WorldWideScience

Sample records for status weight perceptions

  1. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-perception of body weight status in older Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteagudo, C.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Visser, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current

  3. Am I overweight? A longitudinal study on parental and peers weight-related perceptions on dietary behaviors and weight status among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina eZarychta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An investigation of the interplay between various types of adolescents’ perceptions of weight status in predicting adolescents’ nutrition behavior and their body weight was conducted. In particular, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parental and peers’ perceptions of their own weight status (reported by adolescents and objectively measured weight status of adolescents would be mediated by three types of adolescents’ weight status perceptions (adolescents’ own weight perceptions, parental perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants, and peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants and by adolescents’ nutrition behaviors. Design: Data were collected twice, with a 13-month follow-up. Participants (N = 1096 were aged 14-20, with BMI ranging from 16.20 to 41.21. Multiple mediation analysis with two sequential mediators was applied.Main outcome measures: At the baseline adolescents completed the questionnaire assessing their nutrition behaviors and weight status perceptions. Weight and height were measured objectively at baseline and follow-up.Results: Two types of weight perceptions (adolescents’ own weight status perceptions, peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status reported by participants, and adolescents’ nutrition behaviors mediated the relationship between the others’ own weight perceptions and adolescents’ weight status. No indirect effects of others’ own weight perceptions on adolescents’ weight status through parental perceptions were found.Conclusion: Adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and body weight status depend on what they think about their own weight status and what they think of their peers’ perceptions, but do not depend on what adolescents think of their parents’ perceptions.

  4. Self- Perception of Body Weight Status in Older Dutch Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Dijkstra, S C; Visser, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current versus ideal body image in a large, nationally representative sample of older people. Furthermore, determinants of misperception were explored. A cross-sectional study. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), conducted in a population-based sample in the Netherlands. 1295 men and women aged 60-96 years. Body weight status was assessed using measured weight and height. Self-perceived body weight status, satisfaction with body weight and current and ideal body image were also assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of age, educational level and objectively measured BMI with underestimation of body weight status. The prevalence of obesity was 19.9% in men and 29.3% in women. The agreement between objective and self-perceived body weight status was low (Kappa 99% of obese participants desired to be thinner (ideal body image < current image). Only 4.4% of obese men and 12.3% of obese women perceived their body weight status correctly. Higher age (women), lower educational level (men) and higher BMI (all) were associated with greater underestimation of body weight status. Many older persons misperceive their body weight status. Future actions to improve body weight perception in older persons are necessary to increase the impact of public health campaigns focussing on a healthy body weight in old age.

  5. Maternal perceptions of their child's weight status: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Vasilopoulou, Emilia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to quantify mothers' misclassification of pre-school children's weight status and to determine factors associated with the maternal misperception. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Mothers' perceptions of their child's weight status and the children's and mothers' anthropometric and other characteristics (sociodemographic and lifestyle) were recorded. Almost 38 % of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. The frequency of underestimation was much higher among 'at risk of being overweight' and 'overweight' children (88.3 % and 54.5 %, respectively) compared with 'underweight/normal-weight' children (18.0 %, P engaging in physical activity for less than 3 h/week and in children whose mothers had low education status, compared with their counterparts. Moreover, the higher the BMI-for-age Z-score, the greater the odds that the mother would underestimate her child's weight status. The current study demonstrated that more than one-third of mothers misclassify their children's weight status as being lower than the actual. Given that mother's weight perception might be an important determinant of child's body weight development, clinicians and health professionals should help mothers correctly classify their children's weight status, which could potentially help in the early prevention of overweight and obesity.

  6. Gender and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyung Joh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

  7. Perceived Physician-informed Weight Status Predicts Accurate Weight Self-Perception and Weight Self-Regulation in Low-income, African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charlie L; Strayhorn, Gregory; Moore, Sandra; Goldman, Brian; Martin, Michelle Y

    2016-01-01

    Obese African American women under-appraise their body mass index (BMI) classification and report fewer weight loss attempts than women who accurately appraise their weight status. This cross-sectional study examined whether physician-informed weight status could predict weight self-perception and weight self-regulation strategies in obese women. A convenience sample of 118 low-income women completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, comorbidities, weight self-perception, and weight self-regulation strategies. BMI was calculated during nurse triage. Binary logistic regression models were performed to test hypotheses. The odds of obese accurate appraisers having been informed about their weight status were six times greater than those of under-appraisers. The odds of those using an "approach" self-regulation strategy having been physician-informed were four times greater compared with those using an "avoidance" strategy. Physicians are uniquely positioned to influence accurate weight self-perception and adaptive weight self-regulation strategies in underserved women, reducing their risk for obesity-related morbidity.

  8. Parental Perception of Weight Status: Influence on Children's Diet in the Gateshead Millennium Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Almoosawi

    Full Text Available Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child's diet.Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child's weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6-8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child's gender, child's weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI, maternal education and deprivation status.Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child's weight status, 63 (17% parents perceived their child as being of 'normal' weight or 'overweight' when they were actually 'overweight' or 'obese', respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child's weight had children with a lower 'healthy' dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028. This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005.In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the 'healthy' dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents' diets based on their perception status and to examine if a child's or parent's diet mediates the

  9. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the child’s perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...

  11. Perception of weight status and dieting behaviour in Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokstra, A.; Burns, C.M.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To study the perception of weight status, the accuracy of self-assessment of weight status and weight control practices relative to the degree of adiposity in Dutch men and women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 2155 men and 2446 women, aged 20-65y, of mostly caucasian origin,

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  14. Acculturation, body perception, and weight status among Vietnamese American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Young; Hwang, Jessica; Yi, Jenny

    2011-12-01

    The effects of acculturation, body perception, and health behaviors on weight status among Vietnamese American students in Houston, Texas were examined for our research. A survey was mailed to 600 randomly selected Vietnamese American students at one university, and 261 complete surveys (response rate, 43.5%) were used for final analyses. Respondents were classified as overweight or normal weight based on the World Health Organization recommended overweight cutoff for Asians (BMI of 23 kg/m(2)). About 32% of respondents were overweight. Men, undergraduate students, and those with an acceptable body perception were more likely to be overweight. Nativity and its interaction with length of US residence were significant predictors of weight status after controlling for other variables. Foreign-born respondents were less likely to be overweight than US-born respondents, but the risk of being overweight with increasing years of US residence was much greater for the foreign-born than for the US-born. The results suggest the need for culturally tailored overweight and obesity prevention programs for Vietnamese Americans.

  15. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  16. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Julita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255 in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8 and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5 were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.

  17. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Heba; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Williams, Julita; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2010-08-09

    Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5) were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.

  18. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  19. Low-income minority and homeless mothers' perceptions of their 9-13 year-old children's weight status, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.

  20. The change in weight perception of weight status among the overweight: comparison of NHANES III (1988–1994 and 1999–2004 NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke-Reed Pamela

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.

  1. Parent Perceptions of Child Weight Status in Mexican-Origin Immigrant Families: An Investigation of Acculturation, Stress, and Coping Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Dorothy L; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Bohnert, Amy M; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo

    2018-04-01

    Parents often underestimate their child's weight status, particularly when the child is overweight or obese. This study examined acculturation, stress, coping, and involuntary responses to stress and their relation to estimation of child's weight status among Mexican-origin immigrant families. Eighty-six families provided data on child's height and weight, caregiver's perception of their child's weight status, and caregiver's responses to acculturation, stress, and coping scales. Parents underestimated their child's weight status, particularly when the child was overweight or obese. Although acculturation and stress were not associated with accuracy, parents' responses to stress were linked to parent perceptions. Parents who reported more frequent use of involuntary engagement (e.g., rumination, physiological arousal) were more accurate. Future research, as well as healthcare providers, should consider how parents manage and respond to stress in order to fully understand the factors that explain weight perceptions among Mexican-origin immigrant parents.

  2. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  3. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi-Russo Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy. Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%. The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32. There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03: the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the

  4. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Masotti, Sabrina; Toselli, Stefania; Albertini, Augusta; Celenza, Francesca; Zaccagni, Luciana

    2012-10-15

    Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls) aged 8-9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins' body image silhouettes. The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m²; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m²). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%). The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID) scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants) (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32). There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs -0.03): the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the nutritional status of children and in the perceived and ideal body

  5. Self-perception of weight status and its association with weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese children in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Jun; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Chen, Yajun

    2017-07-01

    How weight perception influences weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in Chinese children is unknown. We investigated self-perception of body weight and its correlates, and analyzed the relationship between weight perception and weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in children in Guangzhou, China. We assessed self-reported weight perception, weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in 3752 children aged 7-12 years. Underweight or overweight was defined using the Chinese criteria based on body mass index (BMI). Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess correlates of weight underestimation. In total, 27.3% of children underestimated and 6.7% overestimated their weight status. Weight underestimation was common among normal-weight (34.1%) and overweight children (25.3%). Older age, female sex, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with normal-weight children's underestimation, whereas older age, paternal obesity, maternal obesity, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with overweight children's underestimation. Correct answers on weight-related knowledge questions ranged from 81.5% to 98.6% and did not differ by weight perception within BMI categories. Although negative perceivers (i.e., those who perceived themselves as underweight or overweight) had a higher intention to change weight, they behaved more unhealthily on fruit intake, breakfast, screen time, and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activities time than counterparts. Weight underestimation was prevalent in normal-weight and overweight children in Guangzhou. Negative perceivers had stronger willingness to change weight but tended to behave more unhealthily on certain behaviors than positive perceivers. Childhood obesity interventions should incorporate health education and practical support to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Misperception of weight status and associated factors among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Aleyira, Samuel; Nyaba, Rauf

    2015-01-01

    We compared participants' self-perception of their weight with the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition for BMI categories among undergraduate university students undertaking health related academic programmes in Ghana. Also, we investigated factors associated to the underestimation of weight status in this sample. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 368 undergraduate students. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were measured with appropriate tools and computed into Body Mass Index (BMI) categorised based on WHO classifications. Waist and hip circumferences were also measured appropriately. Participants' self-perception of weight status was assessed by the question: How do you perceive your weight? (a) Underweight, (b) normal weight, (c) overweight, and (d) obese. The BMI-measured weight status was compared to the self-perceived weight status by cross-tabulation, Kappa statistics of agreement and χ(2) for trend analysis. Factors associated with misperception of weight status was measured using univariate and multivariable analysis. Thirteen percent (n=48) of the participants were overweight/obesity (BMI) and 31.5% had central obesity. Overall, 20.6% of the participants misperceived their weight status in which 78.9% of them underestimated it. Among overweight/obese participants, 41.7% self-perceived themselves accurately. Whereas 10.6% of normal weight participants underestimated their weight status, over half (58.3%) of overweight/obese participants did so. Factors that were associated with underestimation of weight status were having overweight/obesity (BMI) and central obesity. Underestimation of weight status was frequent. Health professionals and related government agencies should develop intervention programmes to empower young people to have accurate weight status perception. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  8. [Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Cross-sectional study in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood overweight/obesity and pediatric asthma: the role of parental perception of child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Paige, Katie N; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H; The Strong Kids Research Team

    2013-09-23

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child's weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child's overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  10. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  11. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass index (BMI) (25–26.9 kg/m2): About 50% of men and. 30% of women. ... body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large ... [7] Blacks were more satisfied with their body .... Differences between self and people perceptions were ..... body image in accordance with reigning values, which equate.

  12. Patients' perceptions of their general practitioner's health and weight influences their perceptions of nutrition and exercise advice received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sally E; Leveritt, Michael D; Ball, Lauren E

    2013-12-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in the management of patients who are overweight or obese. Previous research suggests that GPs' physical characteristics may influence patients' perceptions of health care received during consultations, mediating the likelihood of patients following health advice provided by GPs. This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions of their GP's health status and its influence on patients' perceptions of healthy eating and exercise advice. An interpretive approach to phenomenology underpinned the qualitative inquiry and study design. Twenty-one participants (aged 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 14 females, 7 males) who had previously received healthy eating and/or exercise advice from a GP participated in an individual semi-structured interview. A constant comparison approach to thematic analysis was conducted. Participants identified three key indicators of perceived health of their GP. These included the GP's physical appearance, particularly weight status; perceived absence of ill health; and disclosure of a GP's health behaviours. Participants expressed favourable perceptions of the weight status of their GP. Participants expected their GP to be a healthy role model and often, but not always, felt more confident receiving advice from a GP that they perceived as healthy. The findings highlight that a GP's perceived health status influences patients' perceptions of the health advice received during consultations. These findings provide a foundation for future research that may allow GPs to modify patients' perceptions of their health status in order to facilitate behaviour change in overweight or obese patients.

  13. Parent-Child Discrepancy on Children's Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents' difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent's attributional accuracy on their children's body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children's perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children's body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children's parents show a greater correlation with children's actual weight rather than with their children's perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children's body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children's internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent-child attachment relationship.

  14. Patients' perceptions of their general practitioner's health and weight influences their perceptions of nutrition and exercise advice received

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser SE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: General practitioners (GPs play an important role in the management of patients who are overweight or obese. Previous research suggests that GPs' physical characteristics may influence patients' perceptions of health care received during consultations, mediating the likelihood of patients following health advice provided by GPs. This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions of their GP's health status and its influence on patients' perceptions of healthy eating and exercise advice. METHODS: An interpretive approach to phenomenology underpinned the qualitative inquiry and study design. Twenty-one participants (aged 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 14 females, 7 males who had previously received healthy eating and/or exercise advice from a GP participated in an individual semi-structured interview. A constant comparison approach to thematic analysis was conducted. FINDINGS: Participants identified three key indicators of perceived health of their GP. These included the GP's physical appearance, particularly weight status; perceived absence of ill health; and disclosure of a GP's health behaviours. Participants expressed favourable perceptions of the weight status of their GP. Participants expected their GP to be a healthy role model and often, but not always, felt more confident receiving advice from a GP that they perceived as healthy. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight that a GP's perceived health status influences patients' perceptions of the health advice received during consultations. These findings provide a foundation for future research that may allow GPs to modify patients' perceptions of their health status in order to facilitate behaviour change in overweight or obese patients.

  15. Body Mass Index and self perceptions of weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overweight/obesity is on the rise in developing countries, especially in urban areas. Although overweight/obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death less is known about the prevalence of obesity and the perceptions about weight among patients attending healthcare facilities. Previous studies ...

  16. Parent–Child Discrepancy on Children’s Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Uccula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents’ difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent’s attributional accuracy on their children’s body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children’s perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children’s body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children’s parents show a greater correlation with children’s actual weight rather than with their children’s perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children’s body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children’s internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent–child attachment relationship.

  17. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  18. Parental weight perceptions: a cause for concern in the prevention and management of childhood obesity in the United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Aljunaibi

    Full Text Available Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1-12; 50% boys and their parents, but only 1440 (6-19 years and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children's weight. Parental perception of their children's weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children's weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children's' weight status; underestimating (27.4% or overestimating (6.3%. Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5% and underweight (55.1% children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child's BMI percentile (CDC with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209-1.425; p<0.001 per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child's sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children's weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children's BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child's weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages.

  19. Body image and weight perceptions in relation to actual measurements by means of a new index and level of physical activity in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Masotti, Sabrina; Donati, Roberta; Mazzoni, Gianni; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-02-11

    Body image perception depends on anthropometric and psychological factors. Body dissatisfaction is influenced by the socio-cultural environment and is associated with eating disorders and low self-esteem. This study examined the body image perception, the degree of dissatisfaction and the weight status perception inconsistency in relation to sex, weight status and amount of physical activity in a sample of university students. The participants were 734 university students (354 females aged 21.5 ± 2.9 yrs and 380 males aged 22.1 ± 3.6 yrs) recruited from the second year of the Sport Sciences degree program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic and sport participation information. Height, weight, BMI and weight status were considered for each subject. Body image perception was assessed by a silhouette matching technique. A new index, FAI (Feel status minus Actual status Inconsistency), was used to assess weight status perception inconsistency. A large proportion of the sample had normal weight status. On average, females chose as feel status a significantly higher figure than the males (4.7 versus 3.8) and they would have liked to have a significantly thinner figure than the males (3.4 versus 3.6). Therefore, the mean FID (Feel minus Ideal Discrepancy) values (positive in both sexes) were significantly higher in females than in males, meaning higher dissatisfaction. The mean FAI values were positive in females and negative in males, indicating a tendency of the women to overestimate their weight status and of the men to underestimate it. Men were more physically active than women. Less active women showed significantly lower body weight and BMI than more active women. Men less engaged in physical activity showed significantly higher FID than more active men. These results show greater dissatisfaction and higher weight status perception consistency in females than in males among Italian university students examined. Our findings

  20. Middle School Students' Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Zullig, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has posited that significant relationships exist between health status and psychological measures of health (e.g., self-esteem). Less is known about the relationship between perceived quality of life (e.g., life satisfaction), weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors, particularly among middle school adolescents.…

  1. Parental perception of weight an weight-related behaviour in 2-to 4-year-old children in the eastern part of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink-Tuna, H.N.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Beltman, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental perception of weight status and weight-related behaviour of their toddler was determined through a questionnaire survey in child health care centres (CHCs). Complete data on weight, length, sex and age were available for 635 of 682 children (93.1%). The median age of the children was 37.0

  2. Asian American mothers' perception of their children's weight: a comparison with other racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.

  3. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  4. The validity of self-reported vs. measured body weight and height and the effect of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

  5. An analysis of weight perception and physical activity and dietary behaviours among youth in the COMPASS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Patte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Weight misperceptions appear common among youth, potentially influencing their motivation to engage in health-related behaviours; however, the direction of impact remains unclear. The current study examined how weight perception influences physical activity (PA and diet among youth. Methods: This study used 2-year linked data of 19,322 grade 9–12 students from Year 2 (Y2:2013-2014 and 3 (Y3:2014-2015 of the COMPASS study. Generalized Estimating Equation models tested the effect of Y3 weight perception on the various Y3 PA and dietary behaviour measures, adjusting for Y3 covariates (grade, race/ethnicity, weekly spending money, school cluster, school area median household income, and the Y2 outcome. Models were stratified by gender and body mass index (BMI classification. Results: Regardless of BMI status, overweight perceptions among boys and girls were associated with lower likelihoods of playing school sports, physical education class enrollment, meeting resistance exercise recommendations, eating breakfast regularly, and less vigorous-intensity PA, and among boys only, lower odds of meeting PA guidelines, compared to their peers who perceived their weight as “about right”. In boys with normal-weight BMIs, underweight perceptions predicted less vigorous-intensity PA, and lower odds of physical education class enrollment, and of meeting PA and resistance exercise recommendations, than “about right” perceptions. Among girls, underweight perceptions predicted lower likelihoods of engaging in adequate resistance exercise and playing intramurals, and greater odds of eating fast food on weekends, purchasing snacks, and drinking energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Girls with overweight/obese BMIs who perceived their weight as such were less likely to consume adequate fruits and vegetables relative to their counterparts with “about right” weight perceptions. Conclusions: Overall, weight perceptions of “about right

  6. A systematic review of the relationship between weight status perceptions and weight loss attempts, strategies, behaviours and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, I.; Sutin, A.; Daly, M.; Robinson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and (i) weight loss attempts, (ii) weight control strategies (healthy and unhealthy), (iii) weight‐related behaviours (physical activity and eating habits), (iv) disordered eating and (v) weight change. We synthesized evidence from 78 eligible studies and evaluated evidence linking perceived overweight with outcome variables separately according to the gender, age and objective weight status of study participants. Results indicated that perceived overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting weight loss and with healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies in some participant groups. However, perceived overweight was not reliably associated with physical activity or healthy eating and was associated with greater disordered eating in some groups. Rather than being associated with improved weight management, there was consistent evidence that perceived overweight was predictive of increased weight gain over time. Individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are more likely to report attempting weight loss but over time gain more weight. PMID:29266851

  7. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  8. A cluster randomised trial testing an intervention to improve parents' recognition of their child's weight status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Jones, Angela R; Tovee, Martin J; Ells, Louisa J; Pearce, Mark S; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Adamson, Ashley J

    2015-06-12

    Parents typically do not recognise their child's weight status accurately according to clinical criteria, and thus may not take appropriate action if their child is overweight. We developed a novel visual intervention designed to improve parental perceptions of child weight status according to clinical criteria for children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years. The Map Me intervention comprises age- and sex-specific body image scales of known body mass index and supporting information about the health risks of childhood overweight. This cluster randomised trial will test the effectiveness of the Map Me intervention. Primary schools will be randomised to: paper-based Map Me; web-based Map Me; no information (control). Parents of reception (4-5 years) and year 6 (10-11 years) children attending the schools will be recruited. The study will work with the National Child Measurement Programme which measures the height and weight of these year groups and provides feedback to parents about their child's weight status. Before receiving the feedback, parents will complete a questionnaire which includes assessment of their perception of their child's weight status and knowledge of the health consequences of childhood overweight. The control group will provide pre-intervention data with assessment soon after recruitment; the intervention groups will provide post-intervention data after access to Map Me for one month. The study will subsequently obtain the child height and weight measurements from the National Child Measurement Programme. Families will be followed-up by the study team at 12 months. The primary outcome is any difference in accuracy in parental perception of child weight status between pre-intervention and post-intervention at one month. The secondary outcomes include differences in parent knowledge, intention to change lifestyle behaviours and/or seek advice or support, perceived control, action planning, coping planning, and child weight status at 12 month follow-up. The

  9. Correlates of Parental Misperception of Their Child’s Weight Status: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Broeren, Suzanne M. L.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study reported on correlates of parental perception of their child’s weight status. Associations between parental misperception (i.e., underestimation of the child’s weight) and parental intention to improve their child’s overweight-related health behaviors and their child meeting guidelines regarding these behaviors were also investigated. Methods Baseline data from the population-based ‘Be active, eat right study’ were used. The population for analysis consisted of 630 overweight and 153 obese five year-old children and their parents. Questionnaires were used to measure parental perception of the child’s weight status, correlates of misperception (i.e., child age, child gender, child BMI, parental age, parental gender, parental country of birth, parental educational level and parental weight status), overweight-related health behaviors (i.e., child playing outside, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, and watching TV), and parental intention to improve these behaviors. Height and weight were measured using standardized protocols. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results In total, 44.40% of the parents misperceived their child’s weight status. Parental misperception was associated with lower child BMI, the parent being the father, a foreign parental country of birth, and a lower parental education level (pParental misperception was not associated with parental intention to improve child overweight-related health behavior, nor with child meeting the guidelines of these behaviors. Discussion This study showed that almost half of the parents with an overweight or obese child misperceived their child’s weight status. A correct parental perception may be a small stepping-stone in improving the health of overweight and obese children. PMID:24551191

  10. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  11. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  12. Fast foods perception among adolescents by gender and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allehdan, Sabika S; Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2017-03-01

    Fast food restaurants have become widespread in both developed and developing countries due to nutritional and economic transitions. The frequency of fast food intake is relatively high among adolescents; however, fast food consumption is positively associated with total energy intake and obesity in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the perception of Jordanian adolescents towards fast foods relative to gender and obesity. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 400 boys and 395 girls, aged 15-18 years. The adolescents completed a validated questionnaire to measure the perception of adolescents towards fast foods during the year 2013-2014. Weight and height were measured. Numbers who were non-overweight, overweight, and obese were calculated for each age and sex using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) standard. The majority of participants perceived foods which are eaten as sandwiches as fast foods. A significant difference between boy and girl adolescents was reported regarding perception of French fries ( p fast foods. Girls were significantly more enthusiastic than boys to consider cuscusi plate ( p foods ( p foods ( p foods ( p foods ( p fast foods. The difference between obese and non-obese regarding the perception of fast foods was only significant among boy participants. Western or non-Arab foods, food prepared fast and eaten fast in self-service outlets, and food rich in calories were significantly perceived as fast food by Jordanian adolescents ( p foods as fast foods or non-fast foods was significantly different between both genders as well as in obese and non-obese male Jordanian adolescents.

  13. Investigating Perceived vs. Medical Weight Status Classification among College Students: Room for Improvement Exists among the Overweight and Obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Christopher; Eakin, Angela; Bertrand, Brenda; Barber-Heidel, Kimberly; Carraway-Stage, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The American College Health Association estimated that 31% of college students are overweight or obese. It is important that students have a correct perception of body weight status as extra weight has potential adverse health effects. This study assessed accuracy of perceived weight status versus medical classification among 102 college students.…

  14. Misperception of weight status in the pacific: preliminary findings in rural and urban 11- to 16-year-olds of New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Frayon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent obesity is prevalent in Pacific region ethnic groups (European, Melanesian and Polynesian living in both urban and rural areas. Although body perception is an important factor of weight gain or loss, little is known about the body self-perceptions of Pacific region adolescents. This study therefore evaluated adolescent perceptions of body weight according to ethnicity (European, Melanesian or Polynesian, socioeconomic status (low, intermediate or high and living area (rural or urban in New Caledonia. Methods Sociodemographic and anthropomorphic data from 737 adolescents (351 boys and 386 girls with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years were collected and analysed. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF standards were used to define weight status as normal-weight, underweight or overweight/obese. Weight perception was assessed from detailed questionnaires, with adolescents rating their own weight with the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight’, ‘too heavy’, or ‘too light’. Results Results showed that only 8.5% of normal-weight adolescents (7% boys and 10% girls identifying themselves as ‘too heavy’. Normal-weight Melanesian adolescents were less likely than their European counterparts to assess themselves as too heavy (OR = 0.357. However, half the overweight/obese adolescents underestimated their weight status (53% boys and 48% girls. Weight misperception was associated with ethnicity, socioeconomic status and living area, with gender-specific differences. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that these sociodemographic factors should be taken into account when designing public health policies and health education school programmes in New Caledonia and, more broadly, the Pacific region.

  15. Accuracy of weight perception, life-style behaviours and psychological distress among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambalia, Amina; Hardy, Louise L; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-03-01

    To compare overweight and obese adolescents with accurate and inaccurate self-reported weight perception across a range of behaviours and measures of psychological well-being. This study uses a cross-sectional survey of grade 7-12 high school students in New South Wales, Australia, conducted in 2008 (n= 7553). Overweight and obese students based on body mass index were classified as accurate perceivers (weight perception was 'too fat') or inaccurate perceivers (weight perception was 'about right'). Nearly a third of adolescents had incongruity between self-perceived body weight status and body mass index-determined weight category. Compared with boys, girls were less likely to underestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.27) and more likely to overestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 3.5). Accurate body weight perception was higher in obese adolescents compared with overweight adolescents (69.5% vs. 44.0%). Compared with mis-perceivers, accurate overweight and obese perceivers had significantly higher odds of trying to lose weight and being more physically active; however, they showed a combination of unhealthy and healthy behaviours (i.e. dietary patterns and sedentary activities). Accurate weight perception among overweight and obese adolescents was associated with increased odds of feeling sad or depressed in the past 6 months. Further research on social, familial and psychological factors that predict or mediate healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviours among adolescents by accuracy of weight perception is needed. Accurate weight perception should be considered in counselling and behavioural interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  17. Overweight perception: associations with weight control goals, attempts and practices among Chinese female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Hilary C.; Felicitas, Jamie Q.; Li, Yawen; Tobias, Malaika; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim D.; Johnson, C. Anderson; Xie, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Concurrent with the dramatic cultural and economic shifts occurring as Mainland China becomes increasingly “Westernized,” the weight perceptions, ideal body weight, and weight management goals and practices of Chinese females have also undergone significant changes. Objective To investigate relationships between overweight status, weight perception patterns, and weight management goals and practices in Chinese female college students. Design/Participants/Setting A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with data from 902 female subjects aged 18 to 25 years participating in the China Seven Cities Study, a health promotion and smoking prevention study conducted in Mainland China in 2003. Main Outcome Measures/ Statistical Analyses Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between overweight status, weight perception, specific weight management goals and practices, and current levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity and food consumption. Results Based on World Health Organization standards for Asian adults, 16.7% of college females were overweight or obese, although 50.8% considered themselves to be “too heavy.” Among participants perceiving themselves as overweight (n=458), 69.2% (n=371) were inaccurate, and did not meet criteria for overweight or obese. The percentage of participants attempting weight loss was 48.2%, and 33.1% wanted to maintain their current weight. Attempts to lose or maintain weight were related to actual and perceived weight status, but not to increased vigorous-intensity physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake, nor to decreased consumption of sweets, soda, Western fast foods and fried foods. Only 21.5% of participants desiring weight loss or maintenance reported using a combination of vigorous-intensity physical activity and a reduced fat and calorie diet, while 20.2% tried extreme methods such as fasting, using diet pills, vomiting, or smoking. Conclusions Our findings underscore the need to

  18. Overweight Perception: Associations with Weight Control Goals, Attempts, and Practices among Chinese Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Hilary C; Felicitas, Jamie Q; Li, Yawen; Tobias, Malaika; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim D; Anderson Johnson, C; Xie, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Concurrent with the dramatic cultural and economic shifts occurring as mainland China becomes increasingly "Westernized," the weight perceptions, ideal body weight, and weight management goals and practices of Chinese females have also undergone significant changes. To investigate relationships between overweight status, weight perception patterns, and weight management goals and practices in Chinese female college students. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with data from 902 female subjects aged 18 to 25 years participating in the China Seven Cities Study, a health promotion and smoking prevention study conducted in mainland China in 2003. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between overweight status, weight perception, specific weight management goals and practices, and current levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity and food consumption. Based on World Health Organization standards for Asian adults, 16.7% of college females were overweight or obese, although 50.8% considered themselves to be "too heavy." Among participants perceiving themselves as overweight (n=458), 69.2% (n=371) were inaccurate and did not meet criteria for overweight or obese. The percentage of participants attempting weight loss was 48.2%, and 33.1% wanted to maintain their current weight. Attempts to lose or maintain weight were related to actual and perceived weight status, but not to increased vigorous-intensity physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake, nor to decreased consumption of sweets, soda, Western fast foods, and fried foods. Only 21.5% of participants desiring weight loss or maintenance reported using a combination of vigorous-intensity physical activity and a reduced-fat and -calorie diet, whereas 20.2% tried extreme methods such as fasting, using diet pills, vomiting, or smoking. Our findings underscore the need to promote healthy weight management practices among Chinese female college students, with an emphasis on diet and

  19. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R

    2008-01-01

    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Mothers' Perception of Weight Status of Their Children with Intellectual Disabilities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…

  2. Parenting style and perceptions of children's weight among US Hispanics: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia de Grubb, Maria C; Salemi, Jason L; Gonzalez, Sandra J; Sanderson, Maureen; Zoorob, Roger J; Mkanta, William; Levine, Robert S

    2018-02-01

    Parental perceptions of their children's weight status may limit their willingness to participate in or acknowledge the importance of early interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to examine potential differences in Hispanic mothers' and fathers' perceptions of childhood obesity, lifestyle behaviors and communication preferences to inform the development of culturally appropriate childhood obesity interventions. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted. Groups (one for mothers and one for fathers) were composed of Hispanic parents (n = 12) with at least one girl and one boy (≤ 10 years old) who were patients at a pediatric clinic in Tennessee, USA. Thirteen major themes clustered into four categories were observed: (i) perceptions of childhood obesity/children's weight; (ii) parenting strategies related to children's dietary behaviors/physical activity; (iii) perceptions of what parents can do to prevent childhood obesity and (iv) parental suggestions for partnering with child care providers to address childhood obesity. Mothers appeared to be more concerned than fathers about their children's weight. Fathers expressed more concern about the girls' weight than boys'. Mothers were more likely than fathers to congratulate their children more often for healthy eating and physical activity. Parents collectively expressed a desire for child care providers (e.g. caregivers, teachers, medical professionals and food assistance programs coordinators) to have a caring attitude about their children, which might in turn serve as a motivating factor in talking about their children's weight. Parental perceptions of their children's weight and healthy lifestyle choices are of potential public health importance since they could affect parental participation in preventive interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Attitudes to weight and weight management in the early teenage years: a qualitative study of parental perceptions and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Lawton, Julia

    2015-10-01

    As most young teenagers grow up in families, parents might be well situated to facilitate and support their weight management and thereby prevent or manage obesity prior to adulthood. This paper explores parents' perceptions of, and views about, their teenage children's weight and the factors that influence parents' weight management strategies. We conducted two qualitative studies in Scotland, UK, involving in-depth interviews with the parents of overweight/obese and 'normal' weight 13-15 year olds (n = 69). Parents' concerns about their own weight provided useful context for understanding their attitudes or actions with regards to their teenage child. Some parents described their teenager's weight as being of concern to them, although puberty often introduced confusion about a child's weight status. Genetic explanations were very often put forward as a way of making sense of teenage weight or body size. Frustration about advising teenagers about weight management was expressed, and some parents worried about giving their growing child a 'problem' if they directly raised concerns about weight with them. Parents' views about their own weight as well as social and moral norms about labelling a teenager as overweight or as needing help with their weight could usefully inform patient-centred service development. Parent/teenage partnerships and supporting parents to create a healthy home in which teenagers can make healthier choices are suggestions for intervention development. The study highlights the importance of taking parents' perceptions into account when developing family-based interventions to address teenage overweight and obesity. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Does weight status influence perceptions of physical activity barriers among African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Jehn, Megan L; Sapun, Marcella; Mabry, Iris; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2006-01-01

    Many African-American women fail to participate in regular physical activity. Weight status may influence physical activity barriers. This study examined the frequency and type of barriers. Participants in this study were enrolled in Project EXE-L (Exercising Ladies Excel), a six-month, church-based, randomized trial of moderate-intensity physical activity based in Baltimore city and county in Maryland. Participants were composed of African-American women who attended one of the participating churches, had friends who were church members, or who lived in neighborhoods surrounding one of the churches. Individuals who were between the ages of 25 and 70 years, were not regularly physically active (defined as not engaging in moderate-intensity activity more than three times per week), and were able to participate in moderate-intensity activity met eligibility criteria to participate in the trial. Barriers to physical activity were evaluated with the Steinhardt/Dishman Barriers for Habitual Physical Activity Scale at baseline. One hundred twenty women were classified as normal weight (body mass index [BMI]: or = 30 kg/m2). Obese participants were more likely to report "lack of motivation" as a barrier compared with normal-weight participants (63% vs 31%). Normal-weight and overweight participants were more likely to report no barriers compared with the obese (31%, 0%, 5%, respectively, P<.05). Barriers for African-American women may vary by BMI status. By defining these unique barriers, effective physical activity interventions can be developed.

  5. Correction of body-mass index using body-shape perception and socioeconomic status in adolescent self-report surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas; Chau, Nearkasen

    2014-01-01

    To propose a simple correction of body-mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height (reported BMI) using gender, body shape perception and socioeconomic status in an adolescent population. 341 boys and girls aged 17-18 years were randomly selected from a representative sample of 2165 French adolescents living in Paris surveyed in 2010. After an anonymous self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire asking for height, weight, body shape perception (feeling too thin, about the right weight or too fat) and socioeconomic status, subjects were measured and weighed. BMI categories were computed according to Cole's cut-offs. Reported BMIs were corrected using linear regressions and ROC analyses and checked with cross-validation and multiple imputations to handle missing values. Agreement between actual and corrected BMI values was estimated with Kappa indexes and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). On average, BMIs were underreported, especially among girls. Kappa indexes between actual and reported BMI were low, especially for girls: 0.56 95%CI = [0.42-0.70] for boys and 0.45 95%CI = [0.30-0.60] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and body shape perception gave the most balanced results for both genders: the Kappa and ICC obtained were 0.63 95%CI = [0.50-0.76] and 0.67, 95%CI = [0.58-0.74] for boys; 0.65 95%CI = [0.52-0.78] and 0.74, 95%CI = [0.66-0.81] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and socioeconomic status led to similar corrections while the ROC analyses were inaccurate. Using body shape perception, or socioeconomic status and gender is a promising way of correcting BMI in self-administered questionnaires, especially for girls.

  6. A comparison of perceived and calculated weight status classification congruence between pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriby, Megan; Pratt, Keeley; Noria, Sabrena; Needleman, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    One prominent reason patients undergo bariatric surgery is to reduce their excess weight and body mass index. Weight status classifications (WSCs), based on calculated body mass index, organize patients into distinct groups (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, class I obesity, class II obesity, and class III obesity) for treatment recommendations, including surgery for patients with obesity. Bariatric patients' perceptions of their WSC is important to consider, because patients who accurately perceive their WSC presurgery have greater motivation for health behavior changes; alternatively, incongruence between perceived and calculated WSC could deter motivation and ultimately their health changes postsurgery. This study seeks to understand the congruence between patients' perceived and calculated WSC, and to determine if there are differences in congruence between groups of pre- or postsurgery, male and female, and emerging/early adulthood and middle/late adulthood patients. University Hospital. Self-report measures. Results indicate the presurgery patients were more congruent in their perceptions of WSC compared with their postsurgery peers and emerging/early adulthood patients were more congruent in their perceptions of WSC compared with middle/late adulthood patients. No gender differences emerged in the full sample, but when divided by surgical status, presurgery females reported more congruent perceptions of WSC compared with their postsurgery peers. Males did not differ in their rates of congruence. These rates of incongruence may suggest a need for assessment of patients' perceived WSC, particularly postsurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  8. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  9. Employment and weight status: The extreme case of body concern in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi

    2018-05-01

    For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i.e., non-manual and regular jobs), would increasingly engage in intense weight management and reduction activities even when not technically overweight or obese as a means to job security and upward mobility. Using nationally-representative data from the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (KNHANES), we identify the changing role of weight concerns versus actual body weight in predicting South Korean efforts to lose weight between 2001 (KNHANES-phase 1) and 2007-2009 (phase 4). The patterns were examined by occupation type (manual and non-manual jobs) and status (regular and non-regular jobs). Oaxaca decomposition analysis supported that people's perception of being "fat," rather than actual weight status, was crucial to explaining accelerated weight management efforts in South Korea over the decade (coef. = 0.062 and p-value < .0001 for male with regular work; coef. = 0.031 and p-value = .002 for female with regular work). Occupation status, rather than employment in itself, mattered. Job stability predicted increased effort; the pattern of change through time suggests efforts to invest high levels of effort in appearance positively impacts both employment opportunity and stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan

    2005-06-15

    Many patients with schizophrenia are exposed to serious health risks associated with their excess body weight. Evidence exists that even a moderate amount of weight loss may have significant health benefits. Thus, weight control in schizophrenia patients has become an important treatment goal. Although studies in the general population show that satisfaction with body weight is an important predictor for engagement in various weight loss measures, the perspective of schizophrenia patients has not been assessed. Information on self-reported weight perception, desire to lose weight as well as weight loss attempts was obtained according to methods employed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycle III (NHANES III). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perception of body weight and desire to lose weight were correlated to BMI. Both obese female and male subjects (BMI30) were aware of their weight status. However, whereas overweight females (BMI>25weight loss, caloric restriction (diet) was most frequently employed (by more than 80% of study subjects); yet only a third of study subjects (34.4%) engaged in the recommended combination of diet and exercise to lose weight. Questionable weight loss practices were also frequently employed, especially among women. Obese patients (BMI> or =30) were generally aware of their excess body weight and wanted to lose weight. Only non-obese, yet overweight males (BMI>25Weight loss practices did not always follow established recommendations. Especially women were likely to approach weight loss with questionably appropriate and unsafe methods.

  11. Longitudinal impact of weight misperception and intent to change weight on body mass index of adolescents and young adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Thurston, Idia B; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Milliren, Carly E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-12-01

    Accurate perception of one's weight status is believed to be necessary to motivate weight loss intention and subsequent weight loss among those with overweight/obesity. This proposed pathway, however, is understudied in longitudinal research. This study examined the indirect effect of weight change intention on the relationship between weight status perception and BMI change among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Participants included 2664 adolescents with overweight/obesity (52% female) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Longitudinal associations between Wave II weight status perception (accurate versus misperception) and intent to change weight (i.e., gain, lose, stay the same) on BMI change (Wave II-Wave IV) were examined using multiple linear regression. Indirect effects of weight change intention were investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Analyses were stratified by gender. Accurate perceivers (81.0% female; 60.1% male) were more likely than misperceivers (i.e., perception of "about the right weight") to report weight loss intention (p<0.001). Among females, weight status misperception and weight loss intention individually were associated with smaller (β=-1.37, 95% CI [-2.64, -0.10]) and greater (β=1.18, 95% CI [0.11, 2.25]) BMI gains, respectively. Among males, fully adjusted models suggested that weight status misperception was associated with significantly smaller gains in BMI over time (β=-1.51, 95% CI [-2.38, -0.63]). Weight change intention did not emerge as an indirect effect for either gender. Although weight status misperception was protective against weight gain, weight change intention did not provide an explanation for this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chinese parents' perceptions of their children's weights and their relationship to parenting behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Hui, S S C

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Chinese parents' perceptions of their children's weights and explore the parenting behaviours associated with these perceptions. A total of 2143 adolescents and 1869 parents were recruited from secondary schools in Ganzhou and Shantou in China. The adolescents' actual weights and heights were measured by trained testers. The self-reported parents' weights and heights, parental perception of the adolescents' weights, adolescents' perception of their own weights, parenting behaviours and demographic information were collected through the questionnaires distributed to the respondents. The results based on Kappa statistics show only a slight agreement between parental perception of their children's weights and the adolescents' actual weights (Kappa = 0.221). The results from the logistic regression show that the parents' gender [odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-1.00], adolescents' gender (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.29-2.01) and perception of their own weights (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24-0.38) are associated with the parents' perception of their children's weights. Statistically significant difference in several parenting behaviours was found between the parents with correct and incorrect perceptions of their children's weight. Misconceptions about their children's weights are prevalent among Chinese parents. The association between parents' perception of their children's weight and parenting behaviours suggests that the accurate classification of children's weights could help prevent childhood obesity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  14. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  15. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,2, Patricia Bolaños-Ríos2, María José Santiago-Fernández2, Olivia Garrido-Casals2, Elsa Sánchez31Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, Spain; 3Professional Schools Sagrada Familia, Écija, Seville, SpainBackground: This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain.Methods: The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question “How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?”. Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire.Results: Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5–85, there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight; 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ2 = 3.957, P < 0.05. There was a significant difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among

  16. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  17. Children’s, Their Guardians’, and Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions of Child Overweight in Relation to Children’s Weight Loss Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Y. N.; Rossen, L. M.; Schoendorf, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine accuracy of children’s, their guardians’, and health care professionals’ (HCPs’) perceptions of child overweight and obesity, the degree of agreement between their perceptions, and relationships with weight loss attempts among overweight or obese children. Design Cross-sectional study using 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting United States. Subjects Out of 4691 children and adolescents, ages 8 to 15 years, 16.4% were overweight (body mass index [BMI] percentiles 85–94.99) and 19.3% were obese (BMI percentiles ≥95). Measures Age and sex-specific BMI percentiles; responses of adult proxies (guardians) on whether they considered their child overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them that their child was overweight; responses of children and adolescents on their self-perceived weight status and whether they were trying to lose weight; children’s and guardians’ socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis Weighted percentages; sensitivities and Cohen’s kappas; adjusted prevalence ratios. Results Children, their guardians, and HCPs underestimated child’s actual overweight or obesity status. Little agreement existed between overweight or obese children, their parents, and HCPs on whether these children were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children perceived as such by themselves, their guardians, and HCPs were 88% and 32%, respectively, more likely to attempt weight loss based on multivariable analyses. Conclusion Accurate and shared perceptions of adiposity in children and adolescents between children themselves, their guardians, and HCPs are positively associated with weight loss attempts among overweight or obese children in the United States. PMID:24459998

  18. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Weight stigma in physiotherapy practice: Patient perceptions of interactions with physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Jenny; Watson, Bernadette; Jones, Liz; Gard, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Weight management is increasingly considered part of physiotherapists' scope of practice in order to improve patient outcomes by, for example, reducing load on joints, or improving chronic pain. However, interactions with patients involving weight may result in patient perceptions of negative judgement from health professionals, which can result in poorer health outcomes. How physiotherapist/patient interactions involving weight are perceived by patients has not yet been investigated. To explore patients' perceptions of interactions with physiotherapists that involved weight, and investigate how these perceptions may inform physiotherapy practice. Face-to-face interviews with physiotherapy patients, with follow up interviews conducted by telephone. Data were analysed thematically. First interviews were held in a physiotherapy practice with follow up interviews conducted two weeks later. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic method established by Braun and Clarke. Thirty interviews with 15 patients were analysed. Four main themes relevant to weight were identified: 1) perceptions of being 'in physiotherapy' including pre-conceptions, the physical environment, and exposing the body, 2) emphasis placed on weight in physiotherapy interactions, 3) communication styles, and 4) judgement perception. Some patients perceived negative weight judgements from elements of physiotherapy interactions and environments. Physiotherapists need to be aware of this perception because it may result in poorer patient outcomes and patients avoiding physiotherapy appointments. The results suggest strategies to counteract weight stigma include: adjusting the physical environment of the clinic, portraying an understanding of complex determinants of weight, and employing collaborative, non-judgemental communication styles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight- perception in male career firefighters and its association with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Dorothee M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and is also increasing among public safety professionals like firefighters who are expected to be fit and more active. The present study evaluates the associations among Body Mass Index (BMI, weight perception and cardiovascular risk factors in 768 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states in the United States. Methods A physical examination was performed and fasting blood samples were taken. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF was determined from symptom- limited maximal treadmill exercise testing with electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring and estimation of oxygen consumption (metabolic equivalents, METS using the Bruce protocol. A health and lifestyle questionnaire was administered with standardized written instructions for completion. Self-reports of weight perception were extracted from responses to the completed multiple choice questionnaire. Baseline characteristics were described using the mean (standard deviation for continuous variables and frequency for categorical variables. Group comparisons were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Linear models and logistic regression models were used to adjust for possible confounders. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios of underestimating one’s weight category. Results A high proportion of overweight and obese male career firefighters underestimate their weight categories (68%. The risk of underestimating one’s weight category increased by 24% with each additional unit of increasing BMI after adjustment for age and CRF. When divided into six groups based on combinations of measured BMI category and weight perception, there were significant differences among the groups for most cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment for age and BMI, these differences remained statistically significant for CRF, amount of weekly exercise, prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

  1. Latino Parents' Perceptions of Pediatric Weight Counseling Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Shanna Doucette; Newcomer, Sophia; Castillo, Alyssa; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Raghunath, Silvia; Clarke, Christina; Wright, Leslie; Haemer, Matthew; Hambidge, Simon J

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about Latino parents' perceptions of weight-related language in English or Spanish, particularly for counseling obese youth. We sought to identify English and Spanish weight counseling terms perceived by Latino parents across demographic groups as desirable for providers to use, motivating, and inoffensive. Latino parents of children treated at urban safety-net clinics completed surveys in English or Spanish. Parents rated the desirable, motivating, or offensive properties of terms for excess weight using a 5-point scale. We compared parental ratings of terms and investigated the association of parent and child characteristics with parent perceptions of terms. A total of 525 surveys met inclusion criteria (255 English, 270 Spanish). English survey respondents rated "unhealthy weight" and "too much weight for his/her health" the most motivating and among the most desirable and least offensive terms. Spanish survey respondents found "demasiado peso para su salud" highly desirable, highly motivating, and inoffensive, and respondents valued its connection to the child's health. Commonly used clinical terms "overweight"/"sobrepeso" and "high BMI [body mass index]"/"índice de masa corporal alta" were not as desirable or as motivating. "Chubby," "fat," "gordo," and "muy gordo" were the least motivating and most offensive terms. Parents' ratings of commonly used clinical terms varied widely across demographic groups, but more desirable terms had less variability. "Unhealthy weight," "too much weight for his/her health," and its Spanish equivalent, "demasiado peso para su salud," were the most desirable and motivating, and the least offensive terms. Latino parents' positive perceptions of these terms occurred across parent and child characteristics, supporting their use in weight counseling. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  4. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  5. Parental perceptions of weight terminology that providers use with youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been performed to examine patient perceptions of weight-related language, especially related to childhood obesity. In this study we assessed parental perceptions of weight-based terminology used by health care providers to describe a child's excess weight and assessed perceived connotations associated with these terms including stigma, blame, and motivation to reduce weight. A national sample of American parents with children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 445) completed an online survey to assess their perceptions of 10 common terms to describe excess body weight in youth (including "extremely obese," "high BMI," "weight problem," "unhealthy weight," "weight," "heavy," "obese," "overweight," "chubby," and "fat"). Parents were asked to use a 5-point rating scale to indicate how much they perceived each term to be desirable, stigmatizing, blaming, or motivating to lose weight. Regression models revealed that the terms "weight" and "unhealthy weight" were rated as most desirable, and "unhealthy weight" and "weight problem" were rated as the most motivating to lose weight. The terms "fat," "obese," and "extremely obese" were rated as the most undesirable, stigmatizing, blaming, and least motivating. Parents' ratings were consistent across sociodemographic variables, body weight, and child's body weight. The results of this study have important implications for the improvement of health care for youth with obesity; it may be advantageous for health care providers to use or avoid using specific weight-based language during discussions about body weight with families. Pediatricians play a key role in obesity prevention and treatment, but their efforts may be undermined by stigmatizing or offensive language that can hinder important discussions about children's health.

  6. Perception of body image of adolescents and of their parents in relation to the nutritional status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira Vieira, Raquel; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Grave, Magali Trezinha Quevedo; Adami, Fernanda Scherer

    2015-04-01

    The perception of body image of adolescents is an instrument for nutritional assessment to health conditions. To verify the body image perception of adolescents and their parents in relation to nutritional status and blood pressure levels. Population-based study, and cross-sectional model, conducted with parents and adolescents aged 10-19 years old, in rural and urban zones in public schools. There was applied the Scale silhouettes for parents about the perception of the described body image and a question about the concern of the nutritional status of their children. There were verified the blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, the BMI (kg/m²) calculation of the adolescents, and the self-perceived body image. The data was expressed as average ± standard deviation and percentages. The sample consisted of 914 adolescents with a mean age of 13.12 ± 2.17 years, 56.8% female and 68.9% were eutrophic. As for blood pressure levels, 17.6% were classified in pre-hypertensive, 18.8% in stage 1 hypertension and 6% in stage 2. About the self-perception, 68% considered themselves being eutrophic and 64.75% of the parents classified their children as eutrophic. There was observed a direct and significant correlation among the body mass index, waist circumference, weight, systemic and diastolic blood pressure with the self-perception of the adolescents and the body image perceptions of the parents (ppressure, waist circumference and body image perceptions of the adolescents and their respective parents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental Perceptions of and Concerns About Child's Body Weight in Eight European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regber, Susann; Novak, Masuma; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject: Parents of children with overweight and obesity tend to underestimate their children's weight. Most studies show no association between parental education level and accurate parental perception of a child's weight category. Studies show no consistent...... relationship between parental weight perception and the child's gender. What this study adds: Parental underestimation of children's weight category for children in the overweight and obesity categories was found across eight European countries. Regional differences indicated a more accurate parental weight...... perception in Northern and Central Europe. A high proportion of parents in Southern Europe were concerned about future underweight or overweight in their children. Objectives: To evaluate parental perceptions of and concern about child's body weight and general health in children in a European cohort. Design...

  8. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  9. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...

  10. Disordered Weight Management Behaviors, Nonprescription Steroid Use, and Weight Perception in Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Williams, David N; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2017-01-01

    Disordered weight management behaviors are prevalent among youth; recent case reports suggested that these behaviors might also be common in transgender youth. We studied associations of gender identity with disordered weight management behaviors, nonprescription steroid use, and weight perception among transgender and cisgender (nontransgender) high-school students in Massachusetts. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey, an anonymous survey in a random sample of Massachusetts public high schools. Respondents were divided into three groups: transgender (n = 67), cisgender male (n = 1,117), and cisgender female (n = 1,289). Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine unhealthy weight management behaviors in the past 30 days: fasting >24 hours, vomiting, diet pill use, and laxative use; nonprescription steroid use; and self-perceived weight status. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Compared with cisgender males, transgender adolescents had higher odds of fasting >24 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-7.8), using diet pills (AOR = 8.9, 95% CI = 2.3-35.2) and taking laxatives (AOR = 7.2, 95% CI = 1.4-38.4). Transgender youth had higher odds of lifetime use of steroids without a prescription than male cisgender respondents (AOR = 26.6, 95% CI = 3.5-200.1). Compared with cisgender females, transgender respondents had higher odds of perceiving themselves as healthy weight/underweight when they were overweight/obese (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5-4.1). Transgender youth disproportionately self-reported unsafe weight management behaviors and nonprescription steroid use compared with cisgender youth. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk among transgender youth. Research is needed to further understand these disparities and to inform future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and

  11. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pnutritional status (β=-0.18; p≤0.01); emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (β=0.31; pchildren/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. "Whatever average is:" understanding African-American mothers' perceptions of infant weight, growth, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Biomedical researchers have raised concerns that mothers' inability to recognize infant and toddler overweight poses a barrier to stemming increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly among low-income or minority mothers. Little anthropological research has examined the sociocultural, economic or structural factors shaping maternal perceptions of infant and toddler size or addressed biomedical depictions of maternal misperception as a "socio-cultural problem." We use qualitative and quantitative data from 237 low-income, African-American mothers to explore how they define 'normal' infant growth and infant overweight. Our quantitative results document that mothers' perceptions of infant size change with infant age, are sensitive to the size of other infants in the community, and are associated with concerns over health and appetite. Qualitative analysis documents that mothers are concerned with their children's weight status and assess size in relation to their infants' cues, local and societal norms of appropriate size, interactions with biomedicine, and concerns about infant health and sufficiency. These findings suggest that mothers use multiple models to interpret and respond to child weight. An anthropological focus on the complex social and structural factors shaping what is considered 'normal' and 'abnormal' infant weight is critical for shaping appropriate and successful interventions.

  13. Perception of Child Weight and Feeding Styles in Parents of Chinese-American Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lucy Y; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Fierman, Arthur H; Au, Loretta Y; Messito, Mary Jo

    2017-04-01

    Parent perception of weight and feeding styles are associated with obesity in other racial groups but have not been explored in-depth in Chinese-American preschoolers. Cross-sectional survey of 253 Chinese-American parents with preschoolers was performed in a community clinic. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental perception of weight and feeding styles. Parent under-perception of weight was common but more likely in boys than girls (χ 2  = 4.91, p = 0.03). Pressuring was also greater in boys [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 0.24 (0.004, 0.49)]. In girls, pressuring was lower for children perceived as overweight [adjusted mean difference in CFQ scores -0.75 (-1.27, -0.23)]; in boys, pressuring was high regardless of perceived child weight. Weight perceptions and feeding styles related to childhood obesity in other groups were identified in Chinese-American families. Parent under-perception of child weight and pressure to eat were more common in boys. These factors should be addressed in Chinese-American preschooler obesity prevention programs.

  14. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  15. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  16. Children at risk: the association between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and attempts in middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Lauren M; Morrissey, Susan L; Cummings, Doyle M

    2007-02-01

    Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and poor self-esteem in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and actions by gender in middle school youth. All public middle school students in 4 eastern North Carolina counties presented, and with parental permission (n = 5174), completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. The 3 dependent variables were self-reported thinking, planning, and attempting suicide. Bivariate analyses describe suicidal thoughts and actions; multiple logistic regression models examined the relationship between weight description and suicidal thoughts and actions controlling for age, race, household composition, grades on report cards, and parents' education. Significantly more females than males reported thinking (26% vs 19%), planning (12% vs 9%), and attempting (11% vs 8%) suicide. For females, those who perceived themselves as overweight were significantly more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions; while for males, perceptions of overweight and underweight were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions. Controlling for personal and family characteristics, perceived weight status was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions in middle school boys and girls.

  17. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  18. Influence of weight status on physical and mental health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied ...

  19. Weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Hector, Debra; Lloyd, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    To describe the weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school. This study is a representative cross-sectional survey of Australian children in their first year of schooling (n=1141) in 2010. Height and weight were measured, and parents reported their child's diet, physical activity and screen-time. 18.7% of children were overweight/obese. Compared with non-overweight/obese peers, overweight/obese boys were 1.73 times (95% CI 1.08, 2.79) as likely to exceed recommended screen time and 2.07 times (95% CI 1.11, 3.87) as likely to eat dinner three or more times/week in front of the TV. Overweight/obese girls were twice as likely to have a TV in their bedroom (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.12, 3.59) and usually be rewarded with sweets for good behavior (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.09, 3.51) and were 1.65 times as likely to be inactive (95% CI 1.08, 2.55). We showed that many children begin school with established weight-related behaviors that occur in the home environment. The inclusion of parents and the home environment in intervention strategies will be important to support changes to reduce childhood obesity. The weight status and weight-related behaviors of children entering school may potentially be a general indicator of the overall effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions among preschool-aged children. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between doctors' and nurses' own weight status and their weight management practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D Q; Norman, I J; While, A E

    2011-06-01

    It has been established that health professionals' smoking and physical activity influence their related health-promoting behaviours, but it is unclear whether health professionals' weight status also influences their related professional practices. A systematic review was conducted to understand the relationship between personal weight status and weight management practices. Nine eligible studies were identified from a search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Chinese databases. All included studies were cross-sectional surveys employing self-reported questionnaires. Weight management practice variables studied were classified under six practice indicators, developed from weight management guidelines. Syntheses of the findings from the selected studies suggest that: normal weight doctors and nurses were more likely than those who were overweight to use strategies to prevent obesity in-patients, and, also, provide overweight or obese patients with general advice to achieve weight loss. Doctors' and nurses' own weight status was not found to be significantly related to their referral and assessment of overweight or obese patients, and associations with their relevant knowledge/skills and specific treatment behaviours were inconsistent. Additionally, in female, primary care providers, relevant knowledge and training, self-efficacy and a clear professional identity emerged as positive predictors of weight management practices. This review's findings will need to be confirmed by prospective theoretically driven studies, which employ objective measures of weight status and weight management practices and involve multivariate analyses to identify the relative contribution of weight status to weight management. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, Ppermissive feeding style (-1.04, Ppermissive feeding style (0.14, Pparent's use of food restriction (0.21, Ppermissive feeding style (0.16, Pparenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Education and perceptions of social status and power among women in Larteh, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K M

    1999-01-01

    In exploring the status of women in the developing world, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, like income or health, on women. This article goes beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in rural Larteh, Ghana. It focuses primarily on the effects of gender and education on perception of social status and power. Section 1 offers a brief overview of the history of Ghana, reflecting the current position of women in the country. Definitions of social status and power within an African context are presented in section 2. Section 3 examines 24 interviews collected in Ghana, which asks respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. In general, the results indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors affecting perceptions of social status and power are wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, including elder, chief, and priestess.

  3. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  4. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image and weight status of children from rural areas of Valparaíso, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Pablo A; Simpson, Cristina; Yáñez, Lily; Saavedra, Karime

    2014-11-30

    To determine the relation between the perceived and the real nutritional status in children from rural areas. The study comprehends 206 students from first to eighth year of primary school from rural institutions of the Valparaiso region, Chile (43% females). The real nutritional status was measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI), and the perceived status by means of corporeal figures. The Socioeconomic Status (SES) was determined using the modified Graffar scale. The analysis was carried out using the concordance correlation coefficient kappa, and the chi-square test was used for the association of variables. The subjects are concentrated in the low SES (82% male; 72% female). 49.5% of the students present overweight and obesity. Boys show higher prevalence of obesity (29%) than girls (20%). 62.5% of the females underestimate their weight, which surpasses the percentage of males (52.5%). 98.10% of the obese individuals underestimate their weight, as well as the 100% of the evaluated children with an overweight condition. Boys and girls from rural areas in conditions of overweight and obesity present a higher prevalence rate of an inappropriate perception of body image (underestimation), which has an important impact when recognizing their own condition of over nutrition. This status can have significant repercussions in public health, since it can be maintained to adult life and develop non-transmissible chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions of healthcare quality in Ghana: Does health insurance status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opoku; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Janssens, Wendy; Pradhan, Menno

    2018-01-01

    This study's objective is to provide an alternative explanation for the low enrolment in health insurance in Ghana by analysing differences in perceptions between the insured and uninsured of the non-technical quality of healthcare. It further explores the association between insurance status and perception of healthcare quality to ascertain whether insurance status matters in the perception of healthcare quality. Data from a survey of 1,903 households living in the catchment area of 64 health centres were used for the analysis. Two sample independent t-tests were employed to compare the average perceptions of the insured and uninsured on seven indicators of non-technical quality of healthcare. A generalised ordered logit regression, controlling for socio-economic characteristics and clustering at the health facility level, tested the association between insurance status and perceived quality of healthcare. The perceptions of the insured were found to be significantly more negative than the uninsured and those of the previously insured were significantly more negative than the never insured. Being insured was associated with a significantly lower perception of healthcare quality. Thus, once people are insured, they tend to perceive the quality of healthcare they receive as poor compared to those without insurance. This study demonstrated that health insurance status matters in the perceptions of healthcare quality. The findings also imply that perceptions of healthcare quality may be shaped by individual experiences at the health facilities, where the insured and uninsured may be treated differently. Health insurance then becomes less attractive due to the poor perception of the healthcare quality provided to individuals with insurance, resulting in low demand for health insurance in Ghana. Policy makers in Ghana should consider redesigning, reorganizing, and reengineering the National Healthcare Insurance Scheme to ensure the provision of better quality healthcare

  7. Associated factors to the maternal perception of child body weight: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Trejo-Ortíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic review of literature about maternal perception of child weight and the factors that are associated with it. Materials and methods: SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and Redalyc were subject to a database search for articles published between 2009 and 2016. The final sample was comprised of twenty five articles. Results: From 21.8% to 98.2% of mothers underestimate the weight of their child. This has been associated with body mass index (BMI, sex, age, birth weight and the quantity of food that is ingested by the child; race, BMI, age, income and maternal education. Furthermore it has been found that the perception of child weight is associated with the presence of childhood obesity, actions and problems of parents to manage the weight of the child and dietary control. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue the study of the maternal perception of the child's weight and to find proposals for intervention aimed at reducing this problem.

  8. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-04-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.

  9. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J P; Johnston, C A; Hernandez, D C; LeNoble, J; Papaioannou, M A; Foreyt, J P

    2016-10-01

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impact of having zero, one or two obese parents on children's success in a school-based weight management programme. Sixty-one Mexican-American children participated in a 24-week school-based weight management intervention which took place in 2005-2006. Children's heights and weights were measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Parental weight status was assessed at baseline. Repeated measures anova and ancova were conducted to compare changes in children's weight within and between groups, respectively. Within-group comparisons revealed that the intervention led to significant decreases in standardized body mass index (zBMI) for children with zero (F = 23.16, P weight management programme appears to be most efficacious for children with one or no obese parents compared to children with two obese parents. These results demonstrate the need to consider parental weight status when engaging in childhood weight management efforts. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Correlates of weight status among Norwegian 11-year-olds: The HEIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grydeland May

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying mechanisms of overweight and obesity in adolescents are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable and non-modifiable correlates of weight status among 1103 Norwegian 11-year-old adolescents in the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA study, including demographic factors such as gender and parental education, and behavioral factors such as intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and breakfast consumption, watching TV and playing computer games, physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Weight and height were measured objectively, body mass index (BMI was calculated and International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define weight status. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. Other behavioral correlates and pubertal status were self-reported by questionnaires. Parental education was reported by the parents on the consent form for their child. Associations were investigated using logistic regressions. Results There were gender differences in behavioral correlates of weight status but not for weight status itself. Adolescents with parents in the highest education category had a 46% reduced odds of being overweight compared to adolescents with parents in the lowest education category. Adolescents with parents with medium education had 42% lower odds of being overweight than adolescents with parents with the lowest education category. Level of parental education, breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity were positively associated with being normal weight, and time watching TV was positively associated with being overweight for the total sample. Gender differences were detected; boys had a doubled risk of being overweight for every additional hour of watching TV per week, while for girls there was no association. Conclusions The present study showed a social gradient in weight status in 11-year-olds. Both breakfast

  11. Perceptions of health status, medication side effects and depression after successful renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, F.; Masood, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perceptions of health status and depression among Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs). Stydy Design: A longitudinal research design was used. Methods: Recipients’ perceived health status (PHS) was measured by a self-developed questionnaire that reflected the symptom severity and frequency of common immunosuppressant side effects. Depression levels were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory B.D.I II) .The sample population comprised of RTRs with a successful and healthy renal transplant recruited from private and government sector renal units in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Recipients with poorer perceptions of health status tend to be more depressed as indicated by significant negative correlations between PHS and depression. However, further regression analysis found both constructs as significant predictors of each other, raising a question of causal direction. A cross lagged correlation analysis indicated that PHS appears to be a stronger predictor of depression comparatively. Most recipients tend to have positive perceptions of their health status (M = 30.84, S.D = 3.64) with minimum to moderate level of depression (M = 9.50, S.D = 4.00), It is found that a positive perception of health status is associated with lowered depression. Conclusion: Most recipients’ with a healthy kidney transplant tend to report a positive perception of their health status despite adverse medication side effects. However, the perceived health status is significantly associated with consequent feeling of depression. The study confirms the efficacy and positive health outcomes of renal transplantation in Pakistan. (author)

  12. The neural substrates of person perception: spontaneous use of financial and moral status knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, J; Ambady, N; Meagher, T; Gabrieli, J D E

    2012-07-01

    The current study examines the effect of status information on the neural substrates of person perception. In an event-related fMRI experiment, participants were presented with photographs of faces preceded with information denoting either: low or high financial status (e.g., "earns $25,000" or "earns $350,000"), or low or high moral status (e.g., "is a tobacco executive" or "does cancer research"). Participants were asked to form an impression of the targets, but were not instructed to explicitly evaluate their social status. Building on previous brain-imaging investigations, regions of interest analyses were performed for brain regions expected to support either cognitive (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) or emotional (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex) components of social status perception. Activation of the intraparietal sulcus was found to be sensitive to the financial status of individuals while activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was sensitive to the moral status of individuals. The implications of these results towards uncovering the neural substrates of status perception and, more broadly, the extended network of brain regions involved in person perception are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Weight Perception on the Health Behaviors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Jessica; Naquin, Mildred; Gillan, Wynn; Bowers, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has links to numerous health problems. Having an accurate perception of one's own weight is an important aspect of maintaining an appropriate weight. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among perceived body weight, actual body weight, body satisfaction, and selected health behaviors. Methods: The…

  14. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  15. The effect of a medical opinion on self-perceptions of weight for Mexican adults: perception of change and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Román Sicilia, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the relationship between perceived and actual Body Mass Index (BMI) and the effect of a prior identification of obesity by a medical professional for adults using difference in response for two distinct BMI self-perception questions. Typically, self-perception studies only investigate the relation with current weight, whereas here the focus is on the self-perception of weight differences. A statistical approach was used to assess responses to the Mexican ENSANUT 2006 survey. Adults in the range of BMI from 13 to 60 were tested on responses to a categorical question and a figure rating scale self-perception question. Differences in response by gender and identification of obesity by a medical professional were analysed using linear regression. Results indicated that regardless of current BMI and gender, a verbal intervention by a medical professional will increase perceived BMI independently of actual BMI but does not necessarily make the identified obese more accurate in their BMI estimates. A shift in the average self-perception was seen with a higher response for the identified obese. A linear increase in perceived BMI as a function of actual BMI was observed in the range BMI self-image, to be considerably less. It was seen that an identification of obesity by a health care professional did not improve ability to judge weight but, rather, served as a new anchor from which the identified obese judge their weight, suggesting that even those identified obese who have lost weight, perceive their weight to be greater than it actually is. We believe that these results can be explained in terms of two cognitive biases; the self-serving bias and the anchoring bias.

  16. Fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Deardorff, Julianna; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M; Ozer, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8-10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = -0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = -0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  18. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  19. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Perceptions of Faculty Status among Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Quinn; Garrison, Melissa; Hales, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    This study measures the opinions of ARL librarians concerning the benefits and disadvantages of faculty status in academic librarianship. Average responses from faculty and nonfaculty librarians, as well as from tenured and tenure-track librarians, are analyzed to determine the general perceptions of each group. Overall, faculty librarians…

  1. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  2. Maternal perception of their child's nutritional status at less than three years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luciane Simões; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Toriyama, Áurea Tamami Minagawa; Palombo, Claudia Nery Teixeira; Miranda, Patrícia Pereira Lima; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-01-01

    Assessing maternal perception of their children's nutritional status and identifying associated factors. A cross-sectional study conducted in a small municipality with 342 children less than 3 years of age treated in Basic Health Units of São Paulo. Nutritional status was classified in percentiles of body mass index for age and maternal perception was assessed using the scale of verbal descriptors (very thin, thin, healthy weight, fat, very fat). Logistic regression was used to identify the associatedfactors. 44.7% of maternal perception was found to beinadequate. Mothers of overweight (OR = 11.8, 95% CI: 6.4-21.7) and underweight (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.9-16.2) children had a higher chance of having inadequate perception, similar to mothers of children over 24 months of age (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-6.0). For effective child care in primary care, healthcare professionals should consider maternal perception and helpmothers to identify the nutritional status of children in childcare consultations and growth monitoring. Avaliar a percepção materna do estado nutricional do filho e identificar os fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em município de pequeno porte com 342 crianças menores de 3anos atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. O estado nutricional foi classificado em percentis do Índice de Massa Corporalpara Idade e a percepção materna foi avaliada com escala de descritores verbais (muito magro, magro, peso adequado, gordo, muito gordo). Utilizou-se de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados. Constatou-se 44,7% de percepção materna inadequada. Mães de crianças com excesso de peso (OR=11,8; IC95%:6,4-21,7) e com baixo peso (OR=5,5; IC95%:1,9-16,2) apresentaram mais chance de percepção inadequada, da mesma forma que mães de crianças com mais de 24 meses de idade (OR=2,9; IC95%:1,4-6,0). Para uma efetiva assistência à criança na atenção básica, profissionais de saúde devem considerar a

  3. Perception of physical fitness is associated with perception of body weight: sociodemographic analysis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero-González, Carlos Mª

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, body weight perception and physical fitness perception. Methods: Survey by means of personal interview. The sample consisted of 8,594 participants living in Spain between 15 and 97 years of age. Sampling error was ±1.07%. Results: Of the people who reported having good or excellent physical fitness, there was a proportionally greater prevalence of males, people aged 15 to 34, pe...

  4. Latino parents' perceptions of weight terminology used in pediatric weight counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Shanna Doucette; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Haemer, Matthew; Raghunath, Silvia; Martin, Carmen; Yang, Alyssa; Clarke, Christina; Hambidge, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    To identify which English and Spanish terms Latino parents consider motivating, as well as culturally and linguistically appropriate, for provider use during weight counseling of overweight and obese Latino youth. Latino parent perceptions of common Spanish and English terms for overweight were discussed with 54 parents in 6 focus groups (3 English, 3 Spanish). Atlas.ti software was used for qualitative analysis. An initial codebook was used to code passages for English and Spanish terminology separately. Subsequent changes to the coded passages and creation of new codes were made by team consensus. "Demasiado peso para su salud" (too much weight for his/her health) was the only phrase for excess weight that was consistently identified as motivating and inoffensive by Spanish-speaking parents. "Sobrepeso" (overweight), a commonly used term among health care providers, was motivating to some parents but offensive to others. English-speaking parents had mixed reactions to "unhealthy weight," "weight problem," and "overweight," finding them motivating, confusing, or insulting. Parents found "fat" "gordo" and "obese" "obeso" consistently offensive. Most participants found growth charts and the term "BMI" confusing. Parents consistently reported that providers could enhance motivation and avoid offending families by linking a child's weight to health risks, particularly diabetes. "Demasiado peso para su salud" (too much weight for his/her health) was motivating to many Spanish-speaking Latino parents. Among English-speaking Latino parents, no single English term emerged as motivating, well-understood, and inoffensive. Linking a child's excess weight with increased health risks was motivating and valuable to many parents regardless of language spoken. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of executive functioning in binge-eating disorder independent of weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, Kalina T; Arlt, Jean M; Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-08-01

    Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29). The EF battery utilized tests from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). After controlling for years of education and minority status, overweight individuals performed more poorly than normal-weight individuals on a task of cognitive flexibility requiring generativity (p < .01), and speed on psychomotor performance tasks (p = .01). Normal-weight and overweight BED performed worse on working memory tasks compared to controls (p = .04). Unexpectedly, normal-weight BED individuals out-performed all other groups on an inhibitory control task (p < .01). No significant differences were found between the four groups on tasks of planning. Regardless of weight status, BED is associated with working memory problems. Replication of the finding that normal-weight BED is associated with enhanced inhibitory control is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  7. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738

  8. Physical activity intensity and weight control status among U.S. Adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the objectively determined physical activity levels by weight control status (i.e., trying to lose weight, trying to maintain weight, and neither trying to lose or maintain weight) among U.S. adults with diabetes. Therefore, this study assessed the association between physical activity and weight control status among U.S. adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey. The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, which is representative of the U.S. population. Subjects were 733 adults (≥20 years) with diabetes. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity, and questionnaires were used to assess weight control status and covariates. Multivariate negative binomial regressions were used. After adjustments, and compared to those not trying to lose or maintain their weight, women trying to lose weight engaged in 74% more physical activity (rate ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.65). Although findings were not significant for men, men were more likely than women to meet physical activity recommendations. Diabetic women trying to lose weight engaged in more physical activity than did their female counterparts not trying to lose or maintain their weight. Although men were more active than women, no differences in activity estimates occurred across weight control status for men.

  9. Self-perception and dissatisfaction with weight does not depend on the frequency of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Denise Sardinha Mendes Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of satisfaction with body weight and the self-perception of the weight/height ratio and to verify the influence of the frequency of present and past physical activity on these variables. METHODS: Using questionnaires or interviews, we obtained height data, reported and desired weight, self-perception of the weight/height ratio, and the frequency of current physical activity in 844 adults (489 women. Of these, evaluated the frequency of physical activity during high school of 193 individuals,and we measured their height and weight. RESULTS: Less than 2/3 of the individuals had body mass index between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2. A tendency existed to overestimate height by less than 1 cm and to underestimate weight by less than 1kg. Desired weight was less than that reported (p<0.001, and only 20% were satisfied with their current weight. Only 42% of men and 25% of women exercised regularly. No association was found between the frequency of physical activity and the variables height, weight, and body mass index, and the level of satisfaction with current weight. CONCLUSION: Height and weight reported seem to be valid for epidemological studies, and great dissatisfaction with body weight and a distorted self-perception of height/weight ratio exists, especially in women, regardless of the frequency of physical activity.

  10. Association between body mass index and perceived weight status with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arifirad, Tahereh; Rastad, Hadith; Asayesh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is a well-known worldwide issue with growing prevalence and complications. The concept of body image and complications of its misperception has been noted more recently. Life satisfaction (LS) and self-rated health (SRH) have also been known as independent morbidity and mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of perceived weight status (body image) and actual body mass index (BMI), with LS and SRH in a nationally representative sample of a pediatric population in Iran, as a country located in the Middle East and North Africa region. This nationwide population-based survey was conducted among 5,570 (2,784 female and 2,786 male) Iranian students, aged 10-18 years, living in urban and rural areas of 27 provinces, which were selected via multistage sampling method. Agreement between BMI and perceived weight status (underweight, about right and overweight/obesity) was assessed. Adjusted association between BMI and perceived weight status with LS and SRH was assessed using multiple logistic regressions after adjustment for potential confounders. Nearly 40 % of the participants misperceived their body image. Misperception as overweight or underweight was found to be associated with lower odds for both LS and SRH [overweight SRH OR 0.796 (95 % CI 0.647-980), underweight SRH OR 0.701 (95 % CI 0.588-0.835), overweight LS OR 0.884 (95 % CI 0.718-998), underweight LS OR = 0.676 (95 % CI 0.577-0.793)], whereas the association between actual BMI with LS and SRH was not statistically significant (P value > 0.05). A mismatch between BMI and body weight perception was found in this study. Moreover, LS and SRH were not related with BMI, but had negative association with body weight perception.

  11. Mothers' perceptions about the nutritional status of their overweight children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliandra Francescatto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this systematic review aims to explore and describe the studies that have as a primary outcome the identification of mothers' perception of the nutritional status of their children. SOURCES: the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and SciELO databases were researched, regardless of language or publication date. The terms used for the search, with its variants, were: Nutritional Status, Perception, Mother, Maternal, Parents, Parental. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: after screening of 167 articles, 41 were selected for full text reading, of which 17 were included in the review and involved the evaluation of the perception of mothers on the nutritional status of 57,700 children and adolescents. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from low to excellent. The proportion of mothers who inadequately perceived the nutritional status of their children was high, and was the most common underestimation for children with overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: despite the increasing prevalence of obesity in pediatric age, mothers have difficulty in properly perceiving the nutritional status of their children, which may compromise referral to treatment programs.

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children as Overweight and Children's Weight Concerns and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-03-01

    The global prevalence of childhood obesity is alarmingly high. Parents' identification of their children as overweight is thought to be an important prerequisite to tackling childhood obesity, but recent findings suggest that such parental identification is counterintuitively associated with increased weight gain during childhood. One possibility is that parental identification of their child as being overweight results in that child viewing his or her body size negatively and attempting to lose weight, which eventually results in weight gain. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies to examine the relation between children's weight gain and their parents' identification of them as being overweight. Across both studies, children whose parents perceive them to be overweight are more likely to view their body size negatively and are more likely than their peers to be actively trying to lose weight. These child-reported outcomes explained part of the counterintuitive association between parents' perceptions of their children as being overweight and the children's subsequent weight. We propose that the stigma attached to being recognized and labeled as "overweight" may partly explain these findings.

  13. The Impact of Acculturation Level on Weight Status and Weight Outcomes in Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jennette P; Vaughan, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Daphne; Cameron, Ryan T; Foreyt, John P; Johnston, Craig A

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that higher levels of acculturation are related to obesity in Hispanic adults. Conflicting findings exist regarding this relationship in children, and little is known about the impact of acculturation on children's success in pediatric weight management programs. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between acculturation and overweight/obese weight status and (2) determine the impact of acculturation on the changes in weight status among overweight/obese children 12 and 24 months after having participated in a weight management intervention. This is a secondary analysis of aggregated data from three randomized control trials that occurred between 2005 and 2009. Height, weight, and level of acculturation using the Child Short Scale for Hispanics (C-SASH) were measured in a sample of Hispanic children (n = 559). Logistic regression models were used to study phase 1 (n = 559) and phase 2 (n = 142), controlling for child and family characteristics. Children reporting high levels of acculturation had a 52 % lower odds of being overweight or obese. Among overweight/obese children who participated in the intervention, high levels of acculturation demonstrated greater reductions in standardized body mass index (zBMI) at 24 months. The results of this study indicate a need to tailor weight management programs for Hispanic children who have lower levels of acculturation.

  14. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  15. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South‑West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the ...

  16. Maternal immigrant status and high birth weight: implications for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a growing epidemic, is associated with greater risk of several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children of immigrant mothers are at higher risk for obesity than children of non-immigrant mothers. High birth weight is the most important neonatal predictor of childhood obesity in the general population. To understand the etiology of obesity in children of immigrant mothers, we assessed the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for high birth weight. Data about all births in Michigan (N = 786,868) between 2000-2005 were collected. We used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for neonatal high birth weight. The prevalence of high birth weight among non-immigrant mothers was 10.6%; the prevalence among immigrant mothers was 8.0% (P maternal age, education, marital status, parity, and tobacco use, children of immigrant mothers had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.70) of high birth weight compared to those of non-immigrant mothers. Although maternal immigrant status has been shown to be associated with greater childhood obesity, surprisingly, children of immigrant mothers have lower risk of high birth weight than children of non-immigrant mothers. This suggests that factors in early childhood, potentially cultural or behavioral factors, may play a disproportionately important role in the etiology of childhood obesity in children of immigrant vs non-immigrant mothers.

  17. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  18. “A little on the heavy side”: a qualitative analysis of parents' and grandparents' perceptions of preschoolers' body weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Parents’ difficulties in perceiving children's weight status accurately pose a barrier for family-based obesity interventions; however, the factors underlying weight misinterpretation still need to be identified. This study's objective was to examine parents and grandparents’ perceptions of preschoolers’ body sizes. Interview questions also explored perceptions of parental responsibility for childhood obesity and appropriate contexts in which to discuss preschoolers’ weights. Design Semistructured interviews, which were videotaped, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Setting Eugene and the Springfield metropolitan area, Oregon, USA Participants Families of children aged 3–5 years were recruited in February—May 2011 through advertisements about the study, published in the job seekers’ sections of a classified website (Craigslist) and in a local newspaper. 49 participants (22 parents and 27 grandparents, 70% women, 60% with overweight/obesity) from 16 low-income families of children aged 3–5 years (50% girls, 56% with overweight/obesity) were interviewed. Results There are important gaps between clinical definitions and lay perceptions of childhood obesity. While parents and grandparents were aware of their preschoolers’ growth chart percentiles, these measures did not translate into recognition of children's overweight or obesity. The participants spoke of obesity as a problem that may affect the children in the future, but not at present. Participants identified childhood obesity as being transmitted from one generation to the next, and stigmatised it as resulting from ‘lazy’ parenting. Parents and grandparents avoided discussing the children's weights with each other and with the children themselves. Conclusions The results suggest that clinicians should clearly communicate with parents and grandparents about the meaning and appearance of obesity in early childhood, as well as counteract the social stigma attached to

  19. [Aerobic capacity, weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between self-concept, aerobic capacity and weight status in schoolchildren. Relational descriptive design in which was assessed the weight status and aerobic capacity of 256 schoolchildren among 8-11 years. Aerobic capacity (low vs high) and the body mass index (normal-weight vs overweight-obesity) were categorized using standard criteria. The self-concept was assessed through the Piers Harris self-concept scale for children. Schoolchildren with normal-weight and high fitness level showed better levels of conductual self-concept (P=.030), physical (Pself-concept (P=.002). The schoolchildren with normal-weight show higher levels of conductual self-concpt (P=.016), intellectual (P=.050), physical (Pself-concept (P=.001). The schoolchildren with a higher fitness level showed better conductual self-concept (P=.024), physical (P=.004), lack of anxiety (P=.011), social (P=.024), and global (P=.003). The results of the study strengthen the importance to transmit to the educative community the knowledge of the relationship between the variables analyzed aiming to improve the schoolchildren self-concept. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Meal patterns among children and adolescents and their associations with weight status and parental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würbach, Ariane; Zellner, Konrad; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin

    2009-08-01

    To describe the meal patterns of Jena schoolchildren and their associations with children's weight status and parental characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Twenty schools in Jena (100,000 inhabitants), south-east Germany. A total of 2054 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years with information on BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and weight status (based on German reference values), of whom 1571 had additional information about their parents (parental education and employment status, weight status according to WHO guidelines) and meal patterns (school lunch participation rate, meal frequencies, breakfast consumption and frequency of family meals). Weight status of the children was associated with weight status, education and employment status of the parents. Meal patterns were strongly dependent on children's age and parental employment. As age increased, the frequency of meal consumption, participation rate in school lunches and the number of family meals decreased. Using linear regression analysis, a high inverse association between BMI-SDS and meal frequency was observed, in addition to relationships with parental weight status and paternal education. Age-specific prevention programmes should encourage greater meal frequency. The close involvement of parents is essential in any strategy for improving children's (families') diets.

  1. Perceptions of legal status: Associations with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cory L; Meca, Alan; Xie, Dong; Schwartz, Seth J; Moise, Rhoda K

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we used a mixed-method design to examine perceptions of legal status and their association with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants in the United States Participants were asked to compare their perceived social experiences with those of documented Latinos/as in order to determine whether differences in such perceptions might emerge and whether such perceptions might differentially impact well-being. A community sample of 140 self-reported undocumented Latino/a immigrants completed questionnaires measuring perceptions of legal status, well-being (global and psychological), perceived context of reception, and experiences of discrimination. Results indicated that individuals who perceived their experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to an unauthorized legal status reported less social equality as evidenced by lower well-being, increased experiences of discrimination, and a more adverse context of reception. Moreover, individuals who perceived their social experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to their legal status reported issues centering on 2 domains: limited opportunity/restricted social mobility and discrimination/unfair treatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of advancing theory and from a multicultural counseling perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Associations among physical activity, diet quality, and weight status in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Liese, Angela D; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in US adults. Participants included 2587 men and 2412 women age 20 to ≥70 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were assessed using standard National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey protocols. Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women, whereas diet quality was higher (P men and women in nearly every age group (P men age 30-39, 40-49 (BMI only), and 50-59 yr and women age 50-59 yr (P physical activity, and diet quality in US men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relation between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans.

  3. The Latina Birth Weight Paradox: the Role of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.

  4. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynjälä Jorma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.

  5. Differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status in Latino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Diana; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Masho, Saba W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevalence remains disproportionally high for young American children from low-socioeconomic and ethnic minorities. Modifiable feeding factors may lead to infant overfeeding and an increased risk for obesity. This study explored differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status (>85% weight-for-length) in the first year of life of Latino infants. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional pilot study of 62 low-income immigrant Latina mothers and their infants (ages 4-12 months). Measures included maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern, infant's 24-hour dietary recall, and maternal perception of infant weight. Chi-square and t-tests were used for comparisons between healthy weight and overweight infants. Birth weight z-scores did not significantly differ by weight status. Overweight status was not associated with maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern or infant dietary intake. A trend toward significance was seen in the maternal perception of infant weight. Overweight infants were similar to healthy weight infants in their birth weight z-scores and supports the premise that modifiable feeding factors are in play and thus targeted early feeding interventions may prove effective in decreasing obesity risk in Latinos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents' weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years. Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999) from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1) were nested within schools (level 2) were performed. At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2) was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low) was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate) was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents) was inversely associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the

  7. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    Full Text Available Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents' weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years.Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS, 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999 from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1 were nested within schools (level 2 were performed.At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2 was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents was inversely associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At

  8. “Childhood overweight and obesity: maternal perceptions of the time for engaging in child weight management”

    OpenAIRE

    Warschburger, Petra; Kröller, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an increasing awareness of the impact of parental risk perception on the weight course of the child and the parent’s readiness to engage in preventive efforts, but only less is known about factors related to the parental perception of the right time for the implementation of preventive activities. The aim of this study was to examine parental perceptions of the appropriate time to engage in child weight management strategies, and the factors associated with differ...

  9. Weight status and depressive symptoms in 18 year-old Greek adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Matziou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between weight status and depressive symptoms among 18 year-old Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of 200 students of the University of Athens who fulfilled the following criteria: age 18 years, absence of clinical depression, no history of hospitalization in a mental institution, no history of alcohol abuse. Weight status was assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 and calculated from weight and height measurements. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D. In univariate analysis, CES-D score was significantly associated with adolescents’ gender and BMI. The multivariate analysis showed that CES-D score was negatively related to BMI even after controlling the confounding effect of gender (P=0.018, B=-0.378. Depressive symptoms are related to weight status of adolescents.

  10. African American and White women׳s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-03-01

    To describe African American and White women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Qualitative interview study. Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby's health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimise health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weight evolution and perceptions of adults living with HIV following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Obesity and undernutrition are common in South Africa and influence the health outcomes of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Aim. To describe the anthropometric changes and perceptions of body weight in adults initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. A cohort of 230 ...

  12. WEIGHT AND HEALTH STATUS OF BLACK FEMALE STUDENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    address not only the problems of undernutrition, but also to monitor the weight and health ..... women of low socio-economic status were found to be at the greatest risk of an .... Public Health, Harvard University Press. 1996. 2. World Health ...

  13. Parental misclassification of child overweight/obese status: The role of parental education and parental weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Cawley, John

    2017-02-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health challenge for policymakers in many countries. As the most common supervisors of children's activities, parents have a potentially important role to play in obesity prevention. However, a precondition for parents to improve their children's diets, encourage them to be more physically active, or take them to see a doctor about their weight is for the parent to first recognize that their child is overweight or obese. This paper examines the extent of parental misclassification of child weight status, and its correlates, focusing on the role of parental education and the parent's own obesity status. We find evidence that, among non-obese parents, those who are better-educated report their child's weight status more accurately, but among obese parents, the better-educated are 45.18% more likely than parents with lower secondary education to give a false negative report of their child's overweight/obesity; this may reflect social desirability bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  15. Relationship of weight status with mental and physical health in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Camiletti, Daniel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the association of weight status with anxiety, depression, quality of life and physical fitness in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The sample comprised 175 Spanish female FM patients (51.2 ± 7 years). We assessed quality of life by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36) and anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used standardized fieldbased fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility, and static and dynamic balance. BMI was calculated and categorized using the international criteria. 33% of the sample was normal-weight, 35% overweight and 33% obese. HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression levels increased across the weight status categories. Obese patients had higher anxiety and depression levels compared to normal-weight patients (p < 0.05) whereas no differences were observed between overweight and obese patients. Physical functioning, bodily pain, general health (all p < 0.01) and mental health (p < 0.05) subscales from the SF36 were worse across the weight status categories. Likewise, levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance/motor agility (both p < 0.05) and upper-body flexibility (p < 0.001) decreased as the weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed significant differences mainly between the normal-weight versus obese groups. Obese female FM patients displayed higher levels of anxiety and depression and worse quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance/motor agility and upper-body flexibility than their normal-weight peers. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  17. Maternal weight misperceptions and smoking are associated with overweight and obesity in low SES preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Shriqui, V; Fraser, D; Novack, Y; Bilenko, N; Vardi, H; Abu-Saad, K; Elhadad, N; Feine, Z; Mor, K; Shahar, D R

    2012-02-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for obesity among low socioeconomic status (LSES) children. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 238 4-7-year-old children and 224 mothers from LSES preschools. Anthropometric measurements were obtained; mothers were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, perceptions and beliefs. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) among children was 29.8% based on the new World Health Organization (WHO) growth standard. Prevalence of OWOB (body mass index ≥25) among mothers was 51.8%. Mean age, sleeping hours, gender distribution and poverty level were similar between normal and OWOB children. Over 82% of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. Of the 62 OWOB children, 74.2% were perceived by their mothers as having 'normal weight' (NW) and 8% were perceived as 'thin'. Mothers perceived 67 out of 158 NW children (42.4%) as 'thin' (Pmaternal underestimation on child's OWOB may be mediated through child's daily sedentary hours (P=0.06). In a multivariable logistic-regression analysis controlling for maternal obesity, knowledge regarding breakfast's importance and child's daily sedentary hours, maternal underestimation of the child's weight status (odds ratio=7.33; 95% confidence interval (CI):2.41-22.37; PMaternal perception of child's weight status and parental smoking are associated with childhood OWOB among LSES children. These parameters can help identify children at risk for obesity. Maternal perception may be amenable to intervention.

  18. Lean mass predicts conditioned pain modulation in adolescents across weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzman, S; Hoeger Bement, M

    2016-07-01

    There is a wide continuum of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in adults with older adults experiencing an attenuated CPM response compared with younger adults. Less is known for adolescents and the role of anthropometrics. Fifty-six adolescents (15.1 ± 1.8 years; 32 normal weight and 24 overweight/obese; 27 boys) completed in a CPM session that included anthropometric testing. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the nailbed and deltoid muscle (test stimuli) with the foot submerged in a cool or ice water bath (conditioning stimulus). Weight status, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan), physical activity levels and clinical pain were also evaluated. The CPM response in adolescents was similar across sites (nailbed vs. deltoid), weight status (normal vs. overweight/obese) and sex. CPM measured at the deltoid muscle was positively associated with left arm lean mass but not fat mass; lean mass of the arm uniquely predicted 10% of the CPM magnitude. CPM measured at the nailbed was positively correlated with physical activity levels. These results suggest that lean mass and physical activity levels may contribute to endogenous pain inhibition in adolescents across weight status. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  19. Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, M; Colella, D; Robazza, C; Bortoli, L; Capranica, L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical self-perception, body image and motor performance in Italian middle school students. Two hundred and sixty children were categorized into normal-weight (n=103), overweight (n=86) or obese (n=71) groups. Perceived coordination, body fat and sports competence were assessed using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, while body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings. Individuals' perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Tests involving the standing long jump, 2 kg medicine-ball throw, 10 × 5 m shuttle-run and 20 and 30 m sprints were also administered. Girls, when compared with boys, and overweight and obese participants, when compared with normal-weight peers, reported lower perceived and actual physical competence, higher perceived body fat and greater body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction mediated all the associations between body mass index (BMI) and the different aspects of physical self-perception in boys, but not in girls. The same pattern of results was found for physical self-perception as a mediator of the relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction. In conclusion, obesity proved to have adverse effects on both motor performance and physical self-perception. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    OpenAIRE

    Aryati Ahmad; Nurzaime Zulaily; Nor Saidah Abdul Manan; Mohd Razif Shahril; Sharifah Wajihah Wafa Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa; Rahmah Mohd Amin; Engku Fadzli Hasan Syed Abdullah; Amran Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body ...

  1. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  2. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  3. What is common becomes normal: the effect of obesity prevalence on maternal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkin, N; Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lamberti, A

    2013-05-01

    This analysis investigates the poorly-known effect of local prevalence of childhood obesity on mothers' perception of their children's weight status. In 2008, a national nutritional survey of children attending the third grade of elementary school was conducted in Italy. Children were measured and classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). A parental questionnaire included parental perception of their child's weight status (underweight, normal, a little overweight and a lot overweight). Regions were classified by childhood obesity prevalence (maternal perception and regional obesity prevalence, and maternal and child characteristics were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Complete data were available for 37 590 children, of whom 24% were overweight and 12% obese. Mothers correctly identified the status of 84% of normal weight, 52% of overweight and 14% of obese children. Among overweight children, factors associated with underestimation of the child's weight included lower maternal education (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4), residence in a high-obesity region (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.9-2.6), male gender (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and child's BMI. Higher regional obesity prevalence is associated with lower maternal perception, suggesting that what is common has a greater likelihood of being perceived as normal. As perception is a first step to change, it may be harder to intervene in areas with high-obesity prevalence where intervention is most urgent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Shifty: A Weight-Shifting Dynamic Passive Haptic Proxy to Enhance Object Perception in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Andre; Kruger, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We define the concept of Dynamic Passive Haptic Feedback (DPHF) for virtual reality by introducing the weight-shifting physical DPHF proxy object Shifty. This concept combines actuators known from active haptics and physical proxies known from passive haptics to construct proxies that automatically adapt their passive haptic feedback. We describe the concept behind our ungrounded weight-shifting DPHF proxy Shifty and the implementation of our prototype. We then investigate how Shifty can, by automatically changing its internal weight distribution, enhance the user's perception of virtual objects interacted with in two experiments. In a first experiment, we show that Shifty can enhance the perception of virtual objects changing in shape, especially in length and thickness. Here, Shifty was shown to increase the user's fun and perceived realism significantly, compared to an equivalent passive haptic proxy. In a second experiment, Shifty is used to pick up virtual objects of different virtual weights. The results show that Shifty enhances the perception of weight and thus the perceived realism by adapting its kinesthetic feedback to the picked-up virtual object. In the same experiment, we additionally show that specific combinations of haptic, visual and auditory feedback during the pick-up interaction help to compensate for visual-haptic mismatch perceived during the shifting process.

  5. Contribution of weight status to asthma prevalence racial disparities, 2-19 year olds, 1988-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Lara J; Rossen, Lauren M; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Simon, Alan E; Kit, Brian K

    2017-08-01

    Racial disparities in childhood asthma prevalence increased after the 1990s. Obesity, which also varies by race/ethnicity, is an asthma risk factor but its contribution to asthma prevalence disparities is unknown. We analyzed nationally representative National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey data for 2-19 year olds with logistic regression and decomposition analyses to assess the contributions of weight status to racial disparities in asthma prevalence, controlling for sex, age, and income status. From 1988-1994 to 2011-2014, asthma prevalence increased more among non-Hispanic black (NHB) (8.4% to 18.0%) than non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth (7.2% to 10.3%). Logistic regression showed that obesity was an asthma risk factor for all groups but that a three-way "weight status-race/ethnicity-time" interaction was not significant. That is, weight status did not modify the race/ethnicity association with asthma over time. In decomposition analyses, weight status had a small contribution to NHB/NHW asthma prevalence disparities but most of the disparity remained unexplained by weight status or other asthma risk factors (sex, age and income status). NHB youth had a greater asthma prevalence increase from 1988-1994 to 2011-2014 than NHW youth. Most of the racial disparity in asthma prevalence remained unexplained after considering weight status and other characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The cultural context of obesity: exploring perceptions of obesity and weight loss among Latina immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, April A; Daubert, Rebecca; Munoz, Maria L; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2012-12-01

    This study used focus group methodology to examine perceptions of obesity and weight management among Latina immigrant women in Alabama. Four focus groups (N = 25) were conducted in Spanish as part of a participatory intervention development process. Participants were obese/overweight Latina immigrant women (BMI > 25) primarily recruited from a community hospital. The majority of participants were from Mexico. Participants described obesity in the context of short-term effects such as physical symptoms and aesthetics. Perceived weight gain was related to lifestyle changes since moving to the US. Social isolation, depression, and stress were reported to contribute to weight gain. Participants expressed interest in weight loss but emphasized a desire for programs that preserve traditional foods and include family. Weight-management programs designed for Latina immigrants should address their perceptions of obesity. This data also suggests that those interventions that preserve culture and incorporate family may have increased community buy-in.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance association is mediated by weight status in adolescents: DADOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Valls, María Reyes; Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-04-28

    The aim of our study was to examine the mediation effect of weight status on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and academic performance (AP). Two hundred sixty-nine adolescents (140 boys) aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years old from the DADOS study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test and estimated maximum oxygen uptake was used in the analysis. AP was assessed through the final academic grades and the Science Research Associates Test of Educational Abilities for assessing reasoning, verbal, and numeric abilities. Weight status was assessed by body mass index (kg/m 2 ). Boot-strapped mediation procedures were performed and indirect effects (IE) with confidence intervals (CI) not including zero were considered statistically significant. Mediation analysis revealed that weight status acted as a mediator of the relationship of CRF with reasoning ability (IE = 0.039; CI = 0.001; 0.091) and the final grades in Math (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.002; 0.025), Language (IE = 0.013; CI = 0.004; 0.027), and GPA (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.003; 0.023). Our data show that the influence of CRF on academic performance is mediated by weight status in adolescents. We suggest that our data could be considered by educators, families, and policy makers, so that active lifestyles might be promoted when designing programs aimed to improve AP among adolescents. What is Known: • Academic performance is associated with both, cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status. • The role of weight status in the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance is poorly understood. What is New: • We support the scarce research investigating the mediating role of weight status as mechanism in the association between fitness and academic performance in youth. • Previous knowledge is expanded by suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness is related to weight status which in turn may

  8. Sex-dependent association between omega-3 index and body weight status in older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Mingay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Omega-3 status was associated with weight status, particularly in older women but not in men. These results suggest the need for sex-based intervention trials to examine the role of dietary intake and/or supplementation of LCn-3PUFA in weight management of older adults.

  9. Family Food Providers’ Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Worsley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group’s awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM. Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES populations.

  10. Family Food Providers' Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-01-18

    The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group's awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM). Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity ( Unhealthy food behaviours , influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences ) had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less , and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES) populations.

  11. Do children with obesity have worse table manners? Associations between child table manners, weight status and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Naomi F; Cesaro, Robert J; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Pesch, Megan H

    2018-06-01

    Children with obesity experience stigma stemming from stereotypes, one such stereotype is that people with obesity are "sloppy" or have poor manners. Teaching children "proper table manners" has been proposed as an obesity prevention strategy. Little is known about the association between children's weight status and table manners. To examine correlates of child table manners and to examine the association of child table manners with child obese weight status and prospective change in child body mass index z-score (BMIz). Mother-child dyads (N = 228) participated in a videotaped laboratory eating task with cupcakes. Coding schemes to capture child table manners (making crumbs, chewing with mouth open, getting food on face, shoving food in mouth, slouching, and getting out of seat), and maternal attentiveness to child table manners, were reliably applied. Anthropometrics were measured at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Regression analyses examined the association of participant characteristics with child table manners, as well as the associations of child table manners with child obese weight status, and prospective change in BMIz/year. Predictors of poorer child table manners were younger child age, greater cupcake consumption, and greater maternal attentiveness to child table manners. Poorer child table manners were not associated with child obese (vs. not) weight status, but were associated with a prospective decrease in BMIz/year in children with overweight/obesity. Obesity interventions to improve table manners may be perpetuating unfavorable stereotypes and stigma. Future work investigating these associations is warranted to inform childhood obesity guidelines around table manners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p 4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0.05. Besides, there were significant differences in weight, height, BAZ, FFM and FFMI between birth weight groups. Birth weight has weak correlation (p<0.01) with FFM (r = 0.22), WAZ (r = 0.21), HAZ (r = 0.20), BAZ (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.14). After adjusting for covariates, we found that higher birth weight was associated with significant higher values in all anthropometric measurements (p<0.01), especially WC (β = 2.82, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis also indicated that birth weight positively predicted later nutritional status; 1kg increase in birth weight predicted 0.70, 0.46, and 0

  13. Neural differences in self-perception during illness and after weight-recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Carrie J; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Evans, Siobahn; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2016-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness characterized by problems with self-perception. Whole-brain neural activations in healthy women, women with AN and women in long-term weight recovery following AN were compared using two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks probing different aspects of self-perception. The Social Identity-V2 task involved consideration about oneself and others using socially descriptive adjectives. Both the ill and weight-recovered women with AN engaged medial prefrontal cortex less than healthy women for self-relevant cognitions, a potential biological trait difference. Weight-recovered women also activated the inferior frontal gyri and dorsal anterior cingulate more for direct self-evaluations than for reflected self-evaluations, unlike both other groups, suggesting that recovery may include compensatory neural changes related to social perspectives. The Faces task compared viewing oneself to a stranger. Participants with AN showed elevated activity in the bilateral fusiform gyri for self-images, unlike the weight-recovered and healthy women, suggesting cognitive distortions about physical appearance are a state rather than trait problem in this disease. Because both ill and recovered women showed neural differences related to social self-perception, but only recovered women differed when considering social perspectives, these neurocognitive targets may be particularly important for treatment. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  15. The Impact of Parents’ Categorization of Their Own Weight and Their Child’s Weight on Healthy Lifestyle Promoting Beliefs and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison C. Sylvetsky-Meni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate parents’ beliefs and practices related to childhood obesity and determine if these are influenced by parent’s perception of their own weight or their child’s weight. Methods. Parents of obese (n=689 or normal weight (n=1122 children 4–15 years in Georgia, USA, were randomly selected to complete a telephone survey. Frequency of child obesity-related perceptions, beliefs, and practices were assessed, stratified by parent-perceived self-weight and child weight status, and compared using Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Most parents, regardless of perceived child weight, agreed that child overweight/obesity can cause serious illness (95% but only one-half believed it was a problem in Georgia. Many (42.4% failed to recognize obesity in their own children. More parents who perceived their child as overweight versus normal weight reported concern about their child’s diet and activity and indicated readiness for lifestyle change. Parents’ perception of their own weight had little additional impact. Conclusions. While awareness of child overweight as a modifiable health risk is high, many parents fail to recognize it in their own families and communities, reducing the likelihood of positive lifestyle change. Additional efforts to help parents understand their role in facilitating behavior change and to assist them in identifying at-risk children are required.

  16. Association between sports participation, motor competence and weight status: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Rafael S; Ré, Alessandro H N; Stodden, David F; Fransen, Job; Campos, Carolina M C; Queiroz, Daniel R; Cattuzzo, Maria T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if baseline motor competence, weight status and sports participation in early childhood predict sports participation two years later. longitudinal study. In 2010, motor competence (object control and locomotor skills), weight status and sports participation were assessed in 292 children between three and five years-of-age. In 2012, sports participation was re-evaluated in 206 of the original 292 children. Logistic regression was implemented to examine if initial sports participation, motor competence and weight status would predict sports participation two years later. In the final model, sports participation in 2010 (OR=9.68, CI: 3.46 to 27.13) and locomotor skills (OR=1.21, CI: 1.01 to 1.46) significantly predicted sports participation after two years. These results suggest that initial sports participation and more advanced locomotor skills in preschool years may be important to promote continued participation in sports across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…

  18. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  19. Sexual Violence, Weight Perception, and Eating Disorder Indicators in College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff Stephens, Sara; Wilke, Dina J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between sexual violence experiences, inaccurate body weight perceptions, and the presence of eating disorder (ED) indicators in a sample of female US college students. Participants: Participants were 6,090 college females 25 years of age and younger. Methods: A secondary analysis of National College Health…

  20. Peer influence on pre-adolescent girls' snack intake: effects of weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Romero, Natalie; Paluch, Rocco; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-07-01

    Although most eating occurs in a social context, the effects of peer influence on child eating have not been the object of systematic experimental study. The present study assesses the effects of peer influence on lean and overweight pre-adolescent girls' snack intake as a function of the co-eaters' weight status. The weight status of the participants was varied by studying weight discordant dyads (i.e., one lean and one overweight participant) and weight concordant dyads (i.e., both members of the dyads were either lean or overweight). Results from the random regression model indicate that overweight girls eating with an overweight peer consumed more kilocalories than overweight participants eating with a normal-weight peer. Normal-weight participants eating with overweight peers ate similar amounts as those eating with lean eating companions. The regression model improved when the partners' food intake was entered in the model, indicating that the peers' intake was a significant predictor of participants' snack consumption. This study underscores differences in responses to the social environment between overweight and non-overweight youths.

  1. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is on the rise worldwide. Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the associations between child-feeding practices and weight status changes over 1 year among a sample of school-aged children in Taiwan. In autumn 2008, a child-feeding questionnaire and parenting-style questionnaire were administered to parents of the second and fourth graders in an elementary school in Taiwan. The weight and height of the students were measured by a trained school nurse in 2008 and again in 2009. An elementary school in central Taiwan. A total of 465 parent-child pairs were included in the analysis. Using a gender- and age-adjusted BMI classification scheme issued by the Taiwan Department of Health, 29·2 % of the students were considered overweight at the 2009 measurement. Controlling for 2008 weight status revealed moderating effects of parenting style on the relationship between child-feeding practices and child weight status. Both authoritative and authoritarian mothers might monitor their children's dietary intake; however, the effectiveness of this practice was better, in terms of weight status control, among the authoritative mothers. Findings suggest that parenting styles have a moderating effect on specific parental child-feeding practices. Parenting styles and parent's feeding practices could be an important focus for future public health interventions addressing the rising childhood obesity epidemic.

  2. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  3. Weight misperception and disordered weight control behaviors among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity: Associations and trends, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Vivienne M; Hahn, Samantha L; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2017-08-01

    To examine prevalence of weight misperception (incongruence between one's perceived weight status and one's actual weight status) and disordered weight control behaviors (DWCBs; unhealthy behaviors aiming to control or modify weight), associations between weight misperception and DWCBs, and temporal trends in prevalence and associations among adolescents with overweight and obesity from 1999 to 2013. Self-reported data from eight biennial cycles (1999-2013) of the cross-sectional national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used in analyses restricted to respondents with overweight/obesity. Data on weight status perception, use of fasting, purging, and diet pills to control weight, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school were used in multivariate logistic regression models. Among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity, no linear temporal trends were detected for prevalence of weight misperception, fasting, or purging between 1999 and 2013, while a significant linear decrease was observed for prevalence of diet pill use between 1999 and 2013 (b=-0.81, pfasting to control weight among males. No significant changes over time in associations of weight misperception with fasting or purging were observed, though the association between weight misperception and diet pill use weakened somewhat across 1999-2013. In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight misperception appears to be a robust protective factor for DWCBs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Correlation among periodontal health status, maternal age and pre-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Francesca; Vozza, Iole; Capuccio, Veronica; Vestri, Anna Rita; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2016-08-01

    To assess correlations between periodontal status, maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-term and low birth weight in a sample of pregnant women. Study population was represented by outpatient pregnant women, gestational age > 26 weeks. Medical history questionnaires were administered to all participants who underwent clinical evaluation; clinical obstetric outcome records were collected after delivery. A questionnaire was administered regarding personal information, socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and oral health conditions. A clinical oral examination was performed to collect Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Pregnancy outcome records included: delivery week, kind and causes of delivery, any relevant complications, and birth weight. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the data from the questionnaire while the relationship between delivery week, birth weight, maternal age and periodontal status was evaluated through multivariate tests of significance. 88 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation (Pperiodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No statistical correlation was found among pre-term and low birth weight, smoking, ethnicity and educational level of mothers. The results highlight the importance of including a routine oral and periodontal health examination in pregnant women older than 40 years of age. The correlation between periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in older mothers indicates the need for routine oral health examination and periodontal status assessment and care in pregnant women older than 40 years of age.

  5. The association between maternal perception of her child weight and maternal feeding styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Acuña-Blanco, América; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia M; Amaro-Hinojosa, Marily D; Pérez-Campa, María E; Elenes-Rodríguez, Jesús R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Mothers do not recognize when their child is overweight or obese (OW-OB), and the evidence suggests a relationship between inadequate maternal perception of her child weight (MPCW), and maternal feeding style (MFS). Objectives: a) To assess the reliability of the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire (CFSQ); b) to verify association between MPCW and child’ nutritional status; c) to describe the MFS; d) to verify differences between MPCW and child’s body mass index (BMI); e) and to verify the association between MPCW and MFS. Methods: 566 dyads participated (mother/preschool child). Mothers circle the image that more resembled their child (MPCW), and answered the CFSQ. Cronbach alpha coeffi cient was calculated. V Cramer, ANOVA and Chi-square were applied. Results: The internal consistency of CFSQ was 0.88. The 8.4% (n = 12) mothers of children are OW-OB had adequate MPCW (V = 0.26, p = 0.001). The most frequent MFS was authoritarian (34.5%, n = 195), MFS uninvolved presented the highest child’ BMI (F = 3.91, p authoritative are recommended.

  6. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Amber; Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Li, Mingzhi; Yang, Lina; Lin, Qian

    2018-04-11

    Introduction : Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods : A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China) were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t -tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results : Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children's dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB) were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions : Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children's diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  8. The association between dog ownership or dog walking and fitness or weight status in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, C; Boddy, L M; Stratton, G; German, A J; Gaskell, R M; Coyne, K P; Bundred, P; McCune, S; Dawson, S

    2017-12-01

    Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and weight status measurements of 1021 9 to 10-year-old children in the Liverpool SportsLinx study. We found little evidence to support that children who live with, or walk with, dogs are any fitter or less likely to be obese than those who do not. This is an important finding, as it suggests that the activity that children currently do with dogs is not sufficient enough to impact weight status or fitness. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  9. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Leann L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1 to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2 to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the

  10. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L

    2008-03-17

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention components and creating optimized

  11. Fundamental movement skills and weight status in British primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth S; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    Weight status has been shown to have a negative impact on children's competence in performing fundamental movement skills (FMSs). Following ethics approval and informed consent, 281 children in years 2-6 from a school in central England volunteered to participate. Each child performed eight FMSs (run, hop, gallop, jump, balance, kick, throw and catch) three times, all attempts were video-recorded. Video analysis was performed (Quintic Biomechanics software) using the Process Orient Checklist (subjective measurement). Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and weight status was determined. Results highlighted that year group (age) had a significant effect on seven out of the eight skills (not kick). Year 4 (aged 8-9 years) significantly scored lower in all three locomotor skills (run, hop and gallop) at this age, whereas Year 5 (aged 9-10 years) all significantly peaked at the object control skills (catch and throw) at this age. Weight status (BMI) significantly affected the run, identifying that a child with a larger BMI will have a lower mastery level of the run. Gender significantly affected the kick, throw and balance, with girls outperforming in the balance and the boys in the kick and throw. By highlighting that children at different ages will have a lower score in different skills, the effect of BMI and gender on certain FMS is important knowledge for the target of intervention in primary school children.

  12. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  14. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  15. Body weight, perceived weight stigma and mental health among women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: insights from the modified labelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L

    2018-01-01

    With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Race, Age, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Low Birth Weight Disparities Among Adolescent Mothers: An Intersectional Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies examined socioeconomic contributors to racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes between African-American and Caucasian adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study examined the intersections of maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status in explaining these disparities in low birth weight outcomes across a statewide sample of adolescent mothers. Using data from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2010-2011, birth cases for 16,472 adolescents were geocoded by street address and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census. Multilevel models with interaction terms were used to identify significant associations between maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income) and low birth weight outcomes across census tracts. Significant racial differences were identified in which African-American adolescents had greater odds of low birth weight outcomes than Caucasian adolescents (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.64, 2.15). Although racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes remained significant in context of maternal age and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the greatest disparities were found between African-American and Caucasian adolescents that lived in areas of higher socioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status. Further investigations using intersectional frameworks are needed for examining the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and birth outcome disparities among infants born to adolescent mothers.

  17. A Model of Aging Perception in Iranian Elders With Effects of Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Socioeconomic Status: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Gorgulu, Ozkan; Yee, Bit-Lian; Wibisono, Ahmad Hasyim; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Allen, Kelly A

    2018-01-01

    Aging perception plays a central role in the experience of healthy aging by older people. Research identified that factors such as hope, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic status influence the perception of aging in older populations. This study sought to test a hypothetical model to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between hope, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic status with aging perception. A cross-sectional design was used with 504 older aged participants who live in Qazvin, Iran. Data were collected using the Barker's Aging Perception Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Index-Z, and Herth Hope Index. The results of path analysis showed that hope was the most important factor affecting aging perception. Results drawn from correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive significant correlation ( r = .383, p hope and aging perception. Further analysis found that hope had the strongest impact on aging perception compared with the other variables analyzed (e.g., life satisfaction and socioeconomic status). A model of aging perception in Iranian elders is presented. The findings suggested that hope had a significant and positive impact on aging perception. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  18. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  19. Perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding their own body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that older people tend to misperceive their body weight ... To determine healthcare professionals' perceptions of their own body .... 60 years) than younger participants (20 - 30 years) being obese .... Some cultural attitudes lead to women .... risk, nutritional status and refugee children from sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Childhood weight status and timing of first substance use in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Jennifer C; Doran, Kelly A; Waldron, Mary

    2016-07-01

    We examined associations between weight status during childhood and timing of first cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in an ethnically diverse sample. Data were drawn from child respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, including 1448 Hispanic, 2126 non-Hispanic Black, and 3304 non-Hispanic, non-Black (White) respondents aged 10 years and older as of last assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use from weight status (obese, overweight, and underweight relative to healthy weight) assessed at ages 7/8, separately by substance class, sex, and race/ethnicity. Tests of interactions between weight status and respondent sex and race/ethnicity were also conducted. Compared to healthy-weight females of the same race/ethnicity, overweight Hispanic females were at increased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use and overweight White females were at increased likelihood of cigarette and marijuana use. Compared to healthy-weight males of the same race/ethnicity, obese White males were at decreased likelihood of cigarette and alcohol use and underweight Hispanic and Black males were at decreased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use. Significant differences in associations by sex and race/ethnicity were observed in tests of interactions. Findings highlight childhood weight status as a predictor of timing of first substance use among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black and White female and male youth. Results suggest that collapsing across sex and race/ethnicity, a common practice in prior research, may obscure important within-group patterns of associations and thus may be of limited utility for informing preventive and early intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  2. Young Adults’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2017-01-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults’ attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults’ perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688

  3. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Reyes-López, Angélica; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Ramírez-González, Ma Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women. This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013). Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks). Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported), body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester) and newborn weight (measured at birth). Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49), thirty-eight percent (n = 67) were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58) showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG), leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b) all increased significantly (pweight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (pweight, but not in overweight or obese women. Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein throughout pregnancy. The role of early leptin and TNFα in fetal growth need further study given the association was only observed in normal weight women. This

  4. Associations between nutritional status, weight loss, radiotherapy treatment toxicity and treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Amanda; Kiss, Nicole; Hodgson, Belinda; Crowe, Timothy C; Walsh, Adam D

    2011-02-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancers are susceptible to nutritional deterioration which may be compounded by radiotherapy treatment toxicities. This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy were associated with treatment toxicity and outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Seventy-three gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving curative radiotherapy underwent medical record audits assessing body weight, radiotherapy toxicity, unplanned treatment breaks or hospital admissions and completion of prescribed treatment/s. Nutritional status was assessed in a subset of patients (n = 11) using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool. Seventy-five percent of patients lost weight throughout radiotherapy. Weight loss was significantly greater in patients experiencing unplanned radiotherapy breaks (-3.1% vs -1.6%, p nutritional status during radiotherapy (as measured by weight loss) may be associated with poorer short-term treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Patient numbers were too small to definitively determine the effect of nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy (defined by PG-SGA) on treatment outcomes. Further research is required to investigate this in larger, longer-term studies. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Oliveras-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN. Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0 and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI (T1. The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years. Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01. Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  7. "The way I am is the way you ought to be": perceiving one's relational status as unchangeable motivates normative idealization of that status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kille, David R; Eibach, Richard P

    2013-08-01

    People often become evangelists for their own lifestyles. When it comes to relational status, people are rarely content to simply say "being single works for me" or "being in a relationship suits my disposition." Results from four studies suggested that this tendency to view one's own relational status as the universal ideal emerges in part from a desire to rationalize one's own relational status. Building on existing evidence that people are motivated to rationalize circumstances they perceive as likely to persist, we predicted that participants' perceptions of the stability of their own relational status would lead them to rationalize that status. In Studies 1 and 2, we found evidence for an association between perceptions of stability and idealizations and ruled out an alternative explanation. In Studies 3 and 4, we found evidence of the effect of stability on people's judgments of same- and different-status others in contexts in which relational status should carry little objective weight.

  8. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods: A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results: Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children’s weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children’s dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions: Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children’s diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  9. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women.This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women <14 weeks of gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks. Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester and newborn weight (measured at birth.Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49, thirty-eight percent (n = 67 were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58 showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG, leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b all increased significantly (p<0.05 during pregnancy. Pregestational maternal weight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (p<0.05. Early pregnancy leptin and TNFα were determinants of birthweight in women with normal weight, but not in overweight or obese women.Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein

  10. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  11. A Research Note: Occupational Attainments and Perceptions of Status among Working Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philliber, William W.; Hiller, Dana V.

    1979-01-01

    Data from six national surveys are combined and analyzed to determine how strongly occupational attainments affect the status perceptions of working wives. The results indicate that the effects are limited to women married to men with middle-class jobs. (Author)

  12. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess ...

  13. Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Sik KimDepartment of Gender Equality and Social Cohesion Research, Korean Women's Development Institute, Seoul, Republic of KoreaObjective: To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.Methods: Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005 aged 20–29 years.Results: Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise, overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.Conclusion: This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.Keywords: body mass index, perceived body weight, body weight, body image, suicidal ideation 

  14. [Birth weight and later nutritional status, cognitive development and job status: a critical revision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, S; Ivanovic, R; Pérez, H; Almagià, A; Urrutia, M S; Rodríguez, M del P; Larrain, C; Ivanovic, D

    2009-12-01

    The impact of prenatal nutritional status, assessed through birth weight (BW) and their effects in the short, medium and long-term on nutritional status, cognitive development and job status in the adult life, has been a problem of interest for several researchers; as regards, some of these report a positive and significant association between these variables and others do not find any relation. Children with insufficient, low or very low BW despite the early more deteriorate nutritional status should present higher risk for brain maturation, failure cognitive development and lowered head circumference which implies both lowered brain volume and intellectual development. In the short and medium-term, this situation damages the learning process at school-age, while in the long-term this might condition the quality of jobs. At present, the body of knowledge pinpoints that findings related to these associations is not conclusive verifying a great controversy in these matters. This review article has the purpose of analyzing the current evidence, in order to stimulate research about to these aspects which are relevant for child development and their future life.

  15. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  16. LEADERSHIP POWER PERCEPTION OF AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL SOCCER COACHES ACCORDING TO THEIR MARITAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Konter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status. Data were collected from 165 male soccer coaches (n=71 technical director-manager and A license, n=46 B license, n=48 amateur license. An adapted Turkish version of Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self (PSQ-S for coaches and an information form were used for the data collection [21]. Cronbach reliability alphas of PSQ-S range between 0.65 and 0.84. Coaches’ data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of PSQ-S revealed significant differences between leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status related to Referent Power (RP [χ[sup]2[/sup] (3 = 9.61, p0.05. The results indicated that married coaches have higher perception of RP than single coaches, irrespective of being an amateur or a professional. Comparison of professional and amateur coaches suggests that while single professional coaches have higher perception of EP than married professional coaches, the results are the reverse for amateur coaches; in other words, amateur married coaches have higher perception of EP than amateur single coaches. There is a lack of research to draw more certain conclusions. Future researchers should also take into consideration personality, psychological skills, sport experience, age, taking responsibility, attributions, expectations, emotions, perception of achievement, etc.

  17. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Paula Costa da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive¯. RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  18. The Effect of a Model's HIV Status on Self-Perceptions: A Self-Protective Similarity Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Brooks B.; Kulik, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined how information about another person's HIV status influences self-perceptions and behavioral intentions. Individuals perceived their own personalities and behaviors as more dissimilar to anther's if that person's HIV status was believed positive compared with negative or unknown. Exposure to HIV-positive model produced greater intentions…

  19. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  20. In the eye of the beholder: Can counter-stereotypes change perceptions of older adults' social status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Deirdre A; Weiss, David

    2017-09-01

    Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status. Study 1 (60 countries, N = 86,026, 18-99 years) showed that people in countries with an older relative to a younger political leader do not perceive as great a decline in social status from middle-aged to older adults. Study 2 (N = 131; 19-74 years) tested the causal link demonstrating that participants exposed to older exemplars holding a prestigious occupational position were significantly more likely to rate older adults as having a relative higher social status. We discuss implications for future interventions to change negative age-related stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bénard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  2. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  3. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  4. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  5. Disentangling the effect of illness perceptions on health status in people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne; Kasteleyn, Marise Jeannine; Heijmans, Monique Johanna; de Leeuw, Elke; Schellevis, François Georges; Rijken, Mieke; Rutten, Guy Emile

    2018-03-02

    Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the combination with cardiovascular disease. Perceptions of one illness may influence perceptions of the other condition. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event on change in illness perceptions and whether this mediates the intervention effect on health status. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a RCT. Two hundred one participants were randomised (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n = 101, three home visits) or control group (n = 100). Outcome variables were diabetes and acute coronary event perceptions, assessed with the two separate Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires (BIPQs); and health status (Euroqol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS)). The intervention effect was analysed using ANCOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to assess whether illness perceptions mediated the intervention effect on health status. A positive intervention effect was found on the BIPQ diabetes items coherence and treatment control (F = 8.19, p = 0.005; F = 14.01, p effect was found on the other BIPQ diabetes items consequence, personal control, identity, illness concern and emotional representation. Regarding the acute coronary event, a positive intervention effect on treatment control was found (F = 7.81, p = 0.006). No intervention effect was found on the other items of the acute coronary event BIPQ. Better diabetes coherence was associated with improved health status, whereas perceiving more treatment control was not. The mediating effect of the diabetes perception 'coherence' on health status was not significant. Targeting illness perceptions of people with

  6. Pregnant women's perceptions of gestational weight gain: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; Kandasamy, Sujane; Giacomini, Mita; DeJean, Deirdre; McDonald, Sarah D

    2017-10-01

    Excess gestational weight gain has numerous negative health outcomes for women and children, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and cesarean section (maternal) and high birth weight, trauma at birth, and asphyxia (infants). Excess weight gain in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of long-term obesity in both mothers and children. Despite a concerted public health effort, the proportion of pregnant women gaining weight in excess of national guidelines continues to increase. To understand this phenomenon and offer suggestions for improving interventions, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research on pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of weight gain in pregnancy. We used the methodology of qualitative meta-synthesis to analyze 42 empirical qualitative research studies conducted in high-income countries and published between 2005 and 2015. With this synthesis, we provide an account of the underlying factors and circumstances (barriers, facilitators, and motivators) that pregnant women identify as important for appropriate weight gain. We also offer a description of the strategies identified by pregnant women as acceptable and appropriate ways to promote healthy weight gain. Through our integrative analysis, we identify women's common perception on the struggle to enact health behaviors and physical, social, and environmental factors outside of their control. Effective and sensitive interventions to encourage healthy weight gain in pregnancy must consider the social environment in which decisions about weight take place. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Peso medido, peso percebido e fatores associados em adolescentes Measured weight, self-perceived weight, and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora L. Araújo

    2010-05-01

    and nutritional status based on objective measurements of weight, height, and skin folds in adolescents, and to evaluate factors associated with disagreement between these measures. METHODS: The sample included the 1993 birth cohort from the city of Pelotas, Brazil, who were interviewed at home in 2004 and 2005. The study outcome resulted from the comparison between nutritional status and the weight self-perception of adolescents, and was divided into three categories: underestimation, agreement, and overestimation. The explanatory variables were sex, skin color, accumulated goods index, physical activity, eating habits, discrimination, dieting, feeling of well-being, and opinion of the adolescent concerning the perception of his/her parents regarding the adolescent's weight. Multivariate logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4 452 interviews were conducted (87.5% of original cohort. Mean age was 11 years. The analysis of nutritional status revealed that 7.1% were underweight, 69.8% normal weight, 11.6% overweight, and 11.6% obese. The analysis of self-perceived weight revealed that 19% saw themselves as thin or very thin, 56% believed their weight was normal, and 25% saw themselves as fat or very fat. Global agreement between weight self-perception and nutritional status was 65% (kappa = 0.36. Weight underestimation occurred in 24.9% of boys vs. 20.3% of girls. Overestimation occurred in 15.8% of girls vs. 8.5% of boys. CONCLUSIONS: Girls tended to overestimate their weight, and boys, to underestimate it. There was a strong association between the opinion of adolescents concerning their parents' view of the adolescent's body and self-perceived weight.

  8. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  9. Mind-Body Practice and Body Weight Status in a Large Population-Based Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    In industrialized countries characterized by a high prevalence of obesity and chronic stress, mind-body practices such as yoga or meditation may facilitate body weight control. However, virtually no data are available to ascertain whether practicing mind-body techniques is associated with weight status. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status in a large population-based sample of adults. A total of 61,704 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the NutriNet-Santé study (2009-2014) were included in this cross-sectional analysis conducted in 2014. Data on mind-body practices were collected, as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status was assessed using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, regular users of mind-body techniques were less likely to be overweight (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.63, 0.74) or obese (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.50, 0.61) than never users. In addition, regular users had a lower BMI than never users (-3.19%, 95% CI=-3.71, -2.68). These data provide novel information about an inverse relationship between mind-body practice and weight status. If causal links were demonstrated in further prospective studies, such practice could be fostered in obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Busschers, Wim B.; Spierings, Eline J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Gademan, Maaike G. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in

  11. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. How Social Status Shapes Person Perception and Evaluation: A Social Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.

  13. Negative illness perceptions associated with low mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs.

  14. The effect of body-weight and obesity bias on children’s self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were: a) to compare the self-esteem of obese children and normal–weight controls, and b) to examine whether obesity bias moderates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. Fifty three normal-weight and forty 11-year-old obese children were administered Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), which consists of a global self-worth subscale and five domain-specific subscales that measure scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic...

  15. [Influence of work status of mothers on the weight of full-term newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemez-Sandoval, J C; Bermúdez-Meléndez, I; Camacho-Lozano, T; Coronel-Rodríguez, L A; Echeverría-Silva, M G; García-Navarrete, M E; Moysen-Márquez, F A; Nieto-Tapia, A; Peñafiel-Grijalva, A; Pineda-Molina, J L

    1990-10-01

    Birth weight is considered as the most important indicator of growth and intrauterine development as well as the nutritional status of the newborn. Several reports have demonstrated the influence of both biological and social variables on low birth weight, among which being discussed is the influence of the mothers work activities. Two hundred and thirty-two newborns were studied at the Regional Hospital "20 de Noviembre" of the Institute de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) and selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which homogenized the sample and allowed to associate the work status of the mother with the low birth weight of the child. The somatometric data of the newborns was obtained from official registrars from the Perinatology Ward and directly from the mothers who were interviewed. The results did not significant statistical differences in the weight of the newborns of those mothers who do work than in those who don't. It was concluded that for this sample, the favorable socioeconomic fund established by a double family income apparently compensates any disadvantages which the work activity could have on the newborns' weight.

  16. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  17. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Andreyeva, T; Brownell, K D

    2008-06-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence and patterns of body weight discrimination from representative samples. This study examined experiences of weight/height discrimination in a nationally representative sample of US adults and compared their prevalence and patterns with discrimination experiences based on race and gender. Data were from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a 1995-1996 community-based survey of English-speaking adults aged 25-74 (N=2290). Reported experiences of weight/height discrimination included a variety of institutional settings and interpersonal relationships. Multivariate regression analyses were used to predict weight/height discrimination controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and body weight status. The prevalence of weight/height discrimination ranged from 5% among men to 10% among women, but these average percentages obscure the much higher risk of weight discrimination among heavier individuals (40% for adults with body mass index (BMI) of 35 and above). Younger individuals with a higher BMI had a particularly high risk of weight/height discrimination regardless of their race, education and weight status. Women were at greater risk for weight/height discrimination than men, especially women with a BMI of 30-35 who were three times more likely to report weight/height discrimination compared to male peers of a similar weight. Weight/height discrimination is prevalent in American society and is relatively close to reported rates of racial discrimination, particularly among women. Both institutional forms of weight/height discrimination (for example, in employment settings) and interpersonal mistreatment due to weight/height (for example, being called names) were common, and in some cases were even more prevalent than discrimination due to gender and race.

  18. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  19. Nutritional status of low birth weight infants in Makkah region: Evaluation of anthropometric and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensara, Osama Adnan; Azzeh, Firas Sultan

    2016-04-01

    To assess the nutritional status of low birth weight infants from Makkah area immediately after birth. The prospective study was conducted between October and December 2012 at Al-Noor Speciality Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised low birth weight infants who were divided into three equal groups according to their birth weight: group A (low birthweight1501-2500gm), group B (very low birthweight1001-1500gm), and group C (extremely low birth weight 0.05). Normal serum phosphorus, potassium and magnesium levels and mild hypocalcaemia were observed in all infants. However, hypernatraemia was significantly evident (pnutritional status in terms of low anthropometric and abnormal biochemical measures. It was not possible to correlate the birth weight of the neonates to the parameters of the complete blood tests.

  20. Features of Social Status Perception in the Youth and Student Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova S.V.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents socio-psychological analysis of the phenomenon of social status, which is not seen as a sociological category, but as a component of the image of the object of learning. The author hypothesized that social status defined by another person depends on a number of the social object indicators (gender, age and socio-demographic criteria and the characteristics of the subject of learning (gender, age, job, self-evaluations on various parameters. The study involved 141 people (83 female, 58 male, aged 18 to 30 years, mean=23. Methodological tools were the method of questionnaires and interviews with stimulus material. The author identified the components of the social status phenomenon and characteristics of the object and the subject of learning that are important for determining the position of the individual in society. Features of the social status assessment in the original perception were determined. The obtained data can be used in the educational process for determining group structure in the students of higher educational institutions, high-status and low-status members, as well as for understanding the value structures and important components in the social life of young people

  1. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  2. Body weight, weight perceptions and food intake patterns. A cross-sectional study among male recruits in the Norwegian National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglem, Solveig; Stea, Tonje H; Frølich, Wenche; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-05-19

    Young men tend to have a low intake of vegetables and fruit. Unfortunately, this group is difficult to reach with health information. Furthermore, knowledge about weight perceptions and the relationship to food behaviour among young men is scant. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between BMI, health and weight perceptions and food intake patterns among young men in the military. Data were collected with a 4-day food diary among 578 male recruits (age 18-26, mean 19.7) in the Norwegian National Guard (response rate 78%), in addition to a questionnaire, including questions about health and weight perceptions, and food frequency when still living at home. Weight and height were objectively measured. Food patterns were explored with principal component analysis, based on the diary data. A multivariate linear regression analysis determined the association between BMI and food patterns, and attitudes to health and slenderness, adjusting for smoking, physical activity and phase of data collection. Twenty eight percent of the recruits were overweight/obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)). Two-thirds meant that it is important for them to be slender, and these recruits reported more of both light (p = 0.025) and hard (p = 0.016) physical activity than the others. It was a positive association between the recruits' food frequency at home, and the amount of intake in the military camp for several food items. A principal component analysis identified three distinct food patterns, loading on 1) plant foods, 2) fast food/soft drinks, 3) milk/cereals. Those who stated that it is important for them to be slender, or to have good health, did not have significantly different food intake patterns than the others. BMI was inversely related to scores on the plant food pattern, and positive attitudes to slenderness. The majority of the recruits find it important to be slender. This orientation had a bearing on their physical activity pattern, but less on the food intake

  3. Sociodemographic, disease status, and illness perceptions predictors of global self-ratings of health and quality of life among those with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Aro, Arja R; Weinman, John

    2006-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study (n = 130 at baseline, n =2745 at follow-up, aged 45-74 years) examined the relationship of patients' perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) and illness-related factors with global health status and global quality of life (QOL) ratings. The independent variables...... were CHD history (myocardial infarction, revascularisation), CHD severity (use of nitrates, CHD risk factors and co-morbidities) and illness perceptions. In multivariate regression analysis, CHD history and severity explained 13% of variance in global health status and 8% in global QOL ratings...... at the baseline. Illness perceptions increased the share of explained variance by 18% and 16% respectively. In the follow-up, illness perceptions explained a significant but modest share of variance in change in health status and QOL when baseline health status and QOL and CHD severity were adjusted for more...

  4. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-11

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those

  5. Weight Status in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Mobility Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of excess body weight may have important health and disease consequences for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the effect of weight status on mobility using a comprehensive set of mobility outcomes including ambulatory performance (timed 25-foot walk, T25FW; 6-minute walk, 6MW; oxygen cost of walking, Cw; spatiotemporal parameters of gait; self-reported walking impairment, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12); and free-living activity, accelerometry) in 168 ambulatory persons with MS. Mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.1) kg/m2. Of the 168 participants, 31.0% were classified as normal weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), 36.3% were classified as overweight (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and 32.7% were classified as obese, classes I and II (BMI = 30–39.9 kg/m2). There were no significant differences among BMI groups on T25FW and 6MW, Cw, spatiotemporal gait parameters, MSWS-12, or daily step and movement counts. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample was almost 70%, but there was not a consistent nor significant impact of BMI on outcomes of mobility. The lack of an effect of weight status on mobility emphasizes the need to focus on and identify other factors which may be important targets of ambulatory performance in persons with MS. PMID:23050129

  6. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia A; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally. A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants were resurveyed through mails 5 years later (Time, 2; N = 2,516). The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong and significant in both boys and girls (all p values p = .16), or between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p = .79) or girls (p = .80). Among girls, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (all p values = .0001-.03). The relationship was nonsignificant in underweight girls (p = .36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES group girls (all p values p values = .18-.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages.

  7. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  8. Parents' perceptions of their children's weight, eating habits, and physical activities at home and at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaballas, Elvira; Clark-Ott, Dorothy; Clasen, Carla; Stolfi, Adrienne; Urban, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Parental perceptions of their young children's weight and habits may play an important role in determining whether children develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. This study was conducted to determine perceptions of parents of third-grade children in an urban school setting regarding their children's weight, eating habits, and physical activities. Parents anonymously completed surveys about their child's weight, eating habits, and daily activities. The survey also asked about how schools could encourage healthy eating and increased physical activity. Overall, 26% of the parents perceived their child to be overweight and expressed concern, but 40% of these parents believed that overweight is a condition that will be outgrown. Parents who reported eating more than eight meals per week with their child were less likely to report their child as overweight and more likely to believe that their child's physical activity level was appropriate. Most parents of third-grade students demonstrated concern regarding their child's weight and perceive obesity as a problem. Parents support school interventions such as nutrition education and fitness classes. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation, emotional social support, and physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee

    2013-05-01

    This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.

  10. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  11. The relative importance of body change strategies, weight perception, perceived social support, and self-esteem on adolescent depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of body change strategies and weight perception in adolescent depression after accounting for established risk factors for depression, namely low social support across key adolescent contexts. The moderating effect of self-esteem was also examined. Participants (N=4587, 49% female) were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Regression analyses were conducted on the association between well-known depression risk factors (lack of perceived support from parents, peers, and schools), body change strategies, weight perception, and adolescent depressive symptoms one year later. Each well-known risk factor significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Body change strategies related to losing weight and overweight perceptions predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond established risk factors. Self-esteem moderated the relationship between trying to lose weight and depressive symptoms. Maladaptive weight loss strategies and overweight perceptions should be addressed in early identification depression programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Janice S; Leite, Isabel Cg; Almeida, Anderso B; Ambrosano, Glaucia Mb; Pereira, Antônio C; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2012-01-13

    The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of

  13. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  14. Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukman, Andrea J; Teuscher, Dorit; Feskens, Edith J M; van Baak, Marleen A; Meershoek, Agnes; Renes, Reint Jan

    2014-10-04

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and ways to support lifestyle change. Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews among low SES (four groups) and high SES (five groups) adults. The group size varied between four and nine participants. The main themes discussed were perceptions and experiences of healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic approach was used to analyse the data. In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the low SES participants were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the high SES participants. Some perceptions were, however, especially shared in the low SES groups. Low SES participants indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints, but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, low SES participants preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition. To motivate

  15. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Associations with Metabolic Health Across Weight Statuses in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    classification compared with metabolically healthy (MH) classification for the NW group. More MVPA was associated with lower odds of MU classification than MH classification for NW and overweight groups. For multinomial logistic regressions, more MVPA was associated with lower odds of MH-obesity classification......, as well as MU-NW, -overweight, and -obesity classifications, compared with the MH-NW group. Furthermore, more sedentary time was associated with higher odds of MU-NW classification compared with the MH-NW group. CONCLUSIONS: More MVPA was beneficial for metabolic health and weight status, whereas lower......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic health across weight statuses and the associations of physical activity and sedentary time within and across metabolic health-weight status groups. METHODS: Six studies (n = 4,581) from the International Children...

  16. The relationship between adolescents' physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth.

  17. An Observational Study of the Association between Adenovirus 36 Antibody Status and Weight Loss among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillon S. Vander Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is associated with obesity and relative hypolipidemia, its role in pediatric weight loss treatment response is uncertain. Therefore, the primary study objective was to determine whether Ad-36 antibody (AB status was associated with response to a pediatric weight loss program. The secondary objective was to assess the association between Ad-36 AB status and baseline lipid values. Methods: Participants included 73 youth aged 10-17 years in a residential camp-based weight loss program. The study examined differences in baseline lipid values between Ad-36 AB+ and AB- youth as well as differences in response to treatment, including indices of body size and fitness. Results: At baseline, results showed that Ad-36 AB+ youth evidenced significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides than Ad-36 AB- youth (all p Conclusion: Ad-36 AB status showed a weak association with treatment response, but was associated with a better lipid profile. Ad-36 AB status should be assessed in studies of pediatric obesity treatment and prevention.

  18. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship Between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Cole, Amy N; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; Mage = 12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning, strength, and body attractiveness), PSW, and maturity status. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test interactions between maturity and physical self-perceptions predicting PSW separately for boys and girls. For girls, maturity level and physical self-perceptions explained significant variance, F(5, 131) = 73.44, p < .001, R(2) = .74, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.42, p = .01, ΔR(2) = .03. Perceived attractiveness interacted with maturity status to predict PSW (p = .01), indicating that maturity was positively related to PSW only for girls with higher body attractiveness. Maturity status and physical self-perceptions also significantly predicted PSW in boys, F(5, 98) = 46.52, p <  .001, R(2) = .70, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.16, p = .02, ΔR(2) = .04. A statistically significant interaction between perceived strength and maturity (p <  .001) indicated that maturity related positively to PSW, but only for boys with higher perceived strength. The maturity-PSW relationship differs by gender and depends partly on physical self-perceptions. This finding reinforces previous findings that illustrate the relative importance of perceived attractiveness and strength for girls and boys, respectively. PSW is an important predictor of physical activity behavior; therefore, it is critical to understand the interplay between these key antecedents.

  19. Direct and indirect relationships of physical fitness, weight status, and learning duration to academic performance in Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Yamatsu, Koji; Sagawa, Masato

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, using structural equation modelling (SEM), the direct and indirect influence of daily behaviours (i.e. exercise/learning durations), weight status, and physical fitness on academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren, after controlling for socioeconomic status. We analysed cross-sectional data from 274 schoolchildren (159 males and 115 females; 12-13 years old). Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in eight academic subjects. Physical fitness was evaluated using the total score of eight physical fitness tests and weight status using body mass index. The daily behaviours and socioeconomic status were assessed by the questionnaire. The SEM showed an adequate fit to the data (χ 2  = 0.684, p = .710, RMSEA = .000). Physical fitness and learning durations had direct effects on academic performance (β = .301, p academic performance via physical fitness. These findings suggest that, independent of socioeconomic status and learning durations, exercise habits and maintaining healthy weight status may indirectly contribute to academic success via better physical fitness in children.

  20. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  1. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq

    2012-01-01

    Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are  intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...

  2. Weight status, body image and bullying among adolescents in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-05-02

    We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13-15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3-20.2) reported being bullied ≥ 3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for "slightly overweight"; OR 2.74 for "very overweight", both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted.

  3. Iron status and anaemia of chronic disease in HIV-infected African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-11

    Mar 11, 2009 ... status, more specifically to investigate the nutritional health of ... Respondents fasted overnight, abstained from exercise and avoided ... Nutrition is an important factor in the course of HIV infection1 and is ... activity, body perception and attitude toward weight control, ..... Krause's food, nutrition & diet therapy.

  4. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.

  5. A longitudinal study of childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end of each grade. Weight and height were measured at the beginning of each grade. A weight change variable was created based on each child's weight status difference at grades 1 and 6. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting academic performance at grade 6 was developed with adjustment for individual characteristics and family factors. A latent growth curve (LGC) showed the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and in academic performance across a 6-year period. BMI in children increased significantly across 6 years. The rate of increase in BMI over 6 years was higher for children with higher baseline BMIs than it was for children with lower baseline BMIs. However, BMI changes were not significantly associated with changes of academic performance. There was no significant relationship between initial obesity or change in weight status and subsequent academic performance. It appears that either being or becoming overweight/obese did not impact academic achievement for these Taiwanese children. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  6. Weight Status in the First 2 Years of Life and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Kuban, Karl C K; O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Engelke, Stephen C; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To examine the extent to which weight gain and weight status in the first 2 years of life relate to the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. In a cohort of 1070 infants born between 23 and 27 weeks' gestation, we examined weight gain from 7-28 days of life (in quartiles) and weight z-score at 12 and 24 months corrected age (in 4 categories: Weight gain in the lowest quartile from 7-28 days was not associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes. Children with a 12-month weight z-score weight z-score weight z-score at 24 months with adverse outcomes were attenuated with exclusion of children with motor impairment. Excluding children who have gross motor impairment appears to eliminate the association of low weight status with neurodevelopmental impairments at 2 years in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association between Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge and Weight Status of Primary School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Steyn, Nelia P.; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M.; Hill, Jillian; Lambert, Estelle V.; Draper, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity. Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a…

  8. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, Kamisha H; French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Toomey, Traci L; Hannan, Peter J; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-12-20

    Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  9. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  10. Parental Socioeconomic Status and Weight Faltering in Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kachi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies in the UK and Denmark found no significant association between low socioeconomic status (SES and weight faltering. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies from other developed countries. We examined the association between parental SES and weight faltering in infants up to 1.5 years of age, and investigated whether the inequalities changed between 2001 and 2010 in Japan.Methods: We used data from two Japanese population-based birth cohorts started in 2001 (n = 34,594 and 2010 (n = 21,189. Parental SES was assessed as household income and parental education when the infant was 6 months old. Weight faltering was defined as the slowest weight gaining in 5% of all children in each cohort. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with adjustment for covariates. The relative index of inequality was used to assess relative impact of parental SES on weight faltering.Results: Infants in the lowest quartile of household income were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.52 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.56 times more likely to experience weight faltering than those in the highest income quartile both in the 2001 and 2010 cohorts, respectively. The relative index of inequality for household income was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.36, 1.96 in 2001 and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.31 in 2010.Conclusions: Infants from lower income families have a greater risk of weight faltering in Japan. Additionally, the income-related inequalities in weight faltering did not change between the two cohorts. Social policies to address maldistribution of weight faltering due to household income are needed.

  11. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001). Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05). In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and district. However, the actual effects of these factors on the

  12. The Impact of Family Rules on Children's Eating Habits, Sedentary Behaviors, and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-08-01

    Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (pchildren's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.

  13. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity.

  14. Protective Misperception? Prospective Study of Weight Self-Perception and Blood Pressure in Adolescents With Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Emily S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Milliren, Carly E; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-06-01

    Underestimating one's weight is often seen as a barrier to weight loss. However, recent research has shown that weight underperception may be beneficial, with lower future weight gain and fewer depressive symptoms. Here, we examine the relationship between adolescent weight underperception and future blood pressure. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we obtained a nationally representative sample of 2,463 adolescents with overweight and obesity (students in grades 8-12 in 1996). We used multivariable linear regression to prospectively examine the relationship between weight self-perception in adolescence and blood pressure in adulthood (year 2008; follow-up rate 80.3%), controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and body mass index. Additional analyses were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Youth with overweight/obesity who underperceived their weight had lower blood pressure in adulthood than those who perceived themselves to be overweight. The decrease in systolic blood pressure was -2.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -4.3, -0.7; p = .006). Although the interaction by gender was statistically insignificant (p = .289), important differences appeared upon stratification by gender. Young men showed no significant difference in adult blood pressure related to weight self-perception. Conversely, in young women, weight underperception was associated with an average decrease in systolic blood pressure of -4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -7.0, -1.7; p = .002). Contrary to conventional wisdom, weight underperception is associated with improved health markers in young women. The observed differences in blood pressure are clinically relevant in magnitude, and interventions to correct weight underperception should be re-examined for unintended consequences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Midupper Arm Circumference Outperforms Weight-Based Measures of Nutritional Status in Children with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Hawes, Meagan; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Alam, Nur H; Hossain, M Iqbal; Levine, Adam C

    2015-07-01

    Undernutrition contributes to 45% of all deaths in children children with diarrhea and possible dehydration. This study assessed the validity of different measures of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. A prospective cohort study was conducted at an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Children children for screening, of which 1025 were eligible, 850 were enrolled, and 721 had complete data for analysis. Anthropometric measurements, including weight-for-age z score (WAZ), weight-for-length z score (WLZ), midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and midupper arm circumference z score (MUACZ), were calculated pre- and posthydration in all patients. Measurements were evaluated for their ability to correctly identify undernutrition in children with varying degrees of dehydration. Of the 721 patients with full data for analysis, the median percent dehydration was 4%. Of the 4 measures evaluated, MUAC and MUACZ demonstrated 92-94% agreement pre- and posthydration compared with 69-76% for WAZ and WLZ. Although each 1% change in hydration status was found to change weight-for-age by 0.0895 z scores and weight-for-length by 0.1304 z scores, MUAC and MUACZ were not significantly affected by dehydration status. Weight-based measures misclassified 12% of children with severe underweight and 14% with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared with only 1-2% for MUAC and MUACZ. MUAC and MUACZ were the most accurate predictors of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. WAZ and WLZ were significantly affected by dehydration status, leading to the misdiagnosis of many patients on arrival with severe underweight and SAM. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02007733. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Body weight has no impact on self-esteem of minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between body weight and self-esteem among underserved minority children is not well documented. We measured the self-esteem profile using the Self-Perception Profile for Children among 910 minority children at 17 Houston community centers. Weight status had no effect on any of the s...

  17. Body weight and incidence of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Orsini, Nicola; Saji, Shigehira; Key, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that the association between body weight and breast cancer risk may differ across menopausal status as well as the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) tumor status. To date, no meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the association between body weight and ER/PR defined breast cancer risk, taking into account menopausal status and study design. We searched MEDLINE for relevant studies published from January 1, 1970 through December 31, 2007. Summarized risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. The summarized results of 9 cohorts and 22 case-control studies comparing the highest versus the reference categories of relative body weight showed that the risk for ER+PR+ tumors was 20% lower (95% CI=-30% to -8%) among premenopausal (2,643 cases) and 82% higher (95% CI=55-114%) among postmenopausal (5,469 cases) women. The dose-response meta-analysis of ER+PR+ tumors showed that each 5-unit increase in body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was associated with a 33% increased risk among postmenopausal women (95% CI=20-48%) and 10% decreased risk among premenopausal women (95% CI=-18% to -1%). No associations were observed for ER-PR- or ER+PR- tumors. For discordant tumors ER+PR- (pre) and ER-PR+ (pre/post) the number of cases were too small (weight and breast cancer risk is critically dependent on the tumor's ER/PR status and the woman's menopausal status. Body weight control is the effective strategy for preventing ER+PR+ tumors after menopause. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  19. Canine obesity: is there a difference between veterinarian and owner perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Hobson-West, P; Cobb, K; Craigon, J; Hammond, R; Millar, K M

    2011-12-01

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the nature of the relationship between dog-ownership and canine obesity, explored in two cohorts of overweight/obese or non-overweight dogs (n=125). This paper concentrates on the owners' perception of dog weight. A researcher-mediated questionnaire was used to collect data from dog owners attending a small veterinary practice. Interviewees (n=121) were asked qualitative and quantitative questions, designed to examine the owners' views of their relationship with their dogs. Although a high proportion of owners claimed to have discussed the dog's weight with their veterinarian, some discrepancies were apparent between owner perception of animal weight and the veterinarian's evaluation of body condition score. Owner disagreement was significantly greater for the veterinarian-defined overweight dogs (P=0·005). Owners often provide personal narratives to account for their dog's weight status. This study confirms the important role of the vet in providing information about the issue of dog weight but also suggests that providing verbal information is sometimes insufficient. The study also indicates the potential value of qualitative research methods to further understand client perception of complex animal care issues and highlights the need for further in-depth research. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Adolescent Perceptions of Body Weight and Attractiveness: Important Issues in Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent self-perception of body weight and physical attractiveness and the use of alcohol and drugs in high school students (n=1,915). In general, adolescents dissatisfied with their appearance used illicit substances and got drunk more often than those satisfied with their appearance. (SNR)

  1. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Janice S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren

  2. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643

  3. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  4. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  5. Using path analysis to understand parents' perceptions of their children's weight, physical activity and eating habits in the Champlain region of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Papadakis, Sophia; Dojeiji, Laurie; Turnau, Micheline; Simmons, Louise; Parameswaran, Meena; Cunningham, John; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Parents have a fundamental role in promoting the healthy weight of their children. To determine parental perceptions of their child's body weight, eating and physical activity (PA) behaviours, and to test a predictive model of parental perceptions regarding their child's PA and healthy eating behaviours. A random-digit telephone survey was conducted among parents of children four to 12 years of age living in the Champlain region of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the responses. Path analysis was used to identify predictors of parental perceptions of PA and healthy eating. The study sample consisted of 1940 parents/caregivers. Only 0.2% of parents reported their child as being obese; 8.6% reported their child as being overweight. Most parents perceived their child to be physically active and eating healthily. Approximately 25% of parents reported that their child spent 2 h/day or more in front of a screen, and that their child consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and regularly consumed fast food. Variables that correlated with PA perceptions included time spent reading/doing homework, interest in PA, perceived importance of PA, frequency of PA, level of parental PA, participation in organized sport, child weight and parental concern for weight. Variables that predicted perceptions regarding healthy eating were parental education, household income, preparation of home-cooked meals, fruit and vegetable intake, and concern for and influence on the child's weight. Parents in the present study sample did not appear to understand, or had little knowledge of the recommendations for PA and healthy eating in children. Parents appeared to base their judgment of healthy levels of PA or healthy eating behaviours using minimal criteria; these criteria are inconsistent with those used by health professionals to define adequate PA and healthy eating. The present survey highlights an important knowledge gap between scientific

  6. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  7. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status Among Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  9. Self-reported sleep quality, weight status and depression in young adult twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.

  10. Effects of sales promotions, weight status, and impulsivity on purchases in a supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Several environmental factors contribute to increased food consumption and play a role in the prevalence of obesity, like portion size, accessibility and relative price of high caloric foods, food commercials, and sales promotions. However, not everyone seems equally sensitive to these environmental cues and both obesity and impulsivity appears to play a role. In this study, food purchases in an internet supermarket are tested in 118 participants, with or without sales promotions for snack foods. Both weight status and response inhibition, an index of impulsivity, are measured. Participants with less inhibitory control purchased in total more calories from the internet supermarket then participants with more inhibitory control. In addition, sales promotion, weight status, and inhibitory control appeared to interact in their effect on snack food purchases: participants with less inhibitory control and overweight bought more calories of snacks in the sales promotions condition, but not in the control condition. For the other participants, with normal weight and/or high inhibitory control, sales promotions had no effect on their purchases of calories of snacks. It seems that especially the combination of low inhibitory control and overweight makes participants vulnerable for environmental cues. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  12. Pharmacy student self-perception of weight and relationship to counseling patients on lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antworth, Allen; Maffeo, Carrie

    2014-03-12

    To assess the accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment of body mass index (BMI) and determine the relationship of this to comfort level in counseling patients regarding lifestyle modification. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted that included first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students who had previously undergone training in BMI self-assessment. Data on students' weight and height were collected and a survey that contained questions on self-perception of body weight and comfort with lifestyle counseling was conducted. Perceived BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) were then compared to actual calculated BMI to determine the accuracy of the student's self-perception. At baseline, participants' accuracy in self-assessment of BMI was 74%, 73.3%, and 75.6% respectively, for first-, second-, and third-year students (p=0.911). Students accuracy increased but not significantly as they progressed through the curriculum (7.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p=0.470 and p=0.209). Neither accuracy in self-assessment of BMI nor students' actual BMI significantly affected students' comfort level with lifestyle modification counseling within healthy weight, overweight, or obese patient categories. However, as the patients' BMI category increased, comfort level differences were observed among students of normal and overweight categories. Patients' BMI category may be a significant barrier to pharmacy students' comfort level in providing lifestyle modification counseling. This finding suggests the need to implement curriculum changes to better prepare students for lifestyle modification counseling.

  13. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS. Results From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001. There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001. Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05. In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. Conclusion The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and

  14. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing the status-legitimacy hypothesis: A multilevel modeling approach to the perception of legitimacy in income distribution in 36 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The status-legitimacy hypothesis was tested by analyzing cross-national data about social inequality. Several indicators were used as indexes of social advantage: social class, personal income, and self-position in the social hierarchy. Moreover, inequality and freedom in nations, as indexed by Gini and by the human freedom index, were considered. Results from 36 nations worldwide showed no support for the status-legitimacy hypothesis. The perception that income distribution was fair tended to increase as social advantage increased. Moreover, national context increased the difference between advantaged and disadvantaged people in the perception of social fairness: Contrary to the status-legitimacy hypothesis, disadvantaged people were more likely than advantaged people to perceive income distribution as too large, and this difference increased in nations with greater freedom and equality. The implications for the status-legitimacy hypothesis are discussed.

  16. Role of mother’s perceptions on their child development on early detection of developmental deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Andayani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.

  17. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Midupper Arm Circumference Outperforms Weight-Based Measures of Nutritional Status in Children with Diarrhea12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Hawes, Meagan; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Alam, Nur H; Hossain, M Iqbal; Levine, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition contributes to 45% of all deaths in children children with diarrhea and possible dehydration. Objective: This study assessed the validity of different measures of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Children children for screening, of which 1025 were eligible, 850 were enrolled, and 721 had complete data for analysis. Anthropometric measurements, including weight-for-age z score (WAZ), weight-for-length z score (WLZ), midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and midupper arm circumference z score (MUACZ), were calculated pre- and posthydration in all patients. Measurements were evaluated for their ability to correctly identify undernutrition in children with varying degrees of dehydration. Results: Of the 721 patients with full data for analysis, the median percent dehydration was 4%. Of the 4 measures evaluated, MUAC and MUACZ demonstrated 92–94% agreement pre- and posthydration compared with 69–76% for WAZ and WLZ. Although each 1% change in hydration status was found to change weight-for-age by 0.0895 z scores and weight-for-length by 0.1304 z scores, MUAC and MUACZ were not significantly affected by dehydration status. Weight-based measures misclassified 12% of children with severe underweight and 14% with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared with only 1–2% for MUAC and MUACZ. Conclusions: MUAC and MUACZ were the most accurate predictors of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. WAZ and WLZ were significantly affected by dehydration status, leading to the misdiagnosis of many patients on arrival with severe underweight and SAM. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02007733. PMID:25972523

  19. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  20. Person perception and autonomic nervous system response: the costs and benefits of possessing a high social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G

    2013-02-01

    This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Is appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology related to changes in illness perceptions and health status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, M W; van Wilgen, C P; Groothoff, J W; van der Schans, C P

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its effects on illness perceptions and perceived health status. A booklet explaining pain neurophysiology was sent to participants with FM. Appreciation was assessed with 10 questions addressing relevance (0-30) and reassurance (0-30). Illness perceptions, catastrophizing and health status were measured with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) at baseline (T0), after a 2-week control period (T1) and 6 weeks after the intervention (T2). Forty-one patients participated. Mean (SD) scores for relevance and reassurance were 21.6 (5.6) and 18.7 (5.7), respectively. Only illness coherence, emotional representations, pain and fatigue changed significantly between T0 and T2. Correlations between appreciation and changes in outcomes ranged between r=0.00 and r=0.34. Although a majority of subjects appreciated the written information, it did not have clinically relevant effects on illness perceptions, catastrophizing or impact of FM on daily life. Written education about pain neurophysiology is inadequate toward changing illness perceptions, catastrophizing or perceived health status of participants with FM; education should be incorporated into a broader multidisciplinary self-management program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  3. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  4. Health perception and socioeconomic status following childhood-onset epilepsy : The Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Ada; Brouwer, Oebele; van Donselaar, Cees; Stroink, Hans; Peters, Boudewijn; Peeters, Els; Arts, Willem F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Epilepsy may have far-reaching consequences for patients, other than having seizures and medication. At 15 years after diagnosis, this study investigates health perception, restrictions due to epilepsy, living arrangements (including marital status and offspring), and the educational and

  5. Driving towards obesity: a systematized literature review on the association between motor vehicle travel time and distance and weight status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Virk, Jagdeep S

    2014-09-01

    Higher levels of sedentary behavior are associated with adverse health outcomes. Over-reliance on private motor vehicles for transportation is a potential contributor to the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to review evidence on the relationship between motor vehicle travel distance and time and weight status among adults. Keywords associated with driving and weight status were entered into four databases (PubMed Medline Transportation Research Information Database and Web of Science) and retrieved article titles and abstracts screened for relevance. Relevant articles were assessed for their eligibility for inclusion in the review (English-language articles a sample ≥ 16 years of age included a measure of time or distance traveling in a motor vehicle and weight status and estimated the association between driving and weight status). The database search yielded 2781 articles, from which 88 were deemed relevant and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies included in the review, 8 found a statistically significant positive association between time and distance traveled in a motor vehicle and weight status. Multilevel interventions that make alternatives to driving private motor vehicles more convenient, such as walking and cycling, are needed to promote healthy weight in the adult population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes on diffusion-weighted MRI with focal motor status epilepticus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, K.O.; Senn, P.; Zutter, D.; Bassetti, C.; Donati, F.; Loevblad, K.O.; Zeller, O.; Schroth, G.

    2003-01-01

    Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in focal status epilepticus. The changes on DWI provide an insight into the pathophysiology. We report a 53-year-old man with focal motor status epilepticus involving the left hand, arm and face with focal slowing on EEG. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were higher in the affected hemisphere than on the other side. At 10 days and 6 weeks after the end of the seizures, we saw normal ADCs and atrophy of the affected hemisphere. We conclude that the MRI findings indicate both cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  7. Changes on diffusion-weighted MRI with focal motor status epilepticus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, K O [Neuroradiology, Radiodiagnostic, Hopital Cantonal de Geneve HUG, Geneve (Switzerland); Senn, P; Zutter, D; Bassetti, C; Donati, F [Dept. of Neurology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland); Loevblad, K O; Zeller, O; Schroth, G [Div. of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland)

    2003-04-01

    Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in focal status epilepticus. The changes on DWI provide an insight into the pathophysiology. We report a 53-year-old man with focal motor status epilepticus involving the left hand, arm and face with focal slowing on EEG. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were higher in the affected hemisphere than on the other side. At 10 days and 6 weeks after the end of the seizures, we saw normal ADCs and atrophy of the affected hemisphere. We conclude that the MRI findings indicate both cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescence: the role of weight status, clinical status and psychosocial dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Freitas-Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol/tobacco consumption among adolescents (N = 370 aged 14 to 19 years in three groups: 205 adolescents with normal weight, 82 adolescents from the community with overweight or obesity, and 83 adolescents with overweight or obesity and in outpatient treatment for weight control. We also examined the roles of age, gender, weight, treatment condition, and psychosocial variables (psychopathological symptoms, social support, and emotional skills in the presence of those risk behaviors. Our major findings were that the clinical group of overweight adolescents had fewer risk behaviors, than the overweight community group and the normal weight controls, particularly for risk behaviors related to alcohol use. The increase of age and lower satisfaction with family predicted tobacco consumption. The increase of age, not being integrated in a treatment for weight control and higher satisfaction with intimate relationships predicted alcohol consumption. Weight status was not a predictor of alcohol and cigarette use. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  9. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  10. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna M. Downs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n=10,023 in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P<.001. They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P<.001, while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P=.017, but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live.

  11. Associations of Maternal Weight Status Before, During, and After Pregnancy with Inflammatory Markers in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Marino, Regina C; Haapala, Jacob L; Foster, Laurie; Smith, Katy D; Teague, April M; Jacobs, David R; Fontaine, Patricia L; McGovern, Patricia M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Harnack, Lisa; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with breast milk C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two bioactive markers of inflammation, measured at 1 and 3 months post partum. Participants were 134 exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant dyads taking part in the Mothers and Infants Linked for Health (MILK) study, who provided breast milk samples. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) were assessed by chart abstraction; postpartum weight loss was measured at the 1- and 3-month study visits. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of maternal weight status with repeated measures of breast milk CRP and IL-6 at 1 and 3 months, after adjustment for potential confounders. Pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, but not total GWG or postpartum weight loss, were independently associated with breast milk CRP after adjustment (β = 0.49, P milk CRP. The consequences of infants receiving varying concentrations of breast milk inflammatory markers are unknown; however, it is speculated that there are implications for the intergenerational transmission of disease risk. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. On the relationship between weight status and doctor shopping behavior-evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi

    2013-11-01

    A recent study has suggested that overweight and obese people are more likely to consult a range of physicians (doctor shopping). The consistency of this finding with multiple measures of doctor shopping and controls for socioeconomic circumstances was interrogated. Ninety-nine thousand four hundred seven Australians aged 45 and over who had sought primary healthcare at least five times within 6 months of a survey (2006-2008). (i) The count of different physicians consulted; a binary indicator of (ii) >= three different physicians; (iii) >= five different physicians; and iv) a measure that took into account multiple consultations with the same physician were investigated. Weight status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. Controls included socioeconomic circumstances, demographics, health, and neighborhood factors. In comparison to people with "normal" BMI, the likelihood of doctor shopping was lower among overweight (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98) and obese people (0.95: 0.93, 0.96). This negative correlation between doctor shopping behavior and weight status was consistent after full adjustment and across different outcome measures. In contrast with recent evidence from the US, overweight and obese Australians are less prone to doctor shopping behavior than their peers with "normal" BMI. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Household food insecurity, diet quality, and weight status among indigenous women (Mah Meri) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chong Su; Appannah, Geeta; Sulaiman, Norhasmah

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food security status and determined its association with diet quality and weight status among indigenous women from the Mah Meri tribe in Peninsular Malaysia. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument and the Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) were used to assess household food security status and diet quality, respectively. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected through face-to-face interview, and anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from 222 women. Majority of households (82.9%) experienced different levels of food insecurity: 29.3% household food insecurity, 23.4% individual food insecurity, and 30.2% fell into the child hunger group. The food-secure group had significantly fewer children and smaller household sizes than the food-insecure groups ( P diet, while food insecurity at the household level was associated with higher body weight. Therefore, a substantial effort by all stakeholders is warranted to improve food insecurity among poorer households. The results suggest a pressing need for nutritional interventions to improve dietary intake among low income households.

  14. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use among 18- to 19-Year-Old Adolescent Women by Weight Status: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Ela, Elizabeth J; Hall, Kelli S; Barber, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the association between weight status and sexual practices among 18- to 19-year-old women. We analyzed a population-based longitudinal study of 18- to 19-year-old women residing in a Michigan county at cohort inception. Weekly journal surveys measured sexual practices, including contraceptive behaviors. Outcomes included proportion of weeks with a partner, proportion of weeks with sexual intercourse, number of partners, average length of relationships, proportion of weeks with contraception use, and proportion of weeks where contraception was used consistently. We examined 26,545 journal surveys from 900 women over the first study year. Ordinary least squares regression models for each outcome examined differences by weight status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The mean proportion of weeks in which adolescents reported sexual intercourse was 52%; there was no difference by weight status. Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks where any contraception was used compared with normal weight adolescents (84% vs 91%, P = .011). Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity and contraceptive use, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks with consistent contraceptive use (68% vs 78%, P = .016) and oral contraceptive pill use (27% vs 45%, P = .001) compared with normal weight adolescents. All other relationships by weight status were not statistically significant. In this longitudinal study, obese adolescent women were less likely to use contraception, and less likely to use it consistently when compared with normal weight peers. Findings suggest obesity may be an important factor associated with adolescent women's sexual behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  16. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  17. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  18. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  19. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  20. Sex differences in adult outcomes by changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood: results from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene E; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Maslow, Gary R; Halpern, Carolyn T; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood may be associated with varying social, vocational, economic, and educational outcomes, which may differ by sex. We studied whether there are differences in adult outcomes by sex for different weight status changes in the transition to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, participants were categorized by weight status from adolescence into adulthood. We examined self-reported outcomes in adulthood for living with parents, being married, being a parent, employment, receipt of public assistance, income, and college graduation by weight groupings (healthy-healthy, healthy-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-healthy). The effect of changes in weight status on the adult outcomes was modeled, controlling for sex, age, parental education, and race/ethnicity. There were differences by sex for many of the self-reported outcomes, especially educational and economic outcomes. Female subjects who became overweight/obese between adolescence and adulthood or remained so had worse economic and educational findings as adults compared to male subjects. Overall, for female subjects, becoming and remaining overweight/obese was associated with worse outcomes, while for male subjects, adolescent obesity was more important than isolated adult obesity. The relationship between obesity and life situations may be more negative for female subjects in the transition to adulthood. The findings emphasize that adolescent obesity, and not just obesity isolated in adulthood, is important for characteristics achieved in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  2. Environmental characteristics of early childhood education and care centres and young children's weight status: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D; Feng, Xiaoqi; Santos, Rute

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize ECEC environmental correlates of weight status in children under the age of 6years. Six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched until March 2017. Observational studies examining the relationship between ECEC environmental characteristics and weight status in children aged 0-6years were included. Data was extracted using a predesigned form. Eight studies, representing 4862 children, met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two environmental characteristics were identified and classified into four domains (physical, political, economic, and sociocultural); of these, six correlates were found. 'Active environment' 'sedentary opportunities', 'active play time', 'high sugar and high fat served', 'educators' weight' and 'educators' habitual physical activity level' were associated with weight status in young children. However, for most environmental characteristics examined, strong evidence is not available yet, due to variations across studies on the measures of environmental characteristics and analytical methodologies. Stronger empirical evidence in greater quantity is needed. Future studies in this area are recommended to investigate the environmental influence using an ecological approach and to examine the potential mediators, with a focus on the settings of family-based centres and samples representing toddlers and/or infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of milk source on body weight and immune status of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Moreno-Indias, I.; Morales-delaNuez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Milk source is one of the several factors that can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status before weaning. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of milk source (natural rearing method, named NR group, vs. artificial rearing method using a commercial milk replacer, named MR ...

  4. Reversible changes in echo planar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI in status epilepticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacke, S.; Keller, E.; Urbach, H.; Wuellner, U.; Hamzei, F.

    2000-01-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) demonstrated increased perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed high signal limited to the left temporoparietal cortex in a 68-year-old man with nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The EEG showed a slow delta-wave focus. The patient recovered and PI, DWI and EEG changes completely resolved. (orig.)

  5. Reversible changes in echo planar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI in status epilepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flacke, S; Keller, E; Urbach, H [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Wuellner, U; Hamzei, F [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) demonstrated increased perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed high signal limited to the left temporoparietal cortex in a 68-year-old man with nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The EEG showed a slow delta-wave focus. The patient recovered and PI, DWI and EEG changes completely resolved. (orig.)

  6. Weight and its relationship to adolescent perceptions of their providers (WRAP): a qualitative and quantitative assessment of teen weight-related preferences and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc L; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Yanovski, Jack A

    2005-08-01

    To examine the relationship of body weight to satisfaction with care in adolescents, and to obtain qualitative data on preferences for general and weight-related medical care in normal weight and overweight adolescents. The Weight and its Relationship to Adolescent Perceptions of their Providers survey, a 4-page questionnaire containing previously validated satisfaction scales and open-ended qualitative questions regarding health care preferences, was administered to 62 severely overweight (body mass index [BMI] 38.9 +/- 8.4 kg/m2) and 29 normal weight (BMI 22.5 +/- 4.0 kg/m2) adolescents (age 13.9 +/- 1.7 years; 57% female; 50% Caucasian, 47% African-American, 3% Hispanic). The affective subscale of the medical satisfaction scale was negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score (r = -.22, p teens. Seventy-nine percent of overweight adolescents stated their health care provider discussed their weight with them; however, only 41% of overweight adolescents desired to discuss their weight. Compared to normal-weight adolescents, overweight teens were more likely to report that their provider raised topics of weight (p teens expressed concerns regarding the public location of their provider's office scale. Satisfaction with affective aspects of the provider-patient relationship is negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score. Length of experience with one's provider is also a strong predictor of teen satisfaction with their medical care. Teens prefer the term "overweight" for those with high body weight. Sensitivity to confidentiality, privacy, and embarrassment regarding physical examination and weight are important for teen satisfaction.

  7. Weight and its relationship to adolescent perceptions of their providers (WRAP): A qualitative and quantitative assessment of teen weight-related preferences and concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship of body weight to satisfaction with care in adolescents, and to obtain qualitative data on preferences for general and weight-related medical care in normal weight and overweight adolescents. Methods The Weight and its Relationship to Adolescent Perceptions of their Providers survey, a 4-page questionnaire containing previously validated satisfaction scales and open-ended qualitative questions regarding health care preferences, was administered to 62 severely overweight (body mass index [BMI] 38.9 ± 8.4 kg/m2) and 29 normal weight (BMI 22.5 ± 4.0 kg/m2) adolescents (age 13.9 ± 1.7 years; 57% female; 50% Caucasian, 47% African-American, 3% Hispanic). Results The affective subscale of the medical satisfaction scale was negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score (r = −.22, p teens. Seventy-nine percent of overweight adolescents stated their health care provider discussed their weight with them; however, only 41% of overweight adolescents desired to discuss their weight. Compared to normal-weight adolescents, overweight teens were more likely to report that their provider raised topics of weight (p teens expressed concerns regarding the public location of their provider’s office scale. Conclusions Satisfaction with affective aspects of the provider-patient relationship is negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score. Length of experience with one’s provider is also a strong predictor of teen satisfaction with their medical care. Teens prefer the term “overweight” for those with high body weight. Sensitivity to confidentiality, privacy, and embarrassment regarding physical examination and weight are important for teen satisfaction. PMID:16026727

  8. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  9. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Ploss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Ploss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Perceived physical activity barriers related to body weight status and sociodemographic factors among Malaysian men in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity has been acknowledged as a public health issue and has received increasing attention in recent years. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the barriers to physical activity among Malaysian men. These barriers were analyzed with regards to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, BMI and waist circumference. Methods Subjects in this study included 308 Malay men and 422 Chinese men aged 20 years and older. Subjects completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a questionnaire on barriers to physical activity, categorized into personal and psychological, physical and social environment barriers. Weight, height and waist circumference were also measured and BMI was calculated. Results Descriptive analyses showed that 79.3% of subjects were married, 52.1% had secondary educational level, 68.8% were still working, and 39.7% had household income between RM1500 to RM3500. The perception that other recreational activities with family and friends were more fun was the most frequently reported barrier, followed by weather, lack of discipline, lack of free time, lack of money, and lack of friends. Marriage status, educational level, household income, BMI, and physical activity status were shown to be associated with perceived barriers. Conclusions To increase participation in physical activity, policy makers should consider significant personal, social and environmental barriers when developing appropriate intervention programmes. Health-promoting strategies that increase awareness, knowledge, skills and motivation related to physical activity are required. PMID:23530696

  11. The relationship between emotional eating and weight problem perception is not a function of body mass index or depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Ashley A; Saules, Karen K

    2013-12-01

    Weight problem perception (WPP) refers to the belief that one is overweight. Previous research suggests that WPP, even in the absence of actual overweight status, is associated with disordered eating, binge eating, and body image dissatisfaction. However, the relationship between emotional eating, BMI, and WPP has not yet been explored. This investigation recruited a total of 409 college students who completed a web-based survey. An additional 76 participants were recruited to complete an identical survey with the addition of a depression measure to evaluate the contribution of this potentially important covariate. As hypothesized, WPP was associated with emotional eating, while actual BMI was not. In the second sample, WPP remained significantly associated with emotional eating, even after depression was included as a covariate. Results suggest that non-overweight young adults who express the belief that they are overweight may be at risk for emotional eating, which, over the long term, could indeed adversely impact BMI. Cognitive approaches to address disordered eating may benefit from addressing WPP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The influence of healthy lifestyle habits on weight status in school aged children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; García de Angulo, Belén; Bodega, Patricia; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; García, Nuria; Fajardo, Diana; Garicano, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity has high prevalence in children and adolescents in Spain. To determine the degree of influence of four modifiable factors (dietary habits, physical activity, sedentary and sleep) jointly on the weight status of a group of school children and adolescents in Madrid. 189 schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years, who underwent an anthropometric study. To exercise the IPAQ questionnaire was used, establishing a minimum of one hour of exercise a day, as a recommendation, and two hours per day in case of sedentary, which took into account the hours of computer, consoles and TV. Sleep quality was assessed by collecting sleeping hours weekdays and weekend nap. Stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. The KIDMED Index was used for the diet quality, the score can be accessed from 0-12 and classified into 3 categories, it was regrouped for statistical measure. The first two results (0-7) as "Bad adherence" and ≥ 8 value as "Good adherence". 27.6% of students had excess weight. No significant differences were reported analyzing the four factors studied versus weight status among those who keep recommendations and excess weight, either individually or multifactor analysis was observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of Social Media-based Interventions on Weight-related Behaviors and Body Weight Status: Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of social media-based interventions about weight-related behaviors and body weight status. A keyword search were performed in May 2017 in the Clinical-Trials.gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of social media-based interventions on weight-related outcome measures. We identified 22 interventions from the keyword and reference search, including 12 randomized controlled trials, 6 pre-post studies and 3 cohort studies conducted in 9 countries during 2010-2016. The majority (N = 17) used Facebook, followed by Twitter (N = 4) and Instagram (N = 1). Intervention durations averaged 17.8 weeks with a mean sample size of 69. The meta-analysis showed that social media-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant, but clinically modest reduction of body weight by 1.01 kg, body mass index by 0.92 kg/m2, and waist circumstance by 2.65 cm, and an increase of daily number of steps taken by 1530. In the meta-regression there was no doseresponse effect with respect to intervention duration. The boom of social media provides an unprecedented opportunity to implement health promotion programs. Future interventions should make efforts to improve intervention scalability and effectiveness.

  14. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-07-01

    Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P habits depending on measure used.

  16. The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio-economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross-sectional study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie; Harrison, Flo; Yamoah, Fred; Fearne, Andrew; Jones, Andy

    2016-02-15

    Recent increases in obesity prevalence have led to research into the neighbourhood food environment. Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and associations between food outlet locations and diet are less clear. The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight status of children. This study examined the association between weight status in children (4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds) measured in the National Child Measurement Programme over three time points (2008/9, 2009/10, 2010/11) and annual sales of unhealthy foods (2012/3), as identified from a large supermarket chain. Geographical analysis was conducted to link store-based food sales for 537 stores with 6517 UK Census Areas. Unadjusted associations were examined with error-bar plots and linear regression was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and sales of unhealthy food, while controlling for covariates known to predict weight status in children. A statistically significant relationship was identified between the sales of unhealthy foods and the prevalence of overweight and obese children in both age groups (p sales with the weight status of children. Food sales in geographically referenced supermarkets are a valuable source of data for research into the factors that influence the weight of the surrounding population. Future research could identify factors that might modify food shopping in supermarkets and use of purchasing data could be an effective way to measure the impact of healthy eating campaigns on the weight status of children over time.

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Perceptions of Child Overweight Among Children and Adolescents, Their Guardians and Health Care Professionals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Chen, Chen; Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents residing in rural environments with higher prevalence of an overweight population may develop inaccurate perceptions of a healthy weight. This study examines rural-urban differences in perceptions of child overweight among overweight (85 ≤ BMI percentile children (BMI percentile ≥ 95), their guardians and health care providers (HCPs), and children's concomitant weight control. The cross-sectional study was based on the 2005-2010 NHANES data (1,844 overweight and obese children and adolescents, aged 8-15 years). Rurality was defined using the 2003 RUCC. The weight status was based on the standardized measures of children's height and weight. Children reported whether they considered themselves overweight and whether they were trying to lose weight. Proxy respondents (ie, guardians) reported whether they considered their child to be overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them their child was overweight. Weighted percentages and predicted probabilities from multivariable logistic regressions were calculated, accounting for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design and nonresponse. Rural residents comprised 18.8% of the study population; 41.8% of them were overweight and 58.2% were obese compared to 46.7% and 53.3% of urban peers, respectively. Misperceptions of children's weight status were 11.3 and 6.0 percentage points higher in rural children and their guardians, respectively. Recall of an HCP identification of child overweight was 6.3 percentage points lower among rural versus urban guardians. Obesity prevention efforts may be fostered by improving accuracy of child overweight perceptions. This may be particularly impactful in rural settings, where weight misperceptions are high. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  19. Relationship between self-reported weight change, educational status, and health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan; Beissel, Jean; Wagner, Daniel R

    2015-09-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported weight change, socio-economic status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes, 5 years after they underwent coronary angiography. Between 2013 and 2014, 1873 of 4391 patients (319 with diabetes) who underwent coronary angiography between 2008 and 2009 participated in a follow-up study. Three out of four domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF (physical health, psychological health and social relationships) were surveyed during the follow-up period. To assess the relationship between weight change and HRQOL, generalized linear models were constructed for every dimension of the WHOQOL-BREF, with educational level as a predictor and sex, age, marital status, smoking status, hypertension, cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and stable angina pectoris as covariates. The mean age of the patients was 70 years and almost three-quarters of the patients (72.7 %) were men. During the 12 months preceding the follow-up survey, 22.6 % of the patients reported weight loss, 20 % reported weight gain, and 57.4 % reported no weight change. There were significant differences in the HRQOL scores between patients who reported weight loss and those who reported either weight gain or unchanged weight. The most affected domains were physical and psychological health, with higher scores for patients who reported weight loss (54.7 and 67.2, respectively) than those who reported weight gain (46.3 and 58.5, respectively). The generalized linear model confirmed higher HRQOL scores among patients who reported weight loss and revealed an association between the HRQOL score and education level. Weight change and education level were associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes. Self-reported weight loss and no weight change were positively associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes, while weight gain was negatively

  20. Adolescent Weight Status and Self-Reported School Performance in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Do

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old and high school (16–18 years old students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1 overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2 overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3 the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  1. Parenting Styles, Communication and Child/Adolescent Diets and Weight Status: Let's Talk about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…

  2. Eat, sleep, work, play: associations of weight status and health-related behaviors among young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; White, Adrienne A; Brown, Onikia; Colby, Sarah; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kidd, Tanda; Greene, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    To examine relationships of sleep, eating, and exercise behaviors; work time pressures; and sociodemographic characteristics by weight status (healthy weight [body mass index or BMI universities. Enrolled college students (N = 1252; 18-24 years; 80% white; 59% female). Survey included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI), National Cancer Institute Fruit/Vegetable Screener, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Work Time Pressure items, and sociodemographic characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests determined significant bivariate associations of sociodemographics, sleep behaviors, eating behaviors, physical activity behavior, and work time pressures with weight status (i.e., healthy vs. overweight/obese). Statistically significant bivariate associations with weight status were then entered into a multivariate logistic regression model that estimated associations with being overweight/obese. Sex (female), race (nonwhite), older age, higher Global PSQI score, lower ecSI total score, and higher TFEQ Emotional Eating Scale score were significantly (p obesity in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sex (female; odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-2.74), older age (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.21-1.50), higher Global PSQI score (OR = 1.07, CI = 1.01-1.13), and lower ecSI score (OR = .96, CI = .94-.98), were significantly (p obesity. Findings suggest that obesity prevention interventions for college students should include an education component to emphasize the importance of overall sleep quality and improving eating competence.

  3. Health status monitoring for ICU patients based on locally weighted principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yangyang; Ma, Xin; Wang, Youqing

    2018-03-01

    Intelligent status monitoring for critically ill patients can help medical stuff quickly discover and assess the changes of disease and then make appropriate treatment strategy. However, general-type monitoring model now widely used is difficult to adapt the changes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients' status due to its fixed pattern, and a more robust, efficient and fast monitoring model should be developed to the individual. A data-driven learning approach combining locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) and principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly proposed and applied to monitor the nonlinear process of patients' health status in ICU. LWPR is used to approximate the complex nonlinear process with local linear models, in which PCA could be further applied to status monitoring, and finally a global weighted statistic will be acquired for detecting the possible abnormalities. Moreover, some improved versions are developed, such as LWPR-MPCA and LWPR-JPCA, which also have superior performance. Eighteen subjects were selected from the Physiobank's Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database, and two vital signs of each subject were chosen for online monitoring. The proposed method was compared with several existing methods including traditional PCA, Partial least squares (PLS), just in time learning combined with modified PCA (L-PCA), and Kernel PCA (KPCA). The experimental results demonstrated that the mean fault detection rate (FDR) of PCA can be improved by 41.7% after adding LWPR. The mean FDR of LWPR-MPCA was increased by 8.3%, compared with the latest reported method L-PCA. Meanwhile, LWPR spent less training time than others, especially KPCA. LWPR is first introduced into ICU patients monitoring and achieves the best monitoring performance including adaptability to changes in patient status, sensitivity for abnormality detection as well as its fast learning speed and low computational complexity. The algorithm

  4. Harassment and Mental Distress Among Adolescent Female Students by Sexual Identity and BMI or Perceived Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah

    2017-08-01

    Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. How Is the Practice of Yoga Related to Weight Status? Population-Based Findings From Project EAT-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Watts, Allison W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    Yoga may provide a strategy for healthy weight management in young adults. This study examined prevalence and characteristics of young adults' yoga practice and associations with changes in body mass index. Surveys were completed by 1830 young adults (31.1 ± 1.6 y) participating in Project EAT-IV. Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal analyses were conducted stratified by initial weight status. Two-thirds (66.5%) of nonoverweight women and 48.9% of overweight women reported ever doing yoga, while 27.2% of nonoverweight women and 16.4% of overweight women practiced regularly (≥30 min/wk). Fewer men practiced yoga. Among young adults practicing regularly (n = 294), differences were identified in intensity, type, and location of yoga practice across weight status. Young adults who were overweight and practiced yoga regularly showed a nonsignificant 5-year decrease in their body mass index (-0.60 kg/m 2 ; P = .49), whereas those not practicing regularly had significant increases in their body mass index (+1.37 kg/m 2 ; P yoga was inversely associated with weight gain among both overweight and nonoverweight young adults practicing yoga regularly. Young adults of different body sizes practice yoga. Yoga was associated with less weight gain over time, particularly in overweight young adults. Practicing yoga on a regular basis may help with weight gain prevention.

  6. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  7. From neighborhood design and food options to residents' weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Glanz, Karen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined associations of accessibility, availability, price, and quality of food choices and neighborhood urban design with weight status and utilitarian walking. To account for self-selection bias, data on adult residents of a middle-to-high-income neighborhood were used. Participants kept a 2-day activity/travel diary and self-reported socio-demographics, height, and weight. Geographic Information Systems data were used to objectively quantify walking-related aspects of urban design, and number of and distance to food outlets within respondents' 1km residential buffers. Food outlets were audited for availability, price, and quality of healthful food choices. Number of convenience stores and in-store healthful food choices were positively related to walking for errands which, in turn, was predictive of lower risk of being overweight/obese. Negative associations with overweight/obesity unexplained by walking were found for number of grocery stores and healthful food choices in sit-down restaurants. Aspects of urban form and food environment were associated with walking for eating purposes which, however, was not predictive of overweight/obesity. Access to diverse destinations, food outlets and healthful food choices may promote pedestrian activity and contribute to better weight regulation. Accessibility and availability of healthful food choices may lower the risk of overweight/obesity by providing opportunities for healthier dietary patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bariatric surgery patients’ perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings impair post-surgery dietary adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Raves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients’ experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery.Objectives: (1 Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2 understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3 explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings. Design: This mixed methods study contrasts survey responses from 300 postoperative bariatric patients with ethnographic data based on interviews with 35 patients and extensive multi-year participant-observation within a clinic setting. The survey measured experiences of weight-related stigma, including from healthcare professionals, on the Interpersonal Sources of Weight Stigma scale and internalized stigma based on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale. Dietary adherence measures included patient self-reports, non-disordered eating patterns reported on the Disordered Eating after Bariatric Surgery scale, and food frequencies. Regression was used to assess the relationships among post-surgical stigma, dietary adherence, and weight loss. Qualitative analyses consisted of thematic analysis.Results: The quantitative data show that internalized stigma and general experiences of weight-related stigma predict worse dietary adherence, even after weight is lost. The qualitative data show patients did not generally recognize this connection, and health professionals explained it as poor patient compliance.Conclusion: Reducing perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings and weight bias

  9. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Young adults and eating away from home: associations with dietary intake patterns and weight status differ by choice of restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Background Young adults report frequent away-from-home eating; however, little is known regarding what types of restaurants are patronized or if associations with dietary intake and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Objective This cross-sectional study in a diverse sample of young adults examines sociodemographic differences in the frequency of eating at different types of fast-food and full-service (server brings food to table) restaurants. Additionally, this study examines whether associations between away-from-home eating, dietary intake, and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Design There were 1030 men and 1257 women (mean age=25.3) who participated in Project EAT-III. Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys at schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and completed the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Main outcome measures Height, weight, and usual dietary intake were self-reported. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations between frequency of restaurant use, dietary intake, and weight status. Results More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served burgers and fries was associated with higher risk for overweight/obesity; higher intake of total energy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat; and with lower intake of healthful foods and key nutrients. For example, those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on three or more occasions/week consumed nearly one additional sugar-sweetened beverage per day compared to those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on less than one occasion/week. More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served sandwiches/subs was related to a few markers of poorer diet quality, but unrelated to weight status. More frequent use of full-service restaurants was also unrelated to weight status and to higher intake of

  11. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  12. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  13. Compliance with Dietary Guidelines Varies by Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent compliance with dietary guidelines varies by weight status. The sample of 185,951 Australian adults were majority female (71.8%, with 30.2%, 35.3% and 31.0% aged between 18–30, 31–50 and 51–70 years respectively. Using multinomial regression, in the adjusted model controlling for gender and age, individuals in the lowest quintile of diet quality were almost three times more likely to be obese than those in the highest quintile (OR 2.99, CI: 2.88:3.11; p < 0.001. The differential components of diet quality between normal and obese adults were fruit (difference in compliance score 12.9 points out of a possible 100, CI: 12.3:13.5; p < 0.001, discretionary foods (8.7 points, CI: 8.1:9.2; p < 0.001, and healthy fats (7.7 points, CI: 7.2:8.1; p < 0.001. Discretionary foods was the lowest scoring component across all gender and weight status groups, and are an important intervention target to improve diet quality. This study contributes to the evidence that diet quality is associated with health outcomes, including weight status, and will be useful in framing recommendations for obesity prevention and management.

  14. Weight status, gender, and race/ethnicity: are there differences in meeting recommended health behavior guidelines for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-04-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Experiences and Perceptions of Adults Accessing Publicly Available Nutrition Behavior-Change Mobile Apps for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Arocha, Jose F; Grindrod, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition mobile apps have become accessible and popular weight-management tools available to the general public. To date, much of the research has focused on quantitative outcomes with these tools (eg, weight loss); little is known about user experiences and perceptions of these tools when used outside of a research trial environment. Our aim was to understand the experiences and perceptions of adult volunteers who have used publicly available mobile apps to support nutrition behavior change for weight management. We conducted one-on-one semi-structured interviews with individuals who reported using nutrition mobile apps for weight management outside of a research setting. Twenty-four healthy adults (n=19 females, n=5 males) who had used publicly available nutrition mobile apps for weight management for ≥1 week within the past 3 to 4 months were recruited from the community in southern Ontario and Edmonton, Canada, using different methods (eg, social media, posters, and word of mouth). Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were verified against recordings. Data were coded inductively and organized into categories using NVivo, version 10 (QSR International). Participants used nutrition apps for various amounts of time (mean=approximately 14 months). Varied nutrition apps were used; however, MyFitnessPal was the most common. In the interviews, the following four categories of experiences with nutrition apps became apparent: food data entry (database, data entry methods, portion size, and complex foods); accountability, feedback, and progress (goal setting, accountability, monitoring, and feedback); technical and app-related factors; and personal factors (self-motivation, privacy, knowledge, and obsession). Most participants used apps without professional or dietitian support. This work reveals that numerous factors affect use and ongoing adherence to use of nutrition mobile apps. These data are relevant to professionals looking to

  16. Health and happiness is more important than weight': a qualitative investigation of the views of parents receiving written feedback on their child's weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Falconer, C; Cooke, L; Saxena, S; Kessel, A S; Viner, R; Kinra, S; Wardle, J

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore parental perceptions of overweight children and associated health risks after receiving National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) weight feedback. Fifty-two parents of overweight and obese children aged 4-5 years and 10-11 years enrolled in the NCMP programme in England in 2010-2011 participated in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about their perceptions of their child's weight and health risk after receiving weight feedback. Interviews were audio tape recorded and were conducted either by telephone (n = 9) or in the respondents' homes (n = 41). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative thematic analysis. Parents who received NCMP written feedback informing them that their child was overweight disregarded the results because they viewed 'health and happiness as being more important than weight'. The feedback was viewed as less credible because it did not consider the individual child's lifestyle.'Broad definitions of healthy' were described that did not include weight,such as reference to the child having good emotional and physical health and a healthy diet. Parents attributed weight to 'inherited/acquired factors' such as genetics or puppy fat, or did not regard their child's 'appearance' as reflecting being overweight. 'Cultural influence' also meant that being overweight was not viewed negatively by some non-white parents. After receiving written weight feedback, parents use methods other than actual weight when evaluating their child's weight status and health risks. Parents' conceptions of health and weight should be considered when communicating with parents, with the aim of bridging the gap between parental recognition of being overweight and subsequent behaviour change.

  17. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  18. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  19. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  20. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsergent, Emilie; Benie-Bi, Joseph; Baumann, Cédric; Agrinier, Nelly; Tessier, Sabrina; Thilly, Nathalie; Briançon, Serge

    2012-11-18

    Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l'ALIMentation et de l'Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.

  1. The role of physical activity, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, A; Aşçı, F H; Kin-İşler, A; Güven-Karahan, B; Kelecek, S; Özkan, A; Yılmaz, A; Kara, F M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence represents a transitional period which is marked by physical, social and psychological changes. Changes in body shape and physical activity especially alter and shape the psychological well-being of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of physical activity level, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perception and self-esteem of 11-18 years old adolescents. A total of 1012 adolescents participated in this study. The "Social Physique Anxiety Scale", "Body Image Satisfaction Scale", "Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children" and "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory" were administered. Physical activity level and body mass index were assessed using the "Physical Activity Questionnaire" and "Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer", respectively. Regression analysis indicated that body mass index was the only predictor of perceived body attractiveness, social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction and self-esteem for female adolescents. For male adolescents, both physical activity and body mass index were correlated with perceived body attractiveness and social physique anxiety. Pubertal status were not correlated with self-esteem and body-related perceptions for both males and females adolescents. In summary, body mass index and physical activity plays an important role in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

  2. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvin Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting

  3. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807

  4. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Garver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk, mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC, and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps. Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight.

  5. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  6. Children at Risk: The Association between Perceived Weight Status and Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts in Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Lauren M.; Morrissey, Susan L.; Cummings, Doyle M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and…

  7. The Effect of Socioeconomic Status and Gender on High School Student Perceptions about Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Briael Marie

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) among high school students based on their socioeconomic status and gender, and the interaction between the two. The study used a convenience sample of 207 students from four coastal South Carolina high schools. The data was collected using the Image of…

  8. Bidirectional association between weight status and motor skills in adolescents : A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, Klaus; Drenowatz, Clemens

    2018-05-01

    Despite considerable efforts the prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth remains high. Poor motor skills have been associated with increased body weight but there is still limited information on the longitudinal association of these health parameters. This study examined the prospective association between motor skills and body weight in 10- to 14-year-old youth. Body weight, height and motor skills, assessed via the German motor test 16-18 (Deutscher Motorik Test, DMT6-18), were measured in 213 middle school students (57% male) every year over a 4‑year period. Club sports participation and migration status were assessed via a questionnaire. Besides an inverse cross-sectional association between body weight and motor skills, excess body weight was associated with impaired development of motor skills (p skills at baseline also reduced the odds of becoming overweight/obese during the observation period. These results were independent of club sports participation. There is a bidirectional, synergistic association between body weight and motor skills. Facilitating the development of motor skills in children and adolescents may therefore be a viable intervention strategy targeting weight management and physical activity in youth.

  9. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  10. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  11. Taste perception: Risk factor or protection for dependents during drug use cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in appetite and, consequently, in body weight, evidenced in the majority of addicts under treatment, may be related to taste, since heavy drug use can lead to changes in taste buds. This study aimed to investigate the association between taste perception and nutritional status of drug addicts under treatment. The study was conducted in two therapeutic communities in the municipality of Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, with 39 male addicts over 18 years old. Primary data on weight and height were collected for assessment of nutritional status, and a taste acuity test was applied; also, secondary data were collected on age, length of stay, types of drugs used, and age of drug use onset, from the addicts’ records. It was possible to observe that 56.5% of dependents were at nutritional risk for being overweight. Taste acuity significantly differed for the basic tastes evaluated (p= 0.014, being higher for salty (94.9%, followed by sweet (89.7%, acid (79.5%, and bitter (38, 5% tastes, but it was not associated with the study variables. We conclude that the drug use cessation can have a similar effect to that of caloric deprivation on the taste acuity of dependents, interfering on excessive weight gain. However, it is suggested that the improvement of taste perception be oriented in the therapeutic setting, so that it becomes, in these conditions, a protection factor for dependents, strengthening them to overcome their condition of vulnerability.

  12. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMIweight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trendincidence of T2DM for adults with weight change 12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  13. Young adults and eating away from home: associations with dietary intake patterns and weight status differ by choice of restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2011-11-01

    Young adults report frequent away-from-home eating; however, little is known regarding what types of restaurants are patronized or whether associations with dietary intake and weight status differ according to restaurant type. This cross-sectional study in a diverse sample of young adults examines sociodemographic differences in the frequency of eating at different types of fast-food and full-service (server brings food to table) restaurants. In addition, this study examines whether associations between away-from-home eating, dietary intake, and weight status differ according to restaurant type. There were 1,030 men and 1,257 women (mean age=25.3 years) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys at schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, and completed the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. Height, weight, and usual dietary intake were self-reported. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations between frequency of restaurant use, dietary intake, and weight status. More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served burgers and french fries was associated with higher risk for overweight/obesity; higher intake of total energy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat; and with lower intake of healthful foods and key nutrients. For example, those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on three or more occasions per week consumed nearly one additional sugar-sweetened beverage per day compared to those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on less than one occasion per week. More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served sandwiches/subs was related to a few markers of poorer diet quality, but unrelated to weight status. More frequent use of full-service restaurants was also unrelated to weight status and related to higher intake of vegetables. There

  14. MATERNAL HEIGHT AND PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL GROWTH PATTERNS AND NEWBORN SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzlberger, Eva; Hartmann, Beda; Hafner, Erich; Stümpflein, Ingrid; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. The vast majority of newborns were of normal weight, i.e. between 2500 and 4000 g. Maternal height showed a just-significant but weak positive association (r=0.03: p=0.039) with crown-rump length at the first trimester and with the majority of fetal parameters at the second trimester (r>0.06; p0.09; p0.08; p0.17; p0.13; p0.13; pnewborn size. Some of these associations were quite weak and the statistical significance was mainly due to the large sample size. The association patterns between maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight status with fetal growth patterns (pnewborn size (p<0.001), were independent of maternal age, nicotine consumption and fetal sex. In general, taller and heavier women gave birth to larger infants. This association between maternal size and fetal growth patterns was detectable from the first trimester onwards.

  15. Adolescent weight status and receptivity to food TV advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Sutherland, Lisa A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). New Hampshire and Vermont. Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Overweight. Generalized estimating equations to model the relationship between identifying a food advertisement as their favorite and being overweight. Overall, 35.9% of the adolescents were overweight. Less than one fifth named a food advertisement as their favorite (16.1%). Most of the food advertisements were for less-healthful food (89.6%). After controlling for school, age, sex, sociodemographics, physical activity, number of TV sessions watched, and having a TV in the bedroom, overweight adolescents were significantly less likely to be receptive to food advertisements (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70, 0.98) compared to non-overweight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence that normal-weight adolescents are receptive to unhealthful food advertisements. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether consistent exposure to advertisements for unhealthful food, particularly if they are promoted with healthful behaviors such as being physically active, influence adolescents' food choices, and ultimately their body mass index, over the long term. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Judging a book by its cover: gay men's use of perceptible characteristics to infer antibody status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R S; Skinner, M J

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated gay men's use of perceptible characteristics to infer antibody status. Participants (n = 66) read brief descriptions of men they did not know and estimated the likelihood that they were HIV-infected. Each description highlighted one of 6 characteristics: physical attractiveness, intelligence/education level, healthy appearance and lifestyle, personality, a combination of the preceding, and wealth. Three versions of each sketch were used; they depicted the man in positive, neutral, and negative terms respectively. There were significant differences in the ratings for the 3 versions in the case of every characteristic except wealth. In general, the negative version elicited higher ratings (corresponding to a greater likelihood that the man was HIV-positive) than either the positive or neutral versions; in the case of physical attractiveness, the positive version elicited higher ratings than the neutral version. Results are discussed in relation to earlier findings regarding gay men's inferences during sexual encounters, of antibody status from perceptible characteristic; to possible differences between AIDS-related thinking during sexual encounters and in the cold light of day; and to educational techniques that might be used to counter inferences of this type.

  17. Improved nutritional status and bone health after diet-induced weight loss in sedentary osteoarthritis patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P; Bartels, E M; Riecke, B F; Bliddal, H; Leeds, A R; Astrup, A; Winther, K; Christensen, R

    2012-04-01

    Obese subjects are commonly deficient in several micronutrients. Weight loss, although beneficial, may also lead to adverse changes in micronutrient status and body composition. The objective of the study is to assess changes in micronutrient status and body composition in obese individuals after a dietary weight loss program. As part of a dietary weight loss trial, enrolling 192 obese patients (body mass index >30 kg/m2) with knee osteoarthritis (>50 years of age), vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12 and body composition were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. All followed an 8-week formula weight-loss diet 415-810 kcal per day, followed by 8 weeks on a hypo-energetic 1200 kcal per day diet with a combination of normal food and formula products. Statistical analyses were based on paired samples in the completer population. A total of 175 patients (142 women), 91%, completed the 16-week program and had a body weight loss of 14.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 13.3-14.7; Pdiet resulted in increased BMD and improved vitamin D and B12 levels. Ferritin and BMC were unchanged and loss of LBM was only 13% of the total weight loss. This observational evidence supports use of formula diet-induced weight loss therapy in obese osteoarthritis patients.

  18. Is channel segmentation necessary to reach a multiethnic population with weight-related health promotion? An analysis of use and perception of communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marieke A; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W; Verhoeff, Arnoud; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. The participants mentioned four channels - regular and traditional health care, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional health care, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels - mainly limited to health care - and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience-oriented channels (e.g., regular health care). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience-oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional health care or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a multiethnic target group with weight

  19. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  20. The impact of HPV status on weight loss and feeding tube use in oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelov, Belinda; Kotevski, Damian P; Williams, Janet R; Smee, Robert I

    2018-04-01

    It has been well established that patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma are at high nutritional risk, with significant weight loss and tube feeding common. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease has led to a change in the "typical" presentation and nutritional profile of this population. The aim of our study was to determine whether the need for a feeding tube, and weight loss during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma differed with HPV status. Patients who received curative RT ± chemotherapy from January 2011 to January 2016 were included (n = 100). We retrospectively evaluated feeding tube use and timing of insertion (prophylactic vs reactive), percentage weight loss during RT and the prevalence of critical weight loss (CWL) ≥5%. HPV-positive patients had significantly higher weight loss during RT compared to the rest of the cohort (8.4% vs 6.1%, 95%CI 0.8-3.9, p = 0.003). CWL was observed in 86% and in a higher proportion with HPV-positive disease (93%, p = 0.011). Conditional probability modelling analysis revealed, with 74% accuracy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy and HPV-positive status were predictors of CWL when comparing HPV-positive patients to HPV-negative (96%, p = 0.001 and 98%, p = 0.012 respectively). More HPV-positive patients required feeding tubes (n = 43, 63%, p = 0.05), most being reactive (n = 27, 63%). All patients with reactive tubes experienced CWL. The high incidence of CWL in patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma is of concern. Tube feeding continues to be a necessary nutritional intervention in this population and predicting who will require a tube is challenging. Larger, prospective cohort studies are required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of weight regain after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Emanuelle Cristina Lins; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley Gusmão; Soriano, Graziele Moreira Silva; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery leads to an average loss of 60-75% of excess body weight with maximum weight loss in the period between 18 and 24 months postoperatively. However, several studies show that weight is regained from two years of operation. To identify the determinants of weight regain in post-bariatric surgery users. Prospective cross-sectional study with 64 patients who underwent bariatric surgery with postoperative time > 2 years valued at significant weight regain. The variables analyzed were age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, work activity related to food, time after surgery, BMI, percentage of excess weight loss, weight gain, attendance monitoring nutrition, lifestyle, eating habits, self-perception of appetite, daily use of nutritional supplements and quality of life. There were 57 (89%) women and 7 (11%) men, aged 41.76 ± 7.93 years and mean postoperative period of 53.4 ± 18.4 months. The average weight and BMI were respectively 127.48 ± 24.2 kg and 49.56 ± 6.7 kg/m2 at surgery. The minimum weight and BMI were achieved 73.0 ± 18.6 kg and 28.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2, reached in 23.7 ± 12 months postoperatively. Regained significant weight occurred in 18 (28.1%) cases. The mean postoperative period of 66 ± 8.3 months and work activities related to food showed statistical significance (p=000 and p=0.003) for the regained weight. Bariatric surgery promotes adequate reduction of excess body weight, with significant weight regain observed after five years; post-operative time and work activity related to eating out as determining factors for the occurrence of weight regain.

  2. Change in weight status and academic performance among senior high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how the changes in weight status across the spectrum of a senior high school study are associated with academic performance measured by the university entrance exam scores. A unique dataset which compiles a national health examination profile and the General Scholastic Ability Test data bank in Taiwan was constructed. The final sample comprised 149,240 senior high school students of which 70,662 were males and 78,578 were female students. The school-level fixed effect models were estimated. Students who were either (a) not overweight in the first year but overweight in the third year of senior high school, (b) overweight in both the first and third year, or (c) overweight in the first year but not overweight in the third year, were more likely to score lower on the university entrance exam, compared with their never-overweight counterparts. The findings differ by gender and test subjects. The change in weight status during senior high school period is associated with subsequent university entrance exam outcome. Students who start senior high school being overweight should be paid attention. School-based programs and practices need to be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight among students.

  3. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  4. Puberty and Physical Self-Perceptions of Competitive Female Figure Skaters II: Maturational Timing, Skating Context, and Ability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Eva V.

    2008-01-01

    One study of figure skaters found that menarcheal status was a stronger predictor than age in explaining the variance in their self-perceptions. Postmenarcheal skaters had significantly lower self-esteem and physical self-concept and were less satisfied with their appearance than premenarcheal skaters. Surprisingly, skating context (i.e., skating…

  5. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  6. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  7. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yee Tak Derek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.

  8. Smoking status and sex as indicators of differences in 2582 obese patients presenting for weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abunassar MJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abunassar1, George A Wells2, Robert R Dent31Faculty of Medicine, 2Heart Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3The Ottawa Hospital Weight Management Clinic, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death. Very little tobacco exposure can increase cardiovascular disease risk. The relationship between smoking, sex, and weight remains unclear.Methods: Between September 1992 and June 2007, 2582 consenting patients starting the Ottawa Hospital Weight Management program were grouped by sex and smoking status. “Former smokers” (771 females, 312 males had quit for at least 1 year. “Smokers” (135 females, 54 males smoked >9 cigarettes daily. There were 979 females and 331 males who never smoked. Using SAS 9.2 statistical software, the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, major depressive disorder (MDD, and medication use among the groups was compared (Chi-square [χ2]. Anthropometric measurements, lipid, glucose and thyroid levels were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Interactions were assessed using 2-way ANOVA analysis for continuous data, and logistic regression for discrete data.Results: Smokers were more likely to have MDD (χ2, lower high-density lipoprotein levels and higher triglyceride levels than other groups. Former smokers had a greater prevalence of CAD, T2DM on pharmacotherapy, and impaired fasting glucose than other groups. They were also more likely to be taking lipid-lowering agents and antihypertensives (χ2. Never smokers had less MDD, CAD, and were less likely to be on antidepressants than the other groups. Males were more likely to have CAD and T2DM than females. Females were more likely to have MDD than males. Interactions between smoking status and sex were found for age, weight, fasting glucose and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.Conclusion: Obese never smokers suffer from the fewest chronic diseases

  9. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Health-related physical fitness and weight status in 13- to 15-year-old Latino adolescents. A pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Olloquequi, Jordi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-05-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between health-related physical fitness and weight status in 13- to 15-year-old Latino adolescents. The final sample consisted of 73,561 adolescents aged 13-15 years (35,175 girls) from Chile (n=48,771) and Colombia (n=24,790). Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness were measured using 20-m shuttle run (relative peak oxygen uptake - VO 2peak ) and standing broad jump test (lower body explosive strength), respectively. The International Obesity Task Force definition was used to define weight status (i.e., underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese). The present study found an inverted J-shape relationship between body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and musculoskeletal fitness in both genders and all age groups (pfitness (based on new international criterion-referenced standards) profile when compared with their normal weight peers, except in girls aged 14 (p=0.268) and 15 years (p=0.280). The present results indicate low cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness levels in underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents when compared with their normal weight peers. The findings appear to suggest that exercise programs should to decrease fat mass in overweight/obese adolescents and increase muscle mass in underweight adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsergent Emilie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%, and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042. All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=β=+6.17, p=0.0010, and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (β=−3.89 and β=−5.90, respectively, p Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.

  13. [Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², ppregnancy (27.7 kg/m², ppregnancy (25.3%, ppregnancy (34.3 kg/m², ppregnancy (53.8%, ppregnancy (OR=0.9; CI95% 0.8-0.9, ppregnancy (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.1-11.7, p=0.04). The maternal nutritional status at the end of pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is independently associated with fetal growth, the body mass index during late pregnancy is a protective factor against small for gestational age neonates, and maternal obesity is a risk factor for large for gestational age neonates.

  14. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manios, Y.; Moschonis, G.; Karatzi, K.; Androutsos, O.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Moreno, L.A.; Bere, E.; Molnar, D.; Jan, N.; Dossegger, A.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Design Children's weight and height were

  15. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (8%, NN (+2%, and OO (0.1% (. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  16. State-Level School Competitive Food and Beverage Laws Are Associated with Children's Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…

  17. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  18. Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-06-14

    Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity

  19. Body weight has no impact on self-esteem of minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, William W; Mikhail, Carmen; Ortiz, Christina L; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Konzelmann, Karen L; Smith, E O’Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between body weight and self-esteem among underserved minority children is not well documented. Methods We measured the self-esteem profile using the Self-Perception Profile for Children among 910 minority children at 17 Houston community centers. Results Weight status had no effect on any of the self-esteem scores among the minority children (P ≥ 0.21). Black children had higher scholastic competence than Hispanic children (P = 0.05). Social acceptance was not aff...

  20. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  1. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors in overweight and obese university students from 21 low, middle and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of overweight status is an important factor of weight control and may have more impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 21 low, middle and emerging economy countries. In a cross-sectional survey the total sample included 15,068 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 21 countries. Anthropometric measurements and self-administrated questionnaire were applied to collected data. The prevalence of weight underestimation (being normal or underweight) for overweight or obese university students was 33.3% (41% in men and 25.1% in women), among overweight students, 39% felt they had normal weight or were under weight, and among obese students 67% did not rate themselves as obese or very overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being male, poor subjective health status, lack of overweight health risk awareness, lack of importance to lose weight, not trying and not dieting to lose weight, and regular breakfast was associated with underestimation of weight in overweight and obese university students. The study found a high prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity among university students. Several factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes including diet and weight management behaviours to focus on inaccurate weight perceptions on the design of weight control, in particular for men. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Percepção materna e autopercepção do estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes de escolas privadas Maternal perceptions and self-perception of the nutritional status of children and adolescents from private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Boa-Sorte

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar a percepção materna e a autopercepção da criança/adolescente do seu estado nutricional, identificando fatores associados a erro na percepção. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em Salvador (BA com 1.741 estudantes entre 6 e 19 anos, classificados de acordo com os percentis do índice de massa corporal (IMC em baixo peso (IMC p95. Perguntas acerca da percepção do peso, padrão de atividade física e realização de dieta foram respondidas por alunos e genitoras. Foram avaliados, através de análise multivariada, fatores associados a erro na autopercepção e percepção materna. RESULTADOS: Houve acerto de 64,7% para a autopercepção e de 75,3% para a percepção das genitoras. O principal fator associado a erro na autopercepção foi a faixa etária entre 6 e 9 anos (OR = 1,59; IC95% 1,15-2,20. Entre as meninas, ter excesso de peso e fazer atividade física foram as características associadas à melhor percepção. Para os meninos, a presença de excesso de peso resultou em maior risco de erro na autopercepção. Entre as genitoras, filho com excesso de peso (OR = 3,02; IC95% 2,05-4,46 e faixa etária de 6 a 9 anos (OR = 1,88; IC95% 1,28-2,76 foram os fatores associados a erro na percepção. CONCLUSÃO: A falta de percepção adequada do peso ocorreu com muita freqüência entre as crianças e suas genitoras, em especial quando havia excesso de peso, fatores que podem representar obstáculos ao correto reconhecimento de alterações nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare maternal perception and the self-perception of children/adolescents of their nutritional status, identifying factors associated with incorrect perceptions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in Salvador, BA, Brazil with 1,741 students aged 6 to 19 years, classified according to body mass index (BMI percentiles as underweight (BMI p95. Students and their mothers answered questions on perception of weight, patterns

  3. Weight Loss on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carb Diets by Insulin Resistance Status Among Overweight Adults & Adults with Obesity: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D.; Offringa, Lisa; Hartle, Jennifer; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test for differential weight loss response to Low-Fat (LF) vs. Low-Carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. METHODS Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m2, were randomized in a 2X2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. RESULTS Baseline % carb:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6m the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; no significant diet X IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet X IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. PMID:26638192

  4. Parents, television and children’s weight status: on lasting effects of parental television socialization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's

  5. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.

  6. Double dose: the cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's activity patterns and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children's health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n = 339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children's TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in pre- school had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts (8.3 (0.3) min/hr vs. 7.6 (0.2) min/hr, p TV groups at home or in preschool when examined individually. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler's PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers' cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed.

  7. The role of weight teasing and weight bias internalization in psychological functioning: a prospective study among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Weight-related teasing is a widespread phenomenon in childhood, and might foster the internalization of weight bias. The goal of this study was to examine the role of weight teasing and weight bias internalization as mediators between weight status and negative psychological sequelae, such as restrained eating and emotional and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 546 female (52%) and 501 (48%) male children aged 7-11 and their parents, who completed surveys assessing weight teasing, weight bias internalization, restrained eating behaviors, and emotional and conduct problems at two points of measurement, approximately 2 years apart. To examine the hypothesized mediation, a prospective design using structural equation modeling was applied. As expected, the experience of weight teasing and the internalization of weight bias were mediators in the relationship between weight status and psychosocial problems. This pattern was observed independently of gender or weight status. Our findings suggest that the experience of weight teasing and internalization of weight bias is more important than weight status in explaining psychological functioning among children and indicate a need for appropriate prevention and intervention approaches.

  8. Double Dose: The cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children’s activity patterns and weight status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharon Taverno; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children’s health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children’s physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n=339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children’s TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in preschool had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler’s PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers’ cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed. PMID:23502043

  9. Correlation of human papillomavirus status with apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion-weighted MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Juliette P; van Bemmel, Alexander J M; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Janssen, Luuk M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Pameijer, Frank A; Willems, Stefan M; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2016-04-01

    Identification of prognostic patient characteristics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is of great importance. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive HNSCCs have favorable response to (chemo)radiotherapy. Apparent diffusion coefficient, derived from diffusion-weighted MRI, has also shown to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HPV status and apparent diffusion coefficient. Seventy-three patients with histologically proven HNSCC were retrospectively analyzed. Mean pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated by delineation of total tumor volume on diffusion-weighted MRI. HPV status was analyzed and correlated to apparent diffusion coefficient. Six HNSCCs were HPV-positive. HPV-positive HNSCC showed significantly lower apparent diffusion coefficient compared to HPV-negative. This correlation was independent of other patient characteristics. In HNSCC, positive HPV status correlates with low mean apparent diffusion coefficient. The favorable prognostic value of low pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient might be partially attributed to patients with a positive HPV status. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E613-E618, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Communicating Conservation Status: How Different Statistical Assessment Criteria Affect Perceptions of Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hwanseok; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2017-09-01

    Although alternative forms of statistical and verbal information are routinely used to convey species' extinction risk to policymakers and the public, little is known about their effects on audience information processing and risk perceptions. To address this gap in literature, we report on an experiment that was designed to explore how perceptions of extinction risk differ as a function of five different assessment benchmarks (Criteria A-E) used by scientists to classify species within IUCN Red List risk levels (e.g., Critically Endangered, Vulnerable), as well as the role of key individual differences in these effects (e.g., rational and experiential thinking styles, environmental concern). Despite their normative equivalence within the IUCN classification system, results revealed divergent effects of specific assessment criteria: on average, describing extinction risk in terms of proportional population decline over time (Criterion A) and number of remaining individuals (Criterion D) evoked the highest level of perceived risk, whereas the single-event probability of a species becoming extinct (Criterion E) engendered the least perceived risk. Furthermore, participants scoring high in rationality (analytic thinking) were less prone to exhibit these biases compared to those low in rationality. Our findings suggest that despite their equivalence in the eyes of scientific experts, IUCN criteria are indeed capable of engendering different levels of risk perception among lay audiences, effects that carry direct and important implications for those tasked with communicating about conservation status to diverse publics. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  12. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings.

  13. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy

    2009-02-13

    This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  14. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  15. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  16. Outcomes and weight-bearing status during rehabilitation after arthroplasty for hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebens, Hilary C; Sharkey, Phoebe; Aronow, Harriet U; Horn, Susan D; Munin, Michael C; DeJong, Gerben; Smout, Randall J; Radnay, Craig S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association of weight-bearing status with patient-related variables and outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation after hip arthroplasty for acute hip fracture. A multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Eighteen skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Patients with hip fractures (N = 224) treated with hip arthroplasty and admitted to either skilled nursing or inpatient rehabilitation facilities; a subset (N = 84) with telephone follow-up outcomes 8 months after rehabilitation discharge. Measurements included demographic variables, medical severity using the Comprehensive Severity Index, and functional levels using the Functional Independence Measure. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASUREMENT: Cognitive, motor, and total Functional Independence Measure scores at rehabilitation discharge and at 8-month follow-up; living location at discharge and follow-up. Patients on average (standard deviation) were 76.8 ± 11.4 years old, mainly women (78%), and mainly white (87%). In unadjusted analysis, weight bearing as tolerated (WBAT) was associated with less osteoarthritis (P = .025) and lower admission medical severity (ACSI) (P = .014). One participating facility had a significant preponderance of restricted weight-bearing cases. WBAT had no bivariate association with cognitive or motor function at discharge. Therapists cited restricted weight bearing as a barrier to therapy in 11% of cases. In logistic regressions, lower medical admission severity, older age, and one specified site significantly predicted WBAT (c statistic = 0.714). Significant predictors for home discharge included lower maximum severity (P < .001), younger age (P < .001), higher cognition (P = .037), and WBAT (P = .051) (c statistic = 0.863). WBAT is associated with a greater likelihood of home discharge and had similar functional outcomes compared with restricted weight bearing. These findings add support for allowing WBAT after arthroplasty for hip fracture. Copyright © 2012

  17. Generational shift in parental perceptions of overweight among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew R; Duncan, Dustin T; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Parental perceptions of child's weight status may influence family readiness to foster healthy behaviors. This study investigated the generational shifting of parental perceptions about children's weight. Data were collected in the NHANES 1988-1994 (n = 2871) and 2005-2010 (n = 3202). Parents, mainly mothers, were asked whether they considered their child, ages 6 to 11 years, to be overweight, underweight, or just about the right weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth chart was used for reference. We ran Poisson regression to estimate the probability ratio between the 2 surveys for parents perceiving their child as overweight after controlling for actual weight. The 10th percentile of BMI z scores for children who were parentally perceived as overweight shifted with statistical significance from 84th percentile of reference population in the early survey to 91st percentile of reference population in the recent survey (P children parentally perceived as overweight also increased between surveys with the largest increase among children from poor families (from 1.60 [SE: 0.20] to 1.98 [0.08], P overweight/obese children being correctly perceived as overweight by the parents declined by 24% between surveys (probability ratio = 0.76 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.87]). Overweight/obese children were less likely to be perceived as overweight in the recent survey compared with peers of similar weight but surveyed 10+ years earlier. The declining tendency among parents to perceive overweight children appropriately may indicate a generational shift in social norms related to body weight. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Associations between the perceived presence of vending machines and food and beverage logos in schools and adolescents' diet and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Storey, Kate E; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C; Forbes, Laura E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; McCargar, Linda J

    2011-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity among youth has elicited calls for schools to become more active in promoting healthy weight. The present study examined associations between various aspects of school food environments (specifically the availability of snack- and beverage-vending machines and the presence of snack and beverage logos) and students' weight status, as well as potential influences of indices of diet and food behaviours. A cross-sectional, self-administered web-based survey. A series of multinomial logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were constructed to examine associations between school environment variables (i.e. the reported presence of beverage- and snack-vending machines and logos) and self-reported weight- and diet-related behaviours. Secondary schools in Alberta, Canada. A total of 4936 students from grades 7 to 10. The presence of beverage-vending machines in schools was associated with the weight status of students. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with students' frequency of consuming vended goods. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with the frequency of salty snack consumption. The reported presence of snack- and beverage-vending machines and logos in schools is related to some indices of weight status, diet and meal behaviours but not to others. The present study supported the general hypothesis that the presence of vending machines in schools may affect students' weight through increased consumption of vended goods, but notes that the frequency of 'junk' food consumption does not seem to be related to the presence of vending machines, perhaps reflecting the ubiquity of these foods in the daily lives of students.

  19. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  20. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  1. Is appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology related to changes in illness perceptions and health status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its effects on illness perceptions and perceived health status. Methods: A booklet explaining pain neurophysiology was sent to participants with FM. Appreciation was

  2. Is appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology related to changes in illness perceptions and health status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam; van Wilgen, C P; Groothoff, J W; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its effects on illness perceptions and perceived health status. METHODS: A booklet explaining pain neurophysiology was sent to participants with FM. Appreciation was

  3. Is appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology related to changes in illness perceptions and health status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its effects on illness perceptions and perceived health status. A booklet explaining pain neurophysiology was sent to participants with FM. Appreciation was assessed with 10

  4. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P; Hamilton, H A

    2016-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11-19-year-old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d -1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34-3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 . Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62-3.90). Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women.

  6. A Cross-sectional Study of the Pattern of Body Image Perception among Female Students of BBM College in Vijayapur, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B M; Patil, Shailaja S; Angadi, Mahabaleshwar Mahantappa; Pattankar, Tanuja P

    2016-07-01

    Body image is an essential aspect of young girls' self-definition and individual identity which is influenced by various biological, psychological and social factors. Excessive concern about body image, body image misconception are leading to dissatisfaction, disturbed eating patterns, affecting the nutritional status and also leading to depression and anxiety disorders. This concept of body image has been less explored in Indian context, especially among young girls. The objectives of the study were to assess the body image perception among young college going girls, using a visual analog scale and to compare body image perception and satisfaction with their BMI levels and weight changing methods adopted. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 female students studying BBM course at a private commerce institution in Vijayapur city. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing details of basic socio-demographic information and a validated visual analogue scale. Height was measured by Seca Stadiometer, weight was measured using Digital weighing machine and Body Mass Index levels were calculated. Percentages were calculated for descriptive variables. Chi-square test was applied for analysing categorical variables. Spearman Rank correlation test was applied for analysing ordinal data. A 39.7% of participants were underweight and 15.9% were overweight/obese. Majority of underweight and overweight girls (72% and 89%, respectively) perceived themselves as normal weight. Body image satisfaction of participants was found to be significantly associated with their body image perception, mothers' educational status and also with relatives' and peer group's opinions about their body weight. Unhealthy weight changing patterns like skipping meals (13%), increasing quantity and frequency of meals (17%) were reported among study participants. This exploratory study highlights the gap between young girls' body image perception and their

  7. The association between chronic bullying victimization with weight status and body self-image: a cross-national study in 39 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qiguo; Su, Qiru; Li, Ruili; Elgar, Frank J; Liu, Zhihao; Zheng, Dongpeng

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity and school bullying are pervasive public health issues and known to co-occur in adolescents. However, the association between underweight or thinness and chronic bullying victimization is unclear. The current study examined whether chronic bullying victimization is associated with weight status and body self-image. A school-based, cross-sectional study in 39 North American and European countries and regions was conducted. A total of 213,595 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were surveyed in 2009/10. Chronic bullying victimization was identified using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Weight status was determined using self-reported height and weight and the body mass index (BMI), and body self-image was based on perceived weight. We tested associations between underweight and bullying victimization using three-level logistic regression models. Of the 213,595 adolescents investigated, 11.28% adolescents reported chronic bullying victimization, 14.80% were classified as overweight/obese according to age- and sex-specific BMI criteria, 12.97% were underweight, and 28.36% considered themselves a little bit fat or too fat, 14.57% were too thin. Bullying victimization was less common in older adolescent boys and girls. Weight status was associated with chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR underweight = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.16, p = 0.002; adjusted OR overweight = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.32-1.49, p self-image also related to chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR too thin = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.49, p self-rated overweight are associated with chronic bullying victimization. Both overweight and underweight children are at risk of being chronically bullied.

  8. A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on the island of Utila, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angela R; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D

    2017-09-10

    Numerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol. Participants were residents (age 18-79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD. Assessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD. For adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Life style and risk of atypical eating disorders in university students: Reality versus perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelao-Naval, Olga; Blanco-Fernández, Ascensión; Meseguer-Barros, Carmen Marina; Thuissard-Vasallo, Israel J; Cerdá, Begoña; Larrosa, Mar

    2018-05-18

    The objectives of this paper were to determine weight status, eating, and alcohol drinking and smoking habits of university students, to determine the association between these variables with negative self-perception of their eating habits and to assess the risk of developing eating disorders. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 422 university students. The parameters analyzed were: nutritional status, eating habits, alcohol/ tobacco consumption, and risk of eating disorder. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with a negative perception of eating habits. Out of the whole population