheets made from unbleached and bleached soda-oxygen pulp and determined their optical properties. Consequently; while crystalline properties of pulp samples was rising with HP bleaching, it was determined that optical properties of paper sheets improved with bleaching.

  17. Methane fermentation and kinetics of wheat straw pretreated substrates co-digested with cattle manure in batch assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishania, M.; Vijay, V.K.; Chandra, R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass contains high percentages of lignin, which is hard to biodegrade and therefore, pretreatment is required to enhance energy recovery yield. In this study, five types of pretreatments, i.e., dilute acid, alkali, acid–alkali combination and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination, and grinding were applied on wheat straw to enhance the efficiency of methane fermentation. Methane fermentation of untreated and pretreated substrates was evaluated at 35 °C temperature in 5 L glass bottle reactors. Cumulative CH 4 yields of these pretreated substrates were found as 0.125 ± 0.002, 0.370 ± 0.02, 0.003 ± 0.005, 0.380 ± 0.017 and 0.241 ± 0.005 m 3 /kg of VS (volatile solids), respectively for, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments compared to that of untreated treatment T0 as 0.191 ± 0.004 m 3 /kg of VS. Alkali (2% NaOH on weight/volume ratio basis) and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination (3% Ca(OH) 2 + 3% Na 2 CO 3 on weight/volume ratio basis) pretreatments have been found to improve biogas and CH 4 production yields by 94.0% and 99.0%, respectively, in comparison to the untreated wheat straw substrate. Gompertz model used to analyze the kinetic behavior of anaerobic digestion process in present study. Kinetic study indicates that Gompertz equation best describe the cumulative gas production as a function of the digestion time. - Highlights: • H 2 SO 4 , NaOH, H 2 SO 4 + NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 , grinding pretreatments were studied on wheat straw. • Wheat straw co-digestion with cattle manure in 40:60 ratio provided maximum methane yield. • 2% NaOH pretreated substrate found to increase biogas and CH 4 production yields by 94.0%. • 3% Ca(OH) 2 + 3% Na 2 CO 3 pretreatment found to improve biogas and CH 4 production yields by 99.0%

  18. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  19. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  20. Monosaccharide yields and lignin removal from wheat straw in response to catalyst type and pH during mild thermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of various low temperature (140 °C) pretreatments, using different acid and alkaline catalysts and different pH values, was studied for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was treated by a standard blend of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188. While pretreat......The influence of various low temperature (140 °C) pretreatments, using different acid and alkaline catalysts and different pH values, was studied for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was treated by a standard blend of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188. While...... pretreatment at pH 1 gave the highest yield of saccharides in the liquid fraction, the solid fraction was more susceptible to enzymatic attack when pretreated at pH 13. The highest yields were obtained after pretreatment with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, and with sodium hydroxide at pH 13 when enzymatic...... hydrolysis was employed. A two-step pretreatment strategy at pH 1 (hydrochloric acid) and subsequently at pH 13 (sodium hydroxide) released 69 and 95% of the theoretical maximal amounts of glucose and xylose, respectively. Furthermore, this two-step pretreatment removed 68% of the lignin from the straw...

  1. Pretreatment of wheat straw by nonionic surfactant-assisted dilute acid for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Benkun; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2010-07-01

    Pretreating wheat straw (WS) with combined use of varied sulfuric acid concentration (0-3%, w/v) and Tween 20 concentration (0-1%) was investigated in an attempt to enhance the hydrolysis and fermentability of pretreated WS. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield of glucan and xylan and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) were significantly affected by the amount of Tween 20 added during acid pretreatment. Any further addition of Tween 20 in either hydrolysis stage or fermentation stage only led to small increase in glucan conversion and ethanol production. Determination of adsorption of cellulases during hydrolysis showed that Tween 20-assisted acid treated straw solution contained more free cellulases than individual acid treated straw solution, indicating that modification of lignin surface by Tween 20 added during pretreatment likely occurred. In addition, the effects of pretreatment conditions on overall recovery of glucose and xylose after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were also investigated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tardy

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland. Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health.

  3. Optimizing Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide (PHP) Pretreatment on Wheat Straw by Response Surface Method for Enzymatic Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Qing; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Song, Chun

    2017-03-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H 3 PO 4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H 3 PO 4 proportion, and time. H 3 PO 4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery. Increasing H 3 PO 4 proportion can improve enzymatic hydrolysis; however, reduction on cellulose recovery results in decrease of glucose yield. Extra high temperature or long time for pretreatment was not beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose yield. Based on the criterion for minimizing H 3 PO 4 usage and maximizing glucose yield, the optimized pretreatment conditions was 40 °C, 2.0 h, and H 3 PO 4 proportion of 70.2 % (H 2 O 2 proportion of 5.2 %), by which glucose yielded 299 mg/g wheat straw (946.2 mg/g cellulose) after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis.

  4. Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2013-09-01

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/PVA semi-IPNs superabsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Rui

    2013-04-15

    To better use wheat straw and minimize its negative impact on environment, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) composed of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) network and linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by polymerization in the presence of a redox initiating system. The structure and morphology of semi-IPNs SAR were characterized by means of FTIR, SEM and TGA, which confirmed that WSC and PVA participated in the graft polymerization reaction with acrylic acid (AA). The factors that can influence the water absorption of the semi-IPNs SAR were investigated and optimized, including the weight ratios of AA to WSC and PVA to WSC, the content of initiator and crosslinker, neutralization degree (ND) of AA, reaction temperature and time. The semi-IPNs SAR prepared under optimized synthesis condition gave the best water absorption of 266.82 g/g in distilled water and 34.32 g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The lignin pyrolysis composition and pyrolysis products of palm kernel shell, wheat straw, and pine sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Guozhang; Huang, Yanqin; Xie, Jianjun; Yang, Huikai; Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The primarily pyrolysis composition of PKS lignin was p-hydroxyphenyl unit. • Higher phenol yield and lower gas energy yield were obtained from PKS pyrolysis. • PKS produced more bio-oil and biochar than WS and PS from pyrolysis at 650–850 °C. • PKS-char had poorer gasification reactivity due to higher ordering carbon degree. - Abstract: The lignin monomer composition of palm kernel shell (PKS) was characterized using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and the characteristics and distributions of products obtained from PKS pyrolysis were investigated using Py-GC/MS, GC, and a specially designed pyrolysis apparatus. The gasification reactivity of PKS biochar was also characterized using thermogravimetry (TG) and Raman spectroscopy. All the results were compared with those obtained from wheat straw (WS) and pine sawdust (PS). The results showed that PKS lignin is primarily composed of p-hydroxyphenyl structural units, while WS and PS lignins are mainly made up of guaiacyl units. Both the mass and energy yields of non-condensable gases from PKS pyrolysis were lower than those obtained from WS and PS pyrolysis at 650–850 °C, owing to the lower volatile content (75.21%) and lack of methoxy groups in PKS. Compared with WS and PS, higher bio-oil productivity was observed during PKS pyrolysis. Phenols were the main component of PKS bio-oil from pyrolysis at 500 °C, and the phenol content of PKS bio-oil (13.49%) was higher than in WS bio-oil (1.62%) and PS bio-oil (0.55%). A higher yield of biochar (on an ash-free basis) was also obtained from PKS pyrolysis. Because of its greater relative degree of ordered carbon, PKS biochar exhibited lower in situ reactivity during CO_2 or H_2O gasification than WS and PS biochars. A longer residence time and addition of steam were found to be beneficial during PKS biochar gasification.

  7. Removal of fermentation inhibitors from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw: Production of butanol from hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii in batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 g L -1 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from alkaline peroxide wheat straw hydrolysate (APWSH) that had not been treated to reduce salt concentration (a neutralization product). However, fermentation was successful after inhibitors (salts) were removed from the hydrolysate by electrodialysis. A control glucose fermentation resulted in the production of 21.37 g L -1 ABE, while salt removed APWSH resulted in the production of 22.17 g L -1 ABE. In the two fermentations, reactor productivities were 0.30 and 0.55 g L -1 h -1 , respectively. A comparison of use of different substrates (corn fiber, wheat straw) and different pretreatment techniques (dilute sulfuric acid, alkaline peroxide) suggests that generation of inhibitors is substrate and pretreatment specific

  8. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.; Jansen, M.L.A.; Visser, D.; Jong, de E.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314.

  9. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  10. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  11. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  12. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Ding; Bo Du; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu; Dehua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12...

  13. Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby

    2012-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis...

  15. Intake and utilization of energy from ammonia-treated and untreated wheat straw by steers and wether sheep given a basal diet of grass pellets and hay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Boekholt, H.A.; Los, M.J.N.; Leffering, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments, experiment 1 with six steers in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design and experiment 2 with four wether sheep in a cross-over design, were conducted to study the effect of species and ammonia treatment on intake and utilization of the energy of untreated wheat straw. Treatments were: (1)

  16. One-step process of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment of wheat straw for improving the enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaolong; Zhang, Lidan; Liu, Fang; Fan, Xiaolin; Sun, Run-Cang

    2018-01-01

    To increase the production of bioethanol, a two-step process based on hydrothermal and dilute alkaline treatment was applied to reduce the natural resistance of biomass. However, the process required a large amount of water and a long operation time due to the solid/liquid separation before the alkaline treatment, which led to decrease the pure economic profit for production of bioethanol. Therefore, four one-step processes based on order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment have been developed to enhance concentration of glucose of wheat straw by enzymatic saccharification. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluated effect for different one-step processes by analyzing the physicochemical properties (composition, structural change, crystallinity, surface morphology, and BET surface area) and enzymatic saccharification of the treated substrates. In this study, hemicelluloses and lignins were removed from wheat straw and the morphologic structures were destroyed to various extents during the four one-step processes, which were favorable for cellulase absorption on cellulose. A positive correlation was also observed between the crystallinity and enzymatic saccharification rate of the substrate under the conditions given. The surface area of the substrate was positively related to the concentration of glucose in this study. As compared to the control (3.0 g/L) and treated substrates (11.2-14.6 g/L) obtained by the other three one-step processes, the substrate treated by one-step process based on successively hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had a maximum glucose concentration of 18.6 g/L, which was due to the high cellulose concentration and surface area for the substrate, accompanying with removal of large amounts of lignins and hemicelluloses. The present study demonstrated that the order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. The one

  17. FEEDING COMPLETELY MIXED RATIONS BASED ON UNTREATED, UREA OR AMMONIUM BICARBONATE TREATED WHEAT STRAW TO BUFFALO CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Ali, M. Fatahullah Khan and Muhmmad Ayaz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight young male buffalo calves of Nili-Ravi breed, randomly divided into two groups A and B (4 animals in each with a mean initial body weight of 115.3 ± 12.4 and 117.0 ± 7.3 kg respectively, were used for this study. Three is nitrogenous and is energetic completely mixed rations based on untreated (UWSR, urea-treated (Ur- TWSR and ammonium bicarbonate treated (Am- TWSR wheat straw, were prepared. Treatment of chopped wheat straw in mud houses with either urea or ammonium bicarbonate increased its crude protein content tom 3.2 (untreated to 8.7 and 9.5% (for treated respectively. The feeding trials were conducted in the 2 phases. During the Fist phase, the animals were fed Ur- TWSR and Am- TWSR for a period of 63 days. In the 2nd phase UWSR and Ur- TWSR were compared for a period of 76 days. At the end of each experimental phase a digestion trial was conducted. The results indicated that the animals fed Ur- TWSR showed the best average daily live weight gain (0.72 kg as compared to both the UWSR (0.59 kg and Am- TWSR (0.41 kg. The performance of the animals on Am- TWSR was the poorest. No significant differences were observed in the average daily teed intake of animals fed UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The animals fed Am- TWSR consumed; significantly (P <0.05 less feed as compared to UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The best feed conversion ratio was observed for the Ur- TWSR. The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract measured by total collection method indicated that Ur- TWSR was significantly (P<0.05 better digestible as compared to other rations. The cost per kg live weight gain in animals fed Ur- TWSR was significantly (P <0.05 less as compared to other rations. It is concluded that buffalo calves can efficiently and. economically be raised on completely mixed urea treated wheat straw based rations.

  18. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2011-01-01

    contemporary gene pool. The cultivars were grown at two different locations to assess the potential for breeding for improved degradability. The straws exhibited much variation in degradability ranging from 258 g kg1 to 407 g kg1 of dry matter. The heritability for degradability was estimated to 29% indicating...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a lack...... of correlation between degradability and grain yield indicated that straw degradability may be improved through breeding without serious negative effect on grain yield....

  19. Characterizing and modeling of an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw: Experience and lessons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    and availability. To better understand grate-firing of biomass and to establish a reliable but relatively simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling methodology for industrial applications, biomass combustion in a number of different grate boilers has been measured and modeled. As one of the case studies......, modeling effort on an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw is presented in this paper. Different modeling issues and their expected impacts on CFD analysis of the kind of grate boilers are discussed. The modeling results are compared with in-flame measurements in the 88 MW boiler, which shows...... measures will be tested in a modern 500 kW grate boiler rig...

  20. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymatic...... in the treated waste could be converted into respectively hexose and pentose sugars compared to 46% for cellulose and 36% for hemicellulose in the raw waste. For all wet oxidation conditions tested, total carbohydrate recoveries were high (> 89%) and 44-66% of the original lignin could be converted into non......-toxic carboxylic acids mainly (2.2-4.5 % on DS basis). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the treated waste at 10% DS by Saccharomyces cerevisae yielded average ethanol concentrations of 16.5 to 22 g l(-1) for enzyme loadings of 5 and 25 FPU g(-1) DS, respectively. The cellulose to ethanol...

  1. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h(-1)) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol......In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat....... The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 degrees C for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial...

  2. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20......-40% to become approximate to 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis...

  3. Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanping; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; van den Brink, Joost; Wiebenga, Ad; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Zhihua; Benoit, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals. By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-D-glucosidase activities of the best mutant were increased from 1.8 IU/ml, 0.1 IU/ml and 0.05 IU/ml to 4.8 IU/ml, 0.4 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml, respectively. The sugar yield of wheat straw saccharification by combining enzymes from this mutant and the Aspergillus niger genetically modified strain ΔcreA/xlnR c/araR c was improved up to 7.5 mg/ml, a 229 % increase compared to the combination of wild type strains. Mixing enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger combined with the genetic modification of transcription factors is a promising strategy to increase saccharification efficiency.

  4. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  5. Open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws: primary emissions, photochemical aging, and secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Yanli; Ding, Xiang; Tang, Mingjin; Liu, Tengyu; Hu, Qihou; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyi; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Yele; George, Christian; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural residues are among the most abundant biomass burned globally, especially in China. However, there is little information on primary emissions and photochemical evolution of agricultural residue burning. In this study, indoor chamber experiments were conducted to investigate primary emissions from open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws and their photochemical aging as well. Emission factors of NOx, NH3, SO2, 67 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), particulate matter (PM), organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) under ambient dilution conditions were determined. Olefins accounted for > 50 % of the total speciated NMHCs emission (2.47 to 5.04 g kg-1), indicating high ozone formation potential of straw burning emissions. Emission factors of PM (3.73 to 6.36 g kg-1) and primary organic carbon (POC, 2.05 to 4.11 gC kg-1), measured at dilution ratios of 1300 to 4000, were lower than those reported in previous studies at low dilution ratios, probably due to the evaporation of semi-volatile organic compounds under high dilution conditions. After photochemical aging with an OH exposure range of (1.97-4.97) × 1010 molecule cm-3 s in the chamber, large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were produced with OA mass enhancement ratios (the mass ratio of total OA to primary OA) of 2.4-7.6. The 20 known precursors could only explain 5.0-27.3 % of the observed SOA mass, suggesting that the major precursors of SOA formed from open straw burning remain unidentified. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) signaled that the aged OA contained less hydrocarbons but more oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds than primary OA, and carbon oxidation state (OSc) calculated with AMS resolved O / C and H / C ratios increased linearly (p < 0.001) with OH exposure with quite similar slopes.

  6. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Use of Mg(OH2 in the Final Peroxide Bleaching Stage of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alkali is an attractive alkaline source for the peroxide bleaching of high-yield pulp. However, little information is available on Mg(OH2 application in the final peroxide bleaching stage of wheat straw pulp. The use of Mg(OH2 was demonstrated as a partial replacement for NaOH in the peroxide bleaching of a chelated oxygen-delignified wheat straw pulp. The yield, viscosity, and strength properties of bleached pulp significantly increased with increasing replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, while the chemical oxygen demand load (COD of filtrate was decreased. For similar brightness of bleached pulp at a 24% replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, the tensile and tear indices were higher, by 2.1 Nm.g-1 and 1.75 mN*m2.g-1, respectively, than that of control pulp bleached with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When the MgSO4 was eliminated and the dosage of Na2SiO3 was decreased in the bleaching process, the tear and burst indices of the bleached pulp were also enhanced, with the brightness maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that more swelling occurred in the fibers of bleached pulp from the Mg(OH2-based bleaching process. Fiber analysis indicated that peroxide bleaching with Mg(OH2 increased the proportion of fiber lengths between 0.20 to 1.20 mm and 1.20 to 7.60 mm.

  8. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  9. Significance of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or straw amendment on growth and dinitrogen fixation of wheat using 15N-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Komy, H M; Saad, O A; Hetta, A M

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or maize straw (0, 5 and 10 Mg/hm2) amendment on the growth and N2 fixation of wheat was determined in pot experiments using 15N-dilution method. Inoculation resulted in accumulation of fixed nitrogen, and % N from atmosphere being 24.6 and 26.5% in wheat shoot and grain, respectively. Straw amendment reduced % Natm to 16.1 and 20.2% at high straw level (10 Mg/hm2). Rational nitrogen fertilization (180 kg N/hm2) completely inhibited N2 fixation by H. seropedicae inoculation. Bacterial inoculation increased dry shoot and grain yield up to 23 and 31%, respectively. The highest levels of shoot and grain dry mass (46.5 and 42.4%) were obtained by N-fertilization in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Total shoot and grain N-yield increased irrespective of organic matter amendment by inoculation up to 9 and 25%, respectively. N-fertilized plants recorded a maximum increase in N-yield (57 and 51%). H. seropedicae was reisolated from inoculated wheat histosphere after harvesting (90 d from sowing). Neither organic matter nor mineral nitrogen applications had any marked effect on bacterial total counts colonizing wheat histosphere. Moreover, no symptoms of mottled stripe disease were observed on leaves and stems of inoculated plants.

  10. Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Misra, Swati; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-02-20

    Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods.

  11. Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Ahring, B.K.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    to their chemical structure, e.g. diacids (oxalic and succinic acids), furan aldehydes, phenol aldehydes, phenol ketones and phenol acids. Aromatic aldehyde formation was correlated to severe conditions with high temperatures and low pH. Apart from CO2 and water, carboxylic acids were the main degradation products...... degreesC with addition of 12 bar oxygen and 6.5 g l(-1) Na2CO3. At these conditions the hemicellulose fraction from 100 g straw consisted of soluble hemicellulose (16 g), low molecular weight carboxylic acids (11 g), monomeric phenols (0.48 g) and 2-furoic acid (0.01 g). Formic acid and acetic acid...... constituted the majority of degradation products (8.5 g). The main phenol monomers were 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone), vanillic acid and syringic acid, occurring in 0.04-0.12 g per 100 g straw concentrations. High lignin removal from...

  12. Mechanical Properties and Kinetics of Thermal Degradation of Bioplastics based on Straw Cellulose and Whole Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Omrani fard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During  the  past  two  decades  the  use  of  bioplastics,  as  a  suitable  alternative to  petroleum-based  plastics,  has  attracted  researchers'  attention  to  a  great extent.  In  this  study,  the whole wheat four and  straw cellulose at different proportions were mixed with glycerol and bioplastics sheets were obtained by a press type molding machine.  The mechanical  properties  of  samples  were  examined  on compositions prepared by whole wheat weight in three proportions of 70, 60 and 50% and the cellulose in three proportions 75, 70 and 65%. The tensile tests on the samples indicated  that with  lowering  proportions  of  both  four  and  cellulose,  the modulus of elasticity and  tensile  strength of  the bioplastics dropped as well. The maximum modulus of  elasticity  achieved  for  the four  and  cellulose  compositions were 12.5, and 8.6 MPa, and the maximum tensile strengths were 878 and 202 kPa, respectively. The TGA tests indicated that the bioplastics prepared from whole wheat four showed higher temperatures of thermal degradation. The activation energies calculated for the four and cellulose bioplastics, as estimated by Arrhenius type equation, were 133.0 and 63.8 kJ/mol, respectively.

  13. Ethanol production from wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate by thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a continuous immobilized reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has......Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding...... to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/l. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/l) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate...

  14. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by ¤Thermoanaerobacter mathranii¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  15. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, van, S.J.A.; Rio, del, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungaltreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changesoccurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometryand detergent fiber analysis.Results: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin,...

  16. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  17. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment-severity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne R; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal pretreatments could be divided into two groups: 1) Phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium correlated with xylose and arabinose (that is, hemicellulose), and levels of these constituents present in the fiber fraction after pretreatment varied depending on the pretreatment-severity; and 2) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due to pretreatment pH, was developed. Using this equation, the mineral levels could be predicted with R(2) > 0.75; for some with R(2) up to 0.96. Pretreatment conditions, especially pH, significantly influenced the levels of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium in the resulting fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass.

  18. History of adaptation determines short-term shifts in performance and community structure of hydrogen-producing microbial communities degrading wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Morales, Ana L; Escalante, Ana E

    2017-11-01

    This study addresses the question of ecological interest for the determination of structure and diversity of microbial communities that degrade lignocellulosic biomasses to produce biofuels. Two microbial consortia with different history, native of wheat straw (NWS) and from a methanogenic digester (MD) fed with cow manure, were contrasted in terms of hydrogen performance, substrate disintegration and microbial diversity. NWS outperformed the hydrogen production rate of MD. Microscopic images revealed that NWS acted on the cuticle and epidermis, generating cellulose strands with high crystallinity, while MD degraded deeper layers, equally affecting all polysaccharides. The bacterial composition markedly differed according to the inocula origin. NWS almost solely comprised hydrogen producers of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, with 38% members of Enterococcus. After hydrogen fermentation, NWS comprised 8% Syntrophococcus, an acetogen that cleaves aryl ethers of constituent groups on the aromatic components of lignin. Conversely, MD comprised thirteen phyla, primarily including Firmicutes with H 2 -producing members, and Bacteroidetes with non-H 2 -producing members, which reduced the hydrogen performance. Overall, the results of this study provide clear evidence that the history of adaptation of NWS enhanced the hydrogen performance from untreated wheat straw. Further, native wheat straw communities have the potential to refine cellulose fibers and produce biofuels simultaneously. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat...

  20. Investigating the Mechanical Properties and Degradability of Bioplastics Made from Wheat Straw Cellulose and Date Palm Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Omrani Fard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, the use of bioplastics as an alternative to regular plastics has received much attention in many different industries. The mechanical and degradable properties of bioplastic are important for their utilization. In this research cellulose of wheat straw and glycerol were mixed by different weight ratios and then reinforced by using date palm fibers. To prepare the bioplastic plates, the materials were poured in molds and pressed by means of a hydraulic press and simultaneously heating of the molds. The experiments were performed based on a 3×3 factorial design with three levels: 50%, 60% and 70% of wheat cellulose and three types of reinforcement methods, namely: no-reinforcement, network reinforcement and parallel string reinforcement. The effect of the two factors on tensile strength, tensile strain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of bending were investigated. The results indicated that the two factors and their interactions had significant effects on the mentioned properties of bioplastics (at α=0.05 level . The comparison of the means of the tests showed that the network reinforcement type with 50% cellulose had the highest tensile and bending strengths with 1992.02 and 28.71 MPa, respectively. The maximum modulus of elasticity and modulus bending were 40.4 and 2.3 MPa, respectively for parallel string arrangement and 70% of cellulose. The degradability tests of bioplastic using a fistulated sheep indicated that with increasing the percentage of cellulose, the degradability rate deceased. The maximum degradability rate, after 48 h holding in the sheep rumen, was 74% that belonged to bioplastics with 50% cellulose. The degradability data were well fitted to a mathematical model (R2=0.97.

  1. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results......: A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large......-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly...

  2. Influence of gaseous phase, light and substrate pretreatment on fruit-body formation, lignin degradation and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw fermented with Pleurotus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamra, D.N.; Zadrazil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented in the solid state with Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. eryngii at 25 degrees C under different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lower than 20% oxygen in the gaseous phase adversely affected the loss of organic matter, the lignin degradation and the change in straw digestibility with both species of Pleurotus. Higher concentrations (10%-30%) of carbon dioxide, with 20% oxygen in the atmospshere, slightly decreased the loss of lignin and organic matter when compared with the losses under oxygen or air. In spite of better lignin degradation by P. sajor-caju, the process efficiency with P. eryngii was higher, because of lower loss of organic matter during the fermentation. Fruit-bodies were not formed by P. eryngii during the period of experiment in any of the treatments. In P. sajor-caju, fruit-bodies were only formed either in flasks closed with cotton plugs or supplied with a continuous flow of sterile air. Carbon dioxide inhibited the process of primordia initiation and fruit-body development. A short exposure (20 minutes per day) to light was essential for primordia and fruit-body formation. The substrate changes and process efficiency with respect to increase in digestibility were much higher in darkness than in light. Light leads to intensive fruit-body production and a different pattern of substrate degradation. The indigenous microflora of wheat straw inhibited fruit-body formation and caused a higher organic matter loss, accompanied by a decrease in digestibility of the fermented wheat straw. 33 references.

  3. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II-Fed-batch fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone-butanol-ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed with a sugar solution containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose. The culture utilized all of the above sugars. It was noticed that near the end of fermentation (286-533 h), the culture had difficulties utilizing xylose. As a result of supplemental sugar feed to the reactor, ABE productivity was improved by 16% as compared with previous studies. In our previous experiment on simultaneous saccharification of WS and fermentation to butanol, a productivity of 0.31 g L -1 h -1 was observed, while in the present studies a productivity of 0.36 g L -1 h -1 was observed. It should be noted that a productivity of 0.77 g L -1 h -1 was observed when the culture was highly active. The fed-batch fermentation was operated for 533 h. It should be noted that C. beijerinckii P260 can be used to produce butanol from WS in integrated fermentations

  5. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters.

  6. Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on Anaerobic Digestion of Wheat Straw in the Semicontinuous Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Shuang Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three semicontinuous continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR operating at mesophilic conditions (35°C were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw. The results showed that the average biogas production with HRT of 20, 40, and 60 days was 46.8, 79.9, and 89.1 mL/g total solid as well as 55.2, 94.3, and 105.2 mL/g volatile solids, respectively. The methane content with HRT of 20 days, from 14.2% to 28.5%, was the lowest among the three reactors. The pH values with HRT of 40 and 60 days were in the acceptable range compared to that with HRT of 20 days. The propionate was dominant in the reactor with HRT of 20 days, inhibiting the activities of methanogens and causing the lower methane content in biogas. The degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose based on XRD was also strongly influenced by HRTs.

  7. LCA of 1,4-Butanediol Produced via Direct Fermentation of Sugars from Wheat Straw Feedstock within a Territorial Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Forte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based industrial sector has been recognized by the European Union as a priority area toward sustainability, however, the environmental profile of bio-based products needs to be further addressed. This study investigated, through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, the environmental performance of bio-based 1,4-butanediol (BDO produced via direct fermentation of sugars from wheat straw, within a hypothetical regional biorefinery (Campania Region, Southern Italy. The aim was: (i to identify the hotspots along the production chain; and (ii to assess the potential environmental benefits of this bio-based polymer versus the reference conventional product (fossil-based BDO. Results identified the prevailing contribution to the total environmental load of bio-based BDO in the feedstock production and in the heat requirement at the biorefinery plant. The modeled industrial bio-based BDO supply chain, showed a general reduction of the environmental impacts compared to the fossil-based BDO. The lowest benefits were gained in terms of acidification and eutrophication, due to the environmental load of the crop phase for feedstock cultivation.

  8. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture.

  9. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  10. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corn Stover and Wheat Straw Combustion in a 176-kW Boiler Adapted for Round Bales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Villeneuve

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Combustion trials were conducted with corn stover (CS and wheat straw (WS round bales in a 176-kW boiler (model Farm 2000. Hot water (80 °C stored in a 30,000-L water tank was transferred to a turkey barn through a plate exchanger. Gross calorific value measured in the laboratory was 17.0 and 18.9 MJ/kg DM (dry matter for CS and WS, respectively. Twelve bales of CS (1974 kg DM total, moisture content of 13.6% were burned over a 52-h period and produced 9.2% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2725, 9.8 and 2.1 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 40.8%. For WS, six bales (940 kg DM total, MC of 15% were burned over a 28-h period and produced 2.6% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2210, 40.4 and 3.7 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 68.0%. A validation combustion trial performed a year later with 90 CS bales confirmed good heating performance and the potential to lower ash content (6.2% average.

  12. Biochar to reduce ammonia emissions in gaseous and liquid phase during composting of poultry manure with wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Damian; Malińska, Krystyna; Czekała, Wojciech; Cáceres, Rafaela; Lewicki, Andrzej; Dach, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    Composting of poultry manure which is high in N and dense in structure can cause several problems including significant N losses in the form of NH 3 through volatilization. Biochar due to its recalcitrance and sorption properties can be used in composting as a bulking agent and/or amendment. The addition of a bulking agent to high moisture raw materials can assure optimal moisture content and enough air-filled porosity but not necessarily the C/N ratio. Therefore, amendment of low C/N composting mixtures with biochar at low rates can have a positive effect on composting dynamics. This work aimed at evaluating the effect of selected doses of wood derived biochar amendment (0%, 5% and 10%, wet weight) to poultry manure (P) mixed with wheat straw (S) (in the ratio of 1:0.4 on wet weight) on the total ammonia emissions (including gaseous emissions of ammonia and liquid emissions of ammonium in the collected condensate and leachate) during composting. The process was performed in 165L laboratory scale composting reactors for 42days. The addition of 5% and 10% of biochar reduced gaseous ammonia emission by 30% and 44%, respectively. According to the obtained results, the measure of emission through the condensate would be necessary to assess the impact of the total ammonia emission during the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of R-High Density Polyethylene Composites Reinforced with Wheat Straw Particleboard Dust and Basalt Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of individual and combined particleboard dust (PB dust and basalt fibers (BFs on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled virgin and recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites was studied. It was shown that the use of PB dust had a positive effect on improving mechanical properties and on reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE values of filled composites, because the adhesive of the particle board held the wheat straw fibers into bundles, which made PB dust have a certain aspect ratio and high strength. Compared with the commonly used commercial WPC products, the flexural strength of PB dust/VHDPE, PB dust/RHDPE, and PB dust/VHDPE/RHDEPE at 40 wt% loading level increased by 79.9%, 41.5%, and 53.9%, respectively. When 40 wt% PB dust was added, the crystallization degree of the composites based on three matrixes decreased to 72.5%, 45.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. The use of PB dust can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined BF and PB dust fillers varied with PB dust and BF ratio at a given total filler loading level. As the BF portion of the PB dust/BF fillers increased, the LCTE values decreased markedly, which was suggested to be able to achieve a desirable dimensional stability for composites. The process provides a useful route to further recycling of agricultural wastes.

  14. In vitro ruminal fermentation of diets containing wheat straw and date pits as forage.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhdara, N.; Ranilla, J. M.; Tejido, M. L.; Bererhi, E. H.; Carro Travieso, María Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The pH, VFA concentration, total gas and met hane production were determined in the rumen of four Sicilo- Sarde rams fitted with permanent canulas. Rams received a ration that included 1.5 kg DM of oat hay and were supplemented with one of four concentrates: CC (10% barley, 43.3% corn, 25% wheat bran, 17.7% soybean meal, 4% sheep Vitamin and Mineral Mixture (VMM)), SC (66% white sorghum, 30% faba, 4% sheep VMM); TC (71% triticale, 18% faba, 7%, soybean meal, 4% VMM) or BC (71.5% barley, 17...

  15. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Yang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK, N fertilizer (NF and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS. We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed.

  16. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  17. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  18. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  19. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  20. Hydrolysis of solubilized hemicellulose derived from wet-oxidized wheat straw by a mixture of commercial fungal enzyme preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skammelsen Schmidt, Anette; Thomsen, Alle Belinda; Woidemann, Anders [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Tenkanen, Maija [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland)

    1998-04-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wet-oxidized wheat straw was investigated for quantification purposes. An optimal hydrolysis depends on factors such as composition of the applied enzyme mixture and the hydrolysis conditions (enzyme loading, hydrolysis time, pH-value, and temperature). A concentrated enzyme mixture was used in this study prepared at VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Finland, by mixing four commercial enzyme preparations. No distinctive pH-value and temperature optima were identified after a prolonged incubation of 24 hours. By reducing the hydrolysis time to 2 hours a temperature optimum was found at 50 deg. C, where a pH-value higher than 5.2 resulted in reduced activity. An enzyme-substrate-volume-ratio of 0.042, a pH-value of 5.0, and a temperature of 50 deg. C were chosen as the best hydrolysis conditions due to an improved monosaccharide yield. The hydrolysis time was chosen to be 24 hours to ensure equilibrium and total quantification. Even under the best hydrolysis conditions, the overall sugar yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis was only 85% of that of the optimal acid hydrolysis. The glucose yield were approximately the same for the two types of hydrolyses, probably due to the high cellulase activity in the VTT-enzyme mixture. For xylose and arabinose the enzymatic hydrolysis yielded only 80% of that of the acid hydrolysis. As the pentoses existed mainly as complex polymers their degradation required many different enzymes, some of which might be missing from the VTT-enzyme mixture. Furthermore, the removal of side-choins from the xylan backbone during the wet-oxidation pretreatment process might enable the hemicellulosic polymers to interact and precipitate, hence, reducing the enzymatic digestibility of the hemicellulose. (au) 8 tabs., 10 ills., 65 refs.

  1. Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the broth, a high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed, which creates mixing problems and, furthermore, may decrease xylose uptake. Feeding of substrate has already been proven to give a higher xylose conversion than a batch SSCF. In the current work, enzyme feeding, in addition to substrate feeding, was investigated as a means of enabling a higher WIS content with a high xylose conversion in SSCF of a xylose-rich material. A recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TMB3400 was used for this purpose in fed-batch SSCF experiments of steam-pretreated wheat straw. Results By using both enzyme and substrate feeding, the xylose conversion in SSCF could be increased from 40% to 50% in comparison to substrate feeding only. In addition, by this design of the feeding strategy, it was possible to process a WIS content corresponding to 11% in SSCF and obtain an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.35 g g-1. Conclusion A combination of enzyme and substrate feeding was shown to enhance xylose uptake by yeast and increase overall ethanol yield in SSCF. This is conceptually important for the design of novel SSCF processes aiming at high-ethanol titers. Substrate feeding prevents viscosity from becoming too high and thereby allows a higher total amount of WIS to be added in the process. The enzyme feeding, furthermore, enables keeping the glucose concentration low, which kinetically favors xylose uptake and results in a higher xylose conversion.

  2. [Effects of Warming and Straw Application on Soil Respiration and Enzyme Activity in a Winter Wheat Cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Zheng-hua

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the effects of warming and straw application on soil respiration and enzyme activity, a field experiment was performed from November 2014 to May 2015. Four treatments, which were control (CK), warming, straw application, and warming and straw application, were arranged in field. Seasonal variability in soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture for different treatments were measured. Urease, invertase, and catalase activities for different treatments were measured at the elongation, booting, and anthesis stages. The results showed that soil respiration in different treatments had similar seasonal variation patterns. Seasonal mean soil respiration rates for the CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments were 1.46, 1.96, 1.92, and 2.45 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. ANOVA indicated that both warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration compared to the control treatment. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature in different treatments fitted with the exponential regression function. The exponential regression functions explained 34.3%, 28.1%, 24.6%, and 32.0% variations of soil respiration for CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments, respectively. Warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration and urease activity fitted with a linear regression function, with the P value of 0.061. The relationship between soil respiration and invertase (P = 0.013), and between soil respiration and catalase activity (P = 0.002) fitted well with linear regression functions.

  3. The effect of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiangyu; Wu, Yanping; Cai, Min; Mu, Chunlong; Luo, Weihong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw. The field experiment was carried out from November 2012 to June 2013 at Changshu (31?32?93?N, 120?41?88?E) agro-ecological experimental station. A total of three treatments were set. The concentration of CO2 was increased to 500??mol/mol in the first treatment (CO2 grou...

  4. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. Report from a test series with coconut shells, coconut husks, wheat straw and sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-08-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10 per cent diesel oil and 90 per cent producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present results are not optimal for any of the fuel used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using appropriately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  5. Measurement of process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw using FT-NIR spectroscopy and synergy interval PLS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Liu, Guohai; Mei, Congli; Yu, Shuang; Xiao, Xiahong; Ding, Yuhan

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of rapid determination of the process variables (i.e. pH and moisture content) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was studied. Synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithm was implemented to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS factors and the number of subintervals were optimized simultaneously by cross-validation. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated according to the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (R). The measurement results of the optimal model were obtained as follows: RMSECV = 0.0776, Rc = 0.9777, RMSEP = 0.0963, and Rp = 0.9686 for pH model; RMSECV = 1.3544% w/w, Rc = 0.8871, RMSEP = 1.4946% w/w, and Rp = 0.8684 for moisture content model. Finally, compared with classic PLS and iPLS models, the siPLS model revealed its superior performance. The overall results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with siPLS algorithm can be used to measure process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw, and NIR spectroscopy technique has a potential to be utilized in SSF industry.

  6. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  7. Process for calcium xylonate production as a concrete admixture derived from in-situ fermentation of wheat straw pre-hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuelian; Tang, Xiusheng; Xu, Yong

    2018-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in process of lignocellulosic biorefinery is the utilization of pre-hydrolysate from pre-treatment. Although lignocellulosic pre-hydrolysate can serve as an economic starting material for xylonic acid production, the advancement of xylonic acid or xylonate is still limited by further commercial value or applications. In the present study, xylose in the high concentration wheat straw pre-hydrolysate was first in-situ biooxidized to xylonate by Gluconobacter oxydans. To meet the needs of commercialization, crude powdered calcium xylonate was prepared by drying process and calcium xylonate content in the prepared crude product was more than 70%. Then, the calcium xylonate product was evaluated as concrete admixture without any complex purification steps and the results demonstrated that xylonate could improve the performance of concrete. Overall, the crude xylonate product directly produced from low-cost wheat straw pre-hydrolysate can potentially be developed as retarding reducer, which could subsequently benefit lignocellulosic biorefinery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  9. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  10. The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-11-01

    The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A multi-substrate approach for functional metagenomics-based screening for (hemi)cellulases in two wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia unveils novel thermoalkaliphilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Mukil; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Stevens, Patricia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-28

    Functional metagenomics is a promising strategy for the exploration of the biocatalytic potential of microbiomes in order to uncover novel enzymes for industrial processes (e.g. biorefining or bleaching pulp). Most current methodologies used to screen for enzymes involved in plant biomass degradation are based on the use of single substrates. Moreover, highly diverse environments are used as metagenomic sources. However, such methods suffer from low hit rates of positive clones and hence the discovery of novel enzymatic activities from metagenomes has been hampered. Here, we constructed fosmid libraries from two wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia, denoted RWS (bred on untreated wheat straw) and TWS (bred on heat-treated wheat straw). Approximately 22,000 clones from each library were screened for (hemi)cellulose-degrading enzymes using a multi-chromogenic substrate approach. The screens yielded 71 positive clones for both libraries, giving hit rates of 1:440 and 1:1,047 for RWS and TWS, respectively. Seven clones (NT2-2, T5-5, NT18-17, T4-1, 10BT, NT18-21 and T17-2) were selected for sequence analyses. Their inserts revealed the presence of 18 genes encoding enzymes belonging to twelve different glycosyl hydrolase families (GH2, GH3, GH13, GH17, GH20, GH27, GH32, GH39, GH53, GH58, GH65 and GH109). These encompassed several carbohydrate-active gene clusters traceable mainly to Klebsiella related species. Detailed functional analyses showed that clone NT2-2 (containing a beta-galactosidase of ~116 kDa) had highest enzymatic activity at 55 °C and pH 9.0. Additionally, clone T5-5 (containing a beta-xylosidase of ~86 kDa) showed > 90% of enzymatic activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. This study employed a high-throughput method for rapid screening of fosmid metagenomic libraries for (hemi)cellulose-degrading enzymes. The approach, consisting of screens on multi-substrates coupled to further analyses, revealed high hit rates, as compared with recent other studies. Two

  12. Studying the ability of Fusarium oxysporum and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently cooperate in decomposition and ethanolic fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Topakas, Evangelos; Moukouli, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum F3 alone or in mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 were used to ferment carbohydrates of wet exploded pre-treated wheat straw (PWS) directly to ethanol. Both microorganisms were first grown aerobically to produce cell mass and thereafter fermented PWS to ethanol under...... anaerobic conditions. During fermentation, soluble and insoluble carbohydrates were hydrolysed by the lignocellulolytic system of F. oxysporum. Mixed substrate fermentation using PWS and corn cobs (CC) in the ratio 1:2 was used to obtain an enzyme mixture with high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic...... activities. Under these conditions, activities as high as 34300, 9100, 326, 24, 169, 27 and 254 U dm−3 of xylanase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, arabinofuranosidase, avicelase, feruloyl esterase and acetyl esterase, respectively, were obtained. The replacement of the enzyme production phase of F. oxysporum...

  13. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  14. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  15. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Ed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52% in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (inorganic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane, whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion, yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Haiwen; Chen, Yuanlin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VS add ) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  17. TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Awais, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    samples and the pretreatment with the best performance was further tested in continuous mode operation. From BMP assays, 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/straw at 3 h of UV light exposure pretreatment resulted in 37% (p CSTRs. It was concluded that the presence of TiO2...

  18. Isolation and characterization of nanocelluloses from wheat straw and their application in agricultural water-saving materials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Humans have been cultivating land for approximately 12,000 years. As such, most countries worldwide have considered crop waste as a global issue linked with environmental protection, economic development, and healthy living. Many varieties of straw are produced all over China in massive quantities (more than 900 million tons per year). Although banned by the government, stubble burning is widely applied by Chinese farmers as an easy and cheap way to remove stalks after harvests. However, this...

  19. Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes for ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Badal C.; Nichols, Nancy N.; Qureshi, Nasib; Cotta, Michael A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services Peoria, IL (United States). Bioenergy Reserach Unit

    2011-11-15

    Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 from dilute acid pretreated wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The yield of total sugars from dilute acid (0.5% H2SO4) pretreated (160 C, 10 min) and enzymatically saccharified (pH 5.0, 45 C, 72 h) WS (86 g/l) was 50.0 {+-} 1.4 g/l. The hydrolyzate contained 1,184 {+-} 19 mg furfural and 161 {+-} 1 mg hydroxymethyl furfural per liter. The recombinant E. coli FBR5 could not grow at all at pH controlled at 4.5 to 6.5 in the non-abated wheat straw hydrolyzate (WSH) at 35 C. However, it produced 21.9 {+-} 0.3 g ethanol from non-abated WSH (total sugars, 44.1 {+-} 0.4 g/l) in 90 h including the lag time of 24 h at controlled pH 7.0 and 35 C. The bioabatement of WS was performed by growing Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616 in the liquid portion of the pretreated WS aerobically at pH 6.5 and 30 C for 15 h. The bacterium produced 21.6 {+-} 0.5 g ethanol per liter in 40 h from the bioabated enzymatically saccharified WSH (total sugars, 44.1 {+-} 0.4 g) at pH 6.0. It produced 24.9 {+-} 0.3 g ethanol in 96 h and 26.7 {+-} 0.0 g ethanol in 72 h per liter from bioabated WSH by batch SSF and fed-batch SSF, respectively. SSF offered a distinct advantage over SHF with respect to reducing total time required to produce ethanol from the bioabated WS. Also, fed-batch SSF performed better than the batch SSF with respect to shortening the time requirement and increase in ethanol yield. (orig.)

  20. Sustaining fermentation in high-gravity ethanol production by feeding yeast to a temperature-profiled multifeed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Wang, Ruifei; Novy, Vera; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2017-01-01

    Considerable progress is being made in ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by fermentation, but negative effects of inhibitors on fermenting microorganisms are still challenging. Feeding preadapted cells has shown positive effects by sustaining fermentation in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). Loss of cell viability has been reported in several SSCF studies on different substrates and seems to be the main reason for the declining ethanol production toward the end of the process. Here, we investigate how the combination of yeast preadaptation and feeding, cell flocculation, and temperature reduction improves the cell viability in SSCF of steam pretreated wheat straw. More than 50% cell viability was lost during the first 24 h of high-gravity SSCF. No beneficial effects of adding selected nutrients were observed in shake flask SSCF. Ethanol concentrations greater than 50 g L -1 led to significant loss of viability and prevented further fermentation in SSCF. The benefits of feeding preadapted yeast cells were marginal at later stages of SSCF. Yeast flocculation did not improve the viability but simplified cell harvest and improved the feasibility of the cell feeding strategy in demo scale. Cultivation at 30 °C instead of 35 °C increased cell survival significantly on solid media containing ethanol and inhibitors. Similarly, in multifeed SSCF, cells maintained the viability and fermentation capacity when the temperature was reduced from 35 to 30 °C during the process, but hydrolysis yields were compromised. By combining the yeast feeding and temperature change, an ethanol concentration of 65 g L -1 , equivalent to 70% of the theoretical yield, was obtained in multifeed SSCF on pretreated wheat straw. In demo scale, the process with flocculating yeast and temperature profile resulted in 5% (w/w) ethanol, equivalent to 53% of the theoretical yield. Multifeed SSCF was further developed by means of a

  1. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-08

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha -1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  2. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  3. In vitro evaluation of salinomycin addition in wheat straw based total mixed diets on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and dry matter degradability in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Sirohi

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of salinomycin in vitro on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Materials and Methods: Different levels of (0,10, 15 and 20 ppm salinomycin were checked for their effect on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation on three wheat straw based diets i.e. low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of salinomycin was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results: Results of different levels of salinomycin on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (38.14% in term of mM/gDM was noticed in HFD at 20 ppm level. IVDMD showing increasing trend with an increasing concentration of salinomycin with HFD and LFD, while shown decreasing trend with MFD respectively. Protozoal population significantly decreased by addition of salinomycin in all diets. Conclusion: The results of salinomycin evaluation in the current study can be implicated to mitigate the methane production, thus saving the feed energy loss and the accumulation of green house gases in environment. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 609-613

  4. Effect of peanut shell and wheat straw biochar on the availability of Cd and Pb in a soil-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Chen, Hao-Xiang; Xiang, Qian; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Huang, Dao-You; Zhang, Yang-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Soil amendments, such as biochar, have been used to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted to immobilize the available cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil using peanut shell biochar (PBC) and wheat straw biochar (WBC), and to observe the accumulation of these heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBC and WBC led to significantly higher pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in paddy soil, while the content of MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb was lower than that of untreated soil. MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb showed significant negative correlations with pH, SOC, and CEC (p rice plants. Specially, when compared to the corresponding concentrations in rice grown in control soils, 5% PBC addition lowered Cd and Pb concentrations in grains by 22.9 and 12.2%, respectively, while WBC addition lowered them by 29.1 and 15.0%, respectively. Compared to Pb content, Cd content was reduced to a greater extent in grain by PBC and WBC. These results suggest that biochar application is effective for immobilizing Cd and Pb in contaminated paddy soil, and reduces their bioavailability in rice. Biochar could be used as a soil amendment for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

  5. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  6. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  7. Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Total Saponins and Evaluate Their Effect on in vitro Methanogenesis and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Wheat Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Goel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to estimate the total saponins and evaluate their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation by in vitro gas production techniques. Three plant material, rough chaff tree seed (Achyranthus aspara, T1, gokhru seed (Tribulus terrestris, T2 and Siris seed (Albizia lebbeck, T3 were selected for present study. The total saponins content in T1, T2 and T3 were 45.75, 25.65 and 48.26% (w/w, respectively. Three levels of each saponins (3, 6 and 9% on DM basis and wheat straw based (50R:50C medium fiber diet (200±10 mg were used for the evaluation of their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern. Results showed the maximum methane reduction (49.66% in term of mM/gDDM and acetate propionate ration (35.08% were found in T1 at 6 and 3% levels. Result show that propionate production (mM/ml was increased; protozoa population decreased (75% significantly on addition with T3 at 6% level. No significant variation was found in dry matter digestibility in all cases. The present results demonstrate that total saponins extracted from different herbal plants are a promising rumen modifying agent. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  9. Effects of different swine manure to wheat straw ratios on antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different mass ratios of swine manure relative to wheat straw (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3, i.e., control reactors C1, C2, and C3, respectively) on variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas production volumes were 1711, 3857, and 3226mL in C1, C2, and C3, respectively. After AD, the total relative abundance of ARGs decreased by 4.23 logs in C3, whereas the reductions were only 1.03 and 1.37 logs in C1 and C2, respectively. Network analysis showed that the genera Solibacillus, Enterococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium_1, and Acinetobacter were potential hosts of ermB, sul1, and dfrA7. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial communities and environmental factors played important roles in the variation in ARGs. Thus, reductions in ARGs should be considered before reusing animal manure treated by AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biobleaching of wheat straw-rich soda pulp with alkalophilic laccase from gamma-proteobacterium JB: optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gursharan; Ahuja, Naveen; Batish, Mona; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2008-11-01

    An alkalophilic laccase from gamma-proteobacterium JB was applied to wheat straw-rich soda pulp to check its bleaching potential by using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The design was employed by selecting laccase units, ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) concentration and pH as model factors. The results of second order factorial design experiments showed that all three independent variables had significant effect on brightness and kappa number of laccase-treated pulp. Optimum conditions for biobleaching of pulp with laccase preparation (specific activity, 65 nkat mg(-1) protein) were 20 nkat g(-1) of pulp, 2mM ABTS and pH 8.0 which enhanced brightness by 5.89% and reduced kappa number by 21.1% within 4h of incubation at 55 degrees C, without further alkaline extraction of pulp. Tear index (8%) and burst index (18%) also improved for laccase-treated pulp as compared to control raw pulp. Treatment of chemically (CEH1H2) bleached pulp with laccase showed significant effect on release of chromophores, hydrophobic and reducing compounds. Laccase-prebleaching of raw pulp reduced the use of hypochlorite by 10% to achieve brightness of resultant hand sheets similar to the fully chemically bleached pulp.

  12. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fengzhang1978@hotmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots can be synthesized simply by a green, economic and one-pot hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw with ∼20% yield, in addition to the compact size and robust photostability they are experimentally demonstrated for multiplexed applications such as sensing ions and labeling and imaging for inorganic nanostructures, cells and even nematodes. The converting biomass wastes to promising biocompatible nanomaterials could be a “one-stone-two-birds” strategy to other carbon-containing biomass waste for a highly effectively carbon recycling use and sustainable energy and environment future. - Highlights: • Photoluminescent carbon dots can be synthesized by wheat straw with about 20% yield. • Carbon dots can be used for both nonliving and living labeling, imaging, and sensing. • Carbon dots can be used as a fluorescent ink. - Abstract: The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a “one-stone-two-birds” strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (<2 nm), combined with the characteristic excitation-dependent relatively bright emission, and robust photostability made the C-dots a potential biocompatible nanomaterial for bio-applications. We

  13. MASS BALANCE OF SILICA IN STRAW FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SILICA REDUCTION IN STRAW PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The high silica content of wheat straw is an important limiting factor for straw pulping. High silica content complicates processing and black liquor recovery, wears out factory installations, and lowers paper quality. Each section of wheat straw has different cells and chemical compositions and thus different silica content. In this work, the silica content of balled straw samples were examined according to their physical components, including internodes, nodes, leaves (sheath and blade, rachis, grain, other plant bodies, and other plant spikes. Mass distribution of silica was determined by a dry ashing method. Half (50.90% of the silica comes from leaves, and its mechanical separation will reduce the silica content in wheat straw pulp significantly. Destroying silica bodies by sonication will increase the strength properties of straw pulp.

  14. A comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and wheat straw: Process stability and microbial community structure shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuchuan; Guo, Xianglin; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Yajiao; Zhang, Mengyu

    2018-05-01

    Renewable energy recovery from organic solid waste via anaerobic digestion is a promising way to provide sustainable energy supply and eliminate environmental pollution. However, poor efficiency and operational problems hinder its wide application of anaerobic digestion. The effects of two key parameters, i.e. temperature and substrate characteristics on process stability and microbial community structure were studied using two lab-scale anaerobic reactors under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Both the reactors were fed with food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The organic loading rates (OLRs) were maintained at a constant level of 3 kg VS/(m 3 ·d). Five different FW:WS substrate ratios were utilized in different operational phases. The synergetic effects of co-digestion improved the stability and performance of the reactors. When FW was mono-digested, both reactors were unstable. The mesophilic reactor eventually failed due to volatile fatty acid accumulation. The thermophilic reactor had better performance compared to mesophilic one. The biogas production rate of the thermophilic reactor was 4.9-14.8% higher than that of mesophilic reactor throughout the experiment. The shifts in microbial community structures throughout the experiment in both thermophilic and mesophilic reactors were investigated. With increasing FW proportions, bacteria belonging to the phylum Thermotogae became predominant in the thermophilic reactor, while the phylum Bacteroidetes was predominant in the mesophilic reactor. The genus Methanosarcina was the predominant methanogen in the thermophilic reactor, while the genus Methanothrix remained predominant in the mesophilic reactor. The methanogenesis pathway shifted from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic when the mesophilic reactor experienced perturbations. Moreover, the population of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms in the thermophilic reactor was higher than those in mesophilic reactor, which explained the better

  15. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including β-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for

  16. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Sowing Quantity on Soil Temperature and Yield of Winter Wheat under Straw Strip Mulching in Arid Region of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xuemei; Chai, Yuwei; Li, Rui; Li, Bowen; Cheng, Hongbo; Chang, Lei; Chai, Shouxi

    2018-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics and relationship between soil temperature and yield of winter wheat, under different sowing quantities conditions of straw mulching conventional drilling in Northwest China, this study took Lantian 26 as material, under the whole corn mulching conventional drilling in Changhe town and Pingxiang town, setting up 3 different seeding quantities of 270 kg/ha (SSMC1), 324 kg/ha (SSMC2) and 405 kg/ha (SSMC3), to study the difference of soil temperature during the growth period of winter wheat and its correlation with yield components. Results showed: the average soil temperature of 0∼25cm in two ecological zones in the whole growth period have a significant change with the increase of sowing quantities; too much seeding had a sharp drop in soil temperature; the highest temperature of SSMC in Changhe town was the middle quantity of SSMC 2; the highest temperature of SSMC in Pingxiang town was the lowest sowing quantity of SSMC1. Diurnal variation of soil temperature at all growth stages showed: with the increase of SSMC, in the morning it increased with the increase of soil depth, noon and evening reducing with the depth of the soil. The average soil temperature of SSMC2 was higher than that of in all the two ecological zones in the whole growth period of SSMC.The maximum day temperature difference of each treatment was at noon. With the increase of SSMC, the yield increase varied with two ecological zones. SSMC of the local conventional sowing quantity of 270kg/ha SSMC1 yield was the highest in Changhe Town. SSMC of the middle sowing quantity SSMC2 of 324kg/ha yield was the highest in Pingxiang town. The difference of grain number per spike was the main cause of yield difference among these 3 treatments. Correlation analysis showed: the correlation among the yield and yield components, growth index and soil temperature varied with different ecological zones; thousand kernel weight and grain number per ear (.964** and.891**) had a

  18. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  19. Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

  20. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of VS organic loads and buckwheat husk on methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Andres, Yaves; Blel, Walid; Gad, Ali; Ahmed, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion of PS, WS, and BH was conducted to evaluate different VS organic loads for an optimal methane production. • Co-digestion of PS and WS was optimized using buckwheat husk as a new waste material. • Combination of PS, WS, and BH produced higher methane yields than the individual digestion of PS, WS, and BH. • The highest CMYs and VS removal rate were achieved at C/N ratios of 10 and 7.50 gVS/L, respectively. • The purification process increased the methane content from 58.91–63.05% to 92.46–95.30%. - Abstract: An environmentally acceptable disposal of sewage sludge and agro-wastes presents an urgent problem facing many countries. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a robust and suitable technique for producing renewable energy from wastes. This study aims to improve methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge (PS) and wheat straw (WS) depending on their volatile solids (VS) organic load and by adding a proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) based on their carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Mesophilic anaerobic batch tests were carried out in 500-mL digesters. Individual and six mixtures of PS and WS at different VS organic loads were anaerobically digested to optimize VS load for the greatest gas production. The highest cumulative methane yield (CMYs) occurred with combined substrates at a VS load of 7.50 gVS/L. In general, the optimized organic loads that gave the highest cumulative biogas yield (CBYs) and CMYs were in the range of 6–8 gVS/L. In addition, AD of individual substrates of PS, WS, and BH and of their mixture at different C/N ratios was investigated regarding to the methane yields. Multi-component substrates produced the greatest CMY at a C/N ratio of 10.07. The CMYs was increased by 39.26% when the proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) was added to the different mixtures of PS and WS compared to the co-digestion of PS and WS. Experimental results were approved using statistical

  2. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  3. Pressurised fluidised-bed gasification experiments with biomass, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1994. Gasification of Danish wheat, straw and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Staahlberg, P; Moilanen, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed air gasification of three different Danish straw feedstocks and Colombian bituminous coal was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT. The test programme was divided into two different modes of operation. First, the usability of straw as the only feedstock was investigated by operating the gasifier at relatively low temperature normally used in biomass gasifiers. In this operation mode the main aim was to find out the limits for gasification temperatures, set by the sintering behaviour of the straw. Secondly, the use of straw as an additional feedstock in a fluidised-bed coal gasifier was examined by operating the gasifier at about 1 000 deg C with different ratings of straw and coal feeding. The gasifier was operated at 5 bar pressure and at 80 990 deg C. The product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 465-540 deg C. Concentrations of tars, nitrogen com- pounds, sulphur gases, vapour-phase alkali metals as well as chlorine were determined in different operating conditions. (12 refs.)

  4. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  5. Utilization of straw for Bihudung production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietjen, C

    1955-01-01

    Surplus straw unwanted for farmyard-manure preparation is best utilized for the production of manure gas. In the German Bihugas process, anaerobic fermentation of wheat straw, alone or mixed with beet leaves, at 31/sup 0/ for 22 to 36 days produces about 15 cu m gas of 44 to 46% CO/sub 2/ content/100 kg material. The decomposition product supplies an organic manure of favorable C/N ratio, generally <20 : 1.

  6. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from ...

  7. Experimental study of methanic fermentation of straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopter, P; Beerens, H

    1952-12-03

    The amount of liquid manure obtainable was a limiting factor in methanic fermentation of wheat straw. An equal volume of 0.2% aqueous solution of Na formate could be substituted for 90% of the normal requirements of liquid manure. This shortened the preliminary stages of cellulosic fermentation when no methane was produced and slightly increased the subsequent yield of methane.

  8. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehsan Zaidi

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... bioassay, dried and chopped wheat straw of the four test wheat varieties was thoroughly mixed in pot ... environment from living plants and the subsequent ... Copped materials were mixed in sandy loam soil in plastic pots of 8.

  9. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of goose manure with alkali solubilized wheat straw: A case of carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading rate regression optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Umar, Muhammad; Rasool, Ghulam

    2017-04-01

    The present study focused on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and organic loading rate (OLR) optimization of goose manure (GM) and wheat straw (WS). Dealing the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure on industrial scale; the question of optimum C/N (mixing ratio) and OLR (daily feeding concentration) have significant importance still lack in literature. Therefore, Batch and CSTR co-digestion experiments of the GM and WS were carried out at mesophilic condition. The alkali (NaOH) solubilization pretreatment for the WS had greatly enhanced its anaerobic digestibility. The highest methane production was evaluated between the C/N of 20-30 during Batch experimentation while for CSTRs; the second applied OLR of (3g.VS/L.d) was proved as the optimum with maximum methane production capability of 254.65ml/g.VS for reactor B at C/N of 25. The C/N and OLR regression optimization models were developed for their commercial scale usefulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  11. [Effect of straw-returning on the storage and distribution of different active fractions of soil organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hul; Wang, Xu-dong; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of straw mulching and returning on the storage of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and their proportions to the total organic carbon (TOC) were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that compared to the treatment of wheat straw soil-returning (WR), the storage of TOC and MOC decreased by 4.1% and 9.7% respectively in 0-20 cm soil in the treatment with wheat straw mulching (WM), but the storage of DOC and POC increased by 207.7% and 11.9%, and TOC and POC increased significantly in 20-40 cm soil. Compared to the treatment with maize straw soil-returning (MR), the storage of TOC and MOC in the plough pan soil of the treatment with maize straw mulching (MM) increased by 13.6% and 14.6% , respectively. Compared to the WR-MR treatment, the storage of TOC and MOC in top soil (0-20 icm) significantly decreased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively in WM-MM treatment. The storage of TOC, and POC in top soil was significantly higher in the treatments with maize straw soil-returning or mulching than that with wheat straw. Compared to the treatment without straw (CK), the storage of TOC in top soil increased by 5.2% to 18.0% in the treatments with straw returning or mulching in the six modes (WM, WR, MM, MR, WM-MM,WR-MR) (Porganic carbon fraction in soil, straw soil-returning had the potential to accumulate stable organic carbon fraction. Considering organic carbon sequestration in cropland in the region of Guanzhong plain, maize straw mulching or soil-returning was better than wheat straw, and wheat straw and maize straw soil-returning (WR-MR) were better than wheat and maize straw mulching (WM-MM).

  12. [The influence of straw, particularly rice straw, together with calcium-cyanamide on the microbiological activity of two Portuguese soils (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glathe, H; El Din, A; Scheuer, A

    1976-01-01

    The influence of calcium-cyanamide upon the microbiological activity was tested in pot experiments under controlled conditions in two Portuguese soils (sandy and loamy) after the addition of rice or wheat straw (rice straw 0.275% N, wheat straw 0.307% N). The amount of straw was equalled to 100 dz/ha, the application of calcium-cyanamide to 25, 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In the containers treated with straw the total amount of microorganisms (Koch-method) was higher in sandy than in loamy soil after 30 days, but after 70 days it was higher in loamy soil. The content of active nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) increased, when calcium-cyanamide was added, but decreased after the application of straw. After 70 days sandy soil again showed an increase of active nitrogen. Straw increased the rates of CO2-production considerably, wheat straw was superior to rice straw. Calcium-cyanamide increased the CO2-production more in sandy than in loamy soil or German loess, which was also used for this experiment. Only in the case of rice straw higher doses of calcium-cyanamide had a positive effect. After 70 days the CO2-production rose only when rice straw was applied. The dehydrogenase-activity was increased in both soils, but a superiority of wheat straw occurred in sandy soil only. The microbiological activity in the pots with straw was higher in sandy than in loamy soil, the addition of calcium-cyanamide accelerated it. Doses of 25-50 kg N/ha are sufficient generally. The period of the formation of insoluble organic N-compounds, usually connected with the application of organic matter with a wide N:C-ratio, seems to be reduced by the addition of calcium-cyanamide.

  13. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  14. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Straw-to-soil or straw-to-energy? An optimal trade off in a long term sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, Massimo; Cammerino, Anna Rita Bernadette; Garofalo, Pasquale; Delivand, Mitra Kami

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy balance and GHG savings of a straw-to-electricity value chain were determined. • An “expanded” LCA was performed, from farm field to electricity delivery. • Both direct and indirect factors of land use change have been considered in the analysis. • No-tillage and crop rotation significantly improved the system performance. • A win–win, sustainable solution for the energy use of straw has been identified. - Abstract: This study examined some management strategies of wheat cultivation system and its sustainability in using straw as an energy feedstock. According to the EU regulatory framework on biofuels, no GHG emissions should be assigned to straws when they are used for energy. Given this relevance in the current energy policy, it is advisable to include all possible marginal effects related to land use, resource utilization and management changes in the comparison of different biomass options. Coherently, an expanded life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to include the upstream cultivation phase and to make a comparison between “straw to soil” and “straw to energy”. Different crop management conditions in Southern Italy were simulated, by using the CropSyst model, to estimate the long-term soil organic carbon and annual N 2 O soil emissions. Three wheat cropping systems were considered: the conventional single wheat system without straw removal (W0) and with partial straw removal (W1), together with a no-tillage “wheat-wheat-herbage” rotation system with partial straw removal (W2). The results of the simulations were integrated in the LCA to compare fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of straw-to-electricity with respect to the fossil-based electricity system. The “improved” rotational wheat cropping system (W2) gave the best performance in terms both of GHG savings and fossil displacement, thus stressing that straw use for energy generation in parallel with the optimization of the

  16. Valorisation of Vietnamese Rice Straw Waste: Catalytic Aqueous Phase Reforming of Hydrolysate from Steam Explosion to Platform Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huong Giang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions.

  17. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, R.; Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15 N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15 N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15 N excess ( 15 N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15 N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15 N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15 N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15 N wheat, straw as a 15 N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  18. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  19. Direct conversion of straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum: effect of cellulose crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece))

    1991-03-01

    Wheat straw was successfully fermented to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 in a one-step process. Cellulose crystallinity was found to be a major factor in the bioconversion process. Ethanol yields increased linearly with decreasing crystallinity index. Approximately 80% of straw carbohydrates were converted directly to ethanol with a yield of 0.28 g ethanol/g{sup -1} of straw when the crystallinity index was reduced to 23.6%. (author).

  20. Radiation pre-treating straw hydrolyzed by cellulase resulted from immobilized Trichoderma reesei growing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Minoru Kumakura

    1992-01-01

    Wheat and rice straw was irradiated by electron beam with different dose at the presence of 4% NaOH or without 4% NaOH. The powder fraction above 200 meshes in pretreated rice straw increased with increasing doses and it was more at presence of 4% NaOH than that without 4% NaOH. The pretreated straw was hydrolyzed with 1% cellulase at 40 degree C for 48 h. The glucose yield (%) was given a rise with the increase of irradiation dose and it was 70% and 80% over that of un-pretreated rice and wheat straw, respectively. At the presence of 4% NaOH, the glucose yield increased as the irradiation dose increased from 0 to 5 x 10 5 Gy, reaching a maximum, 35% for wheat straw and 36.6% for rice straw, which increased by about 2.5 times in comparison with un-pretreated straw, then decrease with increasing the irradiation dose to 10 x 10 5 Gy. The glucose yield reached 19% and 22% for rice and wheat straw in 6 days of hydrolysis, respectively

  1. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasker, Marwen; Belayachi, Naima; Hoxha, Dashnor; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2014-04-11

    The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  2. Environmental performance of straw-based pulp making: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Wang, Yutao; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO 2 -eq, 4550kg CO 2 -eq, 16.43kg SO 2 -eq and 2.56kg Phosphate-eq respectively. The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical (NaOH, ClO 2 ) input. Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood-based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw-based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements. However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw-based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw-based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Since wheat straw-based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  4. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  5. Utilization of poor quality roughages III. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and structural polysaccharides utilization of straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.N.; Mudgal, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The wheat and paddy straws were irradiated with 60 Co gamma source in doses of 10 5 and 10 6 rad, respectively. The data indicated that these doses applied to straws were not sufficient to bring the appreciable changes in the chemical composition in wheat straw. However, the cell wall constituents, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin : cellulose ratio and acid insoluble ash decreased (P < 0.05), while cell contents increased (P < 0.01) in irradiated samples of paddy straw. The findings further revealed that small changes in chemical composition due to irradiation could not bring any significant changes in the in vitro digestibility values for any of the fibre components in both the straws, except in paddy straw, where the in vitro acid detergent fibre digestibility was reduced (P < 0.05), while availability index increased (P < 0.05) due to irradiation. (author)

  6. Comparison of the efficiency of bacterial and fungal laccases in delignification and detoxification of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, María; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Eugenio, María E; Blánquez, Alba; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, María E; Ibarra, David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluates the potential of a bacterial laccase from Streptomyces ipomoeae (SilA) for delignification and detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw, in comparison with a commercial fungal laccase from Trametes villosa. When alkali extraction followed by SilA laccase treatment was applied to the water insoluble solids fraction, a slight reduction in lignin content was detected, and after a saccharification step, an increase in both glucose and xylose production (16 and 6%, respectively) was observed. These effects were not produced with T. villosa laccase. Concerning to the fermentation process, the treatment of the steam-exploded whole slurry with both laccases produced a decrease in the phenol content by up to 35 and 71% with bacterial and fungal laccases, respectively. The phenols reduction resulted in an improved performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, improving ethanol production rate. This enhancement was more marked with a presaccharification step prior to the SSF process.

  7. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED OPTIONS OF STRAW USE DEPENDING ON HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest straw deserves particular attention among agricultural raw materials. It can be intended for sale, applied as litter material in animal husbandry or used in field fertilization. To a lesser extent it can be used for fodder production, covering mounds of roots and tubers and the production of insulation materials in horticulture and building construction. Using surplus straw directly for energy generation, including production of pellets and briquettes, should also be considered rational. Several applications were analyzed. The main purpose of the research is to determine the profitability level of winter wheat cultivation and of energy use of the straw obtained. Among others, they included situations in which obtained straw was used in the production of pellets, in fertilization after prior grinding and mixing with manure or used for direct sale. For our calculations, the costs/ha of wheat cultivation and then straw collection were estimated. The comparative analysis of various options of wheat straw utilization shows the highest profitability in the option of selling the straw and mineral fertilization.

  8. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  9. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  10. Soil aggregate and organic carbon distribution at dry land soil and paddy soil: the role of different straws returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Lan, Muling; Liu, Jiang; Gao, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture wastes returning to soil is one of common ways to reuse crop straws in China. The returned straws are expected to improve the fertility and structural stability of soil during the degradation of straw it selves. The in situ effect of different straw (wheat, rice, maize, rape, and broad bean) applications for soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution were studied at both dry land soil and paddy soil in this study. Wet sieving procedures were used to separate soil aggregate sizes. Aggregate stability indicators including mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, mean weight of specific surface area, and the fractal dimension were used to evaluate soil aggregate stability after the incubation of straws returning. Meanwhile, the variation and distribution of SOC in different-sized aggregates were further studied. Results showed that the application of straws, especially rape straw at dry land soil and rice straw at paddy soil, increased the fractions of macro-aggregate (> 0.25 mm) and micro-aggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). Suggesting the nutrients released from straw degradation promotes the growing of soil aggregates directly and indirectly. The application of different straws increased the SOC content at both soils and the SOC mainly distributed at  0.25 and 0.25-0.053 mm aggregates with dry land soil. Rape straw in dry land and rice straw in paddy field could stabilize soil aggregates and increasing SOC contents best.

  11. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  12. Barley Straw Ash: Pozzolanic Activity and Comparison with other Natural and Artificial Pozzolans from México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cobreros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the largest and most active growth sectors worldwide. It presents an important environmental impact, and one way to reduce the impact of the construction activity is to substitute pozzolanic materials for ordinary Portland cement. In this work, barley straw, barley straw ash, and other natural and artificial pozzolans from Mexico were characterized and compared. Also, the pozzolanic activity of barley straw ash was compared with the pozzolanic properties of some natural and artificial pozzolans from Mexico. Materials considered included recycled dust of fired clay brick, fly ash, volcanic ash, and wheat straw ash.

  13. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  14. Chemical modification of straw by alkaline treatment. [Trolmen process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In straw from 9 Swedish cereal cultivars of barley, oats, wheat, and rye, low molecular weight carbohydrates constituted only 0.3-1.4% of the straw with sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the sugar alcohols arabinitol and mannitol as main constituents. Hemicellulose (18-24%), cellulose (27-37%) and Klason-lignin (19-24%) were the main constituents. The ash (3-12%) and silica (0.5-3%) values showed rather high variations. After the Trolmen process, a wet closed NaOH treatment method, there was a slight enrichment of carbohydrates and ash and a decrease of Klason-lignin in the treated straw. About 1% of phenolic acids, mainly alpha ..beta.. -dihydro-p-coumatic, trans-p-coumaric, alpha ..beta.. -dihydroferulic and trans-ferulic acids, were quantified in the black liquid from the Trolmen process. These acids were probably ester-linked to the hemicellulose in the native straw and released during alkali treatment.HOAc, probably from Ac groups in xylan, and some of the silica were also released during the process. Although the amount of dissolved lignin was small, linkages between lignin and hemicellulosic polymers, perhaps also to cellulose, may be broken during the treatment. Linkages of these types may block the carbohydrates from enzymic action and reduce the digestibility. The higher digestibility of alkali-treated straw is probably due both to breaking of such linkages and to swelling of the polysaccharides rather than removal of any large amounts of undigestible components as lignin and silica.

  15. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  16. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  17. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  18. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  19. Fertilizer-N uptake by Chickpea and Wheat Crops under Intercropping System using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, I.M.; Moursy, A.A.A.; Kotb, E.A.; Ismail, M.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. The lowest portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer was resulted from application of compost and chickpea straw treatments. It is worthy to mention that full recommend dos of fertilizer (20 kg N fed-1) was efficiently used by shoots of chickpea plants. Portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer by seeds of chickpea was lower than those recorded with shoots. Generally, there was no big significant difference between nitrogen gained by shoots and seeds from the organic materials. This holds true with all treatments. More declines in nitrogen derived from soil percentages were resulted from application of cow manure and compost treatments under different rate of mineral fertilizer, the application 100% MF treatment induced higher nitrogen derived from soil pool as compared to the other treatments. The best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general, nitrogen derived from air by shoots lower than those up taken by seeds of chickpea plant. Application of wheat straw and compost treatments were enhanced the nitrogen derived from fertilizer by straw of wheat plant as compared to caw manure, maize stalk, chickpea straw, but Ndff% in grains of wheat , cow manure and maize stalk increased as compared to the other treatment. Application of organic materials, chickpea straw and cow manure achieved the highest value of Ndfo% by straw of wheat plant as compared to maize stalk, compost and wheat straw. But values of nitrogen derived from organic in grains of wheat plants, the application of chickpea straw and wheat straw

  20. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  2. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  3. Straw enhanced CO2 and CH4 but decreased N2O emissions from flooded paddy soils: Changes in microbial community compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Yu, Jian-Guang; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Lena Q.; Li, Hong-Bo

    2018-02-01

    To explore microbial mechanisms of straw-induced changes in CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from paddy field, wheat straw was amended to two paddy soils from Taizhou (TZ) and Yixing (YX), China for 60 d under flooded condition. Illumia sequencing was used to characterize shift in bacterial community compositions. Compared to control, 1-5% straw amendment significantly elevated CO2 and CH4 emissions with higher increase at higher application rates, mainly due to increased soil DOC concentrations. In contrast, straw amendment decreased N2O emission. Considering CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions as a whole, an overall increase in global warming potential was observed with straw amendment. Total CO2 and CH4 emissions from straw-amended soils were significantly higher for YX than TZ soil, suggesting that straw-induced greenhouse gas emissions depended on soil characteristics. The abundance of C-turnover bacteria Firmicutes increased from 28-41% to 54-77% with straw amendment, thereby increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. However, straw amendment reduced the abundance of denitrifying bacteria Proteobacteria from 18% to 7.2-13% or increased the abundance of N2O reducing bacteria Clostridium from 7.6-11% to 13-30%, thereby decreasing N2O emission. The results suggested straw amendment strongly influenced greenhouse gas emissions via alerting soil properties and bacterial community compositions. Future field application is needed to ascertain the effects of straw return on greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, D.K.; Sen, Avijit; Misra, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  5. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  6. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  7. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  8. Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion...... for metal temperatures above 520 C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the secondary superheater showed deposits rich in potassium and chlorine and to a lesser extent in silicon, calcium, and sulfur. Potassium and chlorine make up 40-80 wt% of the deposits. Mechanisms of deposit...

  9. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  10. The transportation and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, and phosphorus in 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Zhu, Shun; Bai, Sheng Nan; Xia, Yan; Lou, Lai Qing, E-mail: loulq@njau.edu.cn; Cai, Qing Sheng, E-mail: qscai@njau.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • As and Cd concentrations in wheat grain differed significantly among 12 cultivars. • As and Cd in wheat grains were correlated with P in straw and grain. • A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd. • Rachis may play a key role in the difference between As and Cd transport to grains. - Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the difference in arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P) uptake, accumulation, and translocation among 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other in soil “naturally” contaminated with both As and Cd. As, Cd, and P concentrations in wheat grain, straw, and root differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the 12 wheat cultivars. The grain As concentration was not correlated with straw and root As, or the total As content in plants, but was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with As translocation factors (TFs), i.e., TFs{sub (Grain/Root)} and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw)}. The grain Cd concentration was positively correlated with the total Cd content and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw).} The grain P concentration was positively correlated with straw and root P. Both As and Cd concentrations in wheat grains were correlated with P in wheat straw and grain. Compared with As, Cd was more easily transported to the wheat grain, and the rachis played a key role in ensuring this difference. A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd, but no significant relationship was detected between grain As and Cd concentrations. The lack of a relationship between grain As and Cd suggests the possibility of selecting cultivars in which little As and Cd accumulation occurs in the wheat grain.

  11. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  12. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: A case study based on biophysical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 x 10 18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic model of C and N dynamics in soil-crop systems to simulate the effect of straw removal under various sets of soil, climate and crop management conditions in northeastern France. Model results in terms of nitrate leaching, soil C variations, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions were subsequently inputted into the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a particular bio-energy chain in which straw was used to generate heat and power in a plant producing bio-ethanol from wheat grains. Straw removal had little influence on simulated environmental emissions in the field, and straw incorporation in soil resulted in a sequestration of only 5-10% of its C in the long term (30 years). The LCA concluded to significant benefits of straw use for energy in terms of global warming and use of non-renewable energy. Only the eutrophication and atmospheric acidification impact categories were slightly unfavourable to straw use in some cases, with a difference of 8% at most relative to straw incorporation. These results based on a novel methodology thereby confirm the environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with straw. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  14. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disadvantage of urea fertilizer is that considerable ... environmental cost associated with N losses via NH3 volatilization, NO3. - leaching .... Where Yf is the total biological yield (grain plus straw) of the fertilized plot (kg);. Yu is the total ... price, which is 9 Birr kg-1 of wheat grain yield for Hawzien and 11 ETB for Emba.

  15. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  16. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  17. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-09-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  18. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  19. Process optimization for maximizing the rheology modifying properties of pectic hydrocolloids recovered from steam exploded biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectic hydrocolloids from citrus peel waste are highly functional molecules whose utility and application have expanded well beyond their traditional use in jams and jellies. They are now finding applications in health, pharmaceutical and personal care products as well as functioning as emulsifiers,...

  20. Relationship between fiber porosity and cellulose digestibility in steam-exploded Pinus radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.Y.; Deverell, K.F.; Mackie, K.L.; Clark, T.A.; Donaldson, L.A.

    1988-04-05

    The use of lignocellulosic materials in bioconversion processes may be improved if the critical factors limiting conversion are better understood. Steam explosion after sulfur dioxide impregnation of wood chips is an effective method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the softwood Pinus radiata. Digestibility of pretreated fiber was progressively increased by altering the conditions of steam explosion. With increasing digestibility, there was an observed increase in fiber porosity as measured by the solute exclusion technique. Accessible pore volume and accessible surface area to a 5-nm dextran probe positively correlated with both 2- and 24-h digestion yields from pretreated fiber. The increase in accessibility was probably the result of hemicellulose extraction and lignin redistribution. A subsequent loss in accessibility, brought about by structural collapse or further lignin redistribution, resulted in a corresponding loss in digestibility. It appears that steam explosion increases cellulose digestibility in P. radiata by increasing fiber porosity.

  1. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, A J; Ball, A S [Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology

    1990-01-01

    This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from thermophilic strains and the general neutral to alkali pH optima offer advantages in certain process situations. Actinomycetes are a particularly rich source of xylanases for commercial application and can rapidly solubilise a lignocarbohydrate fraction of straw which may have both product and pretreatment potential. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A trial burn of rape straw and whole crops harvested for energy use to assess efficiency implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    Increased biomass utilisation and alternatives to cereal straw such as oil seed rape (OSR) straw will be necessary to achieve the Government's renewable energy targets. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning OSR straw and whole crops in an existing biomass power plant operated by EPR Ely Ltd in comparison with conventional cereal straw. Suitable quantities of bales of each fuel were provided for the combustion trials by Anglian Straw Ltd. Three trials were conducted: one using wheat-based cereal straw; one using 92% OSR; and one using 65% whole crop fuel. The availability of OSR straw and whole crop in Eastern England for use as fuel was also determined. Plant performance and stack emissions were evaluated and samples of delivered crop samples, bottom ash and fly ash from each trial were analysed. The parameters against which performance was assessed included: ease of handling and conveying; ease of chopping; ease of entry into the combustion chamber; furnace temperature profile; steam and electricity production rate; plant chimney emissions; ash collection and removal; operating stability; sustainability; and fuel availability.

  3. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  4. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  5. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  6. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1987-01-01

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15 N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15 N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15 N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  7. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  8. Straw Appliqué Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... colours. This combination make up the costumed part; and the exposed part of the skin; ... Bits of different geometric shapes, sizes, and tones are combined to create the forms from the ... Acrylic, Poster//Water-colour and Pastel. ... (Enenajor 2004) where all aspects of the work is filled with straw medium.

  9. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  10. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Thomsen, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    with a 15-min reaction time. Under these conditions, 55% of the lignin and 80% of the hemicellulose were solubilized, while 95% of the cellulose remained in the solid fraction. At 185 degrees C, the reaction kinetics was of pseudo first-order. The rate constant for hemicellulose solubilization was higher...... than that for lignin, whereas the rate for cellulose was very low. The cellulose recovery (95-100%) was significantly higher than that for hemicellulose (60%). At temperatures above 185 degrees C, recoveries decreased due to increased degradation. Only half of the COD-content could be accounted...

  11. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    . The work involved evaluation of 1) possible ways to increase the glucose release from the commercial cellulase product Celluclast by boosting with other enzyme activities to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis, 2) comparing differently pretreated feedstock substrates and 3) evaluating a fed-batch substrate...... mixture resulted in a glucose release corresponding to ~84 % of the glucose release from Celluclast. It was therefore suggested that other enzyme activities than the 4 four main cellulase activities in Celluclast are necessary for optimal hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Even though Celluclast...... is a multicomponent cellulase mixture, there are still possibilities for further improvement in terms of providing the most efficient cellulase mixture for lignocellulose hydrolysis. It was shown that substrates evaluated all had some residual hemicellulose in the solid cellulose fraction after pretreatment...

  13. Pre-process desilication of wheat straw with citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    in the residual biomass and treatment temperature was observed up to 170 degrees C, yielding a Si removal of up to 97.7%. This high Si removal came at the expense of a low mass yield (down to 45%) in the insoluble lignocellulosic fraction. Optimum process conditions for high Si removal and high total mass yield...... were: 100mM sodium citrate, 130 degrees C, 60 min, 2% w/v solids, and pH of similar to 6.5 during extraction. Using the proposed process conditions, silica removal of up to 77% was achieved with a mass yield of 72.8%. This Si removal from the insoluble lignocellulosic fraction did not affect...

  14. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... 1Mugla University, Faculty of Technical Education, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. 2Mugla University, Mushroom ..... Hayes WA, Shandilya TR (1977). Casing soil and compost substrates used in the artifical culture of Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 7: 5-10. Lambert ...

  15. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  16. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  17. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  18. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat

  19. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  20. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  1. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under rice-wheat cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Yong; Li, Fen-hua; Sun, Guo-jun; Han, Min; Zhang, Hai-yan; Ji, Zhong; Wu, Chen-yu

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under a rice-wheat rotation system, a survey was conducted before wheat harvest in 2014 after a 4-year long-term recurrent fertilization scheme. Weed species types, density, height and diversity index under different fertilization and straw-returning schemes in wheat fields were studied and complemented with a canonical correspondence analysis on weed community distribution and soil nutrient factors. Twenty weed species were recorded among 36 wheat fields belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Beckmannia syzigachne, Hemistepta lyrata, Malachium aquaticum and Cnidium monnieri were widely distributed throughout the sampled area. Long-term fertilization appeared to reduce weed species richness and density, particularly for broadleaf weeds, but increased weed height. Diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were lower and dominance indices were higher in fields where chemical fertilizers were applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers, especially, where organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was used, in which it readily caused the outbreak of a dominant species and severe damage. Conversely, diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were higher and dominance indices were lower when the straw was returned to the field combined with chemical or organic fertilizers, in which weed community structures were complex and stable with lower weed density. Under these conditions weeds only caused slight reduction of wheat growth.

  2. Decomposition of Rice Straw and Corn Straw Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw at aerobic and anaerobic condition were investigated under the simulated condition in the lab. Results showed that two stages, i.e. the rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 3 months, and the slow one between 3 and 12 months, of decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw were found under anaerobic and aerobic incubation condition, and more than 55%of rice straw and corn mass was lost at the initial 3 months incubation period. The half times(t1/2of rice straw and corn straw mass lost under aerobic condition were 59.2 d and 52.9 d, which were short than those(72.6 d and 79.9 dunder the anaerobic condition, respectively. Carbon release constants from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.61 and 0.60 per month, which were higher than those (0.55 and 0.57 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The nitrogen release from crop straw followed the same rule as the carbon release from straw. The constants of nitrogen released from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.25 and 2.36 per month, which were higher than those(0.16 and 2.32 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The losses of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were also higher than those under anaerobic condition. In summary, the aerobic environment increases de composition and release of organic and inorganic substances from crop straw.

  3. Allelopathic activity of pakistan wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Khaliq, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)

  4. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  5. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  6. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  7. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  8. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  9. Dissipation and residue of bifenthrin in wheat under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Jiang, Naiwen; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Congyun; Wang, Suli

    2013-02-01

    Field trials were carried out to investigate the dissipation and residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half-lives of bifenthrin in wheat seedlings ranged from 2.4 to 10.5 days. At harvest time, the terminal residues of bifenthrin were below the maximum residue limit (0.5 mg/kg) set by Codex Alimentarius Committee or European Union in wheat grain, which suggested that the use of this pesticide was safe for humans. However, the relatively high residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat straw should be paid attention to.

  10. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  11. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor.......In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...

  12. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  13. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  14. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  15. Straw Combustion in a Grate Furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    1998-01-01

    Fixed-bed combustion of straw has been conducted in a 15 cm diameter and 137 cm long cylindrical reactor. Air, which could be preheated, was introduced through the bottom plate. The straw was ignited at the top with a radiation heater. After ignition, when a self-sustaining reaction front...

  16. Enzymatic production of wheat and ryegrass derived xylooligosaccharides and evaluation of their in vitro effect on pig gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Meyer, Anne S.; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    This study examines enzymatic production of linear xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and branched arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) from monocotyledonous biomass, wheat straw and ryegrass, and compares the in vitro effects of these XOS and AXOS on pig gut microbiota. XOS and AXOS were obtained from...... the biomass by treatment with different endo-1,4-β-xylanases. XOS of DP2-6 from wheat straw, obtained after treatment with Aspergillus niger endo GH11, suppressed growth of Clostridium perfringens and resulted in a high level of lactic acid production when fermented in vitro by pig fecal microbiota...... (GH11). These results indicate that wheat straw as well as green grass biomass such as ryegrass have potential as new sources of putative prebiotics for pig feed....

  17. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa; Edstroem, M [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  18. Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Fu, Wenting; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous extract germination experiment. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract on seed vigor, seedling growth and development situations and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat, lettuce and pumpkin were studied, and the presence and degrees of allelopathic effects were analyzed. The test results showed that this type of SLS exerted different degrees of allelopathic effect on wheat and lettuce; this allelopathic effect was related to the concentration of SLS aqueous extract. The most significant phenomenon is that with the increase of aqueous extract concentration, the seed germination, root length and shoot fresh weight of wheat decreased; and every concentration of aqueous extract showed significant inhibition on the root length and root fresh weight of lettuce. However, this type of SLS showed little effect on the growth of pumpkin seedlings. Contents changes of chlorophyll and endogenous hormones in wheat and lettuce seedlings, and the chemical compositions of SLS were measured, and the mechanism of allelopathic effect was preliminarily analyzed.

  19. Evaluation of Some Organic Residues on the Availability of Nutrients to wheat Plants Using '15N Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.A.I.; Ismail, M.M.; El-akel, E.A.; Abdel Aziz, A.H.A.; Abdel-Wadood, A.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions to evaluate chicken manure and rice straw either individually or combined with mineral fertilizer rates on wheat plant grown in sandy soils. Organic materials were mixed with 5 kg soil pot 1 . 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate was added after thinned wheat plants. Basal recommended dose of P and K were applied. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design At harvest, the dry weight of straw and grains were recorded. Also Ndff, Ndfs and FUE were calculated. The obtained results showed that the application of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was significantly improved the yield of wheat straw and grains and have the order of ammonium sulfate (AS) > chicken manure (CM) > rice straw (RS). The effect was more pronounced when both CM and RS were applied in combined with labelled ammonium sulfate at the rates of (25% + 75%) and (50% + 50%). Fertilizer use efficiency (%FUE) was in the range of 3.9% to 13% in straw and 7.9% to 35.3% in grains. N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) by either straw or grains was ranged from 25.32 - 48.90% dependent on N fertilization forms and rates. Results indicated the importance of organic-N as a supplemental source for nitrogen and other elements which may be useful for enhancement of plant growth as well as saving the environment from pollution

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates and the fermentation of the liberated sugars to ethanol and butanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, J.N.; Mes-Hartree, M.; Yu, E.K.C.; Brownell, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen wood and wheat straw were pretreated by exposure to steam at elevated temperatures. Chemical analysis of the substrates revealed that steam explosion differentially decomposed the pentosan component while leaving the glucan portion relatively unchanged. The pretreated residues could be used as substrates for growth of Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. harzianum E58. The cellulase activities detected were in some cases three times as high as those found when Solka Floc was used as the substrate. Culture filtrates of T. harzianum E58 could efficiently hydrolyze the hemicellulose-rich water-soluble fractions. This material was fermented by Klebsiella pneumoniae with 0.4-0.5 g of 2,3-butanediol produced per gram of sugar utilized. Once the steam-exploded residues had been water and alkali extracted, the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrates were readily fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Zymononas mobilis with values as high as 2% (w/v) ethanol obtained from 5% steam-exploded wood fractions. 30 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Aerosol Formation during the Combustion of Straw with Addition of Sorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Jørgen P.

    2007-01-01

    , calcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, and clay. The addition of chalk increased the aerosol mass concentration by 24%. Experiments in a laminar flow aerosol condenser with the six sorbents were carried out in the laboratory using a synthetic flue gas to avoid fluctuations in the alkali feeding......The influence of six sorbents on aerosol formation during the combustion of straw in a 100 MW boiler on a Danish power plant has been studied in full-scale. The following sorbents were studied: ammonium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, clay, and chalk. Bentonite and ICA5000...... are mixtures of clay minerals and consist mainly of the oxides from Fe, Al, and Si. The straw used was Danish wheat and seed grass. Measurements were also made with increased flow of primary air. The experiments showed between 46% and 70% reduction in particle mass concentrations when adding ammonium sulfate...

  2. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) for treated canola straw were significantly higher than that of untreated canola straw (control) (p<0.001). Gas productions at 24 h for untreated canola straw (control) and treated canola straw were 20.03 and 27.07 ml, respectively.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  4. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  5. Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, V P; Pearce, G R

    1986-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200 degrees C for 5 min and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200 degrees C (1.72 MPa) for 5 min gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200 degrees C resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization.

  6. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  7. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  8. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  9. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC, no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisation. The carbon neutral assumption applied to crop residues is, however, a rough simplification. Crop residues, indeed, should not be viewed simply as a waste to be disposed, because they play a critical role in sustaining soil organic matter and therefore have an inherent C-capturing value. Moreover, considering straws as an energy feedstock, its status of co-product is clearly recognised and its availability could be obtained according to different cropping systems, corresponding to different primary energy costs and GHG emissions. This paper highlights some hidden features in the assessment of agricultural energy and carbon balance, still very difficult to be detected and accounted for. Although they are frequently disregarded, these features (such as long term dynamic trend of soil organic carbon and annual nitrous oxide emissions from the soil should be carefully considered in assembling the energy and emission balance. By using a crop simulation model, the long-term soil organic matter and annual N2O soil emissions were estimated. Consequently, a comprehensive energy and GHG balance was determined in accordance with the life cycle assessment methodology. Contrasting methods of straw management and wheat cultivation were compared: straw retention vs removal from the soil; conventional vs conservation tillage; wheat cropping system as a single-crop or in rotation. The resulting carbon footprint of straws has different magnitudes with respect to the several

  10. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  11. γ-ray radiation effect on properties of straw powder/PBS composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Luo Yongquan; Liu Wentao; Zhu Jun; Guo Dongquan; Li Zhaopeng; Gen Feng; Qu Lingbo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, with decreasing global fossil resources and increasing 'white pollution', renewable and biodegradable materials attract more and more attentions. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) has good mechanical property, biodegradability and processing performance, which is the focus of hot topics in the study of biodegradable plastic materials, however, being soft and of high cost, it is still limited in application range. Purpose: In order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties, a series of wheat straw powder/PBS composites were prepared by melt extrusion, and then the 60 Co-y ray was directly utilized to irradiate the straw powder/PBS composite. Methods: The influence of TAIC (triallyl isocyanurate) radiation absorbed dose and radiation sensitizer on the mechanical property and thermal performance of straw powder/PBS composite was investigated, and the impact fracture surface morphology of the composite was observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). Results: The tensile strength and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing radiation dosage, and then tend to be stable, the heat distortion temperature also increased but not significantly with increasing radiation dosage. The results show that when TAIC content is 2%, with straw powder/PBS composite irradiated by 30-kGy dose, the tensile strength and flexural strength are increased by 26% and 39.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The radiation modification of composite material has no effect on thermal stability, but do improve the tensile strength and flexural strength when up to 2% of TAIC is integrated and irradiated by certain dose. The interface cohesiveness between straw powder and PBS is strengthened after radiation. (authors)

  12. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  13. Rice and wheat yield improvement by the application of boron in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, S.M.; Sarfraz, M.; Hassan, N.M.; Hassan, W.

    2007-01-01

    In recent past studies on wheat, rice and fruit plant showed that fairly large percentage of soils and crops are deficient in boron. Several times a question rose to study the boron responses in a cropping system to see the residual effect of boron. With the objective in mind, a field experiment was conducted at two sites in saline sodic soils to see the rice and wheat crops response to boron. Boron was applied to rice at the rate of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Kg ha/sub -1/ as sodium tetra borate. The results showed that both paddy and straw yields increased with the increasing rates of boron and highest yield was obtained from 2 Kg ha/sub -l/. After harvesting of rice crop wheat was sown in the same layout. The treatments were divided into two equal portions. Boron was applied to one portion at the same rates as to rice while remaining half remained as such to study the residual effect of B on wheat. The results showed that grain anti straw yields increased with increasing rates of boron. In case of untreated plots to see the residual effect grain and straw yield increased with increasing rates of boron applied to rice. It was concluded that B applied to rice did show residual effect to the following wheat crop. Therefore, there is no need to apply B to following crop when B is applied to the previous crop. (author)

  14. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  15. Fate of 15N-urea applied to wheat-soybean succession crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi; Spolidorio, Eduardo Scarpari; Freitas, Jose Guilherme de; Cantarella, Heitor

    2004-01-01

    The wheat crop in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is fertilized with N, P and K. The rate of applied N (0 to 120 kg.ha -1 ) depends on the previous grown crop and the irrigation possibility. The response of wheat to rates and time of N application and the fate of N applied to irrigated wheat were studied during two years. Residual N recovery by soybean grown after the wheat was also studied. The maximum grain productivity was obtained with 92 kg.ha -1 of N. The efficiency of 15 N-urea utilization ranged from 52% to 85%. The main loss of applied 15 N, 5% to 12% occurred as ammonia volatilized from urea applied on soil surface. The N loss by leaching even at the N rate of 135 kg.ha -1 , was less than 1% of applied 15 N, due to the low amount of rainfall during the wheat grown season and a controlled amount of irrigated water, that were sufficient to moisten only the wheat root zone. The residual 15 N after wheat harvest represents around 40% of N applied as urea: 20% in soil, 3% in wheat root system and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the 15 N applied to wheat at sowing or at tillering stage. (author)

  16. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-07-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  17. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-01-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp→dπ + data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  18. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  19. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  20. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  1. Dissipation and Residues of Dichlorprop-P and Bentazone in Wheat-Field Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dichlorprop-P and bentazone have been widely used in the prevention and control of weeds in wheat field ecosystems. There is a concern that pesticide residues and metabolites remain on or in the wheat. Thus, the study of the determination and monitoring of their residues in wheat has important significance. A rapid, simple and reliable QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was modified, developed and validated for the determination of dichlorprop-P, bentazone and its metabolites (6-hydroxy-bentazone and 8-hydroxy-bentazone in wheat (wheat plants, wheat straw and grains of wheat using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. The average recoveries of this method ranged from 72.9% to 108.7%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs were 2.5–12 μg/kg. The dissipation and final residue of four compounds in three provinces (Shandong, Jiangsu and Heilongjiang in China were studied. The trial results showed that the half-lives of dichlorprop-P and bentazone were 1.9–2.5 days and 0.5–2.4 days in wheat plants, respectively. The terminal residues in grains of wheat and wheat straw at harvest were all much below the maximum residue limit (MRL of 0.2 mg/kg for dichlorprop-P and 0.1 mg/kg for bentazone established by the European Union (EU, Regulation No. 396/2005.

  2. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  3. Effect of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation at the rates of 0.0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy on growth characteristics and total yield of wheat fertilized with 40,80 and 100 kg ha of urea as a source of nitrogen. The application of 100 kg N ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha 1 of grain and 10477 kg ha of straw yield. The nitrogen fertilization increased significantly plant height, 1000-grain weight grain and straw yield. Nitrogen at 100 kg ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha -1 of grain and 10477 kg ha -1 of straw yield. Also, the radiation dose (20 Gy) produced 4895 kg ha -1 of grain and 9150 kg ha 1 of straw yield. The interaction of both radiation dose (20 Gy) and nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) increased significantly the spike length, 1000-grain weight and consequently the total grain and straw yield. It can be concluded from the present study that pretreatment of wheat grain by gamma radiation dose (20 Gy) before.planting and using nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) may be considered as promising useful in increasing the efficiency of wheat productivity, which is very important crop in Egypt

  4. Allelopathic Effect of Wheat and Barley Residues on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. and Weeds Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahbyki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weeds are a major constraint limiting crop yield in agricultural systems and in organic systems in particular. Although herbicides are efficient for weed control, continuous use has caused the development of resistance in weeds against several herbicides. Furthermore, herbicides also pollute the soil, water and aerial environments and herbicide residues in food have deteriorated food quality and enhanced the risk of diseases. Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known to be allelopathic against crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effect of wheat and barley residues on weeds control and cowpea yield. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l. of Agricultural Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology in 2015. Treatments were included; weeding all season, no weeding, trifluralin according to the recommended dose (2 ton ha-1, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 100%, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 2 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 4 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 8 ton ha-1, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 100%. Statistical analysis of data was performed with MSTAT-C software and means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of treatments was significant (P 0.01 on weed density and dry weight. Soil incorporation with wheat

  5. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  6. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  7. Effect of varying levels of zinc and manganese of drymatter yield and mineral composition of wheat plant at maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Deb, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fertilizer zinc uptake by wheat increased with increasing zinc levels but the percentage utilisation was much lower with 10 kg Zn ha -1 application (0.65 per cent) as compared to 5 kg Zn ha -1 (1.22 per cent). The zinc derived from fertilizer was significantly affected by the levels of zinc application only in wheat straw and not in grain. The application of varying levels of manganese did not affect the per cent Zndff and fertilizer zinc uptake by wheat. The wheat crop required only 405 g of zinc per hectare with a harvest of 4.7 tonnes of grains and 6.4 tonnes of straw but under zinc deficient soil conditions even this amount could not be met and consequently zinc deficiency resulted in low drymatter production . Only about 66 g of the applied zinc was utilised by the crop but it gave an extra yield of 3.2 q ha -1 of grain and 9.8 q ha -1 of straw compared to that obtained with no zinc application. Application of manganese did not affect the total drymatter yield and straw yield, but grain yield showed significant depression at 20 kg ha -1 level as compared to 10 kg Mn ha -1 level. (author). 6 tabs., 9 refs

  8. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  9. Some characteristics of the long straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Ivanov, A.B.; Livinskij, V.V.; Lobastov, S.P.; Lysan, V.M.; Mishin, S.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    This article represents the construction and testing of the long straw drift tubes of different types. The diameter and the length of each straw were equal to 15 mm and 3 m respectively. The cathode resistance of these straws has a small value, i.e. about 100 Ohm/m. Thus, they do not have a large attenuation length. Installation of the spacers reduces the effective straw length by 0.5 % per meter, at least

  10. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  11. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  12. Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

    2012-03-01

    Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency.

  13. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  14. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Wesson, D. K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A. T.; Robertson, W. J.; Walker, W. D.

    1991-06-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  15. [Soil quality assessment under different cropping system and straw management in farmland of arid oasis region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng Peng; Pu, Xiao Zhen; Zhang, Wang Feng

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass C, labile C, water-soluble organic C, and hot-water-soluble organic C content were increased by 3.6%-9.9%, 41.8%-98.9%, 3.3%-17.0%, 11.1%-32.4%, 4.6%-27.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 12%-35.9%, 22.4%-49.7%, 30.7%-51.0%, 10.6%-31.9%, 41.0%-96.4% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. The soil catalase, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, invertase glucose, cellulase glucose activity were increased by 6.4%-10.9%, 6.6%-18.8%, 5.9%-15.3%, 10.0%-27.4%, 28.1%-37.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 31.4%-47.5%, 19.9%-46.6%, 13.8%-20.7%, 19.8%-55.6%, 54.1%-70.9% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. There were significant positive linear correlations among SOC, labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme. Therefore, we concluded that labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme were effective index for evaluating the change of SOC and soil quality. Based on factor analysis, in arid region, developing agricultural production using cropland management measures, such as straw-incorporated and combined short-term continues cotton and crop rotation, could enhance SOC and labile SOC fractions contents and soil enzyme activity, which could improve soil quality and be conducive to agricultural sustainable development.

  16. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  17. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal alone and in combination with organic materials on plant growth. [Part] I : Rice-wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasami, S.; Vimal, O.P.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal added 60 kg P 2 O /ha alone and in combination with various organic materials viz., wheat straw and rice straw 3 tons/hs, starch 500 kg/ha and EDTA 250 kg/ha was studied on rice in an alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied on wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop(rice) bonemeal organic matter combination had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat) except chemically processed honemeal in combination with EDTA, all other combinations showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P-uptake and 'A' values. Comparison of P-uptake from soil and fertilizer indicated that there was a marked residual effect on the subsequent wheat crop. (author)

  19. Économie d'un procédé d'hydrolyse enzymatique et fermentation de la paille de blé pour la production d'alcool carburant Economics of a Process for Producing Alcohol Fuels by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après définition des grandes lignes d'un procédé de base d'hydrolyse-fermentation de la paille de blé, l'analyse de sensibilité montre que le rendement de l'hydrolyse a une grande importance sur les bilans énergétique et économique. Des rendements de l'ordre de 85 % permettent d'obtenir des valeurs d'investissement par tonne de pétrole économisée tout à fait comparables à celles obtenues par d'autres techniques de valorisation de la biomasse en alcool, telle la synthèse du méthanol obtenu après gazéification du bois à l'oxygène. The basic features of a process for production from cereal straw of an acetone-butanol mixture for use as a gasoline substitute are described. They include pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate followed by fermentation of the sugars produced. A cost evaluation based on the performances of a reference process is presented. Then, an analysis of the sensitivity of the cost price of the process to the variation of the important parameters such as production capacity, enzyme productivity, hydrolysis yield is carried out. The energy balance of the process is presented.

  20. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  1. Straw quality for its combustion in a straw-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Allica, J.; Blanco, F.; Garbisu, C. [NEIKER, Instituto Vasco de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio (Spain); Mitre, A.J.; Gonzalez Bustamante, J.A. [IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Consultoria, Bilbao (Spain); Itoiz, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Alkorta, I. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias

    2001-07-01

    ENERGIA HIDROELECTRICA DE NAVARRA, S.A. (Navarra, Spain) is erecting a 25 MW power generation plant using straw for electricity generation. Cereal straws have proved to be difficult to burn in most existing combustion systems. During the last two years, a study has been carried out in Navarra to investigate the possibilities of improving the fuel quality of straw by a reduction in its K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} contents. The simple leaching of K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} with water by exposure to natural rainfall in the field resulted in considerable reductions of these two elements. A reduction in the K{sup +} content of the cereal plants caused by exposure to natural rainfall has been observed during plant ripening (before crop harvesting). Some varieties of straw show lower initial K{sup +} contents, making them more suitable for this purpose. There seems to be no clear correlation between the relative decrease in K{sup +} content and the amount of accumulated rainfall. Our results have also shown a very close correlation between K{sup +} content and electrical conductivity. The simplicity of this latter measurement makes this parameter a very interesting option to test the straw quality directly in the field. Structural components of the straw were not decomposed during the time when we left the straw in the field. Finally, the Cl{sup -} content in straw was increased when the Cl{sup -} dose from the fertiliser was increased. On the other hand, the content of K{sup +} was not influenced by the applied amount of K{sup +} fertiliser. (Author)

  2. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  3. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  4. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  5. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  6. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  7. Optimizing nitrogen-fertilizer application to wheat under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Spolidoirio, E.S.; Trivelin, P.C.O.; Muraoka, T.; Freitas, J.G. de; Cantarella, H.

    2000-01-01

    The responses of wheat to urea, its time of application and the fate of the applied N under irrigation were studied over 2 years. Also studied was the recovery of residual N by soybean planted in the same plots. Maximum grain productivity was obtained with 90 kg N ha -1 . Urea-N uptake ranged from 52% for application at sowing, to 85% when applied at tillering. The main loss of fertilizer N occurred as ammonia volatilized, which ranged from 5 to 12%. Loss of N by leaching was less than 1%, even with an application of 135 kg N ha -1 , which is higher than the rate locally recommended for irrigated wheat. The small leaching loss was due to little rainfall during the growing season and irrigation sufficient only to moisten the root zone. The residual N after wheat harvest represented around 40% of that applied: 21% in soil (to a depth of 60 cm), 3% in roots and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the N applied to the wheat. (author)

  8. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  9. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  10. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  11. Induced mutation aiming at obtaining lodging resistance in wheat C V.Omid(Triticum Aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, F.; Rezazadeh, M.; Ghohari, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been an important part breeding research for solving some of the existing problems related to wheat. A locally adopted wheat cultivar 'Omid' which is a traditionally tall wheat mostly cultivated in regions with a continental climate and is susceptible to lodging was chosen as research material. The nuclear research department for agriculture of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran initiated a mutation breeding program for creating genetic variability in wheat using this local cultivar. Seeds of this variety was irradiated with gamma radiation (50-150 Gy) to induce short straw mutants with greater lodging resistance and yield potential. from a total of about 20000 irradiated seeds 1500 plants showing promising agronomic character were isolated as potential mutants. Following progeny tests and selection 18 mutants lines entered preliminary yield trail. Further field trails at different locations gave two promising lines which are characterized by higher yield, lodging resistance and early maturity. (author). 3 tabs

  12. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  13. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  14. Straw - H{sub 2}O gasification kinetics. Determination and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Soerensen, L.; Tarp Poulsen, K. [ReaTech, Roskilde (Denmark); Henriksen, U. [The Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Risnes, H. [NTNU, Dept. of Thermal Energy and Hydropower, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, L.K. [FLS Miljoe A/S, Valby (Denmark); Olsen, A.; Rathmann, O. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    Preliminary steam reactivity data is presented from an experimental study of reactivity for wheat and barley char. The parameters currently investigated ranges from 0.15-1.5 bar H{sub 2}O and 0-1.0 bar H{sub 2}. Kinetics of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type is used to discuss the reactivity variations with steam partial pressure and also the effects of adding hydrogen. The reactivity of char from wheat and washed barley was low and significantly decreasing with conversion. A significant increasing reactivity with conversion was observed for the char derived from a barley sample and a barley sample six times enriched by the water-soluble parts from the straw sample. The six times enriched barley was roughly six times as reactive as the barley. For wheat significant inhibiting effect from hydrogen was found. Assuming Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetics with reverse oxygen exchange and structural profile invariance, kinetics for the inhibiting reaction by H{sub 2} were estimated. 0.5 and 1 bar H{sub 2} decreased the reactivity roughly by one order of magnitude in 1.5 bar H{sub 2}O. (au) EFP-96. 17 refs.

  15. How can we improve the energy balance of ethanol production from wheat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Murphy; Niamh M. Power [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The gross energy in ethanol using wheat as a feedstock in Ireland is 66 GJ/ha/a. The net energy production is 25 GJ/ha/a. A model is proposed, whereby the ethanol production process is combined with combustion of straw, and digestion of stillage, resulting in two transport fuels; ethanol and biomethane. In the proposed system stillage is not dried, reducing the thermal demand by 35%. A quarter of the straw associated with the wheat grain is sufficient, when combusted, to satisfy the reduced thermal demands. Stillage is digested wet; the biogas is scrubbed, compressed and utilised as a transport fuel. The net energy now is 72 GJ/ha/a. The production cost of biomethane is two thirds that of ethanol. 37 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  16. Uptake and utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus by wheat in medium black soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using labelled superphosphate to study the uptake and utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus by wheat under different soil fertility gradients and phosphorus levels. Grain, straw and total dry matter yield and total P uptake in wheat increased significantly with increasing soil fertility status and P levels (P 0 to P 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha). Percent P derived from fertilizer increased significantly with increase in P levels but decreased with increasing fertility status of soil. Similar trend was observed in fertilizer P uptake in grain, straw and total dry matter, however, percent utilization of applied P decreased significantly with increasing P levels and fertility status of soil. Soil P uptake increased with increasing fertility status of soil. (author)

  17. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Ibrahim, Muhammad H.; Leach, Matthew; Sinclair, Phillip; Campbell, Grant M.; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2013-01-01

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP 100 ), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y −1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP 100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  18. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  19. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  1. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha-1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  2. Economy of straw-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The aim was to produce a detailed survey of the economical aspects of the operation of individual Danish straw-fired heating plants and to compare the results. It is hoped the operators of these plants will thus be encouraged to work together when atttempting to solve problems in this respect and that the gathered information could be used by consultants. The collected data from the survey is presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  3. Climate effect of an integrated wheat production and bioenergy system with Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wheat straw removal from agricultural system has considerable GWP effect. • Changing the carbon conv. in the gasifier to 0.8–0.86 mitigates those effects. • Considerable difference is between sequestration potential of straw and biochar. • Lowering the carbon conversion improves GWP, but depends on subst. technology. - Abstract: When removing biomass residues from the agriculture for bioenergy utilization, the nutrients and carbon stored within these “residual resources” are removed as-well. To mitigate these issues the energy industry must try to conserve and not destroy the nutrients. The paper analyses a novel integration between the agricultural system and the energy system through the Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT-CFB) gasifier from the perspective of wheat grain production and electricity generation using wheat straw, where the effects of removing the straw from the agricultural system are assessed along with the effects of recycling the nutrients and carbon back to the agricultural system. The methods used to assess the integration was Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with IPCC’s 2013 100 year global warming potential (GWP) as impact assessment method. The boundary was set from cradle to gate with two different functional units, kg grain and kW h electricity produced in Zealand, Denmark. Two cases were used in the analysis: 1. nutrient balances are regulated by mineral fertilization and 2. the nutrient balances are regulated by yield. The analysis compare three scenarios of gasifier operation based on carbon conversion to two references, no straw removal and straw combustion. The results show that the climate effect of removing the straws are mitigated by the carbon soil sequestration with biochar, and electricity and district heat substitution. Maximum biochar production outperforms maximum heat and power generation for most substituted electricity and district heating scenarios. Irrespective of the substituted

  4. Methane and compost from straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijkens, B A

    1982-01-01

    A concept is developed in which the farmer collects the straw and ferments it anaerobically to compost and methane at the farm. The methane can be used for heating and for production of mechanical energy, while the compost can be returned to the land at any suitable moment. This way of processing conserves part of the energy, present in the straw, that would otherwise be lost by the field-burning or the ploughing-in. In the meantime it solves the field-burning and environmental problems and it provides the possibility to recycle the organic matter in the humus, as well as all the fertilizing compounds K, P, Mg and nitrogen. There are indications that the arable land will need a restocking with humus that has been lost during many years of (modern) farming, leading to loss in structure and production capacity. This study collects the global technical and economical data, enabling us to indicate under which circumstances and local conditions the methane and compost concept would be feasible and would be an alternative to field-burning, ploughing-in or to the purely energetic use of the straw.

  5. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials and techni......During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  6. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  7. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  8. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Debasis; Khurana, Paramjit

    2001-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with int...

  9. Upgrading of straw hydrolysate for production of hydrogen and phenols in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Marzorati, Massimo; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was used for hydrogen production during selective recovery of phenols. The average H2 production rate was 0.61 m3 H2/m3 MEC·day and equivalent to a rate of 0.40 kg COD/m3 MEC·day. The microbial...... the energy content in the consumed compounds and the cell voltage of 0.7 V. The highest hydrogen production was equivalent to 0.8 kg COD/m3 MEC·day and was obtained at pH 7–8 and 25°C. Accumulation of 53% w/v phenolic compounds in the liquor was obtained by stepwise addition of the hydrolysate during...

  10. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of corn straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shengqiang Shen; Shuhua Yang; Xinguang Shi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was performed to analyze the pyrolysis process of corn straw. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the component of pyrolysis gas of corn straw was tested using the gas chromatograph analyzer. Experimental results showed that, as the reaction temperature increases, the component of H 2 and CH 4 increases, whereas the component of CO and CO 2 decreases. Finally, the mechanism of pyrolysis process of corn straw was revealed from the point of view of the molecular structure...

  11. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Wesson, D.K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A.T.; Robertson, W.J.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider. (orig.)

  12. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...... long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate....

  13. Wheat Yield Production Grown on Sandy Soil as Fertilized by Different N-Sources Using 15N-Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. M.; Soliman, S. M.; El-Akel, E. A.; El-Sherbieny, A. E.; Awad, E. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the ability of some plant residues to meet total N demand of wheat crop in sandy soil and their performance to reduce chemical N fertilizer requirements. Residue-N sources, i.e. soybean and wheat residues were compared to ammonium sulfate as inorganic N source as well as mixtures of residue-N sources and (NH 4 )SO 4 in ratios of (3:1), (1:1) and (1:3), respectively. The nitrogen application rate in all amended pots was kept at 100 mg N pot -1 . The obtained results could be summarized as follows: 1) ry weight of straw and grains of wheat crop was significantly increased this at the addition of nitrogen sources as a result of N-uptake increased. The highest value was observed at the application treatment ratios of (1:1) and (1:3) on the basis of (residue: ammonium sulfate), which can be arranged in this order: Soybean > wheat + soybean > wheat residues. 2) he value of N derived from residues (Ndfr) and fertilizer (Ndff), as well as 15N -recovery ratios can be arranged in this order: Ammonium sulfate > soybean residue > Soybean + wheat residue > wheat residue. 3) he values indicated that 15N -labelled soybean residue in combination with ordinary, ammonium sulfate at the ratios of (*25: 75) and (*50: 50), respectively was found to be effective on 15N -recovery ratios in the straw and grains of wheat crop. 4) he present study indicates that the entire N requirements of wheat crop cannot be met by the separate application of any residue-N source examined.

  14. Response of Wheat Genotypes to Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukra Raj Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted using six genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for response to different levels of nitrogen (N use. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 as main plots and six wheat genotypes (BL 3623, BL 3629, BL 3872, NL 1008, NL 1055 and Vijay, a check variety as sub-plots. Grain yield and other yield components increased linearly in response to N concentrations in both seasons. Only two parameters: days to heading (DOH and days to maturity (DTM varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among wheat genotypes in both the years. None of the parameters showed interaction effects in both seasons. Vijay showed highest grain yield of 3.12 t ha-1 in 2013 with the application of 100 kg N ha-1, and 3.23 t ha-1 in 2014 with 150 kg N ha-1. Spike length, productive tillers m-2, number of spikes m-2 and test weight were greater with higher N rates. The straw yield of wheat fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 was the highest in Vijay (4.35 t ha-1 and BL 3872 (4.33 t ha-1, respectively. Vijay with 100 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of productive tillers m-2 (276.33 in 2013 and 296.00 with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 in 2014.

  15. Simulation and cost analysis of systems for handling of fuel straw - applied to a heating plant in Skaane; Simulering och kostnadsanalys av hanteringssystem foer braenslehalm - tillaempning foer en vaermeanlaeggning i Skaane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - The total costs for delivery of fuel straw to heating plants ranged from about 130 SEK/MWh to 180 SEK/MWh (1 SEK approx 0.14 USD), depending on the payment to farmers for the straw, the storage method used, the profit margins of the contractors, etc. - The area investigated, which covered parts of the municipalities of Svaloev, Esloev and Kaevlinge, has very good conditions for harvest of straw compared with other parts of Sweden. The yield of winter wheat (and straw) is high, the road network is well developed, the fields are concentrated and large, the straw crops ripen early, and security of supply between years is high. - For a harvest and handling system with an average capacity of about 8 000 tonnes of straw per year, the simulations showed that a machine system with six balers, two loaders in the field, four transporters (tractor), one loader at the stores and lorry transport to the heating plant was cost-effective with regard to system performance (for example, expressed as the average amount of straw baled per year with a moisture content below 18%, the average quantity of straw per year put into storage prior to 1 October, the average lying time for the straw between threshing and baling, etc.). - Harvesting straw from various crops (in this case winter rape, rye and winter wheat) instead of only winter wheat had no major impact on costs, but increased the chance to harvest 'greyer' straw with lower contents of alkali metals, chlorine, etc. Only including fields of at least 5 ha had a minor impact on costs. Noticeable cost savings occurred when the field size limit was set to 10 ha or more. Increasing the moisture content limit at baling to 20% made it possible to harvest more straw, especially in years with difficult weather conditions. - The storage method used had a decisive impact on costs. Outdoor storage decreased the total costs to 133 SEK/MWh (7% storage losses), compared with 154

  16. The Effect of Straw Fibers in Printing Papers on Dot Reproduction Attributes, as Realized by UV Inkjet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper performance qualities strongly depend on the origin of cellulose fibers. Awareness of environmental issues and sustainable development has led to the increase in the use of recycled printing papers. Recovered fibers are often used as a substitute for virgin wood fibers in the production of certain types of papers. As recovered fibers cannot provide the same quality level of paper products as virgin wood fibers, alternative sources of virgin cellulose fibers need to be identified. The aim of this research was to analyze the printability of laboratory papers made of different contents of straw pulp. Therefore, the printing papers were formed using straw pulp of three different cereal species (wheat, barley, and triticale and mixing them with recycled newsprint in different weight ratios. The printability of these laboratory papers was analyzed by classifying dot reproduction quality based on four dot reproduction attributes. Printed dot reproduction greatly affects the quality of reproduction in graphic products, as dots are the most important element in multi-color reproduction of texts and images. It was confirmed that laboratory papers containing straw pulp provide the same or even better dot reproduction quality than laboratory control papers formed only of recycled newsprint.

  17. Fuel conversion efficiency and energy balance of a 400 kW{sub t} fluidized bed straw gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erguedenler, A.; Ghaly, A.E.; Hamdullahpur, F. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    A 400 kW (thermal) dual-distributor type fluidized bed gasifier developed for the energy recovery from cereal straw was used to investigate the effects of equivalence ratio (actual air-fuel ratio: stoichiometric air-fuel ratio), fluidization velocity and bed height on the fuel conversion efficiency from wheat straw. The energy balance was also performed on the system under those operating conditions. The results indicated that the equivalence ratio was the most significant parameter affecting the fuel conversion efficiency and the energy recovered from the straw in the form of gas. Both the fuel conversion efficiency and the energy recovery increased with increases in the equivalence ratio. The fluidization velocity and bed height had minimal effects on these parameters. A fuel conversion efficiency as high as 98% was obtained at the equivalence ratio of 0.35. The energy recovered in the form of gas and the sensible heat of the produced gas were in the ranges of 40--70% and 9--17%, respectively. Unaccounted losses showed a dramatic increase at lower equivalence ratios and were in the range of 6--53% depending on the operating condition.

  18. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm...... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion......-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall...

  19. Integrated use of biochar: a tool for improving soil and wheat quality of degraded soil under wheat-maize cropping pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Arif, M.; Jan, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat quality, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency are significantly influenced by nutrient sources and application rate. To investigate the integrative effect of biochar, farmyard manure (FYM) and nitrogen (organic and inorganic soil amendments) in a wheat-maize cropping system, a two year study was designed to assess the interactive outcome of biochar, FYM and nitrogenous fertilizer on wheat nitrogen (N) parameters and associated soil quality parameters. Three levels of biochar (0, 25 and 50 t ha-1), two levels of FYM (5 and 10 t ha-1) and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (60 and 120 kg ha-1) were used in the study. Biochar application displayed a significantly increased in wheat leaf, stem, straw and grain N content; grain and total N-uptake and grain protein content by 24, 20, 24, 56, 50, 17 and 20% respectively. Similarly, biochar application significantly increased soil total N (TN) and soil mineral N (SMN) by 63 and 40% respectively in second year. FYM application increased grain, leaf and straw N content by 20, 19.5 and 18% respectively, and increased total N-uptake and grain protein content by 49 and 19% respectively. FYM increased soil TN and SMN by 63 and 32% in both the years of the experiment. Mineral N application increased soil TN by over a half and SMN by a third, and grain protein content increased 16%. In contrast, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreased for all amendments relative to the control. However, biochar treated plots improved NUE by 38% compared to plots without biochar. In conclusion, this field experiment has illustrated the potential of biochar to bring about short-term benefits in wheat and soil quality parameters in wheat-maize cropping systems. However, the long-term benefits remain to be quantified. (author)

  20. Environmental performances of coproducts. Application of Claiming-Based Allocation models to straw and vetiver biorefineries in an Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai

    2018-04-24

    Among the renewables, non-food and wastelands based biofuels are essential for the transport sector to achieve country's climate mitigation targets. With the growing interest in biorefineries, setting policy requirements for other coproducts along with biofuels is necessary to improve the products portfolio of biorefinery, increase the bioproducts perception by the consumers and push the technology forward. Towards this context, Claiming-Based allocation models were used in comparative life cycle assessment of multiple products from wheat straw biorefinery and vetiver biorefinery. Vetiver biorefinery shows promising Greenhouse gas emission savings (181-213%) compared to the common crop based lignocellulose (wheat straw) biorefinery. Assistance of Claiming-Based Allocation models favors to find out the affordable allocation limit (0-80%) among the coproducts in order to achieve the individual prospective policy targets. Such models show promising application in multiproduct life cycle assessment studies where appropriate allocation is challenging to achieve the individual products emission subject to policy targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.