Ho, Hau My; Lin, Binhua; Rice, Stuart A
2006-11-14
We report the results of experimental determinations of the triplet correlation functions of quasi-two-dimensional one-component and binary colloid suspensions in which the colloid-colloid interaction is short ranged. The suspensions studied range in density from modestly dilute to solid. The triplet correlation function of the one-component colloid system reveals extensive ordering deep in the liquid phase. At the same density the ordering of the larger diameter component in a binary colloid system is greatly diminished by a very small amount of the smaller diameter component. The possible utilization of information contained in the triplet correlation function in the theory of melting of a quasi-two-dimensional system is briefly discussed.
Exploration of one-dimensional plasma current density profile for K-DEMO steady-state operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, J.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, C.-S.; Na, D.H.; Na, Y.-S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • One-dimensional current density and its optimization for the K-DEMO are explored. • Plasma current density profile is calculated with an integrated simulation code. • The impact of self and external heating profiles is considered self-consistently. • Current density is identified as a reference profile by minimizing heating power. - Abstract: Concept study for Korean demonstration fusion reactor (K-DEMO) is in progress, and basic design parameters are proposed by targeting high magnetic field operation with ITER-sized machine. High magnetic field operation is a favorable approach to enlarge relative plasma performance without increasing normalized beta or plasma current. Exploration of one-dimensional current density profile and its optimization process for the K-DEMO steady-state operation are reported in this paper. Numerical analysis is conducted with an integrated plasma simulation code package incorporating a transport code with equilibrium and current drive modules. Operation regimes are addressed with zero-dimensional system analysis. One-dimensional plasma current density profile is calculated based on equilibrium, bootstrap current analysis, and thermal transport analysis. The impact of self and external heating profiles on those parameters is considered self-consistently, where thermal power balance and 100% non-inductive current drive are the main constraints during the whole exploration procedure. Current and pressure profiles are identified as a reference steady-state profile by minimizing the external heating power with desired fusion power.
Classical Lie Point Symmetry Analysis of a Steady Nonlinear One-Dimensional Fin Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. J. Moitsheki
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional steady fin problem with the Dirichlet boundary condition at one end and the Neumann boundary condition at the other. Both the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient are given as arbitrary functions of temperature. We perform preliminary group classification to determine forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in the considered equation for which the principal Lie algebra is extended. Some invariant solutions are constructed. The effects of thermogeometric fin parameter and the exponent on temperature are studied. Also, the fin efficiency is analyzed.
On the One-Dimensional Steady and Unsteady Porous Flow Equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, O. H.; Burcharth, H. F.
1995-01-01
Porous flow in coarse granular media is discussed theoretically with special concern given to the variation of the flow resistance with the porosity. For steady state flow, the Navier-Stokes equation is applied as a basis for the derivations. A turbulent flow equation is suggested. Alternative...... derivations based on dimensional analysis and a pipe analogy, respectively, are discussed. For non-steady state flow, the derivations are based on a cylinder/sphere analogy leading to a virtual mass coefficient. For the fully turbulent flow regime, existing experimental data values of the quadratic flow...... resistance coefficients are presented. Moreover, a simple formula for estimation of the turbulent flow coefficient is given. Virtual mass coefficients based on existing data are presented, however, no definite conclusions can be given due to the scarce data available....
One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, S.C.
1976-09-01
A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment
One-dimensional steady migration of quantum particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serikov, A.A.; Kharkyanen, V.N.
1989-01-01
The formalism of nonequilibrium density matrices is used to investigate transmembrane transport of quantum particles along a molecular chain. For a homogeneous chain analytic expressions that describe a steady flux of particles and their distribution are found. The features of the transport are analyzed for the case of a disordered chain
Flow-induced structure in colloidal suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vermant, J [Department of Chemical Engineering, K U Leuven, W de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Solomon, M J [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)
2005-02-02
We review the sequences of structural states that can be induced in colloidal suspensions by the application of flow. Structure formation during flow is strongly affected by the delicate balance among interparticle forces, Brownian motion and hydrodynamic interactions. The resulting non-equilibrium microstructure is in turn a principal determinant of the suspension rheology. Colloidal suspensions with near hard-sphere interactions develop an anisotropic, amorphous structure at low dimensionless shear rates. At high rates, clustering due to strong hydrodynamic forces leads to shear thickening rheology. Application of steady-shear flow to suspensions with repulsive interactions induces a rich sequence of transitions to one-, two-and three-dimensional order. Oscillatory-shear flow generates metastable ordering in suspensions with equilibrium liquid structure. On the other hand, short-range attractive interactions can lead to a fluid-to-gel transition under quiescent suspensions. Application of flow leads to orientation, breakup, densification and spatial reorganization of aggregates. Using a non-Newtonian suspending medium leads to additional possibilities for organization. We examine the extent to which theory and simulation have yielded mechanistic understanding of the microstructural transitions that have been observed. (topical review)
Koren, B.; Hackbusch, W.; Trottenberg, U.
1991-01-01
Two simple, multi-dimensional upwind discretizations for the steady Euler equations are derived, with the emphasis Iying on bath a good accuracy and a good solvability. The multi-dimensional upwinding consists of applying a one-dimensional Riemann solver with a locally rotated left and right state,
Two-Dimensional Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Hsing Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The fuzzy rules include both the sliding manifold and its derivative. The fuzzy sliding mode control has advantages of the sliding mode control and the fuzzy control rules are minimized. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and inherently unstable systems. The two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control can stabilize the nonlinear systems globally and attenuate chatter effectively. It is adequate to be applied to magnetic suspension systems. New design circuits of magnetic suspension systems are proposed in this paper. ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is utilized as a digital controller. The implemented driver, sensor, and control circuits are simpler, more inexpensive, and effective. This apparatus is satisfactory for engineering education. In the hands-on experiments, the proposed control scheme markedly improves performances of the field-sensed magnetic suspension system.
Park, Byung Ho; Han, Yong Oun
2018-04-01
Steady variations in aerodynamic forces and flow behaviors of two-dimensional NACA0012 airfoil were investigated using a numerical method for One Revolution Angle of Attack (AOA) at Reynolds number of 105 . The profiles of lift coefficients, drag coefficients, and pressure coefficients were compared with those of the experimental data. The AERODAS model was used to analyze the profiles of lift and drag coefficients. Wake characteristics were given along with the deficit profiles of incoming velocity components. Both the characteristics of normal and reverse airfoil models were compared with the basic aerodynamic data for the same range of AOA. The results show that two peaks of the lift coefficients appeared at 11.5{°} and 42{°} and are in good agreement with the pre-stall and post-stall models, respectively. Counter-rotating vortex flows originated from the leading and trailing edges at a high AOA, which formed an impermeable zone over the suction surface and made reattachments in the wake. Moreover, the acceleration of inflow along the boundary of the vortex wrap appeared in the profile of the wake velocity. The drag profile was found to be independent of the airfoil mode, but the lift profile was quite sensitive to the airfoil mode.
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.
1985-07-01
A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Theory of the one-dimensional forest-fire model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczuski, M.; Bak, P.
1993-01-01
Turbulent cascade processes are studied in terms of a one-dimensional forest-fire model. A hier- archy of steady-state equations for the forests and the holes between them is constructed and solved within a mean-field closure scheme. The exact hole distribution function is found to be N H (s)=4N/[s(s+1)(s+2)], where N is the number of forests
One-way mode transmission in one-dimensional phononic crystal plates
Zhu, Xuefeng; Zou, Xinye; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jianchun
2010-12-01
We investigate theoretically the band structures of one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) plates with both antisymmetric and symmetric structures, and show how unidirectional transmission behavior can be obtained for either antisymmetric waves (A modes) or symmetric waves (S modes) by exploiting mode conversion and selection in the linear plate systems. The theoretical approach is illustrated for one PC plate example where unidirectional transmission behavior is obtained in certain frequency bands. Employing harmonic frequency analysis, we numerically demonstrate the one-way mode transmission for the PC plate with finite superlattice by calculating the steady-state displacement fields under A modes source (or S modes source) in forward and backward direction, respectively. The results show that the incident waves from A modes source (or S modes source) are transformed into S modes waves (or A modes waves) after passing through the superlattice in the forward direction and the Lamb wave rejections in the backward direction are striking with a power extinction ratio of more than 1000. The present structure can be easily extended to two-dimensional PC plate and efficiently encourage practical studies of experimental realization which is believed to have much significance for one-way Lamb wave mode transmission.
Effective viscosity of two-dimensional suspensions: Confinement effects
Doyeux, Vincent; Priem, Stephane; Jibuti, Levan; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad; Peyla, Philippe
2016-08-01
We study the rheology of a sheared two-dimensional (2D) suspension of non-Brownian disks in the presence of walls. Although it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension provides valuable insights and helps in the understanding of 3D results. Due to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (the shear plane), we are able to give a clear interpretation of the full hydrodynamics of semidilute confined suspensions. For instance, we examine the role of disk-wall and disk-disk interactions to determine the dissipation of confined sheared suspensions whose effective viscosity depends on the area fraction ϕ of the disks as ηeff=η0[1 +[η ] ϕ +β ϕ2+O (ϕ3) ] . We provide numerical estimates of [η ] and β for a wide range of confinements. As a benchmark for our simulations, we compare the numerical results obtained for [η ] and β for very weak confinements with analytical values [η] ∞ and β∞ obtained for an infinite fluid. If the value [η] ∞=2 is well known in the literature, much less is published on the value of β . Here we analytically calculate with very high precision β∞=3.6 . We also reexamine the 3D case in the light of our 2D results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Chen, W.-L.; Yu, S.-J.
2008-01-01
This study is to prove that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite circular pipes cannot be appropriately solved by the conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because its interface temperatures are not unique. Thus, the PTRC model is definitely different from its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model, which has unique node electric voltages. Two typical composite circular pipe examples are solved by CFD software, and the numerical results are compared with those obtained by the PTRC model. This shows that the PTRC model generates large error. Thus, this conventional model, introduced in most heat transfer text books, cannot be applied to two-dimensional composite circular pipes. On the contrary, an alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to a two-dimensional composite circular pipe with isothermal boundaries, and acceptable results are returned
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Hsiao, M.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lin, K.-C.
2008-01-01
This investigation is to show that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite walls should not be solved by the conventionally one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because the interface temperatures are not unique. Thus PTRC model cannot be used like its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model which has the unique node electric voltage. Two typical composite wall examples, solved by CFD software, are used to demonstrate the incorrectness. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by PTRC model, and very large differences are observed between their results. This proves that the application of conventional heat transfer PTRC model to two-dimensional composite walls, introduced in most heat transfer text book, is totally incorrect. An alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional composite walls with isothermal boundaries. Results with acceptable accuracy can be obtained by the new model
A one-dimensional plasma and impurity transport model for reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veerasingam, R.
1991-11-01
In this thesis a one-dimensional (1-D) plasma and impurity transport model is developed to address issues related to impurity behavior in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) fusion plasmas. A coronal non-equilibrium model is used for impurities. The impurity model is incorporated into an existing one dimensional plasma transport model creating a multi-species plasma transport model which treats the plasma and impurity evolution self-consistently. Neutral deuterium particles are treated using a one-dimensional (slab) model of neutral transport. The resulting mode, RFPBI, is then applied to existing RFP devices such as ZT-40M and MST, and also to examine steady state behavior of ZTH based on the design parameters. A parallel algorithm for the impurity transport equations is implemented and tested to determine speedup and efficiency
One-dimensional nonlinear self-organized structures in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V.N.
2000-01-01
Dusty plasmas, which are open systems, can form stable one-dimensional self-organized structures. Absorption of plasma by dust particles results in the plasma flux from the plasma regions where the dust is absent. It is found that, in a one-dimensional dust layer, this flux is completely determined by the number of dust particles per unit area of the layer surface. This number determines all of the other parameters of the steady-state dust structure; in particular, it determines the spatial distributions of the dust density, dust charge, electron and ion densities, and ion drift velocity. In these structures, a force and electrostatic balance is established that ensures the necessary conditions for confining the dust and plasma particles in the structure. The equilibrium structures exist only for subthermal ion flow velocities. This criterion determines the maximum possible number of dust particles per unit area in the steady-state structure. The structures have a universal thickness, and the dust density changes sharply at the edge of the structure. The structures with a size either less than or larger than the ion mean free path with respect to ion-neutral collisions, quasi-neutral and charged structures, and soliton- and anti-soliton-like structures are investigated. Laboratory experiments and observations in extraterrestrial plasma formation are discussed in relation to dust structures
Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.
2018-03-01
In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via
Three Dimensional Steady Subsonic Euler Flows in Bounded Nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady Euler flows in rectangular nozzles when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the exit are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal compon...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoubin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Addressing the problem of two-dimensional steady-state thermal boundary recognition, a hybrid algorithm of conjugate gradient method and social particle swarm optimization (CGM-SPSO algorithm is proposed. The global search ability of particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search ability of gradient algorithm are effectively combined, which overcomes the shortcoming that the conjugate gradient method tends to converge to the local solution and relies heavily on the initial approximation of the iterative process. The hybrid algorithm also avoids the problem that the particle swarm optimization algorithm requires a large number of iterative steps and a lot of time. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective in solving the problem of two-dimensional steady-state thermal boundary shape.
Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.
1993-01-01
Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection
One-Quarter-Car Active SuspensionModel Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyniova Katerina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Suspension system influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors that are controlled by a designed H∞ controller to generate a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle shock absorbers in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions with passive elements (springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution that uses a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung (wheel and sprung (one-quarter of the car body mass masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface roughness and load disturbances. As shown in the paper, under certain circumstances linear motors as actuators enable to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands on the external power source. In particular, the paper is focused on experiments with active shock absorber that has been taken on the designed test bed and the way we developed an appropriate input signal for the test bed that as real road disturbance acts upon the vibration absorber and the obtained results are evaluated at the end. Another important point the active suspension design should satisfy is energy supply control that is made via standard controller modification, and which allows changing amount of energy required by the system. Functionality of the designed controller modification was verified taking various experiments on the experiment stand as mentioned in the paper.
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-12-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiao-Gang; Wang Qi; Forest, M. Gregory
2014-01-01
We systematically explore near equilibrium, flow-driven, and flow-activity coupled dynamics of polar active liquid crystals using a continuum model. Firstly, we re-derive the hydrodynamic model to ensure the thermodynamic laws are obeyed and elastic stresses and forces are consistently accounted. We then carry out a linear stability analysis about constant steady states to study near equilibrium dynamics around the steady states, revealing long-wave instability inherent in this model system and how active parameters in the model affect the instability. We then study model predictions for one-dimensional (1D) spatial—temporal structures of active liquid crystals in a channel subject to physical boundary conditions. We discuss the model prediction in two selected regimes, one is the viscous stress dominated regime, also known as the flow-driven regime, while the other is the full regime, in which all active mechanisms are included. In the viscous stress dominated regime, the polarity vector is driven by the prescribed flow field. Dynamics depend sensitively on the physical boundary condition and the type of the driven flow field. Bulk-dominated temporal periodic states and spatially homogeneous states are possible under weak anchoring conditions while spatially inhomogeneous states exist under strong anchoring conditions. In the full model, flow-orientation interaction generates a host of planar as well as out-of-plane spatial—temporal structures related to the spontaneous flows due to the molecular self-propelled motion. These results provide contact with the recent literature on active nematic suspensions. In addition, symmetry breaking patterns emerge as the additional active viscous stress due to the polarity vector is included in the force balance. The inertia effect is found to limit the long-time survival of spatial structures to those with small wave numbers, i.e., an asymptotic coarsening to long wave structures. A rich set of mechanisms for generating
One-Dimensionality and Whiteness
Calderon, Dolores
2006-01-01
This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…
Analysis of the one-dimensional transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, Jong H.; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won S.
1991-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds as well as high mass flow rates are successfully predicted.
Oyarte Galvez, Loreto; de Beer, Sissi; van der Meer, Devaraj; Pons, Adeline
2017-01-01
Suspensions of cornstarch in water exhibit strong dynamic shear-thickening. We show that partly replacing water by ethanol strongly alters the suspension rheology. We perform steady and non-steady rheology measurements combined with atomic force microscopy to investigate the role of fluid chemistry
Weakly sheared active suspensions: hydrodynamics, stability, and rheology.
Cui, Zhenlu
2011-03-01
We present a kinetic model for flowing active suspensions and analyze the behavior of a suspension subjected to a weak steady shear. Asymptotic solutions are sought in Deborah number expansions. At the leading order, we explore the steady states and perform their stability analysis. We predict the rheology of active systems including an activity thickening or thinning behavior of the apparent viscosity and a negative apparent viscosity depending on the particle type, flow alignment, and the anchoring conditions, which can be tested on bacterial suspensions. We find remarkable dualities that show that flow-aligning rodlike contractile (extensile) particles are dynamically and rheologically equivalent to flow-aligning discoid extensile (contractile) particles for both tangential and homeotropic anchoring conditions. Another key prediction of this work is the role of the concentration of active suspensions in controlling the rheological behavior: the apparent viscosity may decrease with the increase of the concentration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen
2016-01-01
The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-01-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs–Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paixao, S.B.
1985-01-01
The methodology used in the WIGLE3 computer code is studied. This methodology has been applied for the steady-state and transient solutions of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab geometry, in axial type probelm analysis. It's also studied, based in a WIGLE3 computer code, reactor representative models, considering non-boiling heat transfer. A steady-state program for control rod bank position search- CITER 1D- has been developed. Some criticality research on the proposed system has been done using different control rod bank initial positions, time steps and convergence parameters. (E.G.) [pt
Shear-induced particle migration in suspensions of rods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondy, L.A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Brenner, H. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Altobelli, S.A. (The Lovelace Institutes, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, S. E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)); Abbott, J.R.; Graham, A.L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))
1994-03-01
Shear-induced migration of particles occurs in suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in Newtonian fluids undergoing shear in the annular space between two rotating, coaxial cylinders (a wide-gap Couette), even when the suspension is in creeping flow. Previous studies have shown that the rate of migration of spherical particles from the high-shear-rate region near the inner (rotating) cylinder to the low-shear-rate region near the outer (stationary) cylinder increases rapidly with increasing sphere size. To determine the effect of particle shape, the migration of rods suspended in Newtonian fluids was recently measured. The behavior of several suspensions was studied. Each suspension contained well-characterized, uniform rods with aspect ratios ranging from 2 to 18 at either 0.30 or 0.40 volume fraction. At the same volume fraction of solids, the steady-state, radial concentration profiles for rods were independent of aspect ratio and were indistinguishable from those obtained from suspended spheres. Only minor differences near the walls (attributable to the finite size of the rods relative to the curvature of the walls) appeared to differentiate the profiles. Data taken during the transition from a well-mixed suspension to the final steady state show that the rate of migration increased as the volume of the individual rods increased.
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model of a One-Half Semiactive Vehicle Suspension: Lateral Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. C. Félix-Herrán
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a novel semiactive model of a one-half lateral vehicle suspension. The contribution of this research is the inclusion of actuator dynamics (two magnetorheological nonlinear dampers in the modelling, which means that more realistic outcomes will be obtained, because, in real life, actuators have physical limitations. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy approach is applied to a four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF lateral one-half vehicle suspension. The system has two magnetorheological (MR dampers, whose numerical values come from a real characterization. T-S allows handling suspension’s components and actuator’s nonlinearities (hysteresis, saturation, and viscoplasticity by means of a set of linear subsystems interconnected via fuzzy membership functions. Due to their linearity, each subsystem can be handled with the very well-known control theory, for example, stability and performance indexes (this is an advantage of the T-S approach. To the best of authors’ knowledge, reported work does not include the aforementioned nonlinearities in the modelling. The generated model is validated via a case of study with simulation results. This research is paramount because it introduces a more accurate (the actuator dynamics, a complex nonlinear subsystem model that could be applied to one-half vehicle suspension control purposes. Suspension systems are extremely important for passenger comfort and stability in ground vehicles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hao; Shi Tianjun
2011-01-01
In this article,the qualities of Wigner function and the corresponding stationary perturbation theory are introduced and applied to one-dimensional infinite potential well and one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and then the particular Wigner function of one-dimensional infinite potential well is specified and a special constriction effect in its pure state Wigner function is discovered, to which,simultaneously, a detailed and reasonable explanation is elaborated from the perspective of uncertainty principle. Ultimately, the amendment of Wigner function and energy of one-dimensional infinite potential well and one-dimensional harmonic oscillator under perturbation are calculated according to stationary phase space perturbation theory. (authors)
MARCUSE’S ONE-DIMENSIONAL SOCIETY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL MAN
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MILOS RASTOVIC
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, Marcuse’s main book One-Dimensional Man is almost obsolete, or rather passé. However, there are reasons to renew the reading of his book because of “the crisis of capitalism,” and the prevailing framework of technological domination in “advanced industrial society” in which we live today. “The new forms of control” in “advanced industrial societies” have replaced traditional methods of political and economic administration. The dominant structural element of “advanced industrial society” has become a technical and scientific apparatus of production and distribution of technology and administrative practice based on application of impersonal rules by a hierarchy of associating authorities. Technology has been liberated from the control of particular interests, and it has become the factor of domination in itself. Technological domination stems from the technical development of the productive apparatus that reproduces its ability into all spheres of social life (cultural, political, and economic. Based upon this consideration, in this paper, I will examine Marcuse’s ideas of “the new forms of control,” which creates a one–dimensional society. Marcuse’s fundamental thesis in One-Dimensional Man is that technological rationality is the most dominant factor in an “advanced industrial society,” which unites two earlier opposing forces of dissent: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Hansen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A striking difference between the folk-narrative genres of legend and folktale is how the human characters respond to supernatural, otherworldly, or uncanny beings such as ghosts, gods, dwarves, giants, trolls, talking animals, witches, and fairies. In legend the human actors respond with fear and awe, whereas in folktale they treat such beings as if they were ordinary and unremarkable. Since folktale humans treat all characters as belonging to a single realm, folklorists have described the world of the folktale as one-dimensional, in contrast to the two-dimensionality of the legend. The present investigation examines dimensionality in the third major genre of folk narrative: myth. Using the Greek and Hebrew myths of primordial paradise as sample narratives, the present essay finds—surprisingly—that the humans in these stories respond to the otherworldly one-dimensionally, as folktale characters do, and suggests an explanation for their behavior that is peculiar to the world of myth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Tokuno, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.
1988-01-01
A code STEADY-SHIP has been developed to calculate three-dimensional distributions of neutron flux, power and coolant temperature in the reactor core of the nuclear ship MUTSU. The code consists of two parts, that is, a few-group three-dimensional neutron diffusion module DIFFUSION-SHIP and a thermal-hydraulic module HYDRO-SHIP: In the DIFFUSION-SHIP the leakage iteration method is used for solving the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation with small computer core memory and short computing time; The HYDRO-SHIP performs the general thermal-hydraulic calculation for evaluating feedbacks required in the neutronic calculation by the DIFFUSION-SHIP. The macroscopic nuclear constants are generated by a module CROSS-SHIP as functions of xenon poison, fuel temperature, moderator temperature and moderator density. A module LOCAL-FINE has the capability of computing a detailed rod power distribution for each local node in the core, using the boundary conditions on the surface of the node which were supplied by the STEADY-SHIP whole-core calculation. The applicability of this code to marine reactors has been demonstrated by comparing the computed results with the data measured during the MUTSU land-loaded core critical experiments and with the data obtained during the hot-zero-power tests performed for the actual MUTSU plant. (author)
Highly conducting one-dimensional solids
Evrard, Roger; Doren, Victor
1979-01-01
Although the problem of a metal in one dimension has long been known to solid-state physicists, it was not until the synthesis of real one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems that this subject began to attract considerable attention. This has been due in part to the search for high temperature superconductivity and the possibility of reaching this goal with quasi-one-dimensional substances. A period of intense activity began in 1973 with the report of a measurement of an apparently divergent conduc tivity peak in TfF-TCNQ. Since then a great deal has been learned about quasi-one-dimensional conductors. The emphasis now has shifted from trying to find materials of very high conductivity to the many interesting problems of physics and chemistry involved. But many questions remain open and are still under active investigation. This book gives a review of the experimental as well as theoretical progress made in this field over the last years. All the chapters have been written by scientists who have ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihua Zhang
Full Text Available Abstract To describe flow-induced fiber orientation, the Fokker-Planck equation is widely applied in the processing of composites and fiber suspensions. The analytical solution only exists when the Péclet number is infinite. So developing a numerical method covering a full range of Péclet number is of great significance. To accurately solve the Fokker-Planck equation, a numerical scheme based on the finite volume method is developed. Using spherical symmetry, the boundary is discretized and formulated into a cyclic tridiagonal matrix which is further solved by the CTDMA algorithm. To examine its validity, benchmark tests over a wide range of Péclet number are performed in a simple shear flow. For Pe=∞, the results agree well with the analytical solutions. For the other Pe numbers, the results are compared to results available in the literature. The tests show that this algorithm is accurate, stable, and globally conservative. Furthermore, this algorithm can be extended and used to predict the three-dimensional orientation distribution of complex suspension flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.
1986-01-01
The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt
One-dimensional modulation instability in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhan Kaiyun; Hou Chunfeng; Li Xin
2010-01-01
The one-dimensional modulation instability of broad optical beams in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals is investigated under steady-state conditions. Our analysis indicates that the modulation instability growth rate depends on the external bias field, the bulk photovoltaic effect and the ratio of the intensity of the incident beam to that of the dark irradiance. Moreover, our results show that this modulation instability growth rate is the same as that in two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals under open circuit conditions in the absence of an external bias field, and the modulation instability growth rate in two-photon biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals can be predicted when the bulk photovoltaic effect is neglected.
Correlated particle dynamics in concentrated quasi-two-dimensional suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamant, H; Cui, B; Lin, B; Rice, S A
2005-01-01
We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the hydrodynamically correlated lateral motion of particles in a suspension confined between two surfaces is affected by the suspension concentration. Despite the long range of the correlations (decaying as 1/r 2 with the inter-particle distance r), the concentration effect is present only at short inter-particle distances for which the static pair correlation is nonuniform. This is in sharp contrast with the effect of hydrodynamic screening in unconfined suspensions, where increasing the concentration changes the prefactor of the large-distance correlation
Three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in bounded nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
The existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in rectangular nozzles were obtained when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the entrance are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum approaches the critical number, the associated flows converge to a subsonic-sonic flow. Furthermore, when the normal component of vorticity and the variation of Bernoulli function are both small, the existence and uniqueness of subsonic Euler flows with non-zero vorticity are established. The proof of these results is based on a new formulation for the Euler system, a priori estimate for nonlinear elliptic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, detailed study for a linear div-curl system, and delicate estimate for the transport equations.
Both Suspension and Alternatives Work, Depending on One's Aim
Bear, George G.
2012-01-01
In this commentary on the special series, I argue that whereas a zero-tolerance approach to school discipline is "something stupid" (Kauffman & Brigham, 2000) the use of suspension might not be. Despite its limitations, suspension and other forms of punishment serve as effective deterrents of behavior problems for most children, especially when…
Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.
Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo
2017-11-01
We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).
Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes
Hazel, Andrew L.; Heil, Matthias
2003-07-01
A fully coupled finite-element method is used to investigate the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a thin-walled elastic tube mounted between two rigid tubes. The steady three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are solved simultaneously with the equations of geometrically nonlinear Kirchhoff Love shell theory. If the transmural (internal minus external) pressure acting on the tube is sufficiently negative then the tube buckles non-axisymmetrically and the subsequent large deformations lead to a strong interaction between the fluid and solid mechanics. The main effect of fluid inertia on the macroscopic behaviour of the system is due to the Bernoulli effect, which induces an additional local pressure drop when the tube buckles and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Thus, the tube collapses more strongly than it would in the absence of fluid inertia. Typical tube shapes and flow fields are presented. In strongly collapsed tubes, at finite values of the Reynolds number, two ’jets‘ develop downstream of the region of strongest collapse and persist for considerable axial distances. For sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number, these jets impact upon the sidewalls and spread azimuthally. The consequent azimuthal transport of momentum dramatically changes the axial velocity profiles, which become approximately uTheta-shaped when the flow enters the rigid downstream pipe. Further convection of momentum causes the development of a ring-shaped velocity profile before the ultimate return to a parabolic profile far downstream.
FPGA Implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Antone, I.
1999-01-01
This report describes the hardware implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata (CAs). After a general introduction to the cellular automata, we consider a one-dimensional CA used to implement pseudo-random techniques in built-in self test for VLSI. Due to the increase in digital ASIC complexity, testing is becoming one of the major costs in the VLSI production. The high electronics complexity, used in particle physics experiments, demands higher reliability than in the past time. General criterions are given to evaluate the feasibility of the circuit used for testing and some quantitative parameters are underlined to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton. Furthermore, we propose a two-dimensional CA that performs a peak finding algorithm in a matrix of cells mapping a sub-region of a calorimeter. As in a two-dimensional filtering process, the peaks of the energy clusters are found in one evolution step. This CA belongs to Wolfram class II cellular automata. Some quantitative parameters are given to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton implemented in a commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Sam Hyun; Ha, Doo Hoe; Kwak, Jin Young; Lee, Young Soo
2000-01-01
To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (CISS) for the evaluation of chondromalacia. In 110 knee joints which underwent both MR imaging and arthroscopy, the findings were retrospectively reviewed. MR imaging sequences included two-dimensional dual-echo turbo spin-echo imaging along the sagittal and coronal planes, two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with magnetization transfer along the axial plane, and three-dimensional CISS along the sagittal plane. After the cartilage surfaces of each joint were divided into eight areas (each medial and lateral area of patellar facets, trochlear surfaces, femoral condyles, and tibial plateaux), a total of 880 areas were assessed. Using both combined two-dimensional (2-D turbo spin-echo and FLASH) and CISS imaging during different sessions, each chondromalacia case was assigned one of five grades. Arthroscopy revealed the presence of chondromalacia in 162 areas. This was first grade in 77 areas, second grade in 38, third grade in 21, and fourth grade in 26. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 2-D and CISS imaging were 48.1%, 93.7% and 85.3%, and 45.7%, 95.3% and 86.1%, respectively. Agreement between MR and arthroscopic staging occurred in 81.48% of 2-D imaging procedures and 82.16% of CISS procedures. If a difference of one grade was accepted, these proportions rose to 84.32% and 85.22%, respectively, though this increase was statistically insignificant. Though CISS imaging was less sensitive than 2-D imaging in the grading of chondromalacia, additional CISS imaging can help improve the accuracy of this grading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Sam Hyun; Ha, Doo Hoe; Kwak, Jin Young [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Soo [Pundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2000-10-01
To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (CISS) for the evaluation of chondromalacia. In 110 knee joints which underwent both MR imaging and arthroscopy, the findings were retrospectively reviewed. MR imaging sequences included two-dimensional dual-echo turbo spin-echo imaging along the sagittal and coronal planes, two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with magnetization transfer along the axial plane, and three-dimensional CISS along the sagittal plane. After the cartilage surfaces of each joint were divided into eight areas (each medial and lateral area of patellar facets, trochlear surfaces, femoral condyles, and tibial plateaux), a total of 880 areas were assessed. Using both combined two-dimensional (2-D turbo spin-echo and FLASH) and CISS imaging during different sessions, each chondromalacia case was assigned one of five grades. Arthroscopy revealed the presence of chondromalacia in 162 areas. This was first grade in 77 areas, second grade in 38, third grade in 21, and fourth grade in 26. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 2-D and CISS imaging were 48.1%, 93.7% and 85.3%, and 45.7%, 95.3% and 86.1%, respectively. Agreement between MR and arthroscopic staging occurred in 81.48% of 2-D imaging procedures and 82.16% of CISS procedures. If a difference of one grade was accepted, these proportions rose to 84.32% and 85.22%, respectively, though this increase was statistically insignificant. Though CISS imaging was less sensitive than 2-D imaging in the grading of chondromalacia, additional CISS imaging can help improve the accuracy of this grading.
Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions
Style, R. W.
2010-06-30
During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.
Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langen, T.
2013-01-01
Understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems is an open problem on vastly different energy, length, and time scales. Examples range from the dynamics of the early universe and heavy-ion collisions to the subtle coherence and transport properties in condensed matter physics. However, realizations of such quantum many-body systems, which are both well isolated from the environment and accessible to experimental study are scarce. This thesis presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases. These gases combine a nearly perfect isolation from the environment with many well-established methods to manipulate and probe their quantum states. This makes them an ideal model system to explore the physics of quantum many body systems out of equilibrium. In the experiments, a well-defined non-equilibrium state is created by splitting a single one-dimensional gas coherently into two parts. The relaxation of this state is probed using matter-wave interferometry. The Observations reveal the emergence of a prethermalized steady state which differs strongly from thermal equilibrium. Such thermal-like states had previously been predicted for a large variety of systems, but never been observed directly. Studying the relaxation process in further detail shows that the thermal correlations of the prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution. This provides first experimental evidence for the local relaxation conjecture, which links relaxation processes in quantum many-body systems to the propagation of correlations. Furthermore, engineering the initial state of the evolution demonstrates that the prethermalized state is described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble, an observation which substantiates the importance of this ensemble as an extension of standard statistical mechanics. Finally, an experiment is presented, where pairs of gases with an atom
Spin-zero sound in one- and quasi-one-dimensional 3He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, E.S.
2002-01-01
The zero sound spectrum of fluid 3 He confined to a cylindrical shell is examined for configurations characterizing strictly one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional regimes. It is shown that the restricted dimensionality makes room to the possibility of spin-zero sound for the attractive particle-hole interaction of liquid helium. This fact can be related to the suppression of phase instabilities and thermodynamic phase transitions in one dimension
One-dimensional photonic crystal design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mee, Cornelis van der; Contu, Pietro; Pintus, Paolo
2010-01-01
In this article we present a method to determine the band spectrum, band gaps, and discrete energy levels, of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with localized impurities. For one-dimensional crystals with piecewise constant refractive indices we develop an algorithm to recover the refractive index distribution from the period map. Finally, we derive the relationship between the period map and the scattering matrix containing the information on the localized modes.
Steady ablation on the surface of a two-layer composite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Wen-Shan [Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 90008-15-3, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan, 32526 Taiwan (China)
2005-12-01
Discovered is a quasi-steady ablation phenomenon on the surface of a two-layer composite which is formed by a layer of ablative material and another layer of non-ablative substrate. Theoretical exact solutions of quasi-steady ablation rate, the associated temperature distribution and end-of-ablation time of this two-layer composite are derived. A criterion for the occurrence of quasi-steady ablation is presented also. A one-dimensional transient numerical model is developed to perform a number of numerical experiments and hence to verify the correctness of the above theoretical solutions for the current quasi-steady ablation phenomenon. Based on the current results, a new method of measuring the ablation (or sublimation) heat is also proposed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarvis, R.D.; Nelson, P.
1995-01-01
LOCFES-B solves the steady-state, monoenergetic and azimuthally symmetric neutral-particle transport equation in one-dimensional plane-parallel geometry. LOCFES-B is designed to facilitate testing and comparison of different spatial approximations in neutron transport. Accordingly, it permits performance of user-provided CLOF spatial approximations to be compared directly on successively refined mesh sizes and user-input physical problems with automatic comparison of results. if desired, to user-supplied benchmark results
Factors associated with HIV status disclosure to one's steady sexual partner in PLHIV in Morocco.
Loukid, Mohamed; Abadie, Alise; Henry, Emilie; Hilali, Mohamed Kamal; Fugon, Lionel; Rafif, Nadia; Mellouk, Othoman; Lahoucine, Ouarsas; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie
2014-02-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the factors independently associated with disclosure of seropositivity to one's steady sexual partner in people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are recipients of services provided by Association de Lutte Contre le Sida, a Moroccan community-based organization (CBO) working on AIDS response. Between May and October 2011, 300 PLHIV were interviewed about their sociodemographic and economic characteristics, their sexual life and disclosure of their serostatus to their friends, family and to their steady sexual partner. A weighted logistic regression was used to study factors associated with serostatus disclosure to one's steady sexual partner. We restricted the analysis to people who declared they had a steady sexual partner (n = 124). Median age was 36 years old, 56 % were men and 62 % declared that they had disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. The following factors were independently associated with disclosure: living with one's steady sexual partner [OR 95 % CI: 9.85 (2.86-33.98)], having a higher living-standard index [2.06 (1.14-3.72)], regularly discussing HIV with friends [6.54 (1.07-39.77)] and CBO members [4.44 (1.27-15.53)], and having a higher social exclusion score [1.24 (1.07-1.44)]. Unemployment (as opposed to being a housewife) was negatively associated with disclosure [0.12 (0.02-0.87)]. Despite the potential positive effects for the prevention of HIV transmission and for adherence to HIV treatment, many PLHIV had not disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. Some factors shown here to be significantly associated with such disclosure will help in the development of future support interventions.
One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A
2012-01-01
The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.
Shear-induced changes of electrical conductivity in suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crawshaw, John; Meeten, Gerald [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2006-12-15
The effect of shear on electrical conductivity (rheo-conduction) is studied to give information about particle behaviour in suspensions. Past work is reviewed, and expressions are derived for the rheo-conduction of a suspension of nonconducting spheroids in a conducting matrix for current flow, parallel and normal to the suspension flow direction. A simple apparatus to study rheo-conduction in pipe flow is described, and measurements of steady and time-dependent effects are reported for various suspensions of colloidal particles. Suspensions of anisometric rod- and platelike particles at low concentrations showed rheo-conductive changes of sign, magnitude and relaxation that were consistent with the particle shape, concentration and interactions. The rheo-conductive response decreased with increasing volume fraction for platelike kaolinite particles, attributed to orientational jamming. Spherical latex particles gave unexpected rheo-conductive changes consistent with shear disruption of a conductive network of particles. It is concluded that rheo-conduction measurements are a useful adjunct to conventional rheometry. (orig.)
Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao
2007-01-01
The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Dell, R.D.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; Marr, D.R.
1982-02-01
ONEDANT is designed for the CDC-7600, but the program has been implemented and run on the IBM-370/190 and CRAY-I computers. ONEDANT solves the one-dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue search) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. ONEDANT numerically solves the one-dimensional, multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state form of the Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for phase space discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method
Basic physics of one-dimensional metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.
1976-01-01
Largely nonmathematical qualitative lectures are given on the basic physics of nearly one-dimensional conductors. The main emphasis is placed on the properties of a purely one-dimensional electron gas. The effects of a real system having interchain coupling, impurities, a compressible lattice, lattice distortions and phonon anomalies are discussed
Gurnon, Amanda Kate
this constitutive model are tested by comparison with experiments on model WLM solutions. Further comparisons to the nonlinear oscillatory shear responses measured from colloidal suspensions establishes this analysis as a promising, quantitative method for understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear dynamic response of complex fluids. A new experimental technique is developed to measure the microstructure of complex fluids during steady and transient shear flow using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The Flow-SANS experimental method is now available to the broader user communities at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD and the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. Using this new method, a model shear banding WLM solution is interrogated under steady and oscillatory shear. For the first time, the flow-SANS methods identify new metastable states for shear banding WLM solutions, thus establishing the method as capable of probing new states not accessible using traditional steady or linear oscillatory shear methods. The flow-induced three-dimensional microstructure of a colloidal suspension under steady and dynamic oscillatory shear is also measured using these rheo- and flow-SANS methods. A new structure state is identified in the shear thickening regime that proves critical for defining the "hydrocluster" microstructure state of the suspension that is responsible for shear thickening. For both the suspensions and the WLM solutions, stress-SANS rules with the measured microstructures define the individual stress components arising separately from conservative and hydrodynamic forces and these are compared with the macroscopic rheology. Analysis of these results defines the crucial length- and time-scales of the transient microstructure response. The novel dynamic microstructural measurements presented in this dissertation provide new insights into the complexities of shear thickening and shear banding flow phenomena
Plasma properties of quasi-one-dimensional ring
Shmelev, G M
2001-01-01
The plasma properties of the quasi-one-dimensional ring in the threshold cases of low and high frequencies, corresponding to the plasma oscillations and dielectric relaxation are studied within the frames of the classical approach. The plasma oscillations spectrum and the electron dielectric relaxation frequency in the quasi-one-dimensional ring are calculated. The plasmons spectrum equidistance is identified. It is shown , that in contrast to the three-dimensional case there takes place the dielectric relaxation dispersion, wherefrom there follows the possibility of studying the carriers distribution in the quasi-one-dimensional rings through the method of the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy
Coupling Mechanism and Decoupled Suspension Control Model of a Half Car
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hailong Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A structure decoupling control strategy of half-car suspension is proposed to fully decouple the system into independent front and rear quarter-car suspensions in this paper. The coupling mechanism of half-car suspension is firstly revealed and formulated with coupled damping force (CDF in a linear function. Moreover, a novel dual dampers-based controllable quarter-car suspension structure is proposed to realize the independent control of pitch and vertical motions of the half car, in which a newly added controllable damper is suggested to be installed between the lower control arm and connection rod in conventional quarter-car suspension structure. The suggested damper constantly regulates the half-car pitch motion posture in a smooth and steady operation condition meantime achieving the expected completely structure decoupled control of the half-car suspension, by compensating the evolved CDF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiong, M.S.; Rajoo, S.; Romagnoli, A.; Costall, A.W.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Unsteady turbine performance prediction by integrating the 1-D and meanline models. • The optimum discretization length/diameter ratio is identified. • No improvement is gained by increasing the number of rotor entries. • The predicted instantaneous mass flow and output power are analysed in detail. - Abstract: Stringent emission regulations are driving engine manufacturers to increase investment into enabling technologies to achieve better specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and most importantly carbon reduction. Engine downsizing is seen as a key enabler to successfully achieve all of these requirements. Boosting through turbocharging is widely regarded as one of the most promising technologies for engine downsizing. However, the wide range of engine speeds and loads requires enhanced quality of engine-turbocharger matching, compared to the conventional approach which considers only the full load condition. Thus, development of computational models capable of predicting the unsteady behaviour of a turbocharger turbine is crucial to the overall matching process. A purely one-dimensional (1D) turbine model is capable of good unsteady swallowing capacity predictions, however it has not been fully exploited to predict instantaneous turbine power. On the contrary, meanline models (zero-dimensional) are regarded as a good tool to determine turbine efficiency in steady state but they do not include any information about the pressure wave action occurring within the turbine. This paper explores an alternative methodology to predict instantaneous turbine power and swallowing capacity by integrating one-dimensional and meanline models. A single entry mixed-flow turbine is modelled using a 1D gas dynamic code to solve the unsteady flow state in the volute, consequently used as the input for a meanline model to evaluate the instantaneous turbine power. The key in the effectiveness of this methodology relies on the synchronisation of the flow
Observation of Zero-Dimensional States in a One-Dimensional Electron Interferometer
Wees, B.J. van; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Williamson, J.G.; Timmering, C.E.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.
1989-01-01
We have studied the electron transport in a one-dimensional electron interferometer. It consists of a disk-shaped two-dimensional electron gas, to which quantum point contacts are attached. Discrete zero-dimensional states are formed due to constructive interference of electron waves traveling along
A new approach for solving the three-dimensional steady Euler equations. I - General theory
Chang, S.-C.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1986-01-01
The present iterative procedure combines the Clebsch potentials and the Munk-Prim (1947) substitution principle with an extension of a semidirect Cauchy-Riemann solver to three dimensions, in order to solve steady, inviscid three-dimensional rotational flow problems in either subsonic or incompressible flow regimes. This solution procedure can be used, upon discretization, to obtain inviscid subsonic flow solutions in a 180-deg turning channel. In addition to accurately predicting the behavior of weak secondary flows, the algorithm can generate solutions for strong secondary flows and will yield acceptable flow solutions after only 10-20 outer loop iterations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)
2015-12-15
Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dongola, Nagwa A.; Gishen, Philip
2004-01-01
This study was performed with the aim of evaluating the usefulness of 3 dimensional double-echo steady state sequences in examining the internal derangements of the knee. Arthroscopy was used as a referral standard. The study was performed in the Radiology and Arthroscopy Departments of Kings College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, during a 6-month period from January 1997 to June 1997. All patients who had knee magnetic resonance imaging within 3 months of arthroscopy were retrospectively studied. Thirty-three patients fulfilled these criteria and were selected. Three dimensional double-echo steady state sequences produced sensitivity for detecting meniscal tears of 87.5% for medial menisci (MM) and 75% for lateral menisci (LM). Specificity was 76% for MM and 96% for LM; positive predictive value (PPV) was 46.1% for MM and 85.7% for LM and negative predictive value (NPV) of 95% for MM and 96% for LM. The sensitivity for the anterior cruciate ligament was 83.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 45.4% and NPV was 95.4%. Three dimensional double-echo steady state sequences are useful in evaluating internal derangement of the knee, especially in advanced cartilage lesions. (author)
Global Pressure of One-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases Driven by Gaussian White Noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhiyuan; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Huang Mingtao; Li Rui; Zhang Ling; Zhu Hongying
2007-01-01
We study the global pressure of a one-dimensional polydisperse granular gases system for the first time, in which the size distribution of particles has the fractal characteristic and the inhomogeneity is described by a fractal dimension D. The particles are driven by Gaussian white noise and subject to inelastic mutual collisions. We define the global pressure P of the system as the impulse transferred across a surface in a unit of time, which has two contributions, one from the translational motion of particles and the other from the collisions. Explicit expression for the global pressure in the steady state is derived. By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how the inelasticity of collisions and the inhomogeneity of the particles influence the global pressure. The simulation results indicate that the restitution coefficient e and the fractal dimension D have significant effect on the pressure.
Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.
Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias
2018-02-28
We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.
Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos
2014-11-01
The topology and evolution of flow around a surface mounted cubical object in three dimensional channel flow is examined for low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Direct numerical simulations were performed via a home made parallel finite element code. The computational domain has been designed according to actual laboratory experimental conditions. Analysis of the results is performed using the three dimensional theory of separation. Our findings indicate that a tornado-like vortex by the side of the cube is present for all Reynolds numbers for which flow was simulated. A horse-shoe vortex upstream from the cube was formed at Reynolds number approximately 1266. Pressure distributions are shown along with three dimensional images of the tornado-like vortex and the horseshoe vortex at selected Reynolds numbers. Finally, and in accordance to previous work, our results indicate that the upper limit for the Reynolds number for which steady state results are physically realizable is roughly 2000. Financial support of author NM from the Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG-VSP, N62909-13-1-V016) is acknowledged.
Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Maleki Jirsaraee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles
Factorizations of one-dimensional classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuru, Senguel; Negro, Javier
2008-01-01
A class of one-dimensional classical systems is characterized from an algebraic point of view. The Hamiltonians of these systems are factorized in terms of two functions that together with the Hamiltonian itself close a Poisson algebra. These two functions lead directly to two time-dependent integrals of motion from which the phase motions are derived algebraically. The systems so obtained constitute the classical analogues of the well known factorizable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems
X-ray imaging device for one-dimensional and two-dimensional radioscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
The X-ray imaging device for the selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional pictures of objects illuminated by X-rays, comprising an X-ray source, an X-ray screen, and an opto-electrical picture development device placed behind the screen, is characterized by an anamorphotic optical system, which is positioned with a one-dimensional illumination between the X-ray screen and the opto-electrical device and that a two-dimensional illumination will be developed, and that in view of the lens system which forms part of the opto-electrical device, there is placed an X-ray screen in a specified beam direction so that a magnified image may be formed by equalisation of the distance between the X-ray screen and the lens system. (G.C.)
Two-dimensional beam profiles and one-dimensional projections
Findlay, D. J. S.; Jones, B.; Adams, D. J.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional projections of improved two-dimensional representations of transverse profiles of particle beams are proposed for fitting to data from harp-type monitors measuring beam profiles on particle accelerators. Composite distributions, with tails smoothly matched on to a central (inverted) parabola, are shown to give noticeably better fits than single gaussian and single parabolic distributions to data from harp-type beam profile monitors all along the proton beam transport lines to the two target stations on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. Some implications for inferring beam current densities on the beam axis are noted.
One-dimensional versus two-dimensional electronic states in vicinal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortega, J E; Ruiz-Oses, M; Cordon, J; Mugarza, A; Kuntze, J; Schiller, F
2005-01-01
Vicinal surfaces with periodic arrays of steps are among the simplest lateral nanostructures. In particular, noble metal surfaces vicinal to the (1 1 1) plane are excellent test systems to explore the basic electronic properties in one-dimensional superlattices by means of angular photoemission. These surfaces are characterized by strong emissions from free-electron-like surface states that scatter at step edges. Thereby, the two-dimensional surface state displays superlattice band folding and, depending on the step lattice constant d, it splits into one-dimensional quantum well levels. Here we use high-resolution, angle-resolved photoemission to analyse surface states in a variety of samples, in trying to illustrate the changes in surface state bands as a function of d
Application of the Green's function method for 2- and 3-dimensional steady transonic flows
Tseng, K.
1984-01-01
A Time-Domain Green's function method for the nonlinear time-dependent three-dimensional aerodynamic potential equation is presented. The Green's theorem is being used to transform the partial differential equation into an integro-differential-delay equation. Finite-element and finite-difference methods are employed for the spatial and time discretizations to approximate the integral equation by a system of differential-delay equations. Solution may be obtained by solving for this nonlinear simultaneous system of equations in time. This paper discusses the application of the method to the Transonic Small Disturbance Equation and numerical results for lifting and nonlifting airfoils and wings in steady flows are presented.
Strong chaos in one-dimensional quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.-D.; Wei, C.-H.
2008-01-01
According to the Poincare-Bendixson theorem, a minimum of three autonomous equations is required to exhibit deterministic chaos. Because a one-dimensional quantum system is described by only two autonomous equations using de Broglie-Bohm's trajectory interpretation, chaos in one-dimensional quantum systems has long been considered impossible. We will prove in this paper that chaos phenomenon does exist in one-dimensional quantum systems, if the domain of quantum motions is extended to complex space by noting that the quantum world is actually characterized by a four-dimensional complex spacetime according to the E (∞) theory. Furthermore, we point out that the interaction between the real and imaginary parts of complex trajectories produces a new chaos phenomenon unique to quantum systems, called strong chaos, which describes the situation that quantum trajectories may emerge and diverge spontaneously without any perturbation in the initial position
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toma, C.; Alexa, Al.; Craciunescu, T.; Pirvan, M.; Dobrin, R.
2008-01-01
In this paper there are presented the results of nondestructive examination in Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory for twenty five fuel rods selected from 14 MW steady state core. Gamma scanning and dimensional measurements were carried out in order to determine burn-up and diametric deflection of the fuel rods. Also, some comparisons with SSR Safety Report estimations for the maximum burn-up pin were made. (authors)
Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers
Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.
2004-12-01
New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.
Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M
2007-09-01
We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.
Mesnard, F; Azaroual, N; Marty, D; Fliniaux, M A; Robins, R J; Vermeersch, G; Monti, J P
2000-02-01
Nitrogen metabolism was monitored in suspension cultured cells of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy following the feeding of (15NH4)2SO4 and K15NO3. By using two-dimensional 15N-1H NMR with heteronuclear single-quantum-coherence spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple-bond-coherence spectroscopy sequences, an enhanced resolution of the incorporation of 15N label into a range of compounds could be detected. Thus, in addition to the amino acids normally observed in one-dimensional 15N NMR (glutamine, aspartate, alanine), several other amino acids could be resolved, notably serine, glycine and proline. Furthermore, it was found that the peak normally assigned to the non-protein amino-acid gamma-aminobutyric acid in the one-dimensional 15N NMR spectrum was resolved into a several components. A peak of N-acetylated compounds was resolved, probably composed of the intermediates in arginine biosynthesis, N-acetylglutamate and N-acetylornithine and, possibly, the intermediate of putrescine degradation into gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetylputrescine. The occurrence of 15N-label in agmatine and the low detection of labelled putrescine indicate that crucial intermediates of the pathway from glutamate to polyamines and/or the tobacco alkaloids could be monitored. For the first time, labelling of the peptide glutathione and of the nucleotide uridine could be seen.
Majeed, Muhammad Usman
2017-01-01
the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time
Numerical modelling of random walk one-dimensional diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vamos, C.; Suciu, N.; Peculea, M.
1996-01-01
The evolution of a particle which moves on a discrete one-dimensional lattice, according to a random walk low, approximates better the diffusion process smaller the steps of the spatial lattice and time are. For a sufficiently large assembly of particles one can assume that their relative frequency at lattice knots approximates the distribution function of the diffusion process. This assumption has been tested by simulating on computer two analytical solutions of the diffusion equation: the Brownian motion and the steady state linear distribution. To evaluate quantitatively the similarity between the numerical and analytical solutions we have used a norm given by the absolute value of the difference of the two solutions. Also, a diffusion coefficient at any lattice knots and moment of time has been calculated, by using the numerical solution both from the diffusion equation and the particle flux given by Fick's low. The difference between diffusion coefficient of analytical solution and the spatial lattice mean coefficient of numerical solution constitutes another quantitative indication of the similarity of the two solutions. The results obtained show that the approximation depends first on the number of particles at each knot of the spatial lattice. In conclusion, the random walk is a microscopic process of the molecular dynamics type which permits simulations precision of the diffusion processes with given precision. The numerical method presented in this work may be useful both in the analysis of real experiments and for theoretical studies
Colloid-Colloid Hydrodynamic Interaction Around a Bend in a Quasi-One-Dimensional Channel
Liepold, Christopher; Zarcone, Ryan; Heumann, Tibor; Lin, Binhua; Rice, Stuart
We report a study of the correlation between a pair of particles in a colloid suspension in a bent quasi-one-dimensional (q1d) channel as a function of bend angle. As the bend angle becomes more acute, we observe an increasing depletion of particles in the vicinity of the bend and an increase in the nearest-neighbor separation in the pair correlation function for particles on opposite sides of the bend. Further, we observe that the peak value of D12, the coupling term in the pair diffusion tensor that characterizes the effect of the motion of particle 1 on particle 2, coincides with the first peak in the pair correlation function, and that the pair separation dependence of D12 mimics that of the pair correlation function. We show that the observed behavior is a consequence of the geometric constraints imposed by the single-file requirement that the particle centers lie on the centerline of the channel and the requirement that the hydrodynamic flow must follow the channel around the bend. We find that the correlation between a pair of particles in a colloidal suspension in a bent q1D channel has the same functional dependence on the pair correlation function as in a straight q1D channel when measured in a coordinate system that follows the centerline of the bent channel. NSF MRSEC (DMR-1420709), Dreyfus Foundation (SI-14-014).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrehor, M.
1979-01-01
The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Xiaoling; Min Yong; Ma Tianyu; Luo Wei; Yan Mi
2009-01-01
The structures of suspensions comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in magnetic fields are studied using two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetic interaction among magnetic particles, magnetic field strength, and concentrations of both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles are considered as key influencing factors in the present work. The results show that chain-like clusters of magnetic particles are formed along the field direction. The size of the clusters increases with increasing magnetic interaction between magnetic particles, while it keeps nearly unchanged as the field strength increases. As the concentration of magnetic particles increases, both the number and size of the clusters increase. Moreover, nonmagnetic particles are found to hinder the migration of magnetic ones. As the concentration of nonmagnetic particles increases, the hindrance on migration of magnetic particles is enhanced
Neural control of magnetic suspension systems
Gray, W. Steven
1993-01-01
The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.
QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.K.Percus
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Naidoo, K
2011-06-01
Full Text Available research by Ernst Mach in 1878. The steady, two-dimensional transition criteria between regular and Mach reflection are well established. There has been little done to consider the dynamic effect of a rapidly rotating wedge on the transition between regular...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, V.A.; Jarboe, T.R.
2005-01-01
The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive (HIT-SI) [P. E. Sieck, W. T. Hamp, V. A. Izzo, T. R. Jarboe, B. A. Nelson, R. G. O'Neill, A. J. Redd, and R. J. Smith, IEEE Conference Record-Abstracts. 31st IEEE International Conference On Plasma Science (IEEE Catalog No. 04CH37537), 2004, p. 160] is a spheromak driven by steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) and consists of the toroidally symmetric spheromak confinement region and two nonsymmetric helicity injectors. The three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic code NIMROD [A. H. Glasser, C. R. Sovinec, R. A. Nebel, T. A. Gianakon, S. J. Plimpton, M. S. Chu, and D. D. Schnack, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41, A747 (1999)] is used to simulate HIT-SI operation, but the code's toroidally symmetric boundary requires a creative treatment of the injectors. Sustained HIT-SI operation is simulated with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. In driven simulations at low Lundquist number S no n=0 fields are generated as a result of relaxation of the predominantly n=1 injector fields until the injectors are quickly shut off. At S=500, an n=0 component arises due to relaxation during sustainment. As S is increased further, the ratio of n=0 (equilibrium) fields to n=1 (injector) fields increases. The effects of a thin insulating boundary layer on the plasma decay time are also discussed
RETRAN-02 one-dimensional kinetics model: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gose, G.C.; McClure, J.A.
1986-01-01
RETRAN-02 is a modular code system that has been designed for one-dimensional, transient thermal-hydraulics analysis. In RETRAN-02, core power behavior may be treated using a one-dimensional reactor kinetics model. This model allows the user to investigate the interaction of time- and space-dependent effects in the reactor core on overall system behavior for specific LWR operational transients. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent analysis and development activities related to the one dimensional kinetics model in RETRAN-02
Robustness analysis of bogie suspension components Pareto optimised values
Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad
2017-08-01
Bogie suspension system of high speed trains can significantly affect vehicle performance. Multiobjective optimisation problems are often formulated and solved to find the Pareto optimised values of the suspension components and improve cost efficiency in railway operations from different perspectives. Uncertainties in the design parameters of suspension system can negatively influence the dynamics behaviour of railway vehicles. In this regard, robustness analysis of a bogie dynamics response with respect to uncertainties in the suspension design parameters is considered. A one-car railway vehicle model with 50 degrees of freedom and wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension components is chosen for the analysis. Longitudinal and lateral primary stiffnesses, longitudinal and vertical secondary stiffnesses, as well as yaw damping are considered as five design parameters. The effects of parameter uncertainties on wear, ride comfort, track shift force, stability, and risk of derailment are studied by varying the design parameters around their respective Pareto optimised values according to a lognormal distribution with different coefficient of variations (COVs). The robustness analysis is carried out based on the maximum entropy concept. The multiplicative dimensional reduction method is utilised to simplify the calculation of fractional moments and improve the computational efficiency. The results showed that the dynamics response of the vehicle with wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension is robust against uncertainties in the design parameters and the probability of failure is small for parameter uncertainties with COV up to 0.1.
On the application of finite element method in the solution of steady state diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, S.
1982-01-01
The solution of the steady state neutron diffusion equation is obtained by using the finite element method. Specifically the variational approach is used for one dimensional problems and the weighted residual method (Galerkin) for one and two dimensional problems. The spatial domain is divided into retangular elements and the neutron flux is approximated by linear (one dimensional case), and bilinear (two-dimensional case) functions. Numerical results are obtained with a FORTRAN IV computer program and compared with those obtained by the finite difference CITATION code. The results show that linear or bilinear functions, do not satisfactorily describe the differential parameters in highly heterogeneous reactor cases, but provide good results for integral parameters such as multiplication factor. (Author) [pt
Particle-wall tribology of slippery hydrogel particle suspensions.
Shewan, Heather M; Stokes, Jason R; Cloitre, Michel
2017-03-08
Slip is an important phenomenon that occurs during the flow of yield stress fluids like soft materials and pastes. Densely packed suspensions of hydrogel microparticles are used to show that slip is governed by the tribological interactions occurring between the samples and shearing surfaces. Both attractive/repulsive interactions between the dispersed particles and surface, as well as the viscoelasticity of the suspension, are found to play key roles in slip occurring within rheometric flows. We specifically discover that for two completely different sets of microgels, the sliding stress at which slip occurs scales with both the modulus of the particles and the bulk suspension modulus. This suggests that hysteresis losses within the viscoelastic particles contribute to friction forces and thus slip at the particle-surface tribo-contact. It is also found that slip during large amplitude oscillatory shear and steady shear flows share the same generic features.
One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands
Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja
2011-01-01
The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.
Fauzi, Ahmad; Ratna Kawuri, Kunthi; Pratiwi, Retno
2017-01-01
Researchers of students’ conceptual change usually collects data from written tests and interviews. Moreover, reports of conceptual change often simply refer to changes in concepts, such as on a test, without any identification of the learning processes that have taken place. Research has shown that students have difficulties with vectors in university introductory physics courses and high school physics courses. In this study, we intended to explore students’ understanding of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector in multi perspective views. In this research, we explore students’ understanding through test perspective and interviews perspective. Our research study adopted the mixed-methodology design. The participants of this research were sixty students of third semester of physics education department. The data of this research were collected by testand interviews. In this study, we divided the students’ understanding of one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector in two categories, namely vector skills of the addition of one-dimensionaland two-dimensional vector and the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding. From the investigation, only 44% of students provided correct answer for vector skills of the addition of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector and only 27% students provided correct answer for the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding.
One-dimensional reactor kinetics model for RETRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gose, G.C.; Peterson, C.E.; Ellis, N.L.; McClure, J.A.
1981-01-01
This paper describes a one-dimensional spatial neutron kinetics model that was developed for the RETRAN code. The RETRAN -01 code has a point kinetics model to describe the reactor core behavior during thermal-hydraulic transients. A one-dimensional neutronics model has been developed for RETRAN-02. The ability to account for flux shape changes will permit an improved representation of the thermal and hydraulic feedback effects for many operational transients. 19 refs
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Nikola Stefanović
2007-01-01
In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...
Steady-state bifurcations of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Min Chen
2000-08-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the spatially periodic incompressible fluid motion in $mathbb R^3$ excited by the external force $k^2(sin kz, 0,0$ with $kgeq 2$ an integer. This driving force gives rise to the existence of the unidirectional basic steady flow $u_0=(sin kz,0, 0$ for any Reynolds number. It is shown in Theorem 1.1 that there exist a number of critical Reynolds numbers such that $u_0$ bifurcates into either 4 or 8 or 16 different steady states, when the Reynolds number increases across each of such numbers.
Vertical profiles for SO2 and SO on Venus from different one-dimensional simulations
Mills, Franklin P.; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Yung, Yuk
2017-10-01
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays many roles in Venus’ atmosphere. It is a precursor for the sulfuric acid that condenses to form the global cloud layers and is likely a precursor for the unidentified UV absorber, which, along with CO2 near the tops of the clouds, appears to be responsible for absorbing about half of the energy deposited in Venus’ atmosphere [1]. Most published simulations of Venus’ mesospheric chemistry have used one-dimensional numerical models intended to represent global-average or diurnal-average conditions [eg, 2, 3, 4]. Observations, however, have found significant variations of SO and SO2 with latitude and local time throughout the mesosphere [eg, 5, 6]. Some recent simulations have examined local time variations of SO and SO2 using analytical models [5], one-dimensional steady-state solar-zenith-angle-dependent numerical models [6], and three-dimensional general circulation models (GCMs) [7]. As an initial step towards a quantitative comparison among these different types of models, this poster compares simulated SO, SO2, and SO/SO2 from global-average, diurnal-average, and solar-zenith-angle (SZA) dependent steady-state models for the mesosphere.The Caltech/JPL photochemical model [8] was used with vertical transport via eddy diffusion set based on observations and observationally-defined lower boundary conditions for HCl, CO, and OCS. Solar fluxes are based on SORCE SOLSTICE and SORCE SIM measurements from 26 December 2010 [9, 10]. The results indicate global-average and diurnal-average models may have significant limitations when used to interpret latitude- and local-time-dependent observations of SO2 and SO.[1] Titov D et al (2007) in Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, 121-138. [2] Zhang X et al (2012) Icarus, 217, 714-739. [3] Krasnopolsky V A (2012) Icarus, 218, 230-246. [4] Parkinson C D et al (2015) Planet Space Sci, 113-114, 226-236. [5] Sandor B J et al (2010) Icarus, 208, 49-60. [6] Jessup K-L et al (2015) Icarus, 258, 309
Numerical study of inertial effects on the rheology of filament suspensions
Alizad Banaei, Arash; Rosti, Marco Edoardo; Brandt, Luca
2017-11-01
Significant work has been devoted to modeling fiber suspensions as they occur in many applications such as paper and food industries. Most of the works are limited to the motion of rigid cylindrical rods in low Stokes flows. Here, we investigate the rheological properties of flexible filament suspensions by means of numerical simulations. We considered the filaments as one-dimensional inextensible slender bodies obeying the Euler-Bernoulli equations and study the effect of flexibility, flow inertia and volume fraction on the rheology of the suspensions. The numerical simulations are performed using the Immersed Boundary Method to model the fluid/structure interaction. The results indicate that the inertia has significant effect on the relative viscosity of the suspensions. The effect is larger for less deformable filaments. The filament suspensions exhibit viscoelastic behavior and the first normal stress has a maximum for moderate flexibilities. The relative viscosity increases with volume fraction of the filaments and it is more sensitive to the volume fraction for larger Reynolds numbers. For a constant flexibility, the mean end-to-end distance of the filaments decreases with Reynolds number and the mean velocity fluctuations of the fluid increases with the Reynolds number. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).
Global sensitivity analysis of bogie dynamics with respect to suspension components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad, E-mail: milad.mousavi@chalmers.se; Berbyuk, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.berbyuk@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics (Sweden)
2016-06-15
The effects of bogie primary and secondary suspension stiffness and damping components on the dynamics behavior of a high speed train are scrutinized based on the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A one-car railway vehicle model is chosen for the analysis at two levels of the bogie suspension system: symmetric and asymmetric configurations. Several operational scenarios including straight and circular curved tracks are considered, and measurement data are used as the track irregularities in different directions. Ride comfort, safety, and wear objective functions are specified to evaluate the vehicle’s dynamics performance on the prescribed operational scenarios. In order to have an appropriate cut center for the sensitivity analysis, the genetic algorithm optimization routine is employed to optimize the primary and secondary suspension components in terms of wear and comfort, respectively. The global sensitivity indices are introduced and the Gaussian quadrature integrals are employed to evaluate the simplified sensitivity indices correlated to the objective functions. In each scenario, the most influential suspension components on bogie dynamics are recognized and a thorough analysis of the results is given. The outcomes of the current research provide informative data that can be beneficial in design and optimization of passive and active suspension components for high speed train bogies.
Global sensitivity analysis of bogie dynamics with respect to suspension components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad; Berbyuk, Viktor
2016-01-01
The effects of bogie primary and secondary suspension stiffness and damping components on the dynamics behavior of a high speed train are scrutinized based on the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A one-car railway vehicle model is chosen for the analysis at two levels of the bogie suspension system: symmetric and asymmetric configurations. Several operational scenarios including straight and circular curved tracks are considered, and measurement data are used as the track irregularities in different directions. Ride comfort, safety, and wear objective functions are specified to evaluate the vehicle’s dynamics performance on the prescribed operational scenarios. In order to have an appropriate cut center for the sensitivity analysis, the genetic algorithm optimization routine is employed to optimize the primary and secondary suspension components in terms of wear and comfort, respectively. The global sensitivity indices are introduced and the Gaussian quadrature integrals are employed to evaluate the simplified sensitivity indices correlated to the objective functions. In each scenario, the most influential suspension components on bogie dynamics are recognized and a thorough analysis of the results is given. The outcomes of the current research provide informative data that can be beneficial in design and optimization of passive and active suspension components for high speed train bogies.
One- and zero-dimensional electron systems over liquid helium (Review article)
Kovdrya, Y Z
2003-01-01
Experimental and theoretical investigations of one-dimensional and zero-dimensional electron systems near the liquid helium surface are surveyed. The properties of electron states over the plane surface of liquid helium including thin layers of helium are considered. The methods of realization of one- and zero-dimensional electron systems are discussed, and the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of their properties are given. The experiments with localization processes in a quasi-one-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium are described. The collective effects in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional electron systems are considered, and the point of possible application of low-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium in electron devices and quantum computers is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Baekhyun; Choi, Geunwon; Uruno, Yumi; Kim, Hyunseo; Chung, Jaewon; Kim, Hyojun; Lee, Kihyun
2017-01-01
Highlights: • An attemperator is a device to spray water into the superheated steam. • The evaporation was analyzed using the enthalpy balance from the commissioning data. • The spray atomization and its concurrent evaporation in an attemperator were physically modeled. • A simple one-dimensional simulation was conducted to verify the commissioning results. - Abstract: An attemperator is a device that is used to spray water into the superheated steam between the primary, platen, and final superheaters and the reheat lines. The goal of the attemperator is to control the temperature of the superheated steam in accordance with desired turbine-inlet temperature during both steady-state and transient operation. Because the thermowell installed at the attemperator outlet is tied back to the feedback control of the spray water, the spray water should evaporate ahead of the thermowell for accurate control of the steam temperature. In this work, the completion of the evaporation ahead of the thermowell was analyzed using the enthalpy balance from the start-up commissioning data of an 800-MW coal-fired steam power plant. In addition, the phenomena of the spray atomization and its concurrent evaporation in an attemperator were physically modeled, and a simple one-dimensional simulation was conducted to verify the analysis of the commissioning data.
Bastianello, Alvise; Piroli, Lorenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale
2018-05-01
We derive exact analytic expressions for the n -body local correlations in the one-dimensional Bose gas with contact repulsive interactions (Lieb-Liniger model) in the thermodynamic limit. Our results are valid for arbitrary states of the model, including ground and thermal states, stationary states after a quantum quench, and nonequilibrium steady states arising in transport settings. Calculations for these states are explicitly presented and physical consequences are critically discussed. We also show that the n -body local correlations are directly related to the full counting statistics for the particle-number fluctuations in a short interval, for which we provide an explicit analytic result.
Well balancing of the SWE schemes for moving-water steady flows
Caleffi, Valerio; Valiani, Alessandro
2017-08-01
In this work, the exact reproduction of a moving-water steady flow via the numerical solution of the one-dimensional shallow water equations is studied. A new scheme based on a modified version of the HLLEM approximate Riemann solver (Dumbser and Balsara (2016) [18]) that exactly preserves the total head and the discharge in the simulation of smooth steady flows and that correctly dissipates mechanical energy in the presence of hydraulic jumps is presented. This model is compared with a selected set of schemes from the literature, including models that exactly preserve quiescent flows and models that exactly preserve moving-water steady flows. The comparison highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. In particular, the results show that the increase in accuracy in the steady state reproduction is counterbalanced by a reduced robustness and numerical efficiency of the models. Some solutions to reduce these drawbacks, at the cost of increased algorithm complexity, are presented.
Methodology of calculation in one-dimensional kinetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.
1986-01-01
This paper resulted from a study of the WIGLE's program calculation method ]1], which is RESTRICTED to USA users. In view of this fact, a successful attempt was made to fully understand and reproduce the WIGLE methodology, thus providing support for national development on the subject. After finishing the theoretical study, CITER-1D, a program for search of control rod position in PWR slabs under steady-state conditions was written and is supposed to correctly reproduce WIGL3 ]4] version behavior. Program restriction to steady-state conditions was due to scarcity of examples, thought to be intentional, as well as to time limitations for conclusion of a M.Sc. Thesis ]2], which originated this work. Results obtained with CITER-1D agree very well with the ones found in the the available literature pertaining to WIGL3. Further work on CITER-1D is being pursued, in order to complete the program. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naymik, T.G.
1978-01-01
To evaluate the inability of a one-dimensional ground-water model to interact continuously with surrounding hydraulic head gradients, simulations using one-dimensional and two-dimensional ground-water flow models were compared. This approach used two types of models: flow-conserving one-and-two dimensional models, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional models designed to yield two-dimensional solutions. The hydraulic conductivities of controlling features were varied and model comparison was based on the travel times of marker particles. The solutions within each of the two model types compare reasonably well, but a three-dimensional solution is required to quantify the comparison
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yin, Chungen; Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2016-01-01
close to suspension-fired boilers. The ignition, devolatilization and burnout times of the milled particles under different combustion conditions are analysed. A one-dimensional transient model, properly accounting for the particle-ambient flow interaction and appropriately addressing the key sub...
Mateijsen, DJM; Van Hengel, PWJ; Krikke, AP; Van Huffelen, WM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ
Objective: In this study, three-dimensional Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (3DFT-CISS) magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the distance between the vertical part of the posterior semicircular canal and the posterior fossa as a measure of the
One dimensional reactor core model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, V.; Stritar, A.; Radovo, M.; Mavko, B.
1984-01-01
The one dimensional model of neutron dynamic in reactor core was developed. The core was divided in several axial nodes. The one group neutron diffusion equation for each node is solved. Feedback affects of fuel and water temperatures is calculated. The influence of xenon, boron and control rods is included in cross section calculations for each node. The system of equations is solved implicitly. The model is used in basic principle Training Simulator of NPP Krsko. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakauchi K
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Kazuaki Nakauchi,1 Hidenori Mito,2 Osamu Mimura11Hospital of Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, 2Ide Eye Hospital, Yamagata, JapanBackground: The frontalis suspension technique is the surgical method of choice in patients with ptosis and a levator function of 4 mm or less. Several types of materials have been used, including Gore-Tex®, which has been used successfully as a frontalis sling material since 1986. Recently, a Gore-Tex sheet (wider than a sling or strip suspension was reported. This paper reports the results of 27 eyes from 20 patients with congenital ptosis treated using the frontalis suspension technique with the newly developed Gore-Tex Most Versatile Patch (MVP sheet.Methods: All patients underwent surgery between April 2007 and September 2011 and were followed up for at least one year. The average follow-up duration was 18 months, with a range of 12–36 months. The average patient age was 45 (5–85 years, and the group included 11 males and nine females. Thirteen cases demonstrated ptosis in one eye, and seven cases involved both eyes. The patients were divided by age into a younger group and an older group. All ptosis procedures were performed using the Gore-Tex MVP sheet. The implant was normally 7 mm wide for adults and 5 mm wide for children. The implantation method was the same as that used for the sheet shape fascia.Results: In all patients, satisfactory functional results were observed at the 6-month follow-up examination. Eyelid opening heights were also obtained. The average marginal reflex distance (MRD was -0.5 mm preoperatively, which improved to +1.9 mm after surgery. After one year, average MRD was +1.6 mm. MRD attenuation was more frequent in the younger group. There were no cases requiring redo surgery and only one case of exposure.Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, Gore-Tex®, frontalis suspension, congenital ptosis, recurrence
Colloid-colloid hydrodynamic interaction around a bend in a quasi-one-dimensional channel.
Liepold, Christopher; Zarcone, Ryan; Heumann, Tibor; Rice, Stuart A; Lin, Binhua
2017-07-01
We report a study of how a bend in a quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) channel containing a colloid suspension at equilibrium that exhibits single-file particle motion affects the hydrodynamic coupling between colloid particles. We observe both structural and dynamical responses as the bend angle becomes more acute. The structural response is an increasing depletion of particles in the vicinity of the bend and an increase in the nearest-neighbor separation in the pair correlation function for particles on opposite sides of the bend. The dynamical response monitored by the change in the self-diffusion [D_{11}(x)] and coupling [D_{12}(x)] terms of the pair diffusion tensor reveals that the pair separation dependence of D_{12} mimics that of the pair correlation function just as in a straight q1D channel. We show that the observed behavior is a consequence of the boundary conditions imposed on the q1D channel: both the single-file motion and the hydrodynamic flow must follow the channel around the bend.
Numerical solution of multigroup diffuse equations of one-dimensional geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelesku, M.; Adam, S.
1975-01-01
The one-dimensional diffuse theory is used for reactor physics calculations of fast reactors. Computer program based on the one-dimensional diffuse theory is speedy and not memory consuming. The algorithm is described for the three-zone fast reactor criticality computation in one-dimensional diffusion approximation. This algorithm is realised on IBM 370/135 computer. (I.T.)
Camargo, Manuel; Téllez, Gabriel
2008-04-07
The renormalized charge of a simple two-dimensional model of colloidal suspension was determined by solving the hypernetted chain approximation and Ornstein-Zernike equations. At the infinite dilution limit, the asymptotic behavior of the correlation functions is used to define the effective interactions between the components of the system and these effective interactions were compared to those derived from the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The results we obtained show that, in contrast to the mean-field theory, the renormalized charge does not saturate, but exhibits a maximum value and then decays monotonically as the bare charge increases. The results also suggest that beyond the counterion layer near to the macroion surface, the ionic cloud is not a diffuse layer which can be handled by means of the linearized theory, as the two-state model claims, but a more complex structure is settled by the correlations between microions.
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)
2015-12-15
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Toshio; Terada, Atsuhiko
2006-03-01
In the corrosive process environment of thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process plant, there is a difficulty in the direct measurement of surface temperature of the structural materials. An inverse problem method can effectively be applied for this problem, which enables estimation of the surface temperature using the temperature data at the inside of structural materials. This paper shows analytical results of steady state temperature distributions in a two-dimensional cylindrical system cooled by impinging jet flow, and clarifies necessary order of multiple-valued function from the viewpoint of engineeringly satisfactory precision. (author)
On the behaviour of gelled fibre suspensions in steady shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, Bettina [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Division of Food Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); White, Duncan; Melrose, John R.; Frith, William J. [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom)
2007-03-15
The shear rheological properties of suspensions of gelled agar fibres in a low viscosity Newtonian matrix fluid were investigated. Two classes of fibres, low aspect ratio fibres and high aspect ratio fibres with an aspect ratio of the order of 10 and 100 respectively were included in the investigations. For all fibre phase volumes investigated, from as low as 0.01 upwards, the flow curves are characterised by an apparent yield stress followed by shear-thinning which was independent of the fibre aspect ratio. Based on our analysis of the flow curves, we conclude that the high aspect ratio fibres behave like flexible threads in contrast to the low aspect ratio fibres whose high shear relative viscosity is successfully described by a relation for long rigid rods. These findings are supported by flow visualisation using an optical shearing stage coupled to a light microscope. (orig.)
Absorption in one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Junfei; Shen Yifeng; Liu Xiaohan; Fu Rongtang; Zi Jian; Zhu Zhiqiang
2004-01-01
We show theoretically that the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced considerably over the corresponding constituent metal. By properly choosing the structural and material parameters, the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced by one order of magnitude in the visible and in the near infrared regions. It is found that the absorptance of such photonic crystals increases with increasing number of periods. Rules on how to obtain a absorption enhancement in a certain frequency range are discussed. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Bade, M.H.; Kumar, N.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.
2002-01-01
Scaling methods for both single-phase and two-phase natural circulation systems have been presented. For single-phase systems, simulation of the steady state flow can be achieved by preserving just one nondimensional parameter. For uniform diameter two-phase systems also, it is possible to simulate the steady state behaviour with just one non-dimensional parameter. Simulation of the stability behaviour requires geometric similarity in addition to the similarity of the physical parameters appearing in the governing equations. The scaling laws proposed have been tested with experimental data in case of single-phase natural circulation. (author)
Prediction of inorganic superconductors with quasi-one-dimensional crystal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkova, L M; Marinin, D V
2013-01-01
Models of superconductors having a quasi-one-dimensional crystal structure based on the convoluted into a tube Ginzburg sandwich, which comprises a layered dielectric–metal–dielectric structure, have been suggested. The critical crystal chemistry parameters of the Ginzburg sandwich determining the possibility of the emergence of superconductivity and the T c value in layered high-T c cuprates, which could have the same functions in quasi-one-dimensional fragments (sandwich-type tubes), have been examined. The crystal structures of known low-temperature superconductors, in which one can mark out similar quasi-one-dimensional fragments, have been analyzed. Five compounds with quasi-one-dimensional structures, which can be considered as potential parents of new superconductor families, possibly with high transition temperatures, have been suggested. The methods of doping and modification of these compounds are provided. (paper)
S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downum, W.B.
1983-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code
Thermal conductivity in one-dimensional nonlinear systems
Politi, Antonio; Giardinà, Cristian; Livi, Roberto; Vassalli, Massimo
2000-03-01
Thermal conducitivity of one-dimensional nonlinear systems typically diverges in the thermodynamic limit, whenever the momentum is conserved (i.e. in the absence of interactions with an external substrate). Evidence comes from detailed studies of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and diatomic Toda chains. Here, we discuss the first example of a one-dimensional system obeying Fourier law : a chain of coupled rotators. Numerical estimates of the thermal conductivity obtained by simulating a chain in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures are found to be consistent with those ones based on linear response theory. The dynamics of the Fourier modes provides direct evidence of energy diffusion. The finiteness of the conductivity is traced back to the occurrence of phase-jumps. Our conclusions are confirmed by the analysis of two variants of the rotator model.
Controlled size and one-dimensional growth
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
875–881. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of azamacrocycle stabilized palladium nanoparticles: Controlled size and one-dimensional growth. JEYARAMAN ATHILAKSHMI and DILLIP KUMAR CHAND. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India e-mail: dillip@iitm.ac.
One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....
One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2004-01-01
Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....
Steady fall of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, B. C., E-mail: low@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Egan, A. K., E-mail: andrea.egan@colorado.edu [Barnard College, New York, New York 10027, USA and Department of Physics, Colorado University, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2014-06-15
This is a basic MHD study of the steady fall of an infinite, vertical slab of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across a dipped magnetic field in uniform gravity. This double-diffusion steady flow in unbounded space poses a nonlinear but numerically tractable, one-dimensional (1D) free-boundary problem, assuming constant coefficients of resistivity and viscosity. The steady flow is determined by a dimensionless number μ{sub 1} proportional to the triple product of the two diffusion coefficients and the square of the linear total mass. For a sufficiently large μ{sub 1}, the Lorentz, viscous, fluid-pressure, and gravitational forces pack and collimate the fluid into a steady flow of a finite width defined by the two zero-pressure free-boundaries of the slab with vacuum. The viscous force is essential in this collimation effect. The study conjectures that in the regime μ{sub 1}→0, the 1D steady state exists only for μ{sub 1}∈Ω, a spectrum of an infinite number of discrete values, including μ{sub 1} = 0 that corresponds to two steady states, the classical zero-resistivity static slab of Kippenhahn and Schlüter [R. Kippenhahn and A. Schlüter, Z. Astrophys. 43, 36 (1957)] and its recent generalization [B. C. Low et al., Astrophys. J. 755, 34 (2012)] to admit an inviscid resistive flow. The pair of zero-pressure boundaries of each of the μ{sub 1}→0 steady-state slabs are located at infinity. Computational evidence suggests that the Ω steady-states are densely distributed around μ{sub 1} = 0, as an accumulation point, but are sparsely separated by open intervals of μ{sub 1}-values for which the slab must be either time-dependent or spatially multi-dimensional. The widths of these intervals are vanishingly small as μ{sub 1}→0. This topological structure of physical states is similar to that described by Landau and Liftshitz [L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1959)] to explain the onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis
Study of one dimensional magnetic system via field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talim, S.L.
1988-04-01
We present a study of one-dimensional magnetic system using field theory methods. We studied the discreteness effects in a classical anisotropic one dimensional antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field. It is shown that for TMMC, at the temperatures and magnetic fields where most experiments have been done, the corrections are small and can be neglected. (author)
Remarks for one-dimensional fractional equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimiliano Ferrara
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study a class of one-dimensional Dirichlet boundary value problems involving the Caputo fractional derivatives. The existence of infinitely many solutions for this equations is obtained by exploiting a recent abstract result. Concrete examples of applications are presented.
Scattering theory for one-dimensional step potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.; Bongaarts, P.J.M.
1977-01-01
The scattering theory is treated for the one-dimensional Dirac equation with potentials that are bounded, measurable, real-valued functions on the real line, having constant values, not necessarily the same, on the left and on the right side of a compact interval. Such potentials appear in the Klein paradox. It is shown that appropriately modified wave operators exist and that the corresponding S-operator is unitary. The connection between time-dependent scattering theory and time-independent scattering theory in terms of incoming and outgoing plane wave solutions is established and some further properties are proved. All results and their proofs have a straightforward translation to the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with the same class of step potentials
Apparent destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graybeal, J.M.; Mankiewich, P.M.; Dynes, R.C.; Beasley, M.R.
1987-01-01
We present the results of a model-system study of the competition between superconductivity and disorder in narrow superconducting wires. As one moves from the two-dimensional regime toward the one-dimensional limit, large and systematic reductions in the superconducting transition temperature are obtained. The observed behavior extrapolates to the total destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit. Our findings are in clear disagreement with a recent theoretical treatment. In addition, the superconducting fluctuations appear to be modified by disorder for the narrowest samples
Philippe, A M; Baravian, C; Bezuglyy, V; Angilella, J R; Meneau, F; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J
2013-04-30
In the present study, we investigate the evolution with shear of the viscosity of aqueous suspensions of size-selected natural swelling clay minerals for volume fractions extending from isotropic liquids to weak nematic gels. Such suspensions are strongly shear-thinning, a feature that is systematically observed for suspensions of nonspherical particles and that is linked to their orientational properties. We then combined our rheological measurements with small-angle X-ray scattering experiments that, after appropriate treatment, provide the orientational field of the particles. Whatever the clay nature, particle size, and volume fraction, this orientational field was shown to depend only on a nondimensional Péclet number (Pe) defined for one isolated particle as the ratio between hydrodynamic energy and Brownian thermal energy. The measured orientational fields were then directly compared to those obtained for infinitely thin disks through a numerical computation of the Fokker-Plank equation. Even in cases where multiple hydrodynamic interactions dominate, qualitative agreement between both orientational fields is observed, especially at high Péclet number. We have then used an effective approach to assess the viscosity of these suspensions through the definition of an effective volume fraction. Using such an approach, we have been able to transform the relationship between viscosity and volume fraction (ηr = f(φ)) into a relationship that links viscosity with both flow and volume fraction (ηr = f(φ, Pe)).
Thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional graphene antidot arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Yonghong; Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2012-01-01
We investigate the thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays by nonequilibrium Green's function method. We show that by introducing antidots to the pristine graphene nanoribbon the thermal conductance can be reduced greatly while keeping the power factor still high, thus leading to an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Our numerical results indicate that ZT values of 1D antidot graphene arrays can be up to unity, which means the 1D graphene antidot arrays may be promising for thermoelectric applications. -- Highlights: ► We study thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays. ► Thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1D antidot arrays can exceed unity. ► ZT of 1D antidot arrays is larger than that of two-dimensional arrays.
Specificities of one-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popov, P. V., E-mail: popov.pv@mipt.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
One-dimensional dynamics of a plane slab of cold (β ≪ 1) isothermal plasma accelerated by a magnetic field is studied in terms of the MHD equations with a finite constant conductivity. The passage to the limit β → 0 is analyzed in detail. It is shown that, at β = 0, the character of the solution depends substantially on the boundary condition for the electric field at the inner plasma boundary. The relationship between the boundary condition for the pressure at β > 0 and the conditions for the electric field at β = 0 is found. The stability of the solution against one-dimensional longitudinal perturbations is analyzed. It is shown that, in the limit β → 0, the stationary solution is unstable if the time during which the acoustic wave propagates across the slab is longer than the time of magnetic field diffusion. The growth rate and threshold of instability are determined, and results of numerical simulation of its nonlinear stage are presented.
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi
1988-10-01
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.
1996-01-01
An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction
Electrohydrodynamics of suspension of liquid drops in AC fields
Abdul Halim, Md.; Esmaeeli, Asghar
2012-11-01
Manipulation of liquid drops by an externally applied electric field is currently the focus of increased attention because of its relevance in a broad range of industrial processes. The effect of a uniform DC electric field on a solitary drop is well studied; however, less is know about the impact of electric field on suspension of liquid drops, and very little information is available on the impact of AC field on a single or a suspension of drops. Here we report the results of Direct Numerical Simulations of electrohydrodynamics of suspension of liquid drops. The governing equations are solved using a front tracking/finite difference technique, in conjunction with Taylor's leaky dielectric model. The imposed electric potential comprises of two parts, a time-independent base and a time-dependent part. The goal is to explore the relative importance of these two components in setting the statistically steady state behavior of the suspension. To this end, we report the results of three sets of simulations, where (i) the time-dependent part act as a perturbation on the base potential, (ii) the two components are of the same order, and (iii) the time-dependent part is much larger than the base potential. The problem is studied as a function of the governing nondimensional parameters.
The one-loop Green's functions of dimensionally reduced gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.; Prager, Y.S.
1988-01-01
The dimensional regularization technique as well as that by dimensional reduction is applied to the calculation of the regularized one-loop Green's functions in dsub(o)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with real massless scalars and spinors in arbitrary (real) representations of a gauge group G. As a particular example, the super-symmetrically regularized one-loop Green's functions of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills model are derived. (author). 17 refs
One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms
Ting, David
2005-01-01
Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.
Appropriateness of one-dimensional calculations for repository analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, R.R.
1994-01-01
This paper brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. It is shown that in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed
Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daijin Li
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA. The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.
Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Analytical solutions are obtained for one-dimensional advection –diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a longitudinal ﬁnite initially solute free domain,for two dispersion problems.In the ﬁrst one,temporally dependent solute dispersion along uniform ﬂow in homogeneous domain is studied.In the second problem the ...
Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.
1993-01-01
An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions
Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.
Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J
2017-01-02
The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One-Dimensional Modelling of Internal Ballistics
Monreal-González, G.; Otón-Martínez, R. A.; Velasco, F. J. S.; García-Cascáles, J. R.; Ramírez-Fernández, F. J.
2017-10-01
A one-dimensional model is introduced in this paper for problems of internal ballistics involving solid propellant combustion. First, the work presents the physical approach and equations adopted. Closure relationships accounting for the physical phenomena taking place during combustion (interfacial friction, interfacial heat transfer, combustion) are deeply discussed. Secondly, the numerical method proposed is presented. Finally, numerical results provided by this code (UXGun) are compared with results of experimental tests and with the outcome from a well-known zero-dimensional code. The model provides successful results in firing tests of artillery guns, predicting with good accuracy the maximum pressure in the chamber and muzzle velocity what highlights its capabilities as prediction/design tool for internal ballistics.
Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.
1989-01-01
The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero
Application of lattice-gas cellular automata to the Brownian motion of solids in suspension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ladd, A.J.C.; Colvin, M.E.; Frenkel, D.
1988-01-01
An adaptation of lattice-gas cellular automata to the simulation of solid-fluid suspensions is described. The method incorporates both dissipative hydrodynamic forces and thermal fluctuations. At low solid densities, theoretical results for the drag force on a single disk and the viscosity of a suspension of disks are reproduced. The zero--shear-rate viscosity has been obtained over a range of packing fractions and results indicate that simulations of three-dimensional suspensions are feasible
Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A
2007-01-01
Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios
Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.
1987-01-01
Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides
The molecular aggregation of pyronin Y in natural bentonite clay suspension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meral, Kadem; Yilmaz, Nuray; Kaya, Mehmet; Tabak, Ahmet; Onganer, Yavuz
2011-01-01
The molecular aggregation and spectroscopic properties of Pyronin Y (PyY) in the suspension containing natural bentonite clay were studied using molecular absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Interaction between the clay particles and the cationic dye compounds in aqueous solution resulted in significant changes in spectral properties of PyY compared to its molecular behavior in deionized water at the same concentration. These changes were due to the formation of dimer and aggregate of PyY in the clay suspension as well as the presence of the dye monomer. The H-type aggregates of PyY in the clay suspension were identified by the observation of a blue-shifted absorption band of the dye compared to that of its monomer. In spite of diluted dye concentrations, the H-aggregate of PyY in the clay suspension was formed. The intensive aggregation in the clay suspension attributed to the localized high dye concentration on the negatively charged clay surfaces. Adsorption sites of PyY on the clay particles were discussed by deconvulated absorption and excitation spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies revealed that the fluorescence intensity of PyY in the clay suspension is decreased by H-aggregates drastically. Moreover, the presence of H-aggregates in the clay suspension resulted in the decrease of fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of PyY compared to those in deionized water. - Highlights: → Molecular behavior of PyY adsorbed on clay surface was followed spectroscopically. → H-aggregates of PyY in the clay suspension were formed at very low dye concentrations. → The intensive H-aggregate structure drastically reduced the fluorescence intensity of PyY. → The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of PyY in the clay suspension was discussed.
Rational solutions to two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi
2015-01-01
Exact explicit rational solutions of two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa (YO) systems, which contain multi-short-wave components and single long-wave one, are presented by using the bilinear method. For two-dimensional system, the fundamental rational solution first describes the localized lumps, which have three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. Then, rogue waves can be obtained under certain parameter conditions and their behaviors are also classified to above three patterns with different definition. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line localized waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. In particular, two-dimensional intermediate and dark counterparts of rogue wave are found with the different parameter requirements. We demonstrate that multirogue waves describe the interaction of several fundamental rogue waves, in which interesting curvy wave patterns appear in the intermediate times. Different curvy wave patterns form in the interaction of different types fundamental rogue waves. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit the dynamic behaviors that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it, and this transient wave possesses the patterns such as parabolas. Furthermore, different states of higher-order rogue wave result in completely distinguishing lumps and parabolas. Moreover, one-dimensional rogue wave solutions with three states are constructed through the further reduction. Specifically, higher-order rogue wave in one-dimensional case is derived under the parameter constraints. - Highlights: • Exact explicit rational solutions of two-and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems. • Two-dimensional rogue wave contains three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. • Multi- and higher-order rogue waves exhibit distinct dynamic behaviors in two-dimensional case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Dinarvand
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The steady three-dimensional flow of condensation or spraying on inclined spinning disk is studied analytically. The governing nonlinear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilizing the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown and the influence of Prandtl number on the heat transfer and Nusselt number is discussed in detail. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results. Unlike free surface flows on an incline, this through flow is highly affected by the spray rate and the rotation of the disk.
The one-dimensional extended Bose–Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended ... Progress in this field has been driven by an interplay between ... superconductor-insulator transition in thin films of superconducting materials like bis-.
Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao
2017-09-01
Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.
Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview
Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.
1992-01-01
Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.
Perbandingan Hasil Pemodelan Aliran Satu Dimensi Unsteady Flow dan Steady Flow pada Banjir Kota
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tigor Oktaga
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One dimensional flow is often used as a flood simulation for the planning capacity of the river. Flood is a type of unsteady non-uniform flow, that can be simulated using HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS software is often used for flood modeling with a one-dimensional flow method. Unsteady flow modeling results in HEC-RAS sometimes refer to error and warning due to unstable analysis program. The stability program among others influenced bend in the river flow, the steep slope of the river bottom, and changes in cross-section shape. Because the flood handling required maximum discharge and maximum flood water level, then a steady flow is often used as an alternative to simulate the flood flow. This study aimed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of modeling unsteady non-uniform and steady non-uniform flow. The research location in the Kanal Banjir Barat, in the Semarang City. Hydraulics modeling uses HEC-RAS 4.1 and for discharge the plan is obtained from the HEC-HMS 3.5. Results of the comparison modeling hydraulics the modeling of steady non-uniform flow has a tendency water level is higher and modeling of unsteady non-uniform flow takes longer to analyze. Results of the comparison the average flood water level maximun is less than 15% (± 0,3 meters, that is 0.27 meters (13.16% for Q50, 0.25 meters (11.56% for Q100, dan 0.16 meters (4.73% for Q200. So the modeling steady non-uniform flow can still be used as a companion version the modeling unsteady non-uniform flow.
Long-time behavior for suspension bridge equations with time delay
Park, Sun-Hye
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider suspension bridge equations with time delay of the form u_{tt}(x,t) + Δ ^2 u (x,t) + k u^+ (x,t) + a_0 u_t (x,t) + a_1 u_t (x, t- τ ) + f(u(x,t)) = g(x). Many researchers have studied well-posedness, decay rates of energy, and existence of attractors for suspension bridge equations without delay effects. But, as far as we know, there is no work about suspension equations with time delay. In addition, there are not many studies on attractors for other delayed systems. Thus we first provide well-posedness for suspension equations with time delay. And then show the existence of global attractors and the finite dimensionality of the attractors by establishing energy functionals which are related to the norm of the phase space to our problem.
Analytical solution of one dimensional temporally dependent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
transfer of heat in fluids, flow through porous media, and the spread of ... In present paper, advection-dispersion equation is considered one dimensional longitudinal initially solute free semi- .... free. Thus initial and boundary conditions for eq.
On the precision of quasi steady state assumptions in stochastic dynamics
Agarwal, Animesh; Adams, Rhys; Castellani, Gastone C.; Shouval, Harel Z.
2012-07-01
Many biochemical networks have complex multidimensional dynamics and there is a long history of methods that have been used for dimensionality reduction for such reaction networks. Usually a deterministic mass action approach is used; however, in small volumes, there are significant fluctuations from the mean which the mass action approach cannot capture. In such cases stochastic simulation methods should be used. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of one such dimensionality reduction method, the quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA) [L. Menten and M. Michaelis, "Die kinetik der invertinwirkung," Biochem. Z 49, 333369 (1913)] for dimensionality reduction in case of stochastic dynamics. First, the applicability of QSSA approach is evaluated for a canonical system of enzyme reactions. Application of QSSA to such a reaction system in a deterministic setting leads to Michaelis-Menten reduced kinetics which can be used to derive the equilibrium concentrations of the reaction species. In the case of stochastic simulations, however, the steady state is characterized by fluctuations around the mean equilibrium concentration. Our analysis shows that a QSSA based approach for dimensionality reduction captures well the mean of the distribution as obtained from a full dimensional simulation but fails to accurately capture the distribution around that mean. Moreover, the QSSA approximation is not unique. We have then extended the analysis to a simple bistable biochemical network model proposed to account for the stability of synaptic efficacies; the substrate of learning and memory [J. E. Lisman, "A mechanism of memory storage insensitive to molecular turnover: A bistable autophosphorylating kinase," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 3055-3057 (1985)], 10.1073/pnas.82.9.3055. Our analysis shows that a QSSA based dimensionality reduction method results in errors as big as two orders of magnitude in predicting the residence times in the two stable states.
Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valiente, Manuel; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
We study quasi-one-dimensional scattering of one and two particles with short-range interactions on a discrete lattice model in two dimensions. One of the directions is tightly confined by an arbitrary trapping potential. We obtain the collisional properties of these systems both at finite and zero...
Theoretical models of non-Maxwellian equilibria for one-dimensional collisionless plasmas
Allanson, O.; Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Troscheit, S.
2016-12-01
It is ideal to use exact equilibrium solutions of the steady state Vlasov-Maxwell system to intialise collsionless simulations. However, exact equilibrium distribution functions (DFs) for a given macroscopic configuration are typically unknown, and it is common to resort to using `flow-shifted' Maxwellian DFs in their stead. These DFs may be consistent with a macrosopic system with the target number density and current density, but could well have inaccurate higher order moments. We present recent theoretical work on the `inverse problem in Vlasov-Maxwell equilibria', namely calculating an exact solution of the Vlasov equation for a specific given magnetic field. In particular, we focus on one-dimensional geometries in Cartesian (current sheets) coordinates.1. From 1D fields to Vlasov equilibria: Theory and application of Hermite Polynomials: (O. Allanson, T. Neukirch, S. Troscheit and F. Wilson, Journal of Plasma Physics, 82, 905820306 (2016) [28 pages, Open Access] )2. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta: (O. Allanson, T. Neukirch, F. Wilson and S. Troscheit, Physics of Plasmas, 22, 102116 (2015) [11 pages, Open Access])3. Neutral and non-neutral collisionless plasma equilibria for twisted flux tubes: The Gold-Hoyle model in a background field (O. Allanson, F. Wilson and T. Neukirch, (2016)) (accepted, Physics of Plasmas)
Acoustic metacages for sound shielding with steady air flow
Shen, Chen; Xie, Yangbo; Li, Junfei; Cummer, Steven A.; Jing, Yun
2018-03-01
Conventional sound shielding structures typically prevent fluid transport between the exterior and interior. A design of a two-dimensional acoustic metacage with subwavelength thickness which can shield acoustic waves from all directions while allowing steady fluid flow is presented in this paper. The structure is designed based on acoustic gradient-index metasurfaces composed of open channels and shunted Helmholtz resonators. In-plane sound at an arbitrary angle of incidence is reflected due to the strong parallel momentum on the metacage surface, which leads to low sound transmission through the metacage. The performance of the proposed metacage is verified by numerical simulations and measurements on a three-dimensional printed prototype. The acoustic metacage has potential applications in sound insulation where steady fluid flow is necessary or advantageous.
Melcher, Kevin J.
1997-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing analytical methods and software tools to create a bridge between the controls and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) disciplines. Traditionally, control design engineers have used coarse nonlinear simulations to generate information for the design of new propulsion system controls. However, such traditional methods are not adequate for modeling the propulsion systems of complex, high-speed vehicles like the High Speed Civil Transport. To properly model the relevant flow physics of high-speed propulsion systems, one must use simulations based on CFD methods. Such CFD simulations have become useful tools for engineers that are designing propulsion system components. The analysis techniques and software being developed as part of this effort are an attempt to evolve CFD into a useful tool for control design as well. One major aspect of this research is the generation of linear models from steady-state CFD results. CFD simulations, often used during the design of high-speed inlets, yield high resolution operating point data. Under a NASA grant, the University of Akron has developed analytical techniques and software tools that use these data to generate linear models for control design. The resulting linear models have the same number of states as the original CFD simulation, so they are still very large and computationally cumbersome. Model reduction techniques have been successfully applied to reduce these large linear models by several orders of magnitude without significantly changing the dynamic response. The result is an accurate, easy to use, low-order linear model that takes less time to generate than those generated by traditional means. The development of methods for generating low-order linear models from steady-state CFD is most complete at the one-dimensional level, where software is available to generate models with different kinds of input and output variables. One-dimensional methods have been extended
One-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS with rotating orientation on fused silica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwarz, Simon, E-mail: simon.schwarz@h-ab.de; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf
2017-07-31
Highlights: • Generation of one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS on transparent material. • Varying the angle of incidence results in a rotation of the one-dimensional LSFL. • Rotation angle of LSFL decreases with increasing the applied fluence. • Orientation of the LSFL is mirror-inverted when reversing the scanning direction. - Abstract: We report on the generation of one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS on transparent material. The influence of the applied laser fluence and angle of incidence on the periodicity, orientation and quality of the one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS is investigated, facilitating the generation of highly uniform LIPSS alongside a line. Most strikingly, however, we observe a previously unreported effect of a pronounced rotation of the one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS for varying angle of incidence upon inclined laser irradiation.
Quantum logic using correlated one-dimensional quantum walks
Lahini, Yoav; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Bookatz, Adam D.; Englund, Dirk
2018-01-01
Quantum Walks are unitary processes describing the evolution of an initially localized wavefunction on a lattice potential. The complexity of the dynamics increases significantly when several indistinguishable quantum walkers propagate on the same lattice simultaneously, as these develop non-trivial spatial correlations that depend on the particle's quantum statistics, mutual interactions, initial positions, and the lattice potential. We show that even in the simplest case of a quantum walk on a one dimensional graph, these correlations can be shaped to yield a complete set of compact quantum logic operations. We provide detailed recipes for implementing quantum logic on one-dimensional quantum walks in two general cases. For non-interacting bosons—such as photons in waveguide lattices—we find high-fidelity probabilistic quantum gates that could be integrated into linear optics quantum computation schemes. For interacting quantum-walkers on a one-dimensional lattice—a situation that has recently been demonstrated using ultra-cold atoms—we find deterministic logic operations that are universal for quantum information processing. The suggested implementation requires minimal resources and a level of control that is within reach using recently demonstrated techniques. Further work is required to address error-correction.
One-dimensional crystal with a complex periodic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, John K.
2001-01-01
A one-dimensional crystal model is constructed with a complex periodic potential. A wave function solution for the crystal model is derived without relying on Bloch functions. The new wave function solution of this model is shown to correspond to the solution for the probability amplitude of a two-level system. The energy discriminant is evaluated using an analytic formula derived from the probability amplitude solution, and based on an expansion parameter related to the energy and potential amplitude. From the wave function energy discriminant the crystal band structure is derived and related to standard energy bands and gaps. It is also shown that several of the properties of the two-level system apply to the one-dimensional crystal model. The two-level system solution which evolves in time is shown to manifest as a spatial configuration of the one-dimensional crystal model. The sensitivity of the wave function probability density is interpreted in the context of the new solution. The spatial configuration of the wave function, and the appearance of a long wavelength in the wave function probability density is explained in terms of the properties of Bessel functions
One dimensional Bosons: From Condensed Matter Systems to Ultracold Gases
Cazalilla, M. A.; Citro, R.; Giamarchi, T.; Orignac, E.; Rigol, M.
2011-01-01
The physics of one-dimensional interacting bosonic systems is reviewed. Beginning with results from exactly solvable models and computational approaches, the concept of bosonic Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids relevant for one-dimensional Bose fluids is introduced, and compared with Bose-Einstein condensates existing in dimensions higher than one. The effects of various perturbations on the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid state are discussed as well as extensions to multicomponent and out of equilibrium ...
Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav
2018-04-01
We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buerger, R.; Damasceno, J.J.R.; Karlesen, K.H.
2001-10-01
The phenomenological theory of continuous thickening of flocculated suspensions in an ideal cylindrical thickener is extended to vessels having varying cross-section, including divergent or convergent conical vessels. The purpose of this contribution is to draw attention to the corresponding mathematical model, whose key ingredient is a strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation. For ideal (non-flocculated) suspensions, which do not form co compressible sediments, the mathematical model reduces to the kinematic approach by Anestis, who developed a method of construction of exact solution by the method of characteristics. The difficulty lies in the fact that characteristics and iso-concentration lines, unlike the conventional Kynch model for cylindrical vessels, do not coincide, and one has to resort to numerical methods to simulate the thickening process. A numerical algorithm is presented and employed for simulations of continuous thickening. Implications of the mathematical model are also demonstrated by steady-state calculations, which lead to new possibilities in thickener design. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ness, H.; Dash, L. K.
2014-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments
Localization of the solution of a one-dimensional one-phase Stefan problem
Cortazar, C.; Elgueta, M.; Primicerio, M.
1996-01-01
Studiamo la localizzazione, l'insieme dei punti di blow up ed alcuni aspetti della velocità di propagazione della frontiera libera di soluzioni di un problema di Stefan unidimensionale ad una fase. We study localization, the set of blow up points and some aspects of the speed of the free boundary of solutions of a one-dimensional, one-phase Stefan problem.
A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kubota K
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady
One-dimensional metallic edge states in MoS2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bollinger, Mikkel; Lauritsen, J.V.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
2001-01-01
By the use of density functional calculations it is shown that the edges of a two-dimensional slab of insulating MoS2 exhibit several metallic states. These edge states can be viewed as one-dimensional conducting wires, and we show that they can be observed directly using scanning tunneling...
Quasi-steady-state analysis of two-dimensional random intermittent search processes
Bressloff, Paul C.
2011-06-01
We use perturbation methods to analyze a two-dimensional random intermittent search process, in which a searcher alternates between a diffusive search phase and a ballistic movement phase whose velocity direction is random. A hidden target is introduced within a rectangular domain with reflecting boundaries. If the searcher moves within range of the target and is in the search phase, it has a chance of detecting the target. A quasi-steady-state analysis is applied to the corresponding Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. This generates a reduced Fokker-Planck description of the search process involving a nonzero drift term and an anisotropic diffusion tensor. In the case of a uniform direction distribution, for which there is zero drift, and isotropic diffusion, we use the method of matched asymptotics to compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) to the target, under the assumption that the detection range of the target is much smaller than the size of the domain. We show that an optimal search strategy exists, consistent with previous studies of intermittent search in a radially symmetric domain that were based on a decoupling or moment closure approximation. We also show how the decoupling approximation can break down in the case of biased search processes. Finally, we analyze the MFPT in the case of anisotropic diffusion and find that anisotropy can be useful when the searcher starts from a fixed location. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Quasi-steady-state analysis of two-dimensional random intermittent search processes
Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.
2011-01-01
We use perturbation methods to analyze a two-dimensional random intermittent search process, in which a searcher alternates between a diffusive search phase and a ballistic movement phase whose velocity direction is random. A hidden target is introduced within a rectangular domain with reflecting boundaries. If the searcher moves within range of the target and is in the search phase, it has a chance of detecting the target. A quasi-steady-state analysis is applied to the corresponding Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. This generates a reduced Fokker-Planck description of the search process involving a nonzero drift term and an anisotropic diffusion tensor. In the case of a uniform direction distribution, for which there is zero drift, and isotropic diffusion, we use the method of matched asymptotics to compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) to the target, under the assumption that the detection range of the target is much smaller than the size of the domain. We show that an optimal search strategy exists, consistent with previous studies of intermittent search in a radially symmetric domain that were based on a decoupling or moment closure approximation. We also show how the decoupling approximation can break down in the case of biased search processes. Finally, we analyze the MFPT in the case of anisotropic diffusion and find that anisotropy can be useful when the searcher starts from a fixed location. © 2011 American Physical Society.
One and two dimensional simulations on beat wave acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.; Forslund, D.W.; Kindel, J.M.
1984-01-01
Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of fast-large-amplitude plasma waves as the basis for a high energy particle accelerator. In these schemes, lasers are used to create the plasma wave. To date the few simulation studies on this subject have been limited to one-dimensional, short rise time simulations. Here the authors present results from simulations in which more realistic parameters are used. In addition, they present the first two dimensional simulations on this subject. One dimensional simulations on a 2 1/2-D relativistic electromagnetic particle code, in which only a few cells were used in one direction, on colinear optical mixing are presented. In these simulations the laser rise time, laser intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature and system size were varied. The simulations indicate that the theory of Rosenbluth and Liu is applicable over a wide range of parameters. In addition, simulations with a DC magnetic field are presented in order to study the ''Surfatron'' concept
GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arpishkin, Yu.P.; Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.
1989-01-01
A finite-difference algorithm for numeric solution of a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equation with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is considered. The algorithm presented allows one to simulate one-dimensional thermonuclear targets for heavy-ion synthesis (HIS), irradiated with heavy ion beams. A brief description of a complex of GITTAM programs in which finite-difference algorithm for one-dimensional thermonuclear HIS target simulation is used, is given. 5 refs.; 3 figs
One dimensional model for polytypes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1979-01-01
The general expression for the dispersion relation for a polyatomic one dimensional crystal obtained by the Laplace Transform Method is applied to materials with the fcc and hcp structures, both consisting of close-packed planes of atoms with the stacking sequence of plane ABC/ABC... and AB/AB... respectively. The expression is also applied to polytypes, that is materials caracterized by a stacking sequence with longer repeat unit. The effective mass is cast in a condensed form useful for further calculations. The results from this simple model are only qualitative. (Author) [pt
A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Qian Cheng
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.
Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dresselhaus Mildred S.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.
Realization of Configurable One-Dimensional Reflectarray
2017-08-31
experiments show strong signatures of beam steering that are dependent upon graphene doping. This seed grant has allowed our team to establish the essential...based, one-dimensional reflectarrays. Several immediate improvements to the device design and process flow are essential to suppress specular...beam steering that are dependent upon graphene doping. This seed grant has allowed our team to establish the essential operating procedures (i.e
Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)
2017-02-12
We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.
One-dimensional treatment of polyatomic crystals by the Laplace transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.; Santana, P.H.A.
1976-01-01
The one dimensional periodic potential problem is solved using the Laplace transform method and a condensed expression for the relation E x k and effective mass for one electron in a polyatomic structure is determined. Applications related to the effect of the asymmetry of the potential upon the one dimensional band structure are discussed [pt
Theoretical studying the stability of steady-state regime of a channel with a coolant condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savikhin, O.G.
1987-01-01
Based on the boiling channel stability theory, the channel steady-state stability with the coolant condensation is studied. Condensable coolants are used in the NPP steam-separator superheaters as well as in cryogenic technique. Under certain conditions the coolant flow rate and temperature fluctuations may be excited in the parallel channel system with coolant condensation, which produce a sufficient effect on the heat exchange equipment operation reliability. To describe unsteady processes of heat and mass transfer in the channel, a homogeneous two-phase flow one dimensional model is used. The results obtained allow one to make a conclusion concerning the effect of some parameters on condensing channel steady-state regime stability: reduction of inlet and outlet unheated communication length, pressure drop increase at the outlet plate and its reduction at the inlet one lead to the increase of stability margin
The appropriateness of one-dimensional Yucca Mountain hydrologic calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, R.R.
1993-07-01
This report brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. it is shown that, in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed
One-dimensional calculation of flow branching using the method of characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meier, R.W.; Gido, R.G.
1978-05-01
In one-dimensional flow systems, the flow often branches, such as at a tee or manifold. The study develops a formulation for calculating the flow through branch points with one-dimensional method of characteristics equations. The resultant equations were verified by comparison with experimental measurements
Quantitative hyperbolicity estimates in one-dimensional dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, S; Kokubu, H; Pilarczyk, P; Luzzatto, S; Mischaikow, K; Oka, H
2008-01-01
We develop a rigorous computational method for estimating the Lyapunov exponents in uniformly expanding regions of the phase space for one-dimensional maps. Our method uses rigorous numerics and graph algorithms to provide results that are mathematically meaningful and can be achieved in an efficient way
One-dimensional autonomous systems and dissipative systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, G.
1996-01-01
The Lagrangian and the Generalized Linear Momentum are given in terms of a constant of motion for a one-dimensional autonomous system. The possibility of having an explicit Hamiltonian expression is also analyzed. The approach is applied to some dissipative systems. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
One-dimensional position readout from microchannel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connell, K.A.; Przybylski, M.M.
1982-01-01
The development of a one-dimensional position readout system with microchannel plates, is described, for heavy ion detectors for use in a particle time-of-flight telescope and as a position sensitive device in front of an ionisation counter at the Nuclear Structure Facility. (U.K.)
One-dimensional transport code for one-group problems in plane geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bareiss, E.H.; Chamot, C.
1970-09-01
Equations and results are given for various methods of solution of the one-dimensional transport equation for one energy group in plane geometry with inelastic scattering and an isotropic source. After considerable investigation, a matrix method of solution was found to be faster and more stable than iteration procedures. A description of the code is included which allows for up to 24 regions, 250 points, and 16 angles such that the product of the number of angles and the number of points is less than 600
The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: trunk-002@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun no. 10, Jakarta, 13220 (Indonesia)
2015-04-16
We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.
Aubignat, E.; Planche, M. P.; Allimant, A.; Billières, D.; Girardot, L.; Bailly, Y.; Montavon, G.
2014-11-01
This paper focuses on the influence of suspension properties on the manufacturing of coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). For this purpose, alumina suspensions were formulated with two different liquid phases: water and ethanol. Suspensions were atomized with a twin-fluid nozzle and injected in an atmospheric plasma jet. Suspension injection was optimized thanks to shadowgraphy observations and drop size distribution measurements performed by laser diffraction. In-flight particle velocities were evaluated by particle image velocimetry. In addition, splats were collected on glass substrates, with the same conditions as the ones used during the spray process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry analyses were then performed to observe the splat morphology and thus to get information on plasma / suspension interactions, such as particle agglomeration. Finally, coatings were manufactured, characterized by SEM and compared to each other.
Liu, Guangfeng; Liu, Jie; Nie, Lina; Ban, Rui; Armatas, Gerasimos S; Tao, Xutang; Zhang, Qichun
2017-05-15
A zero-dimensional N,N'-dibutyl-4,4'-dipyridinium bromoplumbate, [BV] 6 [Pb 9 Br 30 ], with unusual discrete [Pb 9 Br 30 ] 12- anionic clusters was prepared via a facile surfactant-mediated solvothermal process. This bromoplumbate exhibits a narrower optical band gap relative to the congeneric one-dimensional viologen bromoplumbates.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: diogo.gomes@kaust.edu.sa; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), CEMSE Division (Saudi Arabia)
2016-12-15
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc
2016-01-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-11-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
Quantum interference of ballistic carriers in one-dimensional semiconductor rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagraev, N.T.; Buravlev, A.D.; Klyachkin, L.E.; Malyarenko, A.M.; Ivanov, V.K.; Rykov, S.A.; Shelykh, I.A.
2000-01-01
Quantum interference of ballistic carriers has been studied for the first time, using one-dimensional rings formed by quantum wire pairs in self-assembled silicon quantum wells. Energy dependencies of the transmission coefficient is calculated as a function of the length and modulation of the quantum wire pairs separated by a unified drain-source system or the quantum point contacts. The quantum conductance is predicted to be increased by a factor of four using the unified drain-source system as a result of the quantum interference. Theoretical dependencies are revealed by the quantum conductance oscillations created by the deviations of both the drain-source voltage and external magnetic field inside the silicon one-dimensional rings. The results obtained put forward a basis to create the Aharonov-Bohm interferometer using the silicon one-dimensional ring [ru
Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Lindgren, E. J.
2015-01-01
-range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated......Strongly interacting one-dimensional quantum systems often behave in a manner that is distinctly different from their higher-dimensional counterparts. When a particle attempts to move in a one-dimensional environment it will unavoidably have to interact and 'push' other particles in order...... ground states with manifestly ferromagnetic wave functions. Furthermore, we predict excited states that have perfect antiferromagnetic ordering. This holds for both balanced and imbalanced systems, and we show that it is a generic feature as one crosses from few- to many-body systems....
One-dimensional GIS-based model compared with a two-dimensional model in urban floods simulation.
Lhomme, J; Bouvier, C; Mignot, E; Paquier, A
2006-01-01
A GIS-based one-dimensional flood simulation model is presented and applied to the centre of the city of Nîmes (Gard, France), for mapping flow depths or velocities in the streets network. The geometry of the one-dimensional elements is derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The flow is routed from one element to the next using the kinematic wave approximation. At the crossroads, the flows in the downstream branches are computed using a conceptual scheme. This scheme was previously designed to fit Y-shaped pipes junctions, and has been modified here to fit X-shaped crossroads. The results were compared with the results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the full shallow water equations. The comparison shows that good agreements can be found in the steepest streets of the study zone, but differences may be important in the other streets. Some reasons that can explain the differences between the two models are given and some research possibilities are proposed.
Nanostructural evolution from nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles for manganese oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Hongmei; Kong, Xingang; Wen, Puhong; Kitayama, Tomonori; Feng, Qi
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Nanosheets were transformed to other one-dimensional nanoparticles. ► Nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoribbons, and nanobelts were obtained. ► Nanoparticle morphology can be controlled with organic amines. ► Organic amines act as morphology directing agent. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a novel hydrothermal soft chemical synthesis process for manganese oxide nanostructured particles using two-dimensional manganese oxide nanosheets as precursor. In this process, a birnessite-type manganese oxide with a layered structure was exfoliated into its elementary layer nanosheets, and then the nanosheets were hydrothermally treated to transform the two-dimensional morphology of the nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles. The manganese oxide nanofibers, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, and fabric-ribbon-like particles constructed from nanofibers or nanobelts were obtained using this hydrothermal soft chemical process. The nanostructural evolution from the two-dimensional nanosheets to the one-dimensional nanoparticles was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG-DTA analysis. The morphology and nanostructure of the products are strongly dependent on the molecular dimension of organic amine cations added in the reaction system. The organic amine cations act as a morphology directing agent in the nanostructural evolution process.
Study of conditions of production and characterization of noble metal micro-particles suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malabre, Catherine
1983-01-01
As the production and identification of metal micro-particle suspensions are some aspects of issues related to nuclear fuel reprocessing, this research thesis reports the use of ruthenium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium and rhodium (fission metals) to generate such micro-particles. They are produced by erosion of two electrodes between which occurs an electric arc discharge in aqueous media. Different analytic methods are developed to determine the characteristics of so-produced colloidal solutions. A granulometry study is performed by transmission electronic microscopy, light quasi-elastic scattering, and turbidimetry associated to centrifugation. This has lead to the production of steady micro-particle suspensions which have been used in a first set of industrial trials [fr
Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures
Luo, Yonglan
2008-12-01
In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.
Bound states of Dipolar Bosons in One-dimensional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
G. Volosniev, A.; R. Armstrong, J.; V. Fedorov, D.
2013-01-01
that in the weakly-coupled limit the inter-tube interaction is similar to a zero-range term with a suitable rescaled strength. This allows us to address the corresponding many-body physics of the system by constructing a model where bound chains with one molecule in each tube are the effective degrees of freedom......We consider one-dimensional tubes containing bosonic polar molecules. The long-range dipole-dipole interactions act both within a single tube and between different tubes. We consider arbitrary values of the externally aligned dipole moments with respect to the symmetry axis of the tubes. The few....... This model can be mapped onto one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which exact solutions are known....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, C.R.
1984-01-01
It is presented the absorption-production nodal method for steady and dynamical calculations in one-dimension and one group energy. It was elaborated the NOD1D computer code (in FORTRAN-IV language). Calculations of neutron flux and power distributions, burnup, effective multiplication factors and critical boron concentration were made with the NOD1D code and compared with results obtained through the CITATION code, which uses the finite difference method. The nuclear constants were produced by the LEOPARD code. (M.C.K.) [pt
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.
1989-01-01
A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).
One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.
Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G
2010-03-10
We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....
Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong
2018-01-01
This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890
Edge Singularities and Quasilong-Range Order in Nonequilibrium Steady States
De Nardis, Jacopo; Panfil, Miłosz
2018-05-01
The singularities of the dynamical response function are one of the most remarkable effects in many-body interacting systems. However in one dimension these divergences only exist strictly at zero temperature, making their observation very difficult in most cold atomic experimental settings. Moreover the presence of a finite temperature destroys another feature of one-dimensional quantum liquids: the real space quasilong-range order in which the spatial correlation functions exhibit power-law decay. We consider a nonequilibrium protocol where two interacting Bose gases are prepared either at different temperatures or chemical potentials and then joined. We show that the nonequilibrium steady state emerging at large times around the junction displays edge singularities in the response function and quasilong-range order.
Chemical potential of one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mungan, Carl E
2009-01-01
Expressions for the chemical potential of an Einstein solid, and of ideal Fermi and Bose gases in an external one-dimensional oscillatory trap, are calculated by two different methods and are all found to share the same functional form. These derivations are easier than traditional textbook calculations for an ideal gas in an infinite three-dimensional square well. Furthermore, the results indicate some important features of chemical potential that could promote student learning in an introductory course in statistical mechanics at the undergraduate level.
Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.
Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F
2013-12-06
We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.
Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames
Altay, H. Murat
2010-03-17
The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor
One-Dimensional Finite Elements An Introduction to the FE Method
Öchsner, Andreas
2013-01-01
This textbook presents finite element methods using exclusively one-dimensional elements. The aim is to present the complex methodology in an easily understandable but mathematically correct fashion. The approach of one-dimensional elements enables the reader to focus on the understanding of the principles of basic and advanced mechanical problems. The reader easily understands the assumptions and limitations of mechanical modeling as well as the underlying physics without struggling with complex mathematics. But although the description is easy it remains scientifically correct. The approach using only one-dimensional elements covers not only standard problems but allows also for advanced topics like plasticity or the mechanics of composite materials. Many examples illustrate the concepts and problems at the end of every chapter help to familiarize with the topics.
Quasi-exact solvability of the one-dimensional Holstein model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Feng; Dai Lianrong; Draayer, J P
2006-01-01
The one-dimensional Holstein model of spinless fermions interacting with dispersionless phonons is solved by using a Bethe ansatz in analogue to that for the one-dimensional spinless Fermi-Hubbard model. Excitation energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the model are determined by a set of partial differential equations. It is shown that the model is, at least, quasi-exactly solvable for the two-site case, when the phonon frequency, the electron-phonon coupling strength and the hopping integral satisfy certain relations. As examples, some quasi-exact solutions of the model for the two-site case are derived. (letter to the editor)
Functional Parallel Factor Analysis for Functions of One- and Two-dimensional Arguments.
Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Timmerman, Marieke E
2018-03-01
Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is a useful multivariate method for decomposing three-way data that consist of three different types of entities simultaneously. This method estimates trilinear components, each of which is a low-dimensional representation of a set of entities, often called a mode, to explain the maximum variance of the data. Functional PARAFAC permits the entities in different modes to be smooth functions or curves, varying over a continuum, rather than a collection of unconnected responses. The existing functional PARAFAC methods handle functions of a one-dimensional argument (e.g., time) only. In this paper, we propose a new extension of functional PARAFAC for handling three-way data whose responses are sequenced along both a two-dimensional domain (e.g., a plane with x- and y-axis coordinates) and a one-dimensional argument. Technically, the proposed method combines PARAFAC with basis function expansion approximations, using a set of piecewise quadratic finite element basis functions for estimating two-dimensional smooth functions and a set of one-dimensional basis functions for estimating one-dimensional smooth functions. In a simulation study, the proposed method appeared to outperform the conventional PARAFAC. We apply the method to EEG data to demonstrate its empirical usefulness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Tina Juul; Langberg, Henning; Aaboe, Jens
2011-01-01
in this population. METHODS: Forty-one patients with knee OA (34 females and 7 males) were included in the study. Submaximal isometric quadriceps force steadiness was measured during a force target-tracking task. Peak knee adduction moments during ambulation were measured using a 3-dimensional gait analysis system...
Cohesive motion in one-dimensional flocking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossetti, V
2012-01-01
A one-dimensional rule-based model for flocking, which combines velocity alignment and long-range centering interactions, is presented and studied. The induced cohesion in the collective motion of the self-propelled agents leads to unique group behavior that contrasts with previous studies. Our results show that the largest cluster of particles, in the condensed states, develops a mean velocity slower than the preferred one in the absence of noise. For strong noise, the system also develops a non-vanishing mean velocity, alternating its direction of motion stochastically. This allows us to address the directional switching phenomenon. The effects of different sources of stochasticity on the system are also discussed. (paper)
Majorana fermion exchange in strictly one dimensional structures
Chiu, Ching-Kai; Vazifeh, M. M.; Franz, M.
2014-01-01
It is generally thought that adiabatic exchange of two identical particles is impossible in one spatial dimension. Here we describe a simple protocol that permits adiabatic exchange of two Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional topological superconductor wire. The exchange relies on the concept of "Majorana shuttle" whereby a $\\pi$ domain wall in the superconducting order parameter which hosts a pair of ancillary Majoranas delivers one zero mode across the wire while the other one tunnels in ...
State reconstruction of one-dimensional wave packets
Krähmer, D. S.; Leonhardt, U.
1997-12-01
We review and analyze the method [U. Leonhardt, M.G. Raymer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1985 (1996)] for quantum-state reconstruction of one-dimensional non-relativistic wave packets from position observations. We illuminate the theoretical background of the technique and show how to extend the procedure to the continuous part of the spectrum.
Majeed, Muhammad Usman
2017-07-19
Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.
One dimensional neutron kinetics in the TRAC-BF1 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, W.L. III; Wagner, K.C.
1987-01-01
The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a version of the TRAC code for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to provide a best-estimate analysis capability for the simulation of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) power systems and related experimental facilities. Recent development efforts in the TRAC-BWR program have focused on improving the computational efficiency through the incorporation of a hybrid Courant- limit-violating numerical solution scheme in the one-dimensional component models and on improving code accuracy through the development of a one-dimensional neutron kinetics model. Many other improvements have been incorporated into TRAC-BWR to improve code portability, accuracy, efficiency, and maintainability. This paper will describe the one- dimensional neutron kinetics model, the generation of the required input data for this model, and present results of the first calculations using the model
One dimensional systems with singular perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P
2011-01-01
This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.
Graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.
2011-01-01
A novel type of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal formed by the array of periodically located stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric stripes embedded into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The wave equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating in such structure solved in the framework of the Kronig-Penney model. The frequency band structure of 1D graphene-based photonic crystal is obtained analytically as a function of the filling factor and the thickness of the diele...
Topologically protected states in one-dimensional systems
Fefferman, C L; Weinstein, M I
2017-01-01
The authors study a class of periodic Schrödinger operators, which in distinguished cases can be proved to have linear band-crossings or "Dirac points". They then show that the introduction of an "edge", via adiabatic modulation of these periodic potentials by a domain wall, results in the bifurcation of spatially localized "edge states". These bound states are associated with the topologically protected zero-energy mode of an asymptotic one-dimensional Dirac operator. The authors' model captures many aspects of the phenomenon of topologically protected edge states for two-dimensional bulk structures such as the honeycomb structure of graphene. The states the authors construct can be realized as highly robust TM-electromagnetic modes for a class of photonic waveguides with a phase-defect.
One-dimensional plasma simulation studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friberg, Ari; Virtamo, Jorma
1976-01-01
Some basic plasma phenomena are studied by a one-dimensional electrostatic simulation code. A brief description of the code and its application to a test problem is given. The experiments carried out include Landau damping of an excited wave, particle retardation by smoothed field and beam-plasma instability. In each case, the set-up of the experiment is described and the results are compared with theoretical predictions. In the theoretical discussions, the oscillatory behaviour found in the Landau damping experiment is explained, an explicit formula for the particle retardation rate is derived and a rudimentary picture of the beam-plasma instability in terms of quasilinear theory is given. (author)
Three-Dimensional Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior from One-Dimensional Quantum Critical Local Moments
Classen, Laura; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2018-04-01
We study the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in a system composed of critical spin chains interacting with three-dimensional conduction electrons and driven to criticality via an external magnetic field. The relevant experimental system is Yb2 Pt2 Pb , a metal where itinerant electrons coexist with localized moments of Yb ions which can be described in terms of effective S =1 /2 spins with a dominantly one-dimensional exchange interaction. The spin subsystem becomes critical in a relatively weak magnetic field, where it behaves like a Luttinger liquid. We theoretically examine a Kondo lattice with different effective space dimensionalities of the two interacting subsystems. We characterize the corresponding non-Fermi liquid behavior due to the spin criticality by calculating the electronic relaxation rate and the dc resistivity and establish its quasilinear temperature dependence.
One-dimensional map-based neuron model: A logistic modification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesbah, Samineh; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Towhidkhah, Farzad
2014-01-01
A one-dimensional map is proposed for modeling some of the neuronal activities, including different spiking and bursting behaviors. The model is obtained by applying some modifications on the well-known Logistic map and is named the Modified and Confined Logistic (MCL) model. Map-based neuron models are known as phenomenological models and recently, they are widely applied in modeling tasks due to their computational efficacy. Most of discrete map-based models involve two variables representing the slow-fast prototype. There are also some one-dimensional maps, which can replicate some of the neuronal activities. However, the existence of four bifurcation parameters in the MCL model gives rise to reproduction of spiking behavior with control over the frequency of the spikes, and imitation of chaotic and regular bursting responses concurrently. It is also shown that the proposed model has the potential to reproduce more realistic bursting activity by adding a second variable. Moreover the MCL model is able to replicate considerable number of experimentally observed neuronal responses introduced in Izhikevich (2004) [23]. Some analytical and numerical analyses of the MCL model dynamics are presented to explain the emersion of complex dynamics from this one-dimensional map
Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games
Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested
Structure Variation from One-Dimensional Chain to Three ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WEN-XUAN LI, XIAO-MIN GU, WEN-LI ZHANG and LIANG NI. School of Chemistry ... Compound 1 possesses one-dimensional chain structure, and expands into ..... sis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.30 The results were summarized ...
Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?
Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael
2017-08-18
Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.
Quasi-one-dimensional Hall physics in the Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model
Kozarski, Filip; Hügel, Dario; Pollet, Lode
2018-04-01
We study the ground-state phase diagram of the strongly interacting Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model at quarter flux on a quasi-one-dimensional lattice consisting of a single magnetic flux quantum in y-direction. In addition to superfluid phases with various density patterns, the ground-state phase diagram features quasi-one-dimensional analogs of fractional quantum Hall phases at fillings ν = 1/2 and 3/2, where the latter is only found thanks to the hopping anisotropy and the quasi-one-dimensional geometry. At integer fillings—where in the full two-dimensional system the ground-state is expected to be gapless—we observe gapped non-degenerate ground-states: at ν = 1 it shows an odd ‘fermionic’ Hall conductance, while the Hall response at ν = 2 consists of the transverse transport of a single particle–hole pair, resulting in a net zero Hall conductance. The results are obtained by exact diagonalization and in the reciprocal mean-field approximation.
On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.
1976-01-01
The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)
Transverse mixing in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cirpka, Olaf; Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo
2015-01-01
-dimensional domains, more complex flow patterns are possible because streamlines can twist. In particular, spatially varying orientation of anisotropy can cause steady-state groundwater whirls. We analyze steady-state solute transport in three-dimensional locally isotropic heterogeneous porous media with blockwise...
Solitons in one-dimensional charge density wave systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, W.P.
1981-01-01
Theoretical research on one dimensional charge density wave systems is outlined. A simple coupled electron-photon Hamiltonian is studied including a Green's function approach, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo path integral method. As in superconductivity, the nonperturbative nature of the system makes the physical ground states and low energy excitations drastically different from the bare electrons and phonons. Solitons carry quantum numbers which are entirely different from those of the bare electrons and holes. The fractional charge character of the solitons is an example of this fact. Solitons are conveniently generated by doping material with donors or acceptors or by photon absorption. Most predictions of the theory are in qualitative agreement with experiments. The one dimensional charge density wave system has potential technological importance and a possible role in uncovering phenomena which might have implications in relativistic field theory and elementary particle physics
Ordering kinetics in quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, M.; Paul, W.
1993-01-01
Results are presented of a Monte Carlo simulation of the kinetics of ordering in the two-dimensional nearest-neighbor Ising model in an L x M geometry with two free boundaries of length M much-gt L. This model can be viewed as representing an adsorbant on a stepped surface with mean terrace width L. The authors follow the ordering kinetics after quenches to temperatures 0.25 ≤T/T c ≤1 starting from a random initial configuration at a coverage of Θ=0.5 in the corresponding lattice gas picture. The systems evolve in time according to a Glauber kinetics with nonconserved order parameter. The equilibrium structure is given by a one-dimensional sequence of ordered domains. The ordering process evolves from a short initial two-dimensional ordering process through a crossover region to a quasi-one-dimensional behavior. The whole process is diffusive (inverse half-width of the structure factor peak 1/Δq parallel ∝ √t), in contrast to a model proposed by Kawasaki et al., where an intermediate logarithmic growth law is expected. All results are completely describable in the picture of an annihilating random walk (ARW) of domain walls. 36 refs., 16 figs
Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong
2017-11-01
We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.
Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1990-01-01
A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.
2003-01-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....
Fast three-dimensional core optimization based on modified one-group model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freire, Fernando S. [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GCN-T], e-mail: freire@eletronuclear.gov.br; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: aquilino@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br
2009-07-01
The optimization of any nuclear reactor core is an extremely complex process that consumes a large amount of computer time. Fortunately, the nuclear designer can rely on a variety of methodologies able to approximate the analysis of each available core loading pattern. Two-dimensional codes are usually used to analyze the loading scheme. However, when particular axial effects are present in the core, two-dimensional analysis cannot produce good results and three-dimensional analysis can be required at all time. Basically, in this paper are presented the major advantages that can be found when one use the modified one-group diffusion theory coupled with a buckling correction model in optimization process. The results of the proposed model are very accurate when compared to benchmark results obtained from detailed calculations using three-dimensional nodal codes (author)
Fast three-dimensional core optimization based on modified one-group model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freire, Fernando S.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da
2009-01-01
The optimization of any nuclear reactor core is an extremely complex process that consumes a large amount of computer time. Fortunately, the nuclear designer can rely on a variety of methodologies able to approximate the analysis of each available core loading pattern. Two-dimensional codes are usually used to analyze the loading scheme. However, when particular axial effects are present in the core, two-dimensional analysis cannot produce good results and three-dimensional analysis can be required at all time. Basically, in this paper are presented the major advantages that can be found when one use the modified one-group diffusion theory coupled with a buckling correction model in optimization process. The results of the proposed model are very accurate when compared to benchmark results obtained from detailed calculations using three-dimensional nodal codes (author)
Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe
2008-01-01
It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic, quasi one-dimensional systems the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection....... As a consequence, an eigenbasis of the band position operator provides a basis of optimally localized (generalized) Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional systems, and this proves the strong Marzari-Vanderbilt conjecture. If the system has some translation symmetries (e.g. usual translations, screw...
Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe
It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic quasi one dimensional systems, the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection....... As a consequence, an eigenbasis of the band position operator provides a basis of optimally localized (generalized) Wannier functions for quasi one dimensional systems. If the system has some translation symmetries (e.g. usual translations, screw transformations), they are "inherited" bythe Wannier basis....
One and one-half dimensional model of the EBT reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, H.H.; Bathke, C.G.
1979-01-01
A one-dimensional, time-dependent model is described for plasma particle and energy transport and alpha particle transport coupled with magnetic field evolution in a geometry appropriate to EBT. The transport equations used are derived from exact moments of the Boltzmann equation, and the magnetic field is calculated from Faraday's and Ampere's laws. The set of transport equations is closed by incorporating into them transport coefficiencents derived from the appropriate kinetic equation. Also included in the model is a Fokker-Planck calculation of the alpha particle slowing down and resultant plasma heating
Multiobjective optimisation of bogie suspension to boost speed on curves
Milad Mousavi-Bideleh, Seyed; Berbyuk, Viktor
2016-01-01
To improve safety and maximum admissible speed on different operational scenarios, multiobjective optimisation of bogie suspension components of a one-car railway vehicle model is considered. The vehicle model has 50 degrees of freedom and is developed in multibody dynamics software SIMPACK. Track shift force, running stability, and risk of derailment are selected as safety objective functions. The improved maximum admissible speeds of the vehicle on curves are determined based on the track plane accelerations up to 1.5 m/s2. To attenuate the number of design parameters for optimisation and improve the computational efficiency, a global sensitivity analysis is accomplished using the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A multistep optimisation routine based on genetic algorithm (GA) and MATLAB/SIMPACK co-simulation is executed at three levels. The bogie conventional secondary and primary suspension components are chosen as the design parameters in the first two steps, respectively. In the last step semi-active suspension is in focus. The input electrical current to magnetorheological yaw dampers is optimised to guarantee an appropriate safety level. Semi-active controllers are also applied and the respective effects on bogie dynamics are explored. The safety Pareto optimised results are compared with those associated with in-service values. The global sensitivity analysis and multistep approach significantly reduced the number of design parameters and improved the computational efficiency of the optimisation. Furthermore, using the optimised values of design parameters give the possibility to run the vehicle up to 13% faster on curves while a satisfactory safety level is guaranteed. The results obtained can be used in Pareto optimisation and active bogie suspension design problems.
One-loop infinities in dimensionally reduced supergravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1983-11-01
It is proved explicitly in the paper that d=4 theory following via reduction from N=1, d=10 supergravities is not finite at one loop while the version of N=8 supergravity directly following from N=1, d=11 theory is one-loop finite. The method used is based on quantization of initial higher dimensional theory as a first step. The results also suggest possible existence of non-standard (higher N) d>4 supergravities which reduce to d=4 theories with finite N=8 supergravity sector. (author)
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted superYang-Mills theory
Baulieu, Laurent
2011-01-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N=1 superYang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N=1 superYang-Mills theory.
One- and Two- Magnon Excitations in a One-Dimensional Antiferromagnet in a Magnetic Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heilmann, I.U.; Kjems, Jørgen; Endoh, Y.
1981-01-01
We have carried out a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the inelastic scattering in the one-dimensional near-Heisenberg antiferromagnet (CD3)4NMnCl3 (TMMC) at low temperatures, 0.3...
Double and super-exchange model in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallejo, E.; Navarro, O.; Avignon, M.
2010-01-01
We present an analytical and numerical study of the competition between double and super-exchange interactions in a one-dimensional model. For low super-exchange interaction energy we find phase separation between ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases. When the super-exchange interaction energy gets larger, the conduction electrons are self-trapped within separate small magnetic polarons. These magnetic polarons contain a single electron inside two or three sites depending on the conduction electron density and form a Wigner crystallization. A new phase separation is found between these small polarons and the anti-ferromagnetic phase. Spin-glass behavior is obtained consistent with experimental results of the nickelate one-dimensional compound Y 2-x Ca x BaNiO 5 .
An Angular Leakage Correction for Modeling a Hemisphere, Using One-Dimensional Spherical Coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Eberle, C.S.
2003-01-01
A radially dependent, angular leakage correction was applied to a one-dimensional, multigroup neutron diffusion theory computer code to accurately model hemispherical geometry. This method allows the analyst to model hemispherical geometry, important in nuclear criticality safety analyses, with one-dimensional computer codes, which execute very quickly. Rapid turnaround times for scoping studies thus may be realized. This method uses an approach analogous to an axial leakage correction in a one-dimensional cylinder calculation. The two-dimensional Laplace operator was preserved in spherical geometry using a leakage correction proportional to 1/r 2 , which was folded into the one-dimensional spherical calculation on a mesh-by-mesh basis. Hemispherical geometry is of interest to criticality safety because of its similarity to piles of spilled fissile material and accumulations of fissile material in process containers. A hemisphere also provides a more realistic calculational model for spilled fissile material than does a sphere
Oblique propagation of nonlinear hydromagnetic waves: One- and two-dimensional behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malara, F.; Elaoufir, J.
1991-01-01
The one- and two-dimensional behavior of obliquely propagating hydromagnetic waves is analyzed by means of analytical theory and numerical simulations. It is shown that the nonlinear evolution of a one-dimensional MHD wave leads to the formation of a rotational discontinuity and a compressive steepened quasi-linearly polarized pulse whose structure is similar to that of a finite amplitude magnetosonic simple wave. For small propagation angles, the pulse mode (fast or slow) depends on the value of β with respect to unity while for large propagation angles the wave mode is fixed by the sign of the initial density-field correlation. The two-dimensional evolution shows that an MHD wave is unstable against a small-amplitude long-wavelength modulation in the direction transverse to the wave propagation direction. A two-dimensional magnetosonic wave solution is found, in which the density fluctuation is driven by the corresponding total pressure fluctuation, exactly as in the one-dimensional simple wave. Along with the steepening effect, the wave experiences both wave front deformation and a self-focusing effect which may eventually lead to the collapse of the wave. The results compare well with observations of MHD waves in the Earth's foreshock and at comets
Wave packet fractional revivals in a one-dimensional Rydberg atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veilande, Rita; Bersons, Imants
2007-01-01
We investigate many characteristic features of revival and fractional revival phenomena via derived analytic expressions for an autocorrelation function of a one-dimensional Rydberg atom with weighting probabilities modelled by a Gaussian or a Lorentzian distribution. The fractional revival phenomenon in the ionization probabilities of a one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by two short half-cycle pulses is also studied. When many states are involved in the formation of the wave packet, the revival is lower and broader than the initial wave packet and the fractional revivals overlap and disappear with time
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Doyon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission
Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu
2017-01-01
Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted super Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baulieu, Laurent [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland). Theoretical Div.; Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: baulieu@lpthe.jussieu.f, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-07-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, Laurent
2010-01-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures
Agundez, R.R.
2015-01-01
In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.
Lekhnitskii's formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To illustrate its utility, the generalized Lekhnitskii's formal- ism is used to analyse the coupled phonon and phason fields in an infinite quasicrystal medium con- taining an elliptic rigid inclusion. Keywords. Generalized Lekhnitskii's formalism; one-dimensional quasicrystals; plane problems; elliptic inclusion. PACS Nos 61.44.
Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vol. 73, No. 3. — journal of. September 2009 physics pp. 565–572. Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems. JOSHUA FEINBERG. Physics Department, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel ..... relativistic quantum mechanics (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem,. 1969).
Aqueous suspensions of natural swelling clay minerals. 2. Rheological characterization.
Paineau, Erwan; Michot, Laurent J; Bihannic, Isabelle; Baravian, Christophe
2011-06-21
We report in this article a comprehensive investigation of the viscoelastic behavior of different natural colloidal clay minerals in aqueous solution. Rheological experiments were carried out under both dynamic and steady-state conditions, allowing us to derive the elasticity and yield stress. Both parameters can be renormalized for all sizes, ionic strength, and type of clay using in a first approach only the volume of the particles. However, applying such a treatment to various clays of similar shapes and sizes yields differences that can be linked to the repulsion strength and charge location in the swelling clays. The stronger the repulsive interactions, the better the orientation of clay particles in flows. In addition, a master linear relationship between the elasticity and yield stress whose value corresponds to a critical deformation of 0.1 was evidenced. Such a relationship may be general for any colloidal suspension of anisometric particles as revealed by the analysis of various experimental data obtained on either disk-shaped or lath- and rod-shaped particles. The particle size dependence of the sol-gel transition was also investigated in detail. To understand why suspensions of larger particles gel at a higher volume fraction, we propose a very simplified view based on the statistical hydrodynamic trapping of a particle by an another one in its neighborhood upon translation and during a short period of time. We show that the key parameter describing this hydrodynamic trapping varies as the cube of the average diameter and captures most features of the sol-gel transition. Finally, we pointed out that in the high shear limit the suspension viscosity is still closely related to electrostatic interactions and follows the same trends as the viscoelastic properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul
2015-01-01
The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions. (paper)
Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions
Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul
2015-03-01
The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, G.S.; Christenson, J.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, the authors present some initial results from an investigation of the application of a locally one-dimensional (LOD) finite difference method to the solution of the two-dimensional, two-group reactor kinetics equations. Although the LOD method is relatively well known, it apparently has not been previously applied to the space-time kinetics equations. In this investigation, the LOD results were benchmarked against similar computational results (using the same computing environment, the same programming structure, and the same sample problems) obtained by the TWIGL program. For all of the problems considered, the LOD method provided accurate results in one-half to one-eight of the time required by the TWIGL program
Clay-cement suspensions - rheological and functional properties
Wojcik, L.; Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Gajek, M.
2017-01-01
The piping erosion in soil is highly unexpected in civil engineering. Elimination of such damages is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibility is the grouting method. This method is still developed into direction of process automation as well as other useful properties of suspensions. Main way of modernization of the grouting method is connected it with rheology of injection and eventuality of fitting them to specific problems conditions. Very popular and useful became binders based on modified clays (clay-cement suspensions). Important principle of efficiency of the grouting method is using of time-dependent pseudothixotropic properties of the clay-cement suspensions. The pseudo-rheounstability aspect of the suspensions properties should be dedicated and fitted to dynamic changes of soil conditions destructions. Whole process of the modification of the suspension rheology is stimulated by the specific agents. This article contains a description of practical aspects of the rheological parameters managing of the clay-cement suspensions, dedicated to the building damages, hydrotechnic constructions etc.
Synthesis and applications of one-dimensional nano-structured polyaniline: An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Donghua; Wang Yangyong
2006-01-01
This paper summarizes and reviews the various synthesizing approaches of one-dimensional nano-structured polyaniline (PANI) and several potential applications of the nanomaterial. The synthesizing approaches can be generally categorized into template synthesis and non-template synthesis according to whether template(s), hard (physical template) or soft (chemical template), is (are) used or not. However, though the various approaches established, preparation of one-dimensional nano-structured PANI with controllable morphologies and sizes, especially well oriented arrays on a large scale is still a major challenge. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the nanostructures are still unclear. On the other hand, one-dimensional nano-structured PANI exhibits high surface area, high conductivity, as well as controllable chemical/physical properties and good environmental stability, rendering the nanomaterial promising candidate for application ranging from sensors, energy storage and flash welding to digital nonvolatile memory
One-dimensional inverse problems of mathematical physics
Lavrent'ev, M M; Yakhno, V G; Schulenberger, J R
1986-01-01
This monograph deals with the inverse problems of determining a variable coefficient and right side for hyperbolic and parabolic equations on the basis of known solutions at fixed points of space for all times. The problems are one-dimensional in nature since the desired coefficient of the equation is a function of only one coordinate, while the desired right side is a function only of time. The authors use methods based on the spectral theory of ordinary differential operators of second order and also methods which make it possible to reduce the investigation of the inverse problems to the in
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.
2009-01-01
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...
One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2017-12-01
We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that highly accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.
One-dimensional silicon nanolines in the Si(001):H surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianco, F.; Köster, S. A.; Longobardi, M.; Owen, J. H.G.; Renner, Ch.; Bowler, D. R.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the monohydride Si(001):H surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometer long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality
Quasi-one-dimensional metals on semiconductor surfaces with defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Shuji
2010-01-01
Several examples are known in which massive arrays of metal atomic chains are formed on semiconductor surfaces that show quasi-one-dimensional metallic electronic structures. In this review, Au chains on Si(557) and Si(553) surfaces, and In chains on Si(111) surfaces, are introduced and discussed with regard to the physical properties determined by experimental data from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and electrical conductivity measurements. They show quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces and parabolic band dispersion along the chains. All of them are known from STM and ARPES to exhibit metal-insulator transitions by cooling and charge-density-wave formation due to Peierls instability of the metallic chains. The electrical conductivity, however, reveals the metal-insulator transition only on the less-defective surfaces (Si(553)-Au and Si(111)-In), but not on a more-defective surface (Si(557)-Au). The latter shows an insulating character over the whole temperature range. Compared with the electronic structure (Fermi surfaces and band dispersions), the transport property is more sensitive to the defects. With an increase in defect density, the conductivity only along the metal atomic chains was significantly reduced, showing that atomic-scale point defects decisively interrupt the electrical transport along the atomic chains and hide the intrinsic property of transport in quasi-one-dimensional systems.
The Physicist's Companion to Current Fluctuations: One-Dimensional Bulk-Driven Lattice Gases
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-01-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dime...
A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) aminophosphonate containing one-dimensional channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gemmill, William R.; Smith, Mark D.; Reisner, Barbara A.
2005-01-01
A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) phosphonate, Co(O 3 PCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ), has been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques. X-ray diffraction indicates that this material is a three-dimensional open framework with rings aligned along a single axis forming infinite one-dimensional channels. The framework decomposes just above 400 deg. C. Magnetic susceptibility data are consistent with weak antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures
One-Dimensional Creativity: A Marcusean Critique of Work and Play in the Video Game Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ergin Bulut
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Creativity is at the heart of the video game industry. Industry professionals, especially those producing blockbuster games for the triple-A market, speak fondly of their creative labour practices, flexible work schedules, and playful workplaces. However, a cursory glance at major triple-A franchises reveals the persistence of sequel game production and a homogeneity in genres and narratives. Herbert Marcuse’s critique of one-dimensionality may help to account for this discrepancy between the workers’ creative aspirations and the dominant homogeneity in game aesthetics. What I call ‘one-dimensional creativity’ defines the essence of triple-A game production. In the name of extolling the pleasure principle at work, one-dimensional creativity eliminates the reality principle, but only superficially. One-dimensional creativity gives game developers the opportunity to express themselves, but it is still framed by a particular technological rationality that prioritises profits over experimental art. One-dimensional creativity negates potential forms of creativity that might emerge outside the industry’s hit-driven logics. Conceptually, ‘one-dimensional creativity’ renders visible the instrumentalisation of play and the conservative design principles of triple-A game production – a production that is heavily structured with technological performance, better graphics, interactivity, and speed. Multi-dimensional video game production and aesthetics, the opposite of one-dimensional creativity, is emerging from the DIY game production scene, which is more invested in game narratives and aesthetics outside the dominant logics of one-dimensionality in triple-A game production.
Backward scattering in the one-dimensional Fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.
1980-05-01
The Ward identity is derived for non-relativistic fermions with two-body spin-independent interaction. Using this identity for the one-dimensional Fermi gas with backward scattering the equations of the perturbation theory are solved for the effective interaction and the collective excitations of the particle density fluctuations are obtained. (author)
Sensitivity analysis explains quasi-one-dimensional current transport in two-dimensional materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Hansen, Ole
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) current transport, experimentally observed in graphene as measured by a collinear four-point probe in two electrode configurations A and B, can be interpreted using the sensitivity functions of the two electrode configurations (configurations...... A and B represents different pairs of electrodes chosen for current sources and potential measurements). The measured sheet resistance in a four-point probe measurement is averaged over an area determined by the sensitivity function. For a two-dimensional conductor, the sensitivity functions for electrode...... configurations A and B are different. But when the current is forced to flow through a percolation network, e.g., graphene with high density of extended defects, the two sensitivity functions become identical. This is equivalent to a four-point measurement on a line resistor, hence quasi-1D transport...
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transition from periodic to chaotic behavior in one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems .... consider the reverse sequence from µb to µ∞, a ... at which the change from one scaling region to another takes place, with the higher order. 12.
To the theory of spin-charge separation in one-dimensional correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvyagin, A.A.
2004-01-01
Spin-charge separation is considered to be one of the key properties that distinguish low-dimensional electron systems from others. Three-dimensional correlated electron systems are described by the Fermi liquid theory. There, low-energy excitations (quasiparticles) are reminiscent of noninteracting electrons: They carry charges -e and spins 1/2 . It is believed that for any one-dimensional correlated electron system, low-lying electron excitations carry either only spin and no charge, or only charge without spin. That is why recent experiments looked for such low-lying collective electron excitations, one of which carries only spin, and the other carries only charge. Here we show that despite the fact that for exactly solvable one-dimensional correlated electron models there exist excitations which carry only spin and only charge, in all these models with short-range interactions the low-energy physics is described by low-lying collective excitations, one of which carries both spin and charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas
2006-01-01
The thermal-wave field in a photopyroelectric thermal-wave cavity was calculated with two theoretical approaches: a computationally straightforward, conventional, one-dimensional approach and a three-dimensional experimentally more realistic approach. The calculations show that the dimensionality of the thermal-wave field in the cavity depends on the lateral heat transfer boundary conditions and the relation between the beam size of the laser impinging on the thermal-wave generating metallic film and the diameter of the film itself. The theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the photopyroelectric signal in the cavity were compared. The study resulted in identifying ranges of heat transfer rates, beam sizes, and cavity radii for which accurate quantitative measurements of the thermal diffusivity of intracavity fluids can be made within the far simpler, but only approximate, one-dimensional approach conventionally adopted by users of thermal-wave cavities. It was shown that the major parameters affecting the dimensionality of thermal-wave cavities are the laser beam spot size and the Biot number of the medium comprising the sidewalls of the (cylindrical) cavity
Solitons in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pires, A.S.T.; Talim, S.L.; Costa, B.V.
1989-01-01
We study the quantum-statistical mechanics, at low temperatures, of a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with two anisotropies. In the weak-coupling limit we determine the temperature dependences of the soliton energy and the soliton density. We have found that the leading correction to the sine-Gordon (SG) expression for the soliton density and the quantum soliton energy comes from the out-of-plane magnon mode, not present in the pure SG model. We also show that when an external magnetic field is applied, the chain supports a new type of kink, where the sublattices rotate in opposite directions
Negative differential resistance in a one-dimensional molecular wire ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
voltage characteristics of a one-dimensional molecular wire with odd number of ... lem, although interesting both from a fundamental point of view and in terms of ..... SKP acknowledges the DST, Government of India, for financial support.
Equation of state of the one- and three-dimensional Bose-Bose gases
Chiquillo, Emerson
2018-06-01
We calculate the equation of state of Bose-Bose gases in one and three dimensions in the framework of an effective quantum field theory. The beyond-mean-field approximation at zero temperature and the one-loop finite-temperature results are obtained performing functional integration on a local effective action. The ultraviolet divergent zero-point quantum fluctuations are removed by means of dimensional regularization. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation to describe one- and three-dimensional Bose-Bose mixtures and solve it analytically in the one-dimensional scenario. This equation supports self-trapped brightlike solitonic droplets and self-trapped darklike solitons. At low temperature, we also find that the pressure and the number of particles of symmetric quantum droplets have a nontrivial dependence on the chemical potential and the difference between the intra- and the interspecies coupling constants.
System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA
2006-11-28
A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.
Long-term stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hori, N.; Yamamoto, T.
1988-01-01
Long-term (>an electron transit time over the system) stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer is studied by numerical experiments using particles. In these experiments, the potential difference across the system is self-consistently determined by the space charge distributions inside the system. Each boundary of the system supplies a nondrifting half-Maxwellian plasma. The current density is increased by increasing the number density of the source plasma at the injection (right) boundary. A double layer can be developed by injection of a sufficiently high current density. For a fixed level of current injection, plasmas carrying no current with various densities (n/sup ts/ 0 ) are loaded on the left side of the system. Whether or not the generated double layer can maintain its potential drop for a long period depends on the density (n/sup ts/ 0 ) relative to the initial density (n/sup */ 0 ) near the injection boundary: (1) the double layer is found to grow when n/sup ts/ 0 = n/sup */ 0 ; (2) the steady double layer is seen for a long period when n/sup ts/ 0 approx. >n/sup */ 0 ; (3) the double layer is found to decay when n/sup ts/ 0 is even higher than n/sup */ 0 . A new concept of the current polarizability P/sub c/ = J/n/sup number/ is introduced for understanding these results, where J is the current density flowing through the double layer and n/sup number/ is the plasma density at the injection front, i.e., the low-potential edge of the double layer
Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics. Towards a unified classical view
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Zhuangqi [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., (China). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Yin, Cheng [Hohai Univ., Changzhou, Jiangsu (China). College of IoT Engineering
2014-06-01
Introduces a completely new concept of the scattered sub-waves via the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. Develops a relatively simple method to accurately solve one-dimensional problems in quantum mechanics. Based on the analogy between the Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism, several interesting issues in quantum mechanics, such as tunneling, quantum reflection and scattering time are restudied. Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics.
Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics. Towards a unified classical view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Zhuangqi; Yin, Cheng
2014-01-01
Introduces a completely new concept of the scattered sub-waves via the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. Develops a relatively simple method to accurately solve one-dimensional problems in quantum mechanics. Based on the analogy between the Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism, several interesting issues in quantum mechanics, such as tunneling, quantum reflection and scattering time are restudied. Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics.
Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H
2017-11-01
Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.
One-dimensional super Calabi-Yau manifolds and their mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noja, S. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università degli Studi di Milano,Via Saldini 50, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L. [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Piazza, F. Dalla [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Marrani, A. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ‘Enrico Fermi’,Via Panisperna 89A, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova,and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Re, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Catania,Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
2017-04-18
We apply a definition of generalised super Calabi-Yau variety (SCY) to supermanifolds of complex dimension one. One of our results is that there are two SCY’s having reduced manifold equal to ℙ{sup 1}, namely the projective super space ℙ{sup 1|2} and the weighted projective super space Wℙ{sub (2)}{sup 1|1}. Then we compute the corresponding sheaf cohomology of superforms, showing that the cohomology with picture number one is infinite dimensional, while the de Rham cohomology, which is what matters from a physical point of view, remains finite dimensional. Moreover, we provide the complete real and holomorphic de Rham cohomology for generic projective super spaces ℙ{sup n|m}. We also determine the automorphism groups: these always match the dimension of the projective super group with the only exception of ℙ{sup 1|2}, whose automorphism group turns out to be larger than the projective super group. By considering the cohomology of the super tangent sheaf, we compute the deformations of ℙ{sup 1|m}, discovering that the presence of a fermionic structure allows for deformations even if the reduced manifold is rigid. Finally, we show that ℙ{sup 1|2} is self-mirror, whereas Wℙ{sub (2)}{sup 1|1} has a zero dimensional mirror. Also, the mirror map for ℙ{sup 1|2} naturally endows it with a structure of N=2 super Riemann surface.
New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing
2015-01-01
Two new hybrid lead halides (H 2 BDA)[PbI 4 ] (1) (H 2 BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI 3 ] (2) (HNPEIM=N-phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations
New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2015-10-15
Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.
Ouriev, Boris; Windhab, Erich; Braun, Peter; Zeng, Yuantong; Birkhofer, Beat
2003-12-01
In the present work an in-line ultrasonic method for investigation of the rheological flow behavior of concentrated suspensions was created. It is based on a nondestructive rheological measuring technique for pilot plant and industrial scale applications. Elsewhere the author discusses a tremendous need for in-line rheological characterization of highly concentrated suspensions exposed to pressure driven shear flow conditions. Most existing on-line methods are based on destructive macro actuators, which are not suitable for materials with sensitive to applied deformation structure. Since the process of our basic interest influences the structure of suspension it would be difficult to separate the effects of rheometric measurement and weakly pronounced structural changes arising from a fine adjustment of the process parameters. The magnitude of these effects is usually associated with the complex flow dynamics of structured liquids and is sensitive to density or temperature fluctuations around the moving rheometric actuator. Interpretation of the results of such measurements can be hindered by process parameter influences on liquid product structure. Therefore, the author introduces an in-line noninvasive rheometric method, which is implemented in a pre-crystallization process of chocolate suspension. Use of ultrasound velocity profile pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique enabled process monitoring of the chocolate pre-crystallization process. Influence of seeded crystals on Rheology of chocolate suspension was recorded and monitored on line. It was shown that even slight velocity pulsations in chocolate mainstream can strongly influence rheological properties besides influencing flow velocity profiles. Based on calculations of power law fit in raw velocity profiles and calculation of wall shear stress from pressure difference measurement, a viscosity function was calculated and monitored on line. On-line results were found to be in a good agreement with off
Approximation of High-Dimensional Rank One Tensors
Bachmayr, Markus
2013-11-12
Many real world problems are high-dimensional in that their solution is a function which depends on many variables or parameters. This presents a computational challenge since traditional numerical techniques are built on model classes for functions based solely on smoothness. It is known that the approximation of smoothness classes of functions suffers from the so-called \\'curse of dimensionality\\'. Avoiding this curse requires new model classes for real world functions that match applications. This has led to the introduction of notions such as sparsity, variable reduction, and reduced modeling. One theme that is particularly common is to assume a tensor structure for the target function. This paper investigates how well a rank one function f(x 1,...,x d)=f 1(x 1)⋯f d(x d), defined on Ω=[0,1]d can be captured through point queries. It is shown that such a rank one function with component functions f j in W∞ r([0,1]) can be captured (in L ∞) to accuracy O(C(d,r)N -r) from N well-chosen point evaluations. The constant C(d,r) scales like d dr. The queries in our algorithms have two ingredients, a set of points built on the results from discrepancy theory and a second adaptive set of queries dependent on the information drawn from the first set. Under the assumption that a point z∈Ω with nonvanishing f(z) is known, the accuracy improves to O(dN -r). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Approximation of High-Dimensional Rank One Tensors
Bachmayr, Markus; Dahmen, Wolfgang; DeVore, Ronald; Grasedyck, Lars
2013-01-01
Many real world problems are high-dimensional in that their solution is a function which depends on many variables or parameters. This presents a computational challenge since traditional numerical techniques are built on model classes for functions based solely on smoothness. It is known that the approximation of smoothness classes of functions suffers from the so-called 'curse of dimensionality'. Avoiding this curse requires new model classes for real world functions that match applications. This has led to the introduction of notions such as sparsity, variable reduction, and reduced modeling. One theme that is particularly common is to assume a tensor structure for the target function. This paper investigates how well a rank one function f(x 1,...,x d)=f 1(x 1)⋯f d(x d), defined on Ω=[0,1]d can be captured through point queries. It is shown that such a rank one function with component functions f j in W∞ r([0,1]) can be captured (in L ∞) to accuracy O(C(d,r)N -r) from N well-chosen point evaluations. The constant C(d,r) scales like d dr. The queries in our algorithms have two ingredients, a set of points built on the results from discrepancy theory and a second adaptive set of queries dependent on the information drawn from the first set. Under the assumption that a point z∈Ω with nonvanishing f(z) is known, the accuracy improves to O(dN -r). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Equation of state of charged latex suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reus, Valerie
1995-01-01
We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr
Approximate characteristics for one-dimensional two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarayloo, A.; Peddleson, J.
1985-01-01
An approximate method for determining the characteristics associated with one-dimensional particulate two-phase flow models is presented. The method is based on iteration and is valid for small particulate volume fractions. The method is applied to several special cases involving incompressible particles suspended in a gas. The influences of certain changes in the physical model are investigated
Relativistic band gaps in one-dimensional disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
Conditions for the existence of band gaps in a one-dimensional disordered array of δ-function potentials possessing short range order are developed in a relativistic framework. Both Lorentz vector and scalar type potentials are treated. The relationship between the energy gaps and the transmission properties of the array are also discussed. 20 refs., 2 figs
One-dimensional neutron imager for the Sandia Z facility.
Fittinghoff, David N; Bower, Dan E; Hollaway, James R; Jacoby, Barry A; Weiss, Paul B; Buckles, Robert A; Sammons, Timothy J; McPherson, Leroy A; Ruiz, Carlos L; Chandler, Gordon A; Torres, José A; Leeper, Ramon J; Cooper, Gary W; Nelson, Alan J
2008-10-01
A multiinstitution collaboration is developing a neutron imaging system for the Sandia Z facility. The initial system design is for slit aperture imaging system capable of obtaining a one-dimensional image of a 2.45 MeV source producing 5x10(12) neutrons with a resolution of 320 microm along the axial dimension of the plasma, but the design being developed can be modified for two-dimensional imaging and imaging of DT neutrons with other resolutions. This system will allow us to understand the spatial production of neutrons in the plasmas produced at the Z facility.
Statistical mechanics of quantum one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, E.N.M.; Borges, O.N.; Ribeiro, L.A.A.
1985-01-01
We calculate the thermal correlation functions of the one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator in contact with a reservoir, in an exact form by applying Green's function method. In this way the thermal fluctuations are incorporated in the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian
Analytical approach for collective diffusion: one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
Roč. 144, č. 14 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 144105. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations * one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016
Light propagation in one-dimensional porous silicon complex systems
Oton, C.J.; Dal Negro, L.; Gaburro, Z.; Pavesi, L.; Johnson, P.J.; Lagendijk, Aart; Wiersma, D.S.
2003-01-01
We discuss the optical properties of one-dimensional complex dielectric systems, in particular the time-resolved transmission through thick porous silicon quasiperiodic multi-layers. Both in numerical calculations and experiments we find dramatic distortion effects, i.e. pulse stretching and
Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.
1996-01-01
Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO
Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V.
1993-01-01
The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author)
Polyacene and a new class of quasi-one-dimensional conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kivelson, S.; Chapman, O.L.
1983-01-01
Most one-dimensional conductors are quite similar since the Fermi surface is a point and the electron energy dispersion relation near the Fermi surface is linear. It is pointed out that in polyacene the Fermi surface lies at the edge of the Brillouin zone, but that an accidental degeneracy between the valence and conduction bands makes it metallic nonetheless. The dispersion relation is therefore quadratic, and the density of states diverges at the Fermi surface. Thus, polyacene [(C 4 H 2 )/sub n/] and its possible derivatives represent a conceptually new class of quasi-one-dimensional conductors. Moreover, we find that this class of materials has the possibility of possessing interesting condensed phases including high-temperature superconductivity and ferromagnetism
Identification of the Diffusion Parameter in Nonlocal Steady Diffusion Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D’Elia, M., E-mail: mdelia@fsu.edu, E-mail: mdelia@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gunzburger, M. [Florida State University (United States)
2016-04-15
The problem of identifying the diffusion parameter appearing in a nonlocal steady diffusion equation is considered. The identification problem is formulated as an optimal control problem having a matching functional as the objective of the control and the parameter function as the control variable. The analysis makes use of a nonlocal vector calculus that allows one to define a variational formulation of the nonlocal problem. In a manner analogous to the local partial differential equations counterpart, we demonstrate, for certain kernel functions, the existence of at least one optimal solution in the space of admissible parameters. We introduce a Galerkin finite element discretization of the optimal control problem and derive a priori error estimates for the approximate state and control variables. Using one-dimensional numerical experiments, we illustrate the theoretical results and show that by using nonlocal models it is possible to estimate non-smooth and discontinuous diffusion parameters.
Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel
2010-06-18
There is currently a great interest in the physics of degenerate quantum gases and low-energy few-body scattering due to the recent experimental advances in manipulation of ultracold atoms by light. In particular, almost perfect periodic potentials, called optical lattices, can be generated. The lattice spacing is fixed by the wavelength of the laser field employed and the angle betwen the pair of laser beams; the lattice depth, defining the magnitude of the different band gaps, is tunable within a large interval of values. This flexibility permits the exploration of different regimes, ranging from the ''free-electron'' picture, modified by the effective mass for shallow optical lattices, to the tight-binding regime of a very deep periodic potential. In the latter case, effective single-band theories, widely used in condensed matter physics, can be implemented with unprecedent accuracy. The tunability of the lattice depth is nowadays complemented by the use of magnetic Feshbach resonances which, at very low temperatures, can vary the relevant atom-atom scattering properties at will. Moreover, optical lattices loaded with gases of effectively reduced dimensionality are experimentally accessible. This is especially important for one spatial dimension, since most of the exactly solvable models in many-body quantum mechanics deal with particles on a line; therefore, experiments with one-dimensional gases serve as a testing ground for many old and new theories which were regarded as purely academic not so long ago. The physics of few quantum particles on a one-dimensional lattice is the topic of this thesis. Most of the results are obtained in the tight-binding approximation, which is amenable to exact numerical or analytical treatment. For the two-body problem, theoretical methods for calculating the stationary scattering and bound states are developed. These are used to obtain, in closed form, the two-particle solutions of both the Hubbard and
Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel
2010-01-01
There is currently a great interest in the physics of degenerate quantum gases and low-energy few-body scattering due to the recent experimental advances in manipulation of ultracold atoms by light. In particular, almost perfect periodic potentials, called optical lattices, can be generated. The lattice spacing is fixed by the wavelength of the laser field employed and the angle betwen the pair of laser beams; the lattice depth, defining the magnitude of the different band gaps, is tunable within a large interval of values. This flexibility permits the exploration of different regimes, ranging from the ''free-electron'' picture, modified by the effective mass for shallow optical lattices, to the tight-binding regime of a very deep periodic potential. In the latter case, effective single-band theories, widely used in condensed matter physics, can be implemented with unprecedent accuracy. The tunability of the lattice depth is nowadays complemented by the use of magnetic Feshbach resonances which, at very low temperatures, can vary the relevant atom-atom scattering properties at will. Moreover, optical lattices loaded with gases of effectively reduced dimensionality are experimentally accessible. This is especially important for one spatial dimension, since most of the exactly solvable models in many-body quantum mechanics deal with particles on a line; therefore, experiments with one-dimensional gases serve as a testing ground for many old and new theories which were regarded as purely academic not so long ago. The physics of few quantum particles on a one-dimensional lattice is the topic of this thesis. Most of the results are obtained in the tight-binding approximation, which is amenable to exact numerical or analytical treatment. For the two-body problem, theoretical methods for calculating the stationary scattering and bound states are developed. These are used to obtain, in closed form, the two-particle solutions of both the Hubbard and extended Hubbard models
Steady parallel flow in an evaporating fluid heated from sidewalls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Kausik S.
2009-01-01
Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature, but very few attempts have been made in the past to couple the effects of evaporation with fluid flow behavior. In this theoretical paper we have discussed the effects of evaporation on the dynamics of steady state thermocapillary convection in a two-dimensional rectangular container. The liquid is heated by differentially heated sidewalls and mass loss from the interface due to evaporation is compensated by the liquid entering into the container through a lower inlet, thus keeping the thickness of the liquid layer constant. We show that for an evaporating liquid one can obtain a plane parallel base state profile which depends on the evaporative mass flux.
The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals
Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.
2008-01-01
We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron
Quasi-One-Dimensional Intermittent Flux Behavior in Superconducting Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Qviller
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. As the applied field is gradually increased, magneto-optical imaging reveals that flux penetrates via numerous quasi-one-dimensional jumps. The distribution of flux avalanche sizes follows a power law, and data collapse is obtained by finite-size scaling, with the depth of the flux front used as crossover length. The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting films.
Applications of one-dimensional models in simplified inelastic analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, S.A.; Chern, J.M.; Pai, D.H.
1980-01-01
This paper presents an approximate inelastic analysis based on geometric simplification with emphasis on its applicability, modeling, and the method of defining the loading conditions. Two problems are investigated: a one-dimensional axisymmetric model of generalized plane strain thick-walled cylinder is applied to the primary sodium inlet nozzle of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Intermediate Heat Exchanger (CRBRP-IHX), and a finite cylindrical shell is used to simulate the branch shell forging (Y) junction. The results are then compared with the available detailed inelastic analyses under cyclic loading conditions in terms of creep and fatigue damages and inelastic ratchetting strains per the ASME Code Case N-47 requirements. In both problems, the one-dimensional simulation is able to trace the detailed stress-strain response. The quantitative comparison is good for the nozzle, but less satisfactory for the Y junction. Refinements are suggested to further improve the simulation
On a class of one-dimensional random walks
O.J. Boxma (Onno); V.I. Lotov
1995-01-01
textabstractnoindent This paper studies a one-dimensional Markov chain ${X_n,n=0,1,dots$ that satisfies the recurrence relation $X_n = max(0, X_{n-1 + eta_n^{(m) )$ if $X_{n-1 =m leq a$; for $X_{n-1 > a$ it satisfies the same relation with $eta_n^{(m)$ replaced by $xi_n$. Here ${ eta_n^{(m) $ and ${
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gou Junli; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan
2006-01-01
This article presents a theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solving the one-dimensional steady-state single-phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics were studied. On the basis of the preliminary calculation analysis, it was found that natural circulation mass flow rate was proportional to the exponential function of the power and that the value of the exponent is related to the operating conditions of the secondary side of the steam generator. The higher the outlet pressure of the secondary side of the steam generator, the higher the primary natural circulation mass flow rate. The larger height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable for the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation. (authors)
Poiseuille equation for steady flow of fractal fluid
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2016-07-01
Fractal fluid is considered in the framework of continuous models with noninteger dimensional spaces (NIDS). A recently proposed vector calculus in NIDS is used to get a description of fractal fluid flow in pipes with circular cross-sections. The Navier-Stokes equations of fractal incompressible viscous fluids are used to derive a generalization of the Poiseuille equation of steady flow of fractal media in pipe.
Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles: A numerical simulation method
Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsuoka, Takaaki
1994-02-01
The recently developed simulation method, named as the particle simulation method (PSM), is extended to predict the viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles. In this method a rodlike particle is modeled by bonded spheres. Each bond has three types of springs for stretching, bending, and twisting deformation. The rod model can therefore deform by changing the bond distance, bond angle, and torsion angle between paired spheres. The rod model can represent a variety of rigidity by modifying the bond parameters related to Young's modulus and the shear modulus of the real particle. The time evolution of each constituent sphere of the rod model is followed by molecular-dynamics-type approach. The intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of rodlike particles is derived from calculating an increased energy dissipation for each sphere of the rod model in a viscous fluid. With and without deformation of the particle, the motion of the rodlike particle was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional simple shear flow at a low particle Reynolds number and without Brownian motion of particles. The intrinsic viscosity of the suspension of rodlike particles was investigated on orientation angle, rotation orbit, deformation, and aspect ratio of the particle. For the rigid rodlike particle, the simulated rotation orbit compared extremely well with theoretical one which was obtained for a rigid ellipsoidal particle by use of Jeffery's equation. The simulated dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on various factors was also identical with that of theories for suspensions of rigid rodlike particles. For the flexible rodlike particle, the rotation orbit could be obtained by the particle simulation method and it was also cleared that the intrinsic viscosity decreased as occurring of recoverable deformation of the rodlike particle induced by flow.
One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals
Jakli, Antal
2006-01-01
Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...
Defect Proliferation in Active Nematic Suspensions
Mishra, Prashant; Bowick, Mark J.; Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2014-03-01
The rich structure of equilibrium nematic suspensions, with their characteristic disclination defects, is modified when active forces come into play. The uniform nematic state is known to be unstable to splay (extensile) or bend (contractile) deformations above a critical activity. At even higher activity the flow becomes oscillatory and eventually turbulent. Using hydrodynamics, we classify the active flow regimes as functions of activity and order parameter friction for both contractile and extensile systems. The turbulent regime is marked by a non-zero steady state density of mobile defect pairs. The defect density itself scales with an ``active Ericksen number,'' defined as the ratio of the rate at which activity is injected into the system to the relaxation rate of orientational deformations. The work at Syracuse University was supported by the NSF on grant DMR-1004789 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.
Stabilizing local boundary conditions for two-dimensional shallow water equations
Dia, Ben Mansour
2018-03-27
In this article, we present a sub-critical two-dimensional shallow water flow regulation. From the energy estimate of a set of one-dimensional boundary stabilization problems, we obtain a set of polynomial equations with respect to the boundary values as a requirement for the energy decrease. Using the Riemann invariant analysis, we build stabilizing local boundary conditions that guarantee the stability of the hydrodynamical state around a given steady state. Numerical results for the controller applied to the nonlinear problem demonstrate the performance of the method.
Integration of Local Observations into the One Dimensional Fog Model PAFOG
Thoma, Christina; Schneider, Werner; Masbou, Matthieu; Bott, Andreas
2012-05-01
The numerical prediction of fog requires a very high vertical resolution of the atmosphere. Owing to a prohibitive computational effort of high resolution three dimensional models, operational fog forecast is usually done by means of one dimensional fog models. An important condition for a successful fog forecast with one dimensional models consists of the proper integration of observational data into the numerical simulations. The goal of the present study is to introduce new methods for the consideration of these data in the one dimensional radiation fog model PAFOG. First, it will be shown how PAFOG may be initialized with observed visibilities. Second, a nudging scheme will be presented for the inclusion of measured temperature and humidity profiles in the PAFOG simulations. The new features of PAFOG have been tested by comparing the model results with observations of the German Meteorological Service. A case study will be presented that reveals the importance of including local observations in the model calculations. Numerical results obtained with the modified PAFOG model show a distinct improvement of fog forecasts regarding the times of fog formation, dissipation as well as the vertical extent of the investigated fog events. However, model results also reveal that a further improvement of PAFOG might be possible if several empirical model parameters are optimized. This tuning can only be realized by comprehensive comparisons of model simulations with corresponding fog observations.
A modeling of sliding joint on one-dimensional flexible medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Difeng; Ren Gexue
2011-01-01
The dynamic modeling of a sliding joint on a one-dimensional medium, such as a cable or a beam, is studied in this paper. The sliding joint is implemented by positioning it at a moving node on the one-dimensional medium, which is realized by variable-length elements at either side of the joint. The variable-length element is established with an absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) in the framework of the Arbitrary Lagrange–Euler (ALE) description. The sliding of the joint is described by the increasing of the length on one side of the one-dimensional medium and a corresponding decreasing of the other side. In order to capture the discontinuity of the slopes at the position of the sliding joint, the moving node has two slopes as generalized coordinates which are equal to each other in the case of a beam but not in the case of a cable, and in order to avoid the addition–deletion constraint, the node adjacent to the moving node is added or deleted if the element is too long or too short. The governing equations for the coupled system are derived in terms of D’Alembert’s principle and the resulting equations of motion are formulated in the standard form of differential algebraic equations of multibody systems. Numerical examples are presented to validate the method proposed by comparing with analytical results which are available or are made possible by simplifying the model.
Magnetic separation from superparamagnetic particle suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.
2009-01-01
We investigate the magnetophoretic separation of magnetic microparticles from a non-dilute flow in a microfluidic channel and their subsequent field-induced aggregation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic force. This force induces dipolar interactions between the particles that aid in their separation from the flow. Existing analytical models for dilute suspensions cannot be extended to non-dilute suspensions in which interparticle magnetic interactions play an important role. We therefore conduct a parametric investigation of the mechanics of this problem in a microcapillary flow through simulations and experimental visualization. When a magnetic field is applied, the magnetic microparticles form an aggregate on the channel wall that is influenced by the competition between the holding magnetic force and the aggregate-depleting flow shear force. Microparticle collection in the aggregate increases linearly with increasing magnetic field strength and is characterized by distinct buildup and washaway phases. The collected microparticle volume fraction in an aggregate is found to depend on a single dimensional group that depends upon characteristic system parameters.
Electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.
2003-01-01
We study the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ by means of density-functional band theory, Hubbard model calculations, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant quantitative and qualitative......-dimensional Hubbard model for the low-energy spectral behavior is attributed to interchain coupling and the additional effect of electron-phonon interaction....
Electroconvection in one-dimensional liquid crystal cells
Huh, Jong-Hoon
2018-04-01
We investigate the alternating current (ac) -driven electroconvection (EC) in one-dimensional cells (1DCs) under the in-plane switching mode. In 1DCs, defect-free EC can be realized. In the presence and absence of external multiplicative noise, the features of traveling waves (TWs), such as their Hopf frequency fH and velocity, are examined in comparison with those of conventional two-dimensional cells (2DCs) accompanying defects of EC rolls. In particular, we show that the defects significantly contribute to the features of the TWs. Additionally, owing to the defect-free EC in the 1DCs, the effects of the ac and noise fields on the TW are clarified. The ac field linearly increases fH, independent of the ac frequency f . The noise increases fH monotonically, but fH does not vary below a characteristic noise intensity VN*. In addition, soliton-like waves and unfamiliar oscillation of EC vortices in 1DCs are observed, in contrast to the localized EC (called worms) and the oscillation of EC rolls in 2DCs.
Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avrutin, V; Granados, A; Schanz, M
2011-01-01
Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs
Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps
Avrutin, V.; Granados, A.; Schanz, M.
2011-09-01
Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs.
Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, R.A.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Medina, E.
2005-01-01
We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging
Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, R.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ripinto@ivic.ve; Rodriguez, M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Medina, E. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)
2005-06-20
We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging.
Quantum quenches to the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas: exact results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese, Fabian H. L. Essler
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study quantum quenches to the one-dimensional Bose gas with attractive interactions in the case when the initial state is an ideal one-dimensional Bose condensate. We focus on properties of the stationary state reached at late times after the quench. This displays a finite density of multi-particle bound states, whose rapidity distribution is determined exactly by means of the quench action method. We discuss the relevance of the multi-particle bound states for the physical properties of the system, computing in particular the stationary value of the local pair correlation function $g_2$.
Fractal geometry in an expanding, one-dimensional, Newtonian universe.
Miller, Bruce N; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel
2007-09-01
Observations of galaxies over large distances reveal the possibility of a fractal distribution of their positions. The source of fractal behavior is the lack of a length scale in the two body gravitational interaction. However, even with new, larger, sample sizes from recent surveys, it is difficult to extract information concerning fractal properties with confidence. Similarly, three-dimensional N-body simulations with a billion particles only provide a thousand particles per dimension, far too small for accurate conclusions. With one-dimensional models these limitations can be overcome by carrying out simulations with on the order of a quarter of a million particles without compromising the computation of the gravitational force. Here the multifractal properties of two of these models that incorporate different features of the dynamical equations governing the evolution of a matter dominated universe are compared. For each model at least two scaling regions are identified. By employing criteria from dynamical systems theory it is shown that only one of them can be geometrically significant. The results share important similarities with galaxy observations, such as hierarchical clustering and apparent bifractal geometry. They also provide insights concerning possible constraints on length and time scales for fractal structure. They clearly demonstrate that fractal geometry evolves in the mu (position, velocity) space. The observed patterns are simply a shadow (projection) of higher-dimensional structure.
IBIS, FBR 3-D Steady-State and Kinetics with Thermohydraulic Feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konomura, Mamoru; Tada, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro
1987-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: The IBIS code performs steady state and kinetics calculations based on a three-dimensional nuclear diffusion kinetics with thermal hydraulic feedback. It can calculate the following values in hexagonal-Z geometry of a fast breeder reactor core through the progress of transient: (1) Net reactivity; (2) Total and group-wise delayed neutron fraction; (3) Group-wise delayed neutron precursor concentration; (4) Total power and energy; (5) Space dependent neutron flux in each energy group; (6) Space dependent temperature of each material; (7) Maximum temperature of each material and its location. 2 - Method of solution: The quasi-static method is adopted to solve the three-dimensional nuclear diffusion kinetics problem. The method is the same as employed in the code QX1. The shape function equation is solved with the finite difference treatment as used in the codes CITATION and HONEYCOMB. One-dimensional thermo-hydraulics is solved with a model similar to that given in the code SASLA. Sodium boiling can be taken into account. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of neutron energy groups is fixed to 3 groups in the present version of the code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capitani, Enzo; Teissie, Jean.
1982-01-01
Process for the continuous extraction of ions from a clear liquid or one containing matter in suspension by the use of a bed of ion exchange grains which is fluidized inside a column by circulation of the liquid, characterized by the fact that the said bed is subject to cyclic pulsations, in order to obtain sorting of the grains by density, the heavier grains having fixed the maximum ions. This invention can be applied for the continuous extraction of any type of anion or cation or exchangeable salt by means of resins or inorganic exchangers, to avoid clogging and abrasion problems, and to obtain maximum extraction rate and capacity. An example is given of the treatment of a suspension for the extraction of uranium [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin
2013-01-01
We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales
Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin
2013-02-01
We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.
Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa, J.M.; Leite, R.V.; Landim, R.R.; Costa Filho, R.N.
2014-01-01
A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.
Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention...... given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1...... temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob...
Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires
Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas
One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).
Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toumi, I. [Laboratoire d`Etudes Thermiques des Reacteurs, Gif sur Yvette (France); Caruge, D. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)
1997-07-01
This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for both one and three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods and are based on the use of Approximate Riemann Solvers concepts to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. The first part of the paper presents the numerical method for a one dimensional hyperbolic two-fluid model including differential terms as added mass and interface pressure. This numerical solution scheme makes use of the Riemann problem solution to define backward and forward differencing to approximate spatial derivatives. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe`s method that has been successfully used to solve gas dynamic equations. As far as the two-fluid model is hyperbolic, this numerical method seems very efficient for the numerical solution of two-phase flow problems. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid computer codes. The second part describes the numerical method in the three dimensional case. The authors discuss also some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. Such a scheme is not implemented in a thermal-hydraulic computer code devoted to 3-D steady-state and transient computations. Some results obtained for Pressurised Water Reactors concerning upper plenum calculations and a steady state flow in the core with rod bow effect evaluation are presented. In practice these new numerical methods have proved to be stable on non staggered grids and capable of generating accurate non oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations.
Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Caruge, D.
1997-01-01
This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for both one and three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods and are based on the use of Approximate Riemann Solvers concepts to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. The first part of the paper presents the numerical method for a one dimensional hyperbolic two-fluid model including differential terms as added mass and interface pressure. This numerical solution scheme makes use of the Riemann problem solution to define backward and forward differencing to approximate spatial derivatives. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe's method that has been successfully used to solve gas dynamic equations. As far as the two-fluid model is hyperbolic, this numerical method seems very efficient for the numerical solution of two-phase flow problems. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid computer codes. The second part describes the numerical method in the three dimensional case. The authors discuss also some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. Such a scheme is not implemented in a thermal-hydraulic computer code devoted to 3-D steady-state and transient computations. Some results obtained for Pressurised Water Reactors concerning upper plenum calculations and a steady state flow in the core with rod bow effect evaluation are presented. In practice these new numerical methods have proved to be stable on non staggered grids and capable of generating accurate non oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melese d'Hospital, G.B.
1979-10-01
General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress
Iterative Two- and One-Dimensional Methods for Three-Dimensional Neutron Diffusion Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung; Downar, Thomas J.
2005-01-01
Two methods are proposed for solving the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation by iterating between solutions of the two-dimensional (2-D) radial and one-dimensional (1-D) axial solutions. In the first method, the 2-D/1-D equations are coupled using a current correction factor (CCF) with the average fluxes of the lower and upper planes and the axial net currents at the plane interfaces. In the second method, an analytic expression for the axial net currents at the interface of the planes is used for planar coupling. A comparison of the new methods is made with two previously proposed methods, which use interface net currents and partial currents for planar coupling. A Fourier convergence analysis of the four methods was performed, and results indicate that the two new methods have at least three advantages over the previous methods. First, the new methods are unconditionally stable, whereas the net current method diverges for small axial mesh size. Second, the new methods provide better convergence performance than the other methods in the range of practical mesh sizes. Third, the spectral radii of the new methods asymptotically approach zero as the mesh size increases, while the spectral radius of the partial current method approaches a nonzero value as the mesh size increases. Of the two new methods proposed here, the analytic method provides a smaller spectral radius than the CCF method, but the CCF method has several advantages over the analytic method in practical applications
One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations of a hydrogen-gas puff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxon, S.; Nielsen, P.D.
1981-01-01
A one-dimensional Lagrangian calculation of the implosion of a hydrogen gas puff is presented. At maximum compression, 60% of the mass is located in a density spike .5 mm off the axis with a half width of 40 μm. The temperature on axis reaches 200 eV
Toward precise solution of one-dimensional velocity inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, S.; Hagin, F.
1980-01-01
A family of one-dimensional inverse problems are considered with the goal of reconstructing velocity profiles to reasonably high accuracy. The travel-time variable change is used together with an iteration scheme to produce an effective algorithm for computation. Under modest assumptions the scheme is shown to be convergent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnoli, G.
1991-01-01
This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castagnoli, G. (Dipt. di Informatica, Sistemistica, Telematica, Univ. di Genova, Viale Causa 13, 16145 Genova (IT))
1991-08-10
This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition.
One-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hills, R.G.; Hensel, E.C. Jr.
1986-01-01
The one-dimensional nonlinear problem of heat conduction is considered. A noniterative space-marching finite-difference algorithm is developed to estimate the surface temperature and heat flux from temperature measurements at subsurface locations. The trade-off between resolution and variance of the estimates of the surface conditions is discussed quantitatively. The inverse algorithm is stabilized through the use of digital filters applied recursively. The effect of the filters on the resolution and variance of the surface estimates is quantified. Results are presented which indicate that the technique is capable of handling noisy measurement data
Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong
2018-02-01
High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.
A 2D suspension of active agents: the role of fluid mediated interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behmadi, Hojjat; Najafi, Ali; Fazli, Zahra
2017-01-01
Taking into account both the Vicsek short-range ordering and the far-field hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the ambient fluid, we investigate the role of long-range interactions in the ordering phenomena in a quasi 2-dimensional active suspension. By studying the number fluctuations, the velocity correlation functions and cluster size distribution function, we show that depending on the number density of swimmers and the strength of noise, the hydrodynamic interactions can have significant effects in a suspension. For a fixed value of noise, at larger density of particles, long-range interactions enhance the particle pairing and cluster formation in the system. (paper)
Method and apparatus for the electro-optic convolution of a one-dimensional signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
Procedure for the electro-optic convolution of a signal and a filter function, whereby the one dimensional electro-optical signal would be portrayed as a line along which the clarity varies and whereby filter function is determined by one or more masks, whilst after each mask is placed a light detector, with which the light passing through the masks may be detected, whilst a one-dimensional portrayal of the signal along the masks will be developed, characterised in that a one dimensional portrayal of the signal, with the aid of an optical system in a direction across the line, will be enlarged, and that this enlarged signal in the direction of the line along the masks will be affected which the masks closing fields will contain, which are either fully transparent or are fully non-transparent. (Auth.)
Zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons: one-dimensional resonant channels in two-dimensional atomic crystals
Páez, Carlos J; Pereira, Ana L C; Schulz, Peter A
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate phosphorene zigzag nanoribbons as a platform for constriction engineering. In the presence of a constriction at one of the edges, quantum confinement of edge-protected states reveals conductance peaks, if the edge is uncoupled from the other edge. If the constriction is narrow enough to promote coupling between edges, it gives rise to Fano-like resonances as well as antiresonances in the transmission spectrum. These effects are shown to mimic an atomic chain like behavior in a two dimensional atomic crystal. PMID:28144546
Zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons: one-dimensional resonant channels in two-dimensional atomic crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos. J. Páez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We theoretically investigate phosphorene zigzag nanoribbons as a platform for constriction engineering. In the presence of a constriction at one of the edges, quantum confinement of edge-protected states reveals conductance peaks, if the edge is uncoupled from the other edge. If the constriction is narrow enough to promote coupling between edges, it gives rise to Fano-like resonances as well as antiresonances in the transmission spectrum. These effects are shown to mimic an atomic chain like behavior in a two dimensional atomic crystal.
Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.
Alagappan, G; Png, C E
2015-01-28
Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.
GITTAM program for numerical simulation of one-dimensional targets TIS. Part 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basko, M.M.; Sokolovskij, M.V.
1989-01-01
Results of testing calculations according to GITTAM program, developed for numeric simulation of one-dimensional thermonuclear targets of heavy-ion synthesis are presented. Finite-difference method for solving a system of one-dimensional hydrodynamics equations with heat conductivity, radiation diffusion and thermonuclear combustion is used in the GITTAM program. In the tests presented, based on simple automodel solutions, adiabatic motion as well as distribution of shock, thermal and radial waves in gas with simple polytron state equation is investigated. 3 refs.; 6 figs
Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drobný V.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.
Monte Carlo investigation of the one-dimensional Potts model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karma, A.S.; Nolan, M.J.
1983-01-01
Monte Carlo results are presented for a variety of one-dimensional dynamical q-state Potts models. Our calculations confirm the expected universal value z = 2 for the dynamic scaling exponent. Our results also indicate that an increase in q at fixed correlation length drives the dynamics into the scaling regime
Quasi-one-dimensional density of states in a single quantum ring.
Kim, Heedae; Lee, Woojin; Park, Seongho; Kyhm, Kwangseuk; Je, Koochul; Taylor, Robert A; Nogues, Gilles; Dang, Le Si; Song, Jin Dong
2017-01-05
Generally confinement size is considered to determine the dimensionality of nanostructures. While the exciton Bohr radius is used as a criterion to define either weak or strong confinement in optical experiments, the binding energy of confined excitons is difficult to measure experimentally. One alternative is to use the temperature dependence of the radiative recombination time, which has been employed previously in quantum wells and quantum wires. A one-dimensional loop structure is often assumed to model quantum rings, but this approximation ceases to be valid when the rim width becomes comparable to the ring radius. We have evaluated the density of states in a single quantum ring by measuring the temperature dependence of the radiative recombination of excitons, where the photoluminescence decay time as a function of temperature was calibrated by using the low temperature integrated intensity and linewidth. We conclude that the quasi-continuous finely-spaced levels arising from the rotation energy give rise to a quasi-one-dimensional density of states, as long as the confined exciton is allowed to rotate around the opening of the anisotropic ring structure, which has a finite rim width.
Von Neumann Entropy of an Electron in One-Dimensional Determined Potentials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Long-Yan; TONG Pei-Qing
2005-01-01
@@ By using the measure of von Neumann entropy, we numerically investigate quantum entanglement of an electronmoving in the one-dimensional Harper model and in the one-dimensional slowly varying potential model. Thedelocalized and localized eigenstates can be distinguished by von Neumann entropy of the individual eigenstates.There are drastic decreases in yon Neumann entropy of the individual eigenstates at mobility edges. In the curveof the spectrum averaged yon Neumann entropy as a function of potential parameter λ, a sharp transition existsat the metal-insulator transition point λc = 2. It is found that the yon Neumann entropy is a good quantity toreflect localization and metal-insulator transition.
SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials
Maydanyuk, Sergei P
2004-01-01
A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials, an absolute transparency of which is concerned with their belonging to one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential, is studied. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, have a simple analytical view and are expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series), is obtained. An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e. which has the form $V(x) = \\p...
Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James
2017-09-01
The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.
Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns
Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.
2011-09-01
Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S
2008-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators
Solute transport with periodic input point source in one-dimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
JOY
groundwater flow velocity is considered proportional to multiple of temporal function and ζ th ... One-dimensional solute transport through porous media with or without .... solute free. ... the periodic concentration at source of the boundary i.e.,. 0.
The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juerg eSchmidli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.
Wave Transformation Over Reefs: Evaluation of One-Dimensional Numerical Models
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G; Ward, Donald L; Sanchez, Alejandro
2009-01-01
Three one-dimensional (1D) numerical wave models are evaluated for wave transformation over reefs and estimates of wave setup, runup, and ponding levels in an island setting where the beach is fronted by fringing reef and lagoons...
Relativistic bound-state problem of a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, H.; Tamura, K.
1991-01-01
A Poincare-covariant description of the two-body bound-state problem in one-dimensional space is studied by using the relativistic Schrodinger equation. We derive the many-body Hamiltonian, electromagnetic current and generators of the Poincare group in the framework of one-boson exchange. Our theory satisfies Poincare algebra within the one-boson-exchange approximation. We numerically study the relativistic effects on the bound-state wavefunction and the elastic electromagnetic form factor. The Lorentz boost of the bound-state wavefunction and the two-body exchange current are shown to play an important role in guaranteeing the Lorentz invariance of the form factor. (author)
On the effect of memory in one-dimensional K=4 automata on networks
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo
2008-12-01
The effect of implementing memory in cells of one-dimensional CA, and on nodes of various types of automata on networks with increasing degrees of random rewiring is studied in this article, paying particular attention to the case of four inputs. As a rule, memory induces a moderation in the rate of changing nodes and in the damage spreading, albeit in the latter case memory turns out to be ineffective in the control of the damage as the wiring network moves away from the ordered structure that features proper one-dimensional CA. This article complements the previous work done in the two-dimensional context.
Antonopoulou, Evangelia; Rohmann-Shaw, Connor F.; Sykes, Thomas C.; Cayre, Olivier J.; Hunter, Timothy N.; Jimack, Peter K.
2018-03-01
Understanding the sedimentation behaviour of colloidal suspensions is crucial in determining their stability. Since sedimentation rates are often very slow, centrifugation is used to expedite sedimentation experiments. The effect of centrifugal acceleration on sedimentation behaviour is not fully understood. Furthermore, in sedimentation models, interparticle interactions are usually omitted by using the hard-sphere assumption. This work proposes a one-dimensional model for sedimentation using an effective maximum volume fraction, with an extension for sedimentation under centrifugal force. A numerical implementation of the model using an adaptive finite difference solver is described. Experiments with silica suspensions are carried out using an analytical centrifuge. The model is shown to be a good fit with experimental data for 480 nm spherical silica, with the effects of centrifugation at 705 rpm studied. A conversion of data to Earth gravity conditions is proposed, which is shown to recover Earth gravity sedimentation rates well. This work suggests that the effective maximum volume fraction accurately captures interparticle interactions and provides insights into the effect of centrifugation on sedimentation.
Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.
Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz
2003-01-01
We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.
Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension. Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haukka, P.; Raiko, R.
1993-01-01
Gasification of peat and biomass in dilute particle-gas suspension has not been studied significantly in Finland, even though these fuels require drying, which often produces dry pulverized fuel. This report has concentrated on studying suitability of so-called two-stage entrained-bed gasification for peat and biomass. The gasification system consists of a pyrolysis reactor (entrained flow) and an adiabatic char combustor. Dry or almost dry fuel is fed into the hot flue gas stream coming from the char combustor. Gasification is based on flash pyrolysis in the dilute suspension flow. Residual char is separated from pyrolyzer gases in a gas cleaning device and fed back to the adiabatic combustor. In the combustor char is burned at high temperature to supply the heat required to support endothermic reactions occurring in the pyrolyzer. To study entrained-bed gasification two types of computer models were developed: steady state simulation model and kinetic pyrolyzer model. With the help of these computer models mass and energy balances of the gasifier can be solved and the main dimensions of the gasifier can be determined. Lack of proper kinetic parameters for fast pyrolysis of peat and biomass makes it more difficult to apply the kinetic model in practice. Quantitative data concerning fast pyrolysis in dilute gas-particle suspension are needed to be able to evaluate the performance of the suspension gasifier in more detail. Gasifier operation has been studied using three different levels for amounts of pyrolysis pro- ducts, nine pressure levels between 15-23 bars and five temperature levels between 800-1200 deg C. Furthermore, normal pressure performance was simulated. In addition to simulation studies product gas heating value was optimized
Stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Hao; Zhang Peng; Zhan Xiang; Xue Peng
2016-01-01
The stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded classical random walk (RW) is defined as the number of steps taken by a random walker to arrive at a fixed boundary for the first time. A quantum walk (QW) is a non-trivial generalization of RW, and has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers working in quantum physics and quantum information. In this paper, we develop a method to calculate the stopping time for a one-dimensional QW. Using our method, we further compare the properties of stopping time for QW and RW. We find that the mean value of the stopping time is the same for both of these problems. However, for short times, the probability for a walker performing a QW to arrive at the boundary is larger than that for a RW. This means that, although the mean stopping time of a quantum and classical walker are the same, the quantum walker has a greater probability of arriving at the boundary earlier than the classical walker. (paper)
Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Fischer, B.
2007-01-01
Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However......, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide...... range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena....
Ultra-refractive and extended-range one-dimensional photonic crystal superprisms
Ting, D. Z. Y.
2003-01-01
We describe theoretical analysis and design of one-dimensional photonic crystal prisms. We found that inside the photonic crystal, for frequencies near the band edges, light propagation direction is extremely sensitive to the variations in wavelength and incident angle.
STAB: A kinetic, three-dimensional, one-group digital computer program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtis, A.R.; Tyror, J.G.; Wrigley, H.E.
1961-10-01
A computer program for solving the one-group, time dependent, three-dimensional diffusion equation together with auxiliary equations representing heat transfer, xenon production and control rod movements, is presented. The equations and the methods of solution are discussed. (author)
Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...
On the size distribution of one-, two- and three-dimensional Voronoi cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marthinsen, K.
1994-03-01
The present report gives a presentation of the different cell size distribution obtained by computer simulations of random Voronoi cell structures in one-, two- and three-dimensional space. The random Voronoi cells are constructed from cell centroids randomly distributed along a string, in the plane and in three-dimensional space, respectively. The size distributions are based on 2-3 · 10 4 cells. For the spacial polyhedra both the distribution of volumes, areas and radii are presented, and the two latter quantities are compared to the distributions of areas and radii from a planar section through the three-dimensional structure as well as to the corresponding distributions obtained from a pure two-dimensional cell structure. 11 refs., 11 figs
Renormalization group study of the one-dimensional quantum Potts model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solyom, J.; Pfeuty, P.
1981-01-01
The phase transition of the classical two-dimensional Potts model, in particular the order of the transition as the number of components q increases, is studied by constructing renormalization group transformations on the equivalent one-dimensional quatum problem. It is shown that the block transformation with two sites per cell indicates the existence of a critical qsub(c) separating the small q and large q regions with different critical behaviours. The physically accessible fixed point for q>qsub(c) is a discontinuity fixed point where the specific heat exponent α=1 and therefore the transition is of first order. (author)
Finite-dimensional effects and critical indices of one-dimensional quantum models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolyubov, N.M.; Izergin, A.G.; Reshetikhin, N.Yu.
1986-01-01
Critical indices, depending on continuous parameters in Bose-gas quantum models and Heisenberg 1/2 spin antiferromagnetic in two-dimensional space-time at zero temperature, have been calculated by means of finite-dimensional effects. In this case the long-wave asymptotics of the correlation functions is of a power character. Derivation of man asymptotics terms is reduced to the determination of a central charge in the appropriate Virassoro algebra representation and the anomalous dimension-operator spectrum in this representation. The finite-dimensional effects allow to find these values
Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen
2013-11-01
It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.
Observation of magnetoelastic effects in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral magnet
Wang, Chong; Yu, Daiwei; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Rongyan; Du, Xinyu; Hu, Biaoyan; Wang, Lichen; Iida, Kazuki; Kamazawa, Kazuya; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Feng, Ji; Wang, Nanlin; Li, Yuan
2017-08-01
We present a systematic study of spin and lattice dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional spiral magnet CuBr2, using Raman scattering in conjunction with infrared and neutron spectroscopy. Along with the development of spin correlations upon cooling, we observe a rich set of broad Raman bands at energies that correspond to phonon-dispersion energies near the one-dimensional magnetic wave vector. The low-energy bands further exhibit a distinct intensity maximum at the spiral magnetic ordering temperature. We attribute these unusual observations to two possible underlying mechanisms: (1) formation of hybrid spin-lattice excitations and/or (2) "quadrumerization" of the lattice caused by spin-singlet entanglement in competition with the spiral magnetism.
One-dimensional flame instability and control of burning in fire-chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor E. Volkov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The flame stability with regard to one-dimensional exponential perturbations both for the combustion in the fire-chamber and the flame propagating in closed tubes or chambers is investigated. It is proved that both stability and instability are possible for the combustion process. At the same time the one-dimensional flame instability is guaranteed near the front wall of the fire-chamber where the fuel supply is realized. Therefore the control of combustion in the fire-chamber leads to support of the flame at the maximum possible distance from the front wall of the fire-chamber to prevent the vibratory combustion or to diminish intensity of pulsations if these pulsations are inevitable.
Zak phase and band inversion in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials
Zhu, Weiwei; Ding, Ya-qiong; Ren, Jie; Sun, Yong; Li, Yunhui; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong
2018-05-01
The Zak phase, which refers to Berry's phase picked up by a particle moving across the Brillouin zone, characterizes the topological properties of Bloch bands in a one-dimensional periodic system. Here the Zak phase in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials is investigated. It is found that there are some singular points in the bulk band across which the Bloch states contribute π to the Zak phase, whereas in the rest of the band the contribution is nearly zero. These singular points associated with zero reflection are caused by two different mechanisms: the dimerization-independent antiresonance of each branch and the dimerization-dependent destructive interference in multiple backscattering. The structure undergoes a topological phase-transition point in the band structure where the band inverts, and the Zak phase, which is determined by the numbers of singular points in the bulk band, changes following a shift in dimerization parameter. Finally, the interface state between two dimerized metamaterial structures with different topological properties in the first band gap is demonstrated experimentally. The quasi-one-dimensional configuration of the system allows one to explore topology-inspired new methods and applications on the subwavelength scale.
Simulation of the diffraction pattern of one dimensional quasicrystal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of the variation of atomic spacing ratio of a one dimensional quasicrystal material are investigated. The work involves the use of the solid state simulation code, Laue written by Silsbee and Drager. We are able to observe the general features of the diffraction pattern by a quasicrystal. In addition, it has been found ...
Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well
Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…
An algorithm for engineering regime shifts in one-dimensional dynamical systems
Tan, James P. L.
2018-01-01
Regime shifts are discontinuous transitions between stable attractors hosting a system. They can occur as a result of a loss of stability in an attractor as a bifurcation is approached. In this work, we consider one-dimensional dynamical systems where attractors are stable equilibrium points. Relying on critical slowing down signals related to the stability of an equilibrium point, we present an algorithm for engineering regime shifts such that a system may escape an undesirable attractor into a desirable one. We test the algorithm on synthetic data from a one-dimensional dynamical system with a multitude of stable equilibrium points and also on a model of the population dynamics of spruce budworms in a forest. The algorithm and other ideas discussed here contribute to an important part of the literature on exercising greater control over the sometimes unpredictable nature of nonlinear systems.
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-01
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-15
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petra Fiala
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Dimensional measurements on nano-objects by atomic force microscopy (AFM require samples of safely fixed and well individualized particles with a suitable surface-specific particle number on flat and clean substrates. Several known and proven particle preparation methods, i.e., membrane filtration, drying, rinsing, dip coating as well as electrostatic and thermal precipitation, were performed by means of scanning electron microscopy to examine their suitability for preparing samples for dimensional AFM measurements. Different suspensions of nano-objects (with varying material, size and shape stabilized in aqueous solutions were prepared therefore on different flat substrates. The drop-drying method was found to be the most suitable one for the analysed suspensions, because it does not require expensive dedicated equipment and led to a uniform local distribution of individualized nano-objects. Traceable AFM measurements based on Si and SiO2 coated substrates confirmed the suitability of this technique.
Fiala, Petra; Göhler, Daniel; Wessely, Benno; Stintz, Michael; Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew
2017-01-01
Dimensional measurements on nano-objects by atomic force microscopy (AFM) require samples of safely fixed and well individualized particles with a suitable surface-specific particle number on flat and clean substrates. Several known and proven particle preparation methods, i.e., membrane filtration, drying, rinsing, dip coating as well as electrostatic and thermal precipitation, were performed by means of scanning electron microscopy to examine their suitability for preparing samples for dimensional AFM measurements. Different suspensions of nano-objects (with varying material, size and shape) stabilized in aqueous solutions were prepared therefore on different flat substrates. The drop-drying method was found to be the most suitable one for the analysed suspensions, because it does not require expensive dedicated equipment and led to a uniform local distribution of individualized nano-objects. Traceable AFM measurements based on Si and SiO 2 coated substrates confirmed the suitability of this technique.
One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage
Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang
2018-03-01
The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.
Asymmetrically doped one-dimensional trans-polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldas, Heron
2009-01-01
More than 30 years ago [H. Shirakawa, E.J. Louis, A.G. MacDiarmid, C.K. Chiang, A.J. Heeger, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 578 (1977); S. Etemad, A.J. Heeger, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 33 (1982) 443] it was discovered that doped trans-polyacetylene (CH) x , a one-dimensional (1D) conjugated polymer, exhibits electrical conductivity. In this work we show that an asymmetrically doped 1D trans-polymer has non-conventional properties, as compared to symmetrically doped systems. Depending on the level of asymmetry between the chemical potentials of the two involved fermionic species, the polymer can be in a partially or fully spin polarized state. Some possible experimental consequences of doped 1D trans-polymers used as 1D organic polarized conductors are discussed.
One dimensional Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator-like system and isospectral partners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, A
2015-01-01
Two different exactly solvable systems are constructed using the supersymmetric quantum mechanics formalism and a pseudoscalar one-dimensional version of the Dirac- Moshinsky oscillator as a departing system. One system is built using a first-order SUSY transformation. The second is obtained through the confluent supersymmetry algorithm. The two of them are explicitly designed to have the same spectrum as the departing system and pseudoscalar potentials. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoubin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The compound variable inverse problem which comprises boundary temperature distribution and surface convective heat conduction coefficient of two-dimensional steady heat transfer system with inner heat source is studied in this paper applying the conjugate gradient method. The introduction of complex variable to solve the gradient matrix of the objective function obtains more precise inversion results. This paper applies boundary element method to solve the temperature calculation of discrete points in forward problems. The factors of measuring error and the number of measuring points zero error which impact the measurement result are discussed and compared with L-MM method in inverse problems. Instance calculation and analysis prove that the method applied in this paper still has good effectiveness and accuracy even if measurement error exists and the boundary measurement points’ number is reduced. The comparison indicates that the influence of error on the inversion solution can be minimized effectively using this method.
Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.
Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva
2003-01-01
To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.
Variational iteration method for one dimensional nonlinear thermoelasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sweilam, N.H.; Khader, M.M.
2007-01-01
This paper applies the variational iteration method to solve the Cauchy problem arising in one dimensional nonlinear thermoelasticity. The advantage of this method is to overcome the difficulty of calculation of Adomian's polynomials in the Adomian's decomposition method. The numerical results of this method are compared with the exact solution of an artificial model to show the efficiency of the method. The approximate solutions show that the variational iteration method is a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear problems
DC electrostatic gyro suspension system for the Gravity Probe B experiment
Wu, Chang-Huei
1994-12-01
The Gravity Probe B experiment is a satellite-based experiment primarily designed to test two aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by observing the spin axis drift of near-perfect gyroscopes in a 650-km circular polar orbit. The goal of this experiment is to measure the drift angles to an accuracy of 0.3 milli-arcsec after one year in orbit. As a result, electrostatically suspended free-spinning gyroscopes operating at a very low temperature became the final choice for their ultra-low Newtonian torque-induced drift rate. The Conventional AC current-driven suspension system faces two fundamental difficulties for ground gyro testing. Field emission causes rotor charging and arcing with an imperfect electrode or rotor surfaces because the electric field intensity needed to support a solid rotor in the 1-g field is more than 107 V/m. The system not only becomes unstable at a high rotor charge, which can be more than 500 volts, but may also lose control in case of arcing. Both the high voltage AC suspension signal and the high frequency (1 MHz) signal for rotor position sensing interfere with the superconducting SQUID magnetometer for spin axis readout through inductive coupling. These problems were resolved by using DC voltage to generate a suspension force and a low frequency position sensor. In addition to the Input/Output linearization algorithm developed to remove the system nonlinearity for global stability and dynamic performance, we also minimized the electric field intensity to reduce rotor charging. Experimental results verified the desired global stability and satisfactory dynamic performance. The problem of rotor charging is virtually eliminated. More importantly, the DC system is compatible with the SQUID readout system in the Science Mission configuration. Consequently, experiments in low magnetic field at a sub-micro-gauss level for SQUID design verification and trapped flux distribution study were finally realizable in ground environment
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2014-01-01
We present a new model of quantum phase transitions in matrix product systems of one-dimensional spin-1 chains and study the phases coexistence phenomenon. We find that in the thermodynamic limit the proposed system has three different quantum phases and by adjusting the control parameters we are able to realize any phase, any two phases equal coexistence and the three phases equal coexistence. At every critical point the physical quantities including the entanglement are not discontinuous and the matrix product system has long-range correlation and N-spin maximal entanglement. We believe that our work is helpful for having a comprehensive understanding of quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin chains and of certain directive significance to the preparation and control of one-dimensional spin lattice models with stable coherence and N-spin maximal entanglement. (author)
On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.
Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A
2015-01-01
Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the
Hydropneumatic suspension systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Wolfgang
2011-07-01
Hydropneumatic suspensions systems combine the excellent properties of gas springs with the favourable damping properties of hydraulic fluids. The advantages of these systems are particularly appropriate for automotive applications, such as passenger cars, trucks and agricultural equipment. In this book, Dr. Bauer provides an extensive overview of hydropneumatic suspension systems. Starting with a comparison of different types of suspension systems, the author subsequently describes the theoretical background associated with spring and damping characteristics of hydropneumatic systems and furthermore explains the design of the most important system components. Additionally he gives an overview of level control systems and various special functions. Finally the technology is illustrated by design examples and the outlook for future hydropneumatic suspensions is discussed. (orig.)
Correlation Functions of the One-Dimensional Attractive Bose Gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calabrese, Pasquale; Caux, Jean-Sebastien
2007-01-01
The zero-temperature correlation functions of the one-dimensional attractive Bose gas with a delta-function interaction are calculated analytically for any value of the interaction parameter and number of particles, directly from the integrability of the model. We point out a number of interesting features, including zero recoil energy for a large number of particles, analogous to the Moessbauer effect
Organometallic benzene-vanadium wire: A one-dimensional half-metallic ferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maslyuk, V.; Bagrets, A.; Meded, V.
2006-01-01
Using density functional theory we perform theoretical investigations of the electronic properties of a freestanding one-dimensional organometallic vanadium-benzene wire. This system represents the limiting case of multidecker V-n(C6H6)(n+1) clusters which can be synthesized with established meth...
Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Qin, Xue; Xie, Yi-Xin
2011-08-01
We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number xi generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application.
Longitudinal and spin Hall conductance of a one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moca, Catalin Pascu; Marinescu, D C
2006-01-01
The longitudinal and spin Hall conductances of an electron gas with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, confined to a quasi-one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring, are studied as functions of disorder and magnetic flux. The system is mapped onto a one-dimensional virtual lattice and is described, in a tight binding approximation, by a Hamiltonian that depends parametrically on the nearest neighbour hopping integral t, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling V R , the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling V D and an Anderson-like, on-site disorder energy strength W. Numerical results are obtained within a spin dependent Landauer-Buettiker formalism
Two-Dimensional One-Component Plasma on Flamm's Paraboloid
Fantoni, Riccardo; Téllez, Gabriel
2008-11-01
We study the classical non-relativistic two-dimensional one-component plasma at Coulomb coupling Γ=2 on the Riemannian surface known as Flamm's paraboloid which is obtained from the spatial part of the Schwarzschild metric. At this special value of the coupling constant, the statistical mechanics of the system are exactly solvable analytically. The Helmholtz free energy asymptotic expansion for the large system has been found. The density of the plasma, in the thermodynamic limit, has been carefully studied in various situations.
Hidden symmetries in one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Nazareno, H.N.
2000-11-01
We construct a Heisenberg-like algebra for the one dimensional infinite square-well potential in quantum mechanics. The number-type and ladder operators are realized in terms of physical operators of the system as in the harmonic oscillator algebra. These physical operators are obtained with the help of variables used in a recently developed non commutative differential calculus. This square-well algebra is an example of an algebra in large class of generalized Heisenberg algebras recently constructed. This class of algebras also contains q-oscillators as a particular case. We also show here how this general algebra can address hidden symmetries present in several quantum systems. (author)
One-Dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell Equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, Michael G.; Neukirch, Thomas
2009-01-01
In this Letter, the first nonlinear force-free Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium is presented. One component of the equilibrium magnetic field has the same spatial structure as the Harris sheet, but whereas the Harris sheet is kept in force balance by pressure gradients, in the force-free solution presented here force balance is maintained by magnetic shear. Magnetic pressure, plasma pressure and plasma density are constant. The method used to find the equilibrium is based on the analogy of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium problem to the motion of a pseudoparticle in a two-dimensional conservative potential. The force-free solution can be generalized to a complete family of equilibria that describe the transition between the purely pressure-balanced Harris sheet to the force-free Harris sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.
Parallel ray tracing for one-dimensional discrete ordinate computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarvis, R.D.; Nelson, P.
1996-01-01
The ray-tracing sweep in discrete-ordinates, spatially discrete numerical approximation methods applied to the linear, steady-state, plane-parallel, mono-energetic, azimuthally symmetric, neutral-particle transport equation can be reduced to a parallel prefix computation. In so doing, the often severe penalty in convergence rate of the source iteration, suffered by most current parallel algorithms using spatial domain decomposition, can be avoided while attaining parallelism in the spatial domain to whatever extent desired. In addition, the reduction implies parallel algorithm complexity limits for the ray-tracing sweep. The reduction applies to all closed, linear, one-cell functional (CLOF) spatial approximation methods, which encompasses most in current popular use. Scalability test results of an implementation of the algorithm on a 64-node nCube-2S hypercube-connected, message-passing, multi-computer are described. (author)
Effective one-dimensionality of universal ac hopping conduction in the extreme disorder limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas
1996-01-01
A phenomenological picture of ac hopping in the symmetric hopping model (regular lattice, equal site energies, random energy barriers) is proposed according to which conduction in the extreme disorder limit is dominated by essentially one-dimensional "percolation paths." Modeling a percolation path...... as strictly one dimensional with a sharp jump rate cutoff leads to an expression for the universal ac conductivity that fits computer simulations in two and three dimensions better than the effective medium approximation....
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
Hydrogen atom trapping in a self-organized one-dimensional dimer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsuyoshi Takami
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs have attracted widespread attention owing to their unusual structure and properties produced by their nanospaces. However, many MOFs possess the similar three-dimensional frameworks, limiting their structural variety and operating capacity for hydrogen storage under ambient conditions. Here we report the synthesis and structural characterization of a single-crystal one-dimensional dimer whose structure, operating capacity, and physical mechanism contrast with those of existing MOFs. The hydrogen storage capacity of 2.6 wt.% is comparable to the highest capacity achieved by existing MOFs at room temperature. This exceptional storage capacity is realized by self-organization during crystal growth using a weak base.
Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method
Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.
2012-05-01
Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.
Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolata, A J; Dyzia, M
2012-01-01
Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al 2 O 3 , SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.
Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fellin, F.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)
2016-02-15
Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.
Verification of the three-dimensional FLAME code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mays, C.W.
1976-08-01
FLAME calculations are compared with operating data from Oconee Unit 1 and with two independent three-dimensional PDQ07 calculations for a feed-and-bleed plant containing lumped burnable poison. The Oconee 1 comparisons consider both steady-state and transient data. The steady-state calculations are compared with operating data from two cycles of operation. The comparisons with PDQ07 calculations are for a design transient. Direct comparisons are made between calculations and measurements for the Oconee 1 analyses. No uncertainty is applied to measured power densities. The difference in measured and calculated total peak for 95% of the assemblies considered in these comparisons is less than 5.3%. Based on these analyses, it is concluded that FLAME can calculate the total peak to within 5.3% for both steady-state and transient plant conditions. The maximum deviation in the total peak calculated by FLAME and one of the PDQ07 calculations is 5.6%. The maximum deviation with the other PDQ07 calculation is 2.5%. It is concluded that the FLAME calculations gave the most conservative results of the three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamkha, Ali J.; Al-Rashidi, Seham S.
2010-01-01
This work considers the problem of steady natural convection hydromagnetic flow of a particulate suspension through an infinitely long channel in the presence of heat generation or absorption effects. The channel walls are maintained at isoflux-isothermal condition. That is, the thermal boundary conditions are such that one of the channel walls is maintained at constant heat flux while the other is maintained at a constant temperature. Various closed-form solutions of the governing equations for different special cases are obtained. A parametric study of the physical parameters involved in the problem is done to illustrate the influence of these parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles of both phases.
Ultracold atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices approaching the Tonks-Girardeau regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollet, L.; Rombouts, S.M.A.; Denteneer, P.J. H.
2004-01-01
Recent experiments on ultracold atomic alkali gases in a one-dimensional optical lattice have demonstrated the transition from a gas of soft-core bosons to a Tonks-Girardeau gas in the hard-core limit, where one-dimensional bosons behave like fermions in many respects. We have studied the underlying many-body physics through numerical simulations which accommodate both the soft-core and hard-core limits in one single framework. We find that the Tonks-Girardeau gas is reached only at the strongest optical lattice potentials. Results for slightly higher densities, where the gas develops a Mott-like phase already at weaker optical lattice potentials, show that these Mott-like short-range correlations do not enhance the convergence to the hard-core limit
Comment on "Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit".
Carrillo-Bernal, M A; Núñez-Yépez, H N; Salas-Brito, A L; Solis, Didier A
2015-02-01
In the referred paper, the authors use a numerical method for solving ordinary differential equations and a softened Coulomb potential -1/√[x(2)+β(2)] to study the one-dimensional Coulomb problem by approaching the parameter β to zero. We note that even though their numerical findings in the soft potential scenario are correct, their conclusions do not extend to the one-dimensional Coulomb problem (β=0). Their claims regarding the possible existence of an even ground state with energy -∞ with a Dirac-δ eigenfunction and of well-defined parity eigenfunctions in the one-dimensional hydrogen atom are questioned.
Investigation of hydrocephalus with three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurihara, N.; National Sendai Hospital; Takahashi, S.; Higano, S.; Furuta, S.; Umetsu, A.; Tamura, H.; Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita; Jokura, H.
2000-01-01
We report four patients with various types of hydrocephalus in whom constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MRI disclosed the cause of the hydrocephalus. The imaging clearly delineated an abnormal contour of the ventricular system and intraventricular septa, essential information for surgical planning, including endoscopic surgery. Postoperative CISS images were useful for showing not only regression of hydrocephalus but also the patency of small fenestrations. (orig.)
2012-09-03
27] introduced a new smoothness indicator, which removed the slight post- shock oscillations and improved the convergence . A Newton- iteration method... Gauss - Seidel algorithm for steady Euler equation on unstructured grids, Numer. Math. Theor. Meth. Appl., Vol. 1, pp. 92–112, (2008). [14] G.-S. Jiang...was adopted to solve the steady two dimensional Euler equations [10, 11, 13]. The matrix-free Squared Preconditioning is applied to a Newton iteration
Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua
2015-07-07
In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.
Accurate correlation energies in one-dimensional systems from small system-adapted basis functions
Baker, Thomas E.; Burke, Kieron; White, Steven R.
2018-02-01
We propose a general method for constructing system-dependent basis functions for correlated quantum calculations. Our construction combines features from several traditional approaches: plane waves, localized basis functions, and wavelets. In a one-dimensional mimic of Coulomb systems, it requires only 2-3 basis functions per electron to achieve high accuracy, and reproduces the natural orbitals. We illustrate its effectiveness for molecular energy curves and chains of many one-dimensional atoms. We discuss the promise and challenges for realistic quantum chemical calculations.
Acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, F.; Rodriguez, J.P.
1986-01-01
We study the acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals. Both numerical (nonperturbative) and analytical (perturbative) results are shown. The phonon and electronic spectra exhibit a self-similar hierarchy of gaps and many localized states in the gaps. We study quasiperiodic structures with any number of layers and several types of boundary conditions. We discuss the connection between our phonon model and recent experiments on quasiperiodic GaAs-AlAs superlattices. We predict the existence of many gap states localized at the surfaces
Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures.
Goto, T; Dorofeenko, A V; Merzlikin, A M; Baryshev, A V; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Lisyansky, A A; Granovsky, A B
2008-09-12
We demonstrate the existence of a spectrally narrow localized surface state, the so-called optical Tamm state, at the interface between one-dimensional magnetophotonic and nonmagnetic photonic crystals. The state is spectrally located inside the photonic band gaps of each of the photonic crystals comprising this magnetophotonic structure. This state is associated with a sharp transmission peak through the sample and is responsible for the substantial enhancement of the Faraday rotation for the corresponding wavelength. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Heat transfer in a one-dimensional mixed convection loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Min Joon; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Jong Man; Nam, Ho Yun
1999-01-01
Effects of non-uniform heating in the core and additional forced circulation during decay heat removal operation are studied with a simplified mixed convection loop. The heat transfer coefficient is calculated analytically and measured experimentally. The analytic solution obtained from a one-dimensional heat equation is found to agree well with the experimental results. The effects of the non-uniform heating and the forced circulation are discussed
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.
1989-01-01
The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet
Suspensions on the basis of stabilised zirconium oxide for three-dimensional printing
Sokolov, P. S.; Komissarenko, D. A.; Shmeleva, I. A.; Slyusar, I. V.; Dosovitskiy, G. A.; Evdokimov, P. V.; Putlyaev, V. I.; Dosovitskiy, A. E.
2018-04-01
Present work considers the first results on rheological and photo-curing behaviour of suspension consisting of nanocrystalline stabilised zirconium dioxide powders (19 - 27 vol. %) and a liquid UV-photosensitive organic monomer. At ambient temperature compositions showed a viscosity of 2.5 and 0.8 Pa×s at 10 and 100 s-1 shear rates, respectively. Printability of these compositions was subsequently investigated by using an stereolithography machine Ember (Autodesk). 3D objects were later sintered in a separate furnace into dense translucent ZrO2 ceramics.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We report the numerically evaluated critical exponents associated with the scaling of generalized fractal dimensions during the transition from order to chaos. The analysis is carried out in detail in the context of unimodal and bimodal maps representing typical one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems. The behavior of ...
Stimulated wave of polarization in a one-dimensional Ising chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, A.K.
2005-01-01
It is demonstrated that in a one-dimensional Ising chain with nearest-neighbor interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a stimulated wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a flip of a single spin. This analytically solvable model illustrates mechanisms of quantum amplification and quantum measurement
Electrons, pseudoparticles, and quasiparticles in the one-dimensional many-electron problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmelo, J.M.; Castro Neto, A.H.
1996-01-01
We generalize the concept of quasiparticle for one-dimensional (1D) interacting electronic systems. The ↑ and ↓ quasiparticles recombine the pseudoparticle colors c and s (charge and spin at zero-magnetic field) and are constituted by one many-pseudoparticle topological-momentum shift and one or two pseudoparticles. These excitations cannot be separated. We consider the case of the Hubbard chain. We show that the low-energy electron-quasiparticle transformation has a singular character which justifies the perturbative and nonperturbative nature of the quantum problem in the pseudoparticle and electronic basis, respectively. This follows from the absence of zero-energy electron-quasiparticle overlap in 1D. The existence of Fermi-surface quasiparticles both in 1D and three dimensional (3D) many-electron systems suggests their existence in quantum liquids in dimensions 1 1 or whether it becomes finite as soon as we leave 1D remains an unsolved question. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, C.; Koski, J.A.; Razani, A.
2000-01-01
A study of the errors introduced when one-dimensional inverse heat conduction techniques are applied to problems involving two-dimensional heat transfer effects was performed. The geometry used for the study was a cylinder with similar dimensions as a typical container used for the transportation of radioactive materials. The finite element analysis code MSC P/Thermal was used to generate synthetic test data that was then used as input for an inverse heat conduction code. Four different problems were considered including one with uniform flux around the outer surface of the cylinder and three with non-uniform flux applied over 360 deg C, 180 deg C, and 90 deg C sections of the outer surface of the cylinder. The Sandia One-Dimensional Direct and Inverse Thermal (SODDIT) code was used to estimate the surface heat flux of all four cases. The error analysis was performed by comparing the results from SODDIT and the heat flux calculated based on the temperature results obtained from P/Thermal. Results showed an increase in error of the surface heat flux estimates as the applied heat became more localized. For the uniform case, SODDIT provided heat flux estimates with a maximum error of 0.5% whereas for the non-uniform cases, the maximum errors were found to be about 3%, 7%, and 18% for the 360 deg C, 180 deg C, and 90 deg C cases, respectively
Pure and entangled N=4 linear supermultiplets and their one-dimensional sigma-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzales, Marcelo; Iga, Kevin; Khodaee, Sadi; Toppan, Francesco
2012-01-01
“Pure” homogeneous linear supermultiplets (minimal and non-minimal) of the N=4-extended one-dimensional supersymmetry algebra are classified. “Pure” means that they admit at least one graphical presentation (the corresponding graph/graphs are known as “Adinkras”). We further prove the existence of “entangled” linear supermultiplets which do not admit a graphical presentation, by constructing an explicit example of an entangled N=4 supermultiplet with field content (3, 8, 5). It interpolates between two inequivalent pure N=4 supermultiplets with the same field content. The one-dimensional N=4 sigma-model with a three-dimensional target based on the entangled supermultiplet is presented. The distinction between the notion of equivalence for pure supermultiplets and the notion of equivalence for their associated graphs (Adinkras) is discussed. Discrete properties such as “chirality” and “coloring” can discriminate different supermultiplets. The tools used in our classification include, among others, the notion of field content, connectivity symbol, commuting group, node choice group, and so on.
Steady and Unsteady Analysis of NACA 0018 Airfoil in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rogowski, Krzysztof; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maronski, Ryszard
2018-01-01
Numerical results are presented for aerodynamic unsteady and steady airfoil characteristtcs of the NACA 0018 airfoil of a two-dimensional vertical-axis wind turbine. A geometrical model of the Darrieus-type wind turbine and the rotor operating parameters used for nurnerieal simulation are taken...
Wang, Steve S; Ehrlich, Daniel J
2017-09-01
The parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) is an imaging flow cytometer that operates on statistical analysis of low-pixel-count, one-dimensional (1D) line scans. It is highly efficient in data collection and operates on suspension cells. In this article, we present a supervised automated pipeline for the PMC that minimizes operator intervention by incorporating multivariate logistic regression for data scoring. We test the self-tuning statistical algorithms in a human primary T-cell activation assay in flow using nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) translocation as a readout and readily achieve an average Z' of 0.55 and strictly standardized mean difference of 13 with standard phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin induction. To implement the tests, we routinely load 4 µL samples and can readout 3000 to 9000 independent conditions from 15 mL of primary human blood (buffy coat fraction). We conclude that the new technology will support primary-cell protein-localization assays and "on-the-fly" data scoring at a sample throughput of more than 100,000 wells per day and that it is, in principle, consistent with a primary pharmaceutical screen.
Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.
Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E
2009-06-26
Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.
1DFEMWATER: A one-dimensional finite element model of WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1988-08-01
This report presents the development and verification of a one- dimensional finite element model of water flow through saturated- unsaturated media. 1DFEMWATER is very flexible and capable of modeling a wide range of real-world problems. The model is designed to (1) treat heterogeneous media consisting of many geologic formations; (2) consider distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally variable; (3) accept prescribed initial conditions or obtain them from steady state simulations; (4) deal with transient heads distributed over the Dirichlet boundary; (5) handle time-dependent fluxes caused by pressure gradient on the Neumann boundary; (6) treat time-dependent total fluxes (i.e., the sum of gravitational fluxes and pressure-gradient fluxes) on the Cauchy boundary; (7) automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface; (8) provide two options for treating the mass matrix (consistent and lumping); (9) provide three alternatives for approximating the time derivative term (Crank-Nicolson central difference, backward difference, and mid-difference); (10) give three options (exact relaxation, underrelaxation, and overrelaxation) for estimating the nonlinear matrix; (11) automatically reset the time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly; and (12) check mass balance over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions and other numerical models for three examples
EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions
Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen
2011-05-01
fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a
Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xing-Yuan; Qin Xue; Xie Yi-Xin
2011-01-01
We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number x i generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application. (general)
Black phosphorus-based one-dimensional photonic crystals and microcavities.
Kriegel, Ilka; Toffanin, Stefano; Scotognella, Francesco
2016-11-10
The latest achievements in the fabrication of thin layers of black phosphorus (BP), toward the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for their use in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e., photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer BP is one of the components. The insertion of the 5-nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity that is interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.
Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alibai Iskakbayev
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.
One-dimensional central-force problem, including radiation reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasher, J.C.
1976-01-01
Two equal masses of equal charge magnitude (either attractive or repulsive) are held a certain distance apart for their entire past history. AT t = 0 one of them is either started from rest or given an initial velocity toward or away from the other charge. When the Dirac radiation-reaction force is included in the force equation, our Taylor-series numerical calculations lead to two types of nonphysical results for both the attractive and repulsive cases. In the attractive case, the moving charge either stops and moves back out to infinity, or violates energy conservation as it nears collision with the fixed charge. For the repulsive charges, the moving particle either eventually approaches and collides with the fixed one, or violates energy conservation as it goes out to infinity. These results lead us to conclude that the Lorentz-Dirac equation is not valid for the one-dimensional central-force problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Gianfreda
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss conditions giving rise to stationary position-momentum correlations among quantum states in the Fock and coherent basis associated with the natural invariant for the one-dimensional time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian operators such as the Kanai-Caldirola Hamiltonian. We also discuss some basic features such as quantum decoherence of the wave functions resulting from the corresponding quantum dynamics of these systems that exhibit no timedependence in their quantum correlations. In particular, steady statistical momentum averages are seen over well-defined time intervals in the evolution of a linear superposition of the basis states of modified exponentially damped mass systems.
Reduction formalism for dimensionally regulated one-loop N-point integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binoth, T.; Guillet, J.Ph.; Heinrich, G.
2000-01-01
We consider one-loop scalar and tensor integrals with an arbitrary number of external legs relevant for multi-parton processes in massless theories. We present a procedure to reduce N-point scalar functions with generic 4-dimensional external momenta to box integrals in (4-2ε) dimensions. We derive a formula valid for arbitrary N and give an explicit expression for N=6. Further a tensor reduction method for N-point tensor integrals is presented. We prove that generically higher dimensional integrals contribute only to order ε for N≥5. The tensor reduction can be solved iteratively such that any tensor integral is expressible in terms of scalar integrals. Explicit formulas are given up to N=6
Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional models for mass transport of radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prickett, T.A.; Voorhees, M.L.; Herzog, B.L.
1980-02-01
This technical memorandum compares one-, two-, and three-dimensional models for studying regional mass transport of radionuclides in groundwater associated with deep repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In addition, this report outlines the general conditions for which a one- or two-dimensional model could be used as an alternate to a three-dimensional model analysis. The investigation includes a review of analytical and numerical models in addition to consideration of such conditions as rock and fluid heterogeneity, anisotropy, boundary and initial conditions, and various geometric shapes of repository sources and sinks. Based upon current hydrologic practice, each review is taken separately and discussed to the extent that the researcher can match his problem conditions with the minimum number of model dimensions necessary for an accurate solution
Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Morten
This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cockburn, S. P.; Gallucci, D.; Proukakis, N. P.
2011-01-01
The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation is shown to be an excellent model for quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas experiments, accurately reproducing the in situ density profiles recently obtained in the experiments of Trebbia et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 250403 (2006)] and van Amerongen et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090402 (2008)] and the density fluctuation data reported by Armijo et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 230402 (2010)]. To facilitate such agreement, we propose and implement a quasi-one-dimensional extension to the one-dimensional stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the low-energy, axial modes, while atoms in excited transverse modes are treated as independent ideal Bose gases.
Angular momentum transfer in steady disk accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbatskij, V.G.
1977-01-01
The conditions of steady disk accretion have been investigated. The disk axisymmetric model is considered. It is shown that the gas is let at the outer boundary of the disk with the azimuthal velocity which is slightly less than the Kepler circular one. Gas possesses the motion quality moment which is transferred from the outer layers of the disk to the surface of the star. The steady state of the disk preserved until the inflow of the moment to the star increases its rotation velocity up to magnitudes close to the critical one
Stability model for one-dimensional FRCs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Hewitt, T.G.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Symon, K.R.
1982-01-01
The subject of transport near the separatrix in FRC devices is important for determining the performance to be expected from an FRC reactor or from FRC experiments. A computer code was constructed for studying the micro-stability properties of FRCs near the separatrix as a first step in obtaining quasilinear transport coefficients that can be used in a transport code. We consider collisionless ions and electrons, without an expansion in powers of a parameter, like the electron or ion gyroradius, and we approximate the equilibrium with an infinitely long axially and translationally symmetric equilibrium. Thus, in our equilibria, there are only an axial magnetic field and a radial electric field. Our equilibria are collisionless, two-species, diffuse-profile, one-dimensional, theta-pinch equilibria. We allow the possibility that there be a magnetic field null in order to be able to model FRC devices more realistically
Effects of weak localization in quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium
Kovdrya, Y Z; Gladchenko, S P
2001-01-01
One measured rho sub x sub x magnetoresistance of a quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium within gas scattering range (1.3-2.0 K temperature range). It is shown that with increase of magnetic field the magnetoresistance is reduced at first and them upon passing over minimum it begins to increase from rho sub x sub x approx B sup 2 law. One anticipated that the negative magnetoresistance detected in the course of experiments resulted from the effects of weak localization. The experiment results are in qualitative conformity with the theoretical model describing processes of weak localization in single-dimensional nondegenerate electronic systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolai Lang, Hans Peter Büchler
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Active quantum error correction on topological codes is one of the most promising routes to long-term qubit storage. In view of future applications, the scalability of the used decoding algorithms in physical implementations is crucial. In this work, we focus on the one-dimensional Majorana chain and construct a strictly local decoder based on a self-dual cellular automaton. We study numerically and analytically its performance and exploit these results to contrive a scalable decoder with exponentially growing decoherence times in the presence of noise. Our results pave the way for scalable and modular designs of actively corrected one-dimensional topological quantum memories.
A numerical scheme for the one-dimensional pressureless gases system
Boudin , Laurent; Mathiaud , Julien
2012-01-01
International audience; In this work, we investigate the numerical solving of the one-dimensional pressureless gases system. After briefly recalling the mathematical framework of the duality solutions introduced by Bouchut and James, we point out that the upwind scheme for the density and momentum does not satisfy the one-sided Lipschitz (OSL) condition on the expansion rate required for the duality solutions. Then we build a diffusive scheme which allows to recover the OSL condition by follo...
Electrorheological suspensions of laponite in oil: rheometry studies.
Parmar, K P S; Méheust, Y; Schjelderupsen, Børge; Fossum, J O
2008-03-04
We have studied the effect of an external direct current (DC) electric field ( approximately 1 kV/mm) on the rheological properties of colloidal suspensions consisting of aggregates of laponite particles in a silicone oil. Microscopy observations show that, under application of an electric field greater than a triggering electric field Ec approximately 0.6 kV/mm, laponite aggregates assemble into chain- and/or columnlike structures in the oil. Without an applied electric field, the steady-state shear behavior of such suspensions is Newtonian-like. Under application of an electric field larger than Ec, it changes dramatically as a result of the changes in the microstructure: a significant yield stress is measured, and under continuous shear the fluid is shear-thinning. The rheological properties, in particular the dynamic and static shear stress, were studied as a function of particle volume fraction for various strengths (including null) of the applied electric field. The flow curves at constant shear rate can be scaled with respect to both the particle fraction and electric field strength onto a master curve. This scaling is consistent with simple scaling arguments. The shape of the master curve accounts for the system's complexity; it approaches a standard power-law model at high Mason numbers. Both dynamic and static yield stresses are observed to depend on the particle fraction Phi and electric field E as PhibetaEalpha, with alpha approximately 1.85 and beta approximately 1 and 1.70 for the dynamic and static yield stresses, respectively. The yield stress was also determined as the critical stress at which there occurs a bifurcation in the rheological behavior of suspensions that are submitted to a constant shear stress; a scaling law with alpha approximately 1.84 and beta approximately 1.70 was obtained. The effectiveness of the latter technique confirms that such electrorheological (ER) fluids can be studied in the framework of thixotropic fluids. The method
The quantum flux in quasis one-dimensional conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, J.
1989-01-01
A method is presented which quantizes electromagnetic fluxes directly in flux space. It is based on the commutation law [φ B , φ E ] = i, where φ B is the magnetic flux, and φ E the longitudinal electric flux of a quasi one-dimensional conductor. The relevance of such a method for the description of the quantized Hall plateaus is discussed. In a second step, the polarization electric flux is introduced, together with a method for quantization of hybrid variables formed with pure electromagnetic fluxes plus electronic variables. (author) [pt
One-dimensional computational modeling on nuclear reactor problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves Filho, Hermes; Baptista, Josue Costa; Trindade, Luiz Fernando Santos; Heringer, Juan Diego dos Santos
2013-01-01
In this article, we present a computational modeling, which gives us a dynamic view of some applications of Nuclear Engineering, specifically in the power distribution and the effective multiplication factor (keff) calculations. We work with one-dimensional problems of deterministic neutron transport theory, with the linearized Boltzmann equation in the discrete ordinates (SN) formulation, independent of time, with isotropic scattering and then built a software (Simulator) for modeling computational problems used in a typical calculations. The program used in the implementation of the simulator was Matlab, version 7.0. (author)
Generalized entropy decay rates of one-dimensional maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csordas, A.; Szepfalusy, P.
1988-01-01
A series of entropies, approaching the order-q Renyi's entropies when the length of orbits tends to infinity, is considered. Their scaling form is determined for chaotic one-dimensional maps. For the characteristic relaxation time a general expression is derived, and it is shown to be closely related to the eigenvalues of a generalized Frobenius-Perron operator. The case of intermittent maps is also considered, and the spectrum of relaxation time is found to reflect the phase transition at q = 1. Results of numerical experiments are also presented
One-Dimensional Rydberg Gas in a Magnetoelectric Trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayle, Michael; Hezel, Bernd; Lesanovsky, Igor; Schmelcher, Peter
2007-01-01
We study the quantum properties of Rydberg atoms in a magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard trap which is superimposed by a homogeneous electric field. Trapped Rydberg atoms can be created in long-lived electronic states exhibiting a permanent electric dipole moment of several hundred Debye. The resulting dipole-dipole interaction in conjunction with the radial confinement is demonstrated to give rise to an effectively one-dimensional ultracold Rydberg gas with a macroscopic interparticle distance. We derive analytical expressions for the electric dipole moment and the required linear density of Rydberg atoms
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-01-01
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl 2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-05-15
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl{sub 2} and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagating in one-dimensional layered system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Y.; Miao, G.Q.; Zhang, P.; Huang, K.; Wei, R.J.
2005-01-01
The propagation of finite-amplitude plane sound in one-dimensional layered media is studied by the extended method of transfer matrix formalism. For the periodic layered system consisting of two alternate types of liquid, the energy distribution and the phase vectors of the interface vibration are computed and analyzed. It is found that in the pass-band, the second harmonic of sound wave can propagate with the characteristic modulation
Energy in one-dimensional linear waves in a string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burko, Lior M
2010-01-01
We consider the energy density and energy transfer in small amplitude, one-dimensional waves on a string and find that the common expressions used in textbooks for the introductory physics with calculus course give wrong results for some cases, including standing waves. We discuss the origin of the problem, and how it can be corrected in a way appropriate for the introductory calculus-based physics course. (letters and comments)
Negative Refraction Angular Characterization in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn
2011-01-01
Background Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity de...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Curry
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.
Heat conduction in one-dimensional chains and nonequilibrium Lyapunov spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posch, H.A.; Hoover, W.G.
1998-01-01
We define and study the heat conductivity κ and the Lyapunov spectrum for a modified 'ding-a-ling' chain undergoing steady heat flow. Free and bound particles alternate along a chain. In the present work, we use a linear gravitational potential to bind all the even-numbered particles to their lattice sites. The chain is bounded by two stochastic heat reservoirs, one hot and one cold. The Fourier conductivity of the chain decreases smoothly to a finite large-system limit. Special treatment of satellite collisions with the stochastic boundaries is required to obtain Lyapunov spectra. The summed spectra are negative, and correspond to a relatively small contraction in phase space, with the formation of a multifractal strange attractor. The largest of the Lyapunov exponents for the ding-a-ling chain appears to converge to a limiting value with increasing chain length, so that the large-system Lyapunov spectrum has a finite limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun
2012-12-01
Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System
Bickler, Donald B.
1990-01-01
Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).
Hopping transport and electrical conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Li Yanfeng; Song Zhaoquan
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a model to describe hopping transport and electrical conductivity of one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder, in which electrons are transported via hopping between localized states. We find that off-diagonal disorder leads to delocalization and drastically enhances the electrical conductivity of systems. The model also quantitatively explains the temperature and electrical field dependence of the conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder. In addition, we also show the dependence of the conductivity on the strength of off-diagonal disorder
Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)
2010-07-01
This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.
Cheon, Gowoon; Duerloo, Karel-Alexander N; Sendek, Austin D; Porter, Chase; Chen, Yuan; Reed, Evan J
2017-03-08
Layered materials held together by weak interactions including van der Waals forces, such as graphite, have attracted interest for both technological applications and fundamental physics in their layered form and as an isolated single-layer. Only a few dozen single-layer van der Waals solids have been subject to considerable research focus, although there are likely to be many more that could have superior properties. To identify a broad spectrum of layered materials, we present a novel data mining algorithm that determines the dimensionality of weakly bonded subcomponents based on the atomic positions of bulk, three-dimensional crystal structures. By applying this algorithm to the Materials Project database of over 50,000 inorganic crystals, we identify 1173 two-dimensional layered materials and 487 materials that consist of weakly bonded one-dimensional molecular chains. This is an order of magnitude increase in the number of identified materials with most materials not known as two- or one-dimensional materials. Moreover, we discover 98 weakly bonded heterostructures of two-dimensional and one-dimensional subcomponents that are found within bulk materials, opening new possibilities for much-studied assembly of van der Waals heterostructures. Chemical families of materials, band gaps, and point groups for the materials identified in this work are presented. Point group and piezoelectricity in layered materials are also evaluated in single-layer forms. Three hundred and twenty-five of these materials are expected to have piezoelectric monolayers with a variety of forms of the piezoelectric tensor. This work significantly extends the scope of potential low-dimensional weakly bonded solids to be investigated.
Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics towards a unified classical view
Cao, Zhuangqi
2014-01-01
Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics. Prof. Zhuangqi Cao is a Professor of Physics at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Dr. Cheng Yin is a teacher at Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Power Transmission and Distribution Equipment Technology, Hohai University, China.
Brooks–Corey Modeling by One-Dimensional Vertical Infiltration Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuguang Xing
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The laboratory methods used for the soil water retention curve (SWRC construction and parameter estimation is time-consuming. A vertical infiltration method was proposed to estimate parameters α and n and to further construct the SWRC. In the present study, the relationships describing the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate with the depth of the wetting front were established, and simplified expressions for estimating α and n parameters were proposed. The one-dimensional vertical infiltration experiments of four soils were conducted to verify if the proposed method would accurately estimate α and n. The fitted values of α and n, obtained from the RETC software, were consistent with the calculated values obtained from the infiltration method. The comparison between the measured SWRCs obtained from the centrifuge method and the calculated SWRCs that were based on the infiltration method displayed small values of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and mean absolute error. SWMS_2D-based simulations of cumulative infiltration, based on the calculated α and n, remained consistent with the measured values due to small RMSE and MAPE values. The experiments verified the proposed one-dimensional vertical infiltration method, which has applications in field hydraulic parameter estimation.
Low dimensional equivalence of core neutronics model and its application to transient analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Hongbing; Zhao Fuyu
2015-01-01
Three-dimensional coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics reactor analysis is time consuming and occupies huge memory. A one-dimensional model is preferable than the three one in nuclear system analysis, control system design and load following. In this paper, a corewide three dimensional to one dimensional equivalent method has been developed. On the basis of this method 1D axial few groups constants were obtained. The equivalent cross sections were calculated by general spatial homogenization while the transverse buckling was computed through an equivalence based on the 3D flux conservation. Three steady test cases were performed on one dimensional finite difference code ODTAC and the results were compared with TRIVAC-5. The comparison shows that the one dimensional axial power distribution computed by ODTAC correlates well with the three dimensional results calculated by TRIVAC-5. In this study, DRAGON-4 was used to generate the few-group constants of fuel assemblies and the reflector few-group parameters were calculated by WIMS-D4. These collapsed few-group constants were tabulated in a database sorted in ascending order of fuel temperature, coolant temperature and concentration of boric acid. Trilinear interpolation was adopted in cross sections feedback during the transient analysis. In this paper, G1 rod drop accident (RDA) and G1 rod ejection accident (REA) were performed on ODTAC and the computation results were consistent of the physical rules. (author)
Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.
Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen
2017-03-01
This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan
2015-07-01
The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.
One-dimensional quantum walk with a moving boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwek, Leong Chuan; Setiawan
2011-01-01
Quantum walks are interesting models with potential applications to quantum algorithms and physical processes such as photosynthesis. In this paper, we study two models of one-dimensional quantum walks, namely, quantum walks with a moving absorbing wall and quantum walks with one stationary and one moving absorbing wall. For the former, we calculate numerically the survival probability, the rate of change of average position, and the rate of change of standard deviation of the particle's position in the long time limit for different wall velocities. Moreover, we also study the asymptotic behavior and the dependence of the survival probability on the initial particle's state. While for the latter, we compute the absorption probability of the right stationary wall for different velocities and initial positions of the left wall boundary. The results for these two models are compared with those obtained for the classical model. The difference between the results obtained for the quantum and classical models can be attributed to the difference in the probability distributions.
Enhancement of conductivity due to local disorder in a one-dimensional conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morifuji, Masato; Maeda, Yusuke
2011-01-01
We theoretically investigate electron transport in a one-dimensional conductor with a locally disordered potential by using the non-equilibrium Green’s function theory. It is found that, by changing the energy of a site in a one-dimensional atomic chain, the electron conductivity can be larger when the modulated site energy is smaller than that of the other sites. This contradicts the conventional picture that an electron is scattered by the disorder of the potential, because such a scattering process usually causes resistivity. We show that the enhancement of conductivity that seems contradictory to the conventional picture of electron motion is explained by the change of energy of quasi bound states in the conductor. (paper)
Equilibrium charge distribution on a finite straight one-dimensional wire
Batle, Josep; Ciftja, Orion; Abdalla, Soliman; Elhoseny, Mohamed; Alkhambashi, Majid; Farouk, Ahmed
2017-09-01
The electrostatic properties of uniformly charged regular bodies are prominently discussed on college-level electromagnetism courses. However, one of the most basic problems of electrostatics that deals with how a continuous charge distribution reaches equilibrium is rarely mentioned at this level. In this work we revisit the problem of equilibrium charge distribution on a straight one-dimensional (1D) wire with finite length. The majority of existing treatments in the literature deal with the 1D wire as a limiting case of a higher-dimensional structure that can be treated analytically for a Coulomb interaction potential between point charges. Surprisingly, different models (for instance, an ellipsoid or a cylinder model) may lead to different results, thus there is even some ambiguity on whether the problem is well-posed. In this work we adopt a different approach where we do not start with any higher-dimensional body that reduces to a 1D wire in the appropriate limit. Instead, our starting point is the obvious one, a finite straight 1D wire that contains charge. However, the new tweak in the model is the assumption that point charges interact with each other via a non-Coulomb power-law interaction potential. This potential is well-behaved, allows exact analytical results and approaches the standard Coulomb interaction potential as a limit. The results originating from this approach suggest that the equilibrium charge distribution for a finite straight 1D wire is a uniform charge density when the power-law interaction potential approaches the Coulomb interaction potential as a suitable limit. We contrast such a finding to results obtained using a different regularised logarithmic interaction potential which allows exact treatment in 1D. The present self-contained material may be of interest to instructors teaching electromagnetism as well as students who will discover that simple-looking problems may sometimes pose important scientific challenges.
Equilibrium charge distribution on a finite straight one-dimensional wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batle, Josep; Ciftja, Orion; Abdalla, Soliman; Elhoseny, Mohamed; Farouk, Ahmed; Alkhambashi, Majid
2017-01-01
The electrostatic properties of uniformly charged regular bodies are prominently discussed on college-level electromagnetism courses. However, one of the most basic problems of electrostatics that deals with how a continuous charge distribution reaches equilibrium is rarely mentioned at this level. In this work we revisit the problem of equilibrium charge distribution on a straight one-dimensional (1D) wire with finite length. The majority of existing treatments in the literature deal with the 1D wire as a limiting case of a higher-dimensional structure that can be treated analytically for a Coulomb interaction potential between point charges. Surprisingly, different models (for instance, an ellipsoid or a cylinder model) may lead to different results, thus there is even some ambiguity on whether the problem is well-posed. In this work we adopt a different approach where we do not start with any higher-dimensional body that reduces to a 1D wire in the appropriate limit. Instead, our starting point is the obvious one, a finite straight 1D wire that contains charge. However, the new tweak in the model is the assumption that point charges interact with each other via a non-Coulomb power-law interaction potential. This potential is well-behaved, allows exact analytical results and approaches the standard Coulomb interaction potential as a limit. The results originating from this approach suggest that the equilibrium charge distribution for a finite straight 1D wire is a uniform charge density when the power-law interaction potential approaches the Coulomb interaction potential as a suitable limit. We contrast such a finding to results obtained using a different regularised logarithmic interaction potential which allows exact treatment in 1D. The present self-contained material may be of interest to instructors teaching electromagnetism as well as students who will discover that simple-looking problems may sometimes pose important scientific challenges. (paper)
Collective transport of Lennard–Jones particles through one-dimensional periodic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jian-hui; Wen Jia-le; Chen Pei-rong; Zheng Dong-qin; Zhong Wei-rong
2017-01-01
The surrounding media in which transport occurs contains various kinds of fields, such as particle potentials and external potentials. One of the important questions is how elements work and how position and momentum are redistributed in the diffusion under these conditions. For enriching Fick’s law, ordinary non-equilibrium statistical physics can be used to understand the complex process. This study attempts to discuss particle transport in the one-dimensional channel under external potential fields. Two kinds of potentials—the potential well and barrier—which do not change the potential in total, are built during the diffusion process. There are quite distinct phenomena because of the different one-dimensional periodic potentials. By the combination of a Monte Carlo method and molecular dynamics, we meticulously explore why an external potential field impacts transport by the subsection and statistical method. Besides, one piece of evidence of the Maxwell velocity distribution is confirmed under the assumption of local equilibrium. The simple model is based on the key concept that relates the flux to sectional statistics of position and momentum and could be referenced in similar transport problems. (rapid communication)
Sensitivity experiments with a one-dimensional coupled plume - iceflow model
Beckmann, Johanna; Perette, Mahé; Alexander, David; Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey
2016-04-01
Over the last few decades Greenland Ice sheet mass balance has become increasingly negative, caused by enhanced surface melting and speedup of the marine-terminating outlet glaciers at the ice sheet margins. Glaciers speedup has been related, among other factors, to enhanced submarine melting, which in turn is caused by warming of the surrounding ocean and less obviously, by increased subglacial discharge. While ice-ocean processes potentially play an important role in recent and future mass balance changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet, their physical understanding remains poorly understood. In this work we performed numerical experiments with a one-dimensional plume model coupled to a one-dimensional iceflow model. First we investigated the sensitivity of submarine melt rate to changes in ocean properties (ocean temperature and salinity), to the amount of subglacial discharge and to the glacier's tongue geometry itself. A second set of experiments investigates the response of the coupled model, i.e. the dynamical response of the outlet glacier to altered submarine melt, which results in new glacier geometry and updated melt rates.
Expectation-based approach for one-dimensional randomly disordered phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Feng; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Wanxie
2014-01-01
An expectation-based approach to the statistical theorem is proposed for the one-dimensional randomly disordered phononic crystal. In the proposed approach, the expectations of the random eigenstates of randomly disordered phononic crystals are investigated. In terms of the expectations of the random eigenstates, the wave propagation and localization phenomenon in the random phononic crystal could be understood in a statistical perspective. Using the proposed approach, it is proved that for a randomly disordered phononic crystal, the Bloch theorem holds in the perspective of expectation. A one-dimensional randomly disordered binary phononic crystal consisting of two materials with the random geometry size or random physical parameter is addressed by using the proposed approach. From the result, it can be observed that with the increase of the disorder degree, the localization of the expectations of the eigenstates is strengthened. The effect of the random disorder on the eigenstates at higher frequencies is more significant than that at lower frequencies. Furthermore, after introducing the random disorder into phononic crystals, some random divergent eigenstates are changed to localized eigenstates in expectation sense.
Quantum trajectories in complex space: One-dimensional stationary scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2008-01-01
One-dimensional time-independent scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equation for the local approximate quantum trajectories near the stagnation point of the quantum momentum function is derived, and the first derivative of the quantum momentum function is related to the local structure of quantum trajectories. Exact complex quantum trajectories are determined for two examples by numerically integrating the equations of motion. For the soft potential step, some particles penetrate into the nonclassical region, and then turn back to the reflection region. For the barrier scattering problem, quantum trajectories may spiral into the attractors or from the repellers in the barrier region. Although the classical potentials extended to complex space show different pole structures for each problem, the quantum potentials present the same second-order pole structure in the reflection region. This paper not only analyzes complex quantum trajectories and the total potentials for these examples but also demonstrates general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials for one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems
One-loop dimensional reduction of the linear σ model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Silva-Neto, M.B.; Svaiter, N.F.
1997-05-01
We perform the dimensional reduction of the linear σ model at one-loop level. The effective of the reduced theory obtained from the integration over the nonzero Matsubara frequencies is exhibited. Thermal mass and coupling constant renormalization constants are given, as well as the thermal renormalization group which controls the dependence of the counterterms on the temperature. We also recover, for the reduced theory, the vacuum instability of the model for large N. (author)
The analysis of one-dimensional reactor kinetics benchmark computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidell, J.
1975-11-01
During March 1973 the European American Committee on Reactor Physics proposed a series of simple one-dimensional reactor kinetics problems, with the intention of comparing the relative efficiencies of the numerical methods employed in various codes, which are currently in use in many national laboratories. This report reviews the contributions submitted to this benchmark exercise and attempts to assess the relative merits and drawbacks of the various theoretical and computer methods. (author)
Photoinduced charge-order melting dynamics in a one-dimensional interacting Holstein model
Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sumio
2017-07-01
Transient quantum dynamics in an interacting fermion-phonon system are investigated with a focus on a charge order (CO) melting after a short optical-pulse irradiation and the roles of the quantum phonons in the transient dynamics. A spinless-fermion model in a one-dimensional chain coupled with local phonons is analyzed numerically. The infinite time-evolving block decimation algorithm is adopted as a reliable numerical method for one-dimensional quantum many-body systems. Numerical results for the photoinduced CO melting dynamics without phonons are well interpreted by the soliton picture for the CO domains. This interpretation is confirmed by numerical simulation of an artificial local excitation and the classical soliton model. In the case of large phonon frequencies corresponding to the antiadiabatic condition, CO melting is induced by propagations of the polaronic solitons with the renormalized soliton velocity. On the other hand, in the case of small phonon frequencies corresponding to the adiabatic condition, the first stage of the CO melting dynamics occurs due to the energy transfer from the fermionic to phononic systems, and the second stage is brought about by the soliton motions around the bottom of the soliton band. The analyses provide a standard reference for photoinduced CO melting dynamics in one-dimensional many-body quantum systems.
An inverse problem for a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion problem
Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William
2012-01-01
We study an inverse problem of recovering a spatially varying potential term in a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation from the flux measurements taken at a single fixed time corresponding to a given set of input sources. The unique
An adaptive finite element method for steady and transient problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benner, R.E. Jr.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.
1987-01-01
Distributing integral error uniformly over variable subdomains, or finite elements, is an attractive criterion by which to subdivide a domain for the Galerkin/finite element method when localized steep gradients and high curvatures are to be resolved. Examples are fluid interfaces, shock fronts and other internal layers, as well as fluid mechanical and other boundary layers, e.g. thin-film states at solid walls. The uniform distribution criterion is developed into an adaptive technique for one-dimensional problems. Nodal positions can be updated simultaneously with nodal values during Newton iteration, but it is usually better to adopt nearly optimal nodal positions during Newton iteration upon nodal values. Three illustrative problems are solved: steady convection with diffusion, gradient theory of fluid wetting on a solid surface and Buckley-Leverett theory of two phase Darcy flow in porous media
Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Huang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC, or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.
Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement.
Handford, Thomas P; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Taraskin, Sergei N
2013-07-01
A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.
Well-posedness of one-dimensional Korteweg models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvie Benzoni-Gavage
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the initial-value problem for one-dimensional compressible fluids endowed with internal capillarity. We focus on the isothermal inviscid case with variable capillarity. The resulting equations for the density and the velocity, consisting of the mass conservation law and the momentum conservation with Korteweg stress, are a system of third order nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations. Additionally, this system is Hamiltonian and admits travelling solutions, representing propagating phase boundaries with internal structure. By change of unknown, it roughly reduces to a quasilinear Schrodinger equation. This new formulation enables us to prove local well-posedness for smooth perturbations of travelling profiles and almost-global existence for small enough perturbations. A blow-up criterion is also derived.
A one-dimensional Q-machine model taking into account charge-exchange collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maier, H.; Kuhn, S.
1992-01-01
The Q-machine is a nontrivial bounded plasma system which is excellently suited not only for fundamental plasma physics investigations but also for the development and testing of new theoretical methods for modeling such systems. However, although Q-machines have now been around for over thirty years, it appears that there exist no comprehensive theoretical models taking into account their considerable geometrical and physical complexity with a reasonable degree of self-consistency. In the present context we are concerned with the low-density, single-emitter Q-machine, for which the most widely used model is probably the (one-dimensional) ''collisionless plane-diode model'', which has originally been developed for thermionic diodes. Although the validity of this model is restricted to certain ''axial'' phenomena, we consider it a suitable starting point for extensions of various kinds. While a generalization to two-dimensional geometry (with still collisionless plasma) is being reported elsewhere, the present work represents a first extension to collisional plasma (with still one-dimensional geometry). (author) 12 refs., 2 figs
Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Heavy Metal-Polluted Soils in Suspension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie
2013-01-01
Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil faces different challenges in relation to implementation. One challenge is to cope with the nonlinear and transient geochemical changes in the soil and another is to increase the remediation rate. Both these challenges are met when treating...... the soil in a suspension in an electrodialytic cell. The soil suspension is stirred and uniform during treatment. Previously, it has been shown that a faster remediation can be obtained when remediating a stirred soil suspension compared to a stationary water saturated soil (all other parameters the same...
Diffusive transport in a one dimensional disordered potential involving correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, C.; Paris-6 Univ., 75
1995-03-01
Transport properties of one dimensional Brownian diffusion under the influence of a quenched random force, distributed as a two-level Poisson process is discussed. Large time scaling laws of the position of the Brownian particle, and the probability distribution of the stationary flux going through a sample between two prescribed concentrations are studied. (author) 14 refs.; 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abreu, M.P. de
1994-01-01
The use of exact albedo boundary conditions in numerical methods applied to one-dimensional one-speed discrete ordinates (S n ) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations is described. An albedo operator that treats the reflector region around a nuclear reactor core implicitly is described and exactly was derived. To illustrate the method's efficiency and accuracy, it was used conventional linear diamond method with the albedo option to solve typical model problems. (author)
Suspension, a Wake-Up Call: Rural Educators' Attitudes toward Suspension.
Henderson, Joan; Friedland, Billie
Data from the West Virginia Department of Education reveals that from September 1991 to January 1992, school districts reported 18,915 out-of-school suspensions involving 12,997 students. In 1995, the West Virginia State Legislature enacted the Safe Schools Act, which specifically mandates suspension for no less than 12 consecutive months for…
Spin glasses and algorithm benchmarks: A one-dimensional view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katzgraber, H G
2008-01-01
Spin glasses are paradigmatic models that deliver concepts relevant for a variety of systems. However, rigorous analytical results are difficult to obtain for spin-glass models, in particular for realistic short-range models. Therefore large-scale numerical simulations are the tool of choice. Concepts and algorithms derived from the study of spin glasses have been applied to diverse fields in computer science and physics. In this work a one-dimensional long-range spin-glass model with power-law interactions is discussed. The model has the advantage over conventional systems in that by tuning the power-law exponent of the interactions the effective space dimension can be changed thus effectively allowing the study of large high-dimensional spin-glass systems to address questions as diverse as the existence of an Almeida-Thouless line, ultrametricity and chaos in short range spin glasses. Furthermore, because the range of interactions can be changed, the model is a formidable test-bed for optimization algorithms