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Sample records for states great britain

  1. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  2. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  3. Great Britain Against Libya’s state Terrorism in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jureńczyk

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present and assess Britain’s attitude towards Libya’s state terrorism in the 1980s. It presents the circumstances of involvement of Libyan authorities in the acts of terror, as well as the reasons for directing such activity against the United Kingdom. The paper discusses the response of the British authorities to the Libyan-backed terrorist activity and the results of investigations into attacks perpetrated by Libyans against British citizens. The main thesis of the paper is the statement that the politics of Great Britain in reaction for support offered by Muammar Gaddafi’s regime to the international terrorist network was formulated in line with the main directions of US policy towards Libya.

  4. This is GREAT Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the state of the nuclear industry in the UK. It outlines business opportunities for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, manufacturing and services for nuclear new build and future nuclear reactor and fuel cycle development.

  5. The ins and outs of poverty in advanced economies: poverty dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics—incidence, transitions, and persistence—can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high i...

  6. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  7. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  8. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  9. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  10. The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian oil, 1950-1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the controversy surrounding the nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). It traces the events leading to Iran's nationalization of the company in 1951 and details efforts to negotiate a settlement that would reconcile Iranian grievances against the AIOC with British claims for compensation. Because the British and the Iranians sought, and ultimately received, American assistance in resolving their dispute, this study places the nationalization crisis in a tripartite framework. It reveals the global as well as the regional nature of a struggle that historians have slighted, and follows this struggle to the autumn of 1954, when the American government helped to organize an international consortium to replace the AIOC. This study covers the nationalization imbroglio from a variety of angles. It draws on archives in Great Britain and the US in order to integrate British and American policy into a coherent analysis. It uses similar sources, as well as the literature on Iran, to trace the Iranian side of the story, link the nationalization crisis to earlier and subsequent events, and place it within a global context

  11. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  12. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrill, A.D.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Howson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  13. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chychuk Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers’ qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual foundations of pedagogy that ensures the functionality of the mentioned system. The research results on conceptual foundations for forming an education sy...

  14. The power mix in Great-Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebuchet, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a new reform of the electric power sector in Great Britain: RIIO (Revenue = Incentives + Innovations + Outputs). The author discusses aspects related to market organisation and aspects related to the grid. First, she gives an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Great-Britain by describing its evolution from the start of the liberalisation policy until our days, and by presenting the regulation of the electric power transport network. In a second part, she analyses which changes will be introduced by RIIO. She comments the general principles of this reform and discusses its implications for the sector. Appendices describe the LCN Fund (Low carbon network Fund) mechanism which is a specific bidding and selection process, and briefly indicate the projects selected by this fund in 2010 and 2011

  15. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  16. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  17. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  18. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  19. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  20. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  1. DUALISM OF GEOSTRATEGIC PROSPECTS OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE MODERN SYSTEM OF GLOBAL UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Yeletsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of a modern position of Great Britain in the global economy are analysed. Its role as one of the local centres of influence in the European Union is emphasized. «Special relationship» between England and the United States in the context of formation of a new «Anglo-Saxon empire» is examined. Particular attention is paid to the key role of Great Britain in the alliance of English-speaking powers.

  2. Exposure to grain dust in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankie, Sally; Cherrie, John W

    2012-01-01

    Airborne grain dust is a complex mixture of fragments of organic material from grain, plus mineral matter from soil, and possible insect, fungal, or bacterial contamination or their toxic products, such as endotoxin. In the 1990s, grain workers in Britain were frequently exposed to inhalable dust >10 mg.m(-3) (8 h), with particularly high exposures being found at terminals where grain was imported or exported and in drying operations (personal exposure typically approximately 20 mg.m(-3)). Since then, the industry has made substantial progress in improving the control of airborne dust through better-designed processes, increased automation, and an improved focus on product quality. We have used information from the published scientific literature and a small survey of industry representatives to estimate current exposure levels. These data suggest that current long-term exposure to inhalable dust for most workers is on average less than approximately 3 mg.m(-3), with perhaps 15-20% of individual personal exposures being >10 mg.m(-3). There are no published data from Britain on short-term exposure during cleaning and other tasks. We have estimated average levels for a range of tasks and judge that the highest levels, for example during some cleaning activities and certain process tasks such as loading and packing, are probably approximately10 mg.m(-3). Endotoxin levels were judged likely to be dust levels are <10 mg.m(-3). There are no published exposure data on mycotoxin, respirable crystalline silica, and mite contamination but these are not considered to present widespread problems in the British industry. Further research should be carried out to confirm these findings.

  3. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Indeed, professional writings in the United States have noted this parallel between doctrine and religion .29 As in other navies, doctrine was not the...Spanish Navy) , "La clctica," in Espana y el Mar en el siglo de Carlos llI, 1 989, p. 77. 13 . John D. Harnron, Tr.yalgar and the Spanish Navy (Annapolis...organization. Doctrine, therefore, can be either fmnly prescriptive, as in religion or in a political ideology, or basically descriptive. As a complex of

  4. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Great Britain, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The British consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their ce...

  5. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the

  6. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Dodd, N.J.; Shuttler, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137 Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels. 7 refs.; 8 tabs

  7. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range

  8. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  9. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  10. 19 CFR 10.69 - Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the United States and one for the use of the foreign customs authorities. The latter copy must have... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement. 10.69 Section 10.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Determinants of residential space heating expenditures in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena [Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Von Melle Park 5, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Rehdanz, Katrin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In Great Britain, several policy measures have been implemented in order to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. In the domestic sector, this could, for example, be achieved by improving space heating efficiency and thus decreasing heating expenditure. However, in order to efficiently design and implement such policy measures, a better understanding of the determinants affecting heating expenditure is needed. In this paper we examine the following determinants: socio-economic factors, building characteristics, heating technologies and weather conditions. In contrast to most other studies we use panel data to investigate household demand for heating in Great Britain. Our data sample is the result of an annual set of interviews with more than 5000 households, starting in 1991 and ending in 2005. The sample represents a total of 64,000 observations over the fifteen-year period. Our aim is to derive price and income elasticities both for Britain as a whole and for different types of household. Our results suggest that differences exist between owner-occupied and renter households. These households react differently to changes in income and prices. Our results also imply that a number of socio-economic criteria have a significant influence on heating expenditure, independently of the fuel used for heating. Understanding the impacts of different factors on heating expenditure and impact differences between types of household is helpful in designing target-oriented policy measures. (author)

  12. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  13. Annual survey of radioactive discharges in Great Britain 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Details are given of main discharges to the environment of radioactive waste in 1978 together with those in 1977 and 1976 for comparison with comment on the environmental effect of the discharges in 1977. The statutory control over the discharges of radioactive wastes in Great Britain is outlined in the Introduction. Details of the discharges are set out in tabular form, grouped under: UKAEA establishments; the Radiochemical Centre Limited; British Nuclear Fuels Limited; CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations; Ministry of Defence. Part 7 deals with radioactivity in drinking waters and rivers. (U.K.)

  14. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  15. Great Britain 1994: Starting a new era for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of the British program of privatization of the state-owned electricity generating industry the nuclear power plants in England and Wales were incorporated into the newly founded (and state-owned) NE in 1989. In addition, the government decided in favor of a moratorium in the construction of more nuclear power plants. Only Sizewell B, Britain's first pressurized water reactor (PWR), was to be completed. At that point in time, three other PWRs were in the planning stage. The government decision included a review of the future of nuclear technology to be held in 1994. At the beginning of 1994, the nuclear future of Britain appears in a much more positive light than had been thought possible in 1989. When founding NE, the British government endowed it with a startup capital and also instituted a tax levied on fossil energy sources, the revenue from which is being made available to NE in compensation for the old liabilities NE had to assume. (orig./UA) [de

  16. An Overview of the Smart Grid in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB. The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry's progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovation Competition projects, together with the rollout of smart metering, are detailed. A more observable, controllable, automated, and integrated electricity network will be supported by these investments in conjunction with smart meter installation. It is found that the focus has mainly been on distribution networks as well as on real-time flows of information and interaction between suppliers and consumers facilitated by improved information and communications technology, active power flow management, demand management, and energy storage. The learning from the GB smart grid initiatives will provide valuable guidelines for future smart grid development in GB and other countries.

  17. Changes in the structure and relations of property in the Great Britain nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of nuclear power development in the Great Britain is given. Currently it is reoriented to a wide application of PWR reactors instead of gas cooled ones, their economic indices being incapable of providing sufficient competitiveness on the British market. Reasons and state of affairs in denationalizing nuclear power, economic and financial difficulties connected with the realization of this politico-economic procedure are reported

  18. Publication productivity of neurosurgeons in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Fiona A; Akram, Harith; Hyam, Jonathan A; Kitchen, Neil D; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-04-01

    Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual departments were contacted for an up-to-date list of consultant (attending) neurosurgeons practicing in these departments. Scopus was used to determine the h-index and m-quotient for each neurosurgeon. Indices were measured by surgeon and by departmental mean and total. Additional information was collected about the surgeon's sex, title, listed superspecialties, higher research degrees, and year of medical qualification. Data were analyzed for 315 neurosurgeons (25 female). The median h-index and m-quotient were 6.00 and 0.41, respectively. These were significantly higher for professors (h-index 21.50; m-quotient 0.71) and for those with an additional MD or PhD (11.0; 0.57). There was no significant difference in h-index, m-quotient, or higher research degrees between the sexes. However, none of the 16 British neurosurgery professors were female. Neurosurgeons who specialized in functional/epilepsy surgery ranked highest in terms of publication productivity. The 5 top-scoring departments were those in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; St. George's Hospital, London; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London; and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. The h-index is a useful bibliometric marker, particularly when comparing between studies and individuals. The m-quotient reduces bias toward established researchers. British academic neurosurgeons face considerable challenges, and women remain underrepresented in both clinical and academic neurosurgery in Britain and Ireland.

  19. Concepts on border control of the immigration movements supporters in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya D. Lada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current activization of immigration movements towards Europe the problem of border control and possibility of free migration has become especially topical and critical in political and social discussion in the countries of the European Union and Great Britain in particular. The arguments of free border supporters in modern Great Britain are reviewed in terms of the research of works by Teresa Hayter. Teresa Hayter – scientist, publicist, active participant of the antiracist movement and one of the most radical supporters of «free migration» in Great Britain Her views were fully presented in the monograph «Open borders: case against immigration controls» (first edition 2000, second – 2004, third – 2015. The key arguments of the supporters of active migration movements include the very idea of such movements being objectively and historically predetermined, while their control or preventing is a form of discrimination. Teresa Hayter debunks a range of myths and stereotypes concerning this problem, in particular the effectiveness of repressive methods of control and absolutely negative consequences for the population and country caused by these movements. The researcher states that the only way to ensure that the refuges are truly protected is to eliminate immigration control. Such sphere of government policy as immigration regulation and control is a form of racism. The majority of her arguments have moral and political context. On the other hand, they can be a special source of studying social discussion of the issue of free borders and migration processes in Great Britain.

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle assessment of the transmission network in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Gareth P.; Maclean, Edward J.; Karamanlis, Serafeim; Ochoa, Luis F.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of lower carbon power systems has tended to focus on the operational carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from power stations. However, to achieve the large cuts required it is necessary to understand the whole-life contribution of all sectors of the electricity industry. Here, a preliminary assessment of the life cycle carbon emissions of the transmission network in Great Britain is presented. Using a 40-year period and assuming a static generation mix it shows that the carbon equivalent emissions (or global warming potential) of the transmission network are around 11 gCO 2-eq /kWh of electricity transmitted and that almost 19 times more energy is transmitted by the network than is used in its construction and operation. Operational emissions account for 96% of this with transmission losses alone totalling 85% and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) emissions featuring significantly. However, the CO 2 embodied within the raw materials of the network infrastructure itself represents a modest 3%. Transmission investment decisions informed by whole-life cycle carbon assessments of network design could balance higher financial and carbon 'capital' costs of larger conductors with lower transmission losses and CO 2 emissions over the network lifetime. This will, however, necessitate new regulatory approaches to properly incentivise transmission companies.

  2. The energy programme in Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fells, I.

    1985-01-01

    Great Britain and Northern Ireland are for the time being, thanks to North Sea oil and gas, self-supporting in energy supply (coal 36%, oil 34%, gas 23%, nuclear 6%, hydraulic 1%) a situation which may continue for 2 or 3 decades. By AD2101 it is expected that nuclear generation, including the use of fast-breeder reactors, will supply 50% of electrical energy (currently 14%). The article discusses primary energy sources with tabulated statistics from Government information, and mentions the 2000MW link with France now under construction. Among alternative resources the more promising appear to be wind generation and a Severn barrage; the latter could provide 2000-4000MW. Water power has very small potential but pumped storage (Dinorwic 1700MW) is important. The prospects for wave energy are poor. Acid rain is seen as a growing problem. Various ideas for energy saving are discussed and the present policy of examining the future of energy consumption in terms of 'scenarios' is briefly described. All of these include an increase in the proportion of electrical energy in the total consumption. (C.J.O.G.)

  3. Work experiences of internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Zainab; Hassell, Karen; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2015-04-01

    Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about the working experiences of internationally trained pharmacists (ITPs) in Great Britain (GB). The purpose of this study is to explore the work experiences of ITPs practising in the community or hospital sector in GB. Twenty-five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA pharmacists who, at the time of the study, practised in the community (n = 20) or hospital sector (n = 5) in the North West England from March to May 2009. In general, ITPs complained about their heavy workload, long working hours and lack of support from their employers. Specifically, EEA pharmacists in most cases felt excluded from the professional network and sensed colleagues saw them as 'foreigners' while some non-EEA pharmacists had to deal with a level of hostility from patients. This novel research provides a foundation for future work on ITPs in GB and could assist employers to better target their efforts in development of standards to support the working experiences of ITPs in GB. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Electricity transmission arrangements in Great Britain: Time for change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Pollitt, Michael; Konstantinidis, Christos Vasilakos; Konstantelos, Ioannis; Moreno, Rodrigo; Newbery, David; Green, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In Great Britain (GB) and across Europe significant investment in electricity transmission is expected over the coming years as decarbonisation and market integration efforts are intensified. However, there is also significant uncertainty with the amount, location and timing of new generation connection, which in turn will drive the transmission investment needs. Given the absence of efficient market design, we identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission investment arrangements: (i) a mis-aligned incentives framework for transmission investment and operation; (ii) lack of coordination of investment and operation; and (iii) conflicts of interest. We then propose three options for future evolution of transmission regimes, which cover the full spectrum of institutional arrangements with respect to transmission planning and delivery, i.e. how and who plans, owns, builds and operates the transmission system. For each option we present: key characteristics; evolution of the current regimes; the ability of the option to address the concerns; and key strengths and weaknesses. Overall, we conclude in the case of GB (this conclusion could be extended to other European countries) that the most appropriate option would be that of an Independent System Operator (ISO) who would be responsible for planning and operating the transmission system. - Highlights: • We identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission arrangements. • We then propose three options for transmission network planning and delivery. • Key strengths and weaknesses of each above option are identified and studied. • We conclude that the most appropriate option for GB would be that of an ISO

  5. The political economy of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R M

    2017-04-01

    A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008. This increase appeared to coincide with changing policy regarding the control of the disease in badgers, with a more humane approach adopted and with strengthened protection for badgers through legislation. Indeed, there has been much controversy in the debate on the role of badgers in disease transmission to cattle and the need for their control as vectors of the disease. The issue has attracted the attention of the media and there have been various commissioned research projects, trials and public consultations. The findings of two social science investigations presented as examples showed that citizens generally believed that bTB in cattle is an important issue that needs to be tackled, but objected to badgers being killed, whilst cattle farmers were willing to pay around £17/animal/year for a bTB cattle vaccine. It is noted that successes regarding the control of bTB in other countries have combined both cattle and wildlife controls and involved industry working in close partnership with government.

  6. Using Information Technologies in Professional Training of Future Security Specialists in the USA, Great Britain, Poland and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyslenko, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of information technologies in professional training of future security specialists in the United States, Great Britain, Poland and Israel. The probable use of computer-based techniques being available within the integrated Web-sites have been systematized. It has been suggested that the presented scheme may be of great…

  7. Flexible working: understanding the locum pharmacist in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing trend in Great Britain (GB) for pharmacists to work as self-employed "locums" rather than as permanent employees. Despite this trend, little is known about their work patterns or why they choose to pursue nonstandard forms of work. The overall aim of the study was to explore why locums choose self-employment over a permanent contract and to explore a number of issues commonly associated with nonstandard working, such as marginalization and job satisfaction. A qualitative interview study was undertaken. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 34 locum pharmacists randomly selected from the GB register of pharmacists. Locums from a range of age groups, different sectors of practice, and with different work patterns were selected to ensure that a wide range of experiences and views were covered. The need or desire for flexibility was the overriding factor for choosing to work as a locum. A wide range and variety of individual personal circumstances were important drivers, but a desire for work-life balance was fundamental to many. A variety of work patterns were found, ranging from those with more ad hoc working arrangements to those who worked in the same store on a regular basis. Avoiding stress, paperwork, and nonprofessional duties were among reasons for choosing to locum. Disadvantages associated with being a locum included being viewed and treated negatively by peers, and having fewer opportunities for training. No conclusive evidence could be found for locums being marginalized, except for the training issues for some pharmacists. The findings do suggest some cause for concern, with some locums selecting places to work on the basis of attitudes not congruent with socially inclusive approaches to public health care. The locum workforce is far from homogenous or uniform. Freelance working of this kind has advantages for the individual: freedom and independence. But there may be risks for the profession if nonstandard work practices

  8. Employment, Family Union, and Childbearing Decisions in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arnstein Aassve; Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson; Carol Propper

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between work and family life in Britain. Using appropriate statistical techniques we estimate a five-equation model, which includes birth events, union formation, union dissolution, employment and non-employment events. The model allows for unobserved heterogeneity that is correlated across all five equations. We use information from the British Household Panel Survey, including the retrospective histories concerning work, union, and child bearing, to e...

  9. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  10. Individual Educational Paths in the Universities of Russia and Great Britain (Theoretical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Shaposhnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the necessity for higher education institutions to form and realize students' individual educational paths in the learning process, which is stated in the Federal Law on Education and FSES HPE of the third generation. The article presents an overview of the different approaches to the definition of the term «individual educational path» (IEP. It also gives a brief overview of the existing terms in the Russian terminological system, which are close in meaning to the term above. The author formulates her own tentative definition of the term «IEP» which is based on the analysis made. The article further addresses the solution to the problem of the individualization of higher education learning process in Great Britain, which is described through the term «Personal Development Planning». The meaning of the term is shown through the set of actions: planning, doing things, recording of the self experience, reviewing and evaluating, using the personal knowledge derived from reflection and self understanding as well as own learning abilities to plan future actions. In conclusion, the meanings of the terms «IEP» and «PDP» are compared. The author emphasires the importance of studying Great Britain's experience - the practice of solving problems connected with the individualization of the university learning process and the possibilities to use it to facilitate the implementation of students' individual educational paths in Russian higher education institutions.

  11. Bat population genetics and Lyssavirus presence in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Aegerter, J N; Allnutt, T R; MacNicoll, A D; Learmount, J; Hutson, A M; Atterby, H

    2011-10-01

    Most lyssaviruses appear to have bat species as reservoir hosts. In Europe, of around 800 reported cases in bats, most were of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) in Eptesicus serotinus (where the bat species was identified). About 20 cases of EBLV-2 were recorded, and these were in Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme. Through a passive surveillance scheme, Britain reports about one case a year of EBLV-2, but no cases of the more prevalent EBLV-1. An analysis of E. serotinus and M. daubentonii bat genetics in Britain reveals more structure in the former population than in the latter. Here we briefly review these differences, ask if this correlates with dispersal and movement patterns and use the results to suggest an hypothesis that EBLV-2 is more common than EBLV-1 in the UK, as genetic data suggest greater movement and regular immigration from Europe of M. daubentonii. We further suggest that this genetic approach is useful to anticipate the spread of exotic diseases in bats in any region of the world.

  12. The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Many western European states are adopting integration and naturalization policies that focus on the practices, values and identities of citizenship. On this background, and given the combined crisis of multiculturalism and decline of old-school ethno-nationalism, it has been argued that national......, cultural–ideological distinctiveness matters less for what is traditionally the heartland of national sovereignty and identity. A comparison of three citizenship/integration trajectories – Germany, Great Britain and Denmark – suggests that the thesis of liberal convergence must be qualified. Although...... occurring in civic and liberal registers, national citizenship policies still reflect continuities, and path-dependent reactions to such continuities, of culturally bounded nation states. Germany’s development reflects a republican normalization, facilitated by reunification, but also a distinct liberal...

  13. [French doctors working in Great Britain: a study of their characteristics and motivations for migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverne, A; Carnet, D; d'Athis, P; Quantin, C

    2008-10-01

    As member states in the European Union now recognize the national qualifications of other member states, doctors will be able to move more freely within Europe according to the opportunities on offer and the constraints imposed by the different health-care systems. The aim of this study is to understand the reasons why French doctors choose to work in Great Britain. A self-completed questionnaire was used to conduct a survey among French doctors registered with the British Medical Council in 2005 who had done their studies in France and for whom the address was correct. The response rate, which was difficult to assess (impossible to distinguish between incorrect addresses and absence of response), was about 37%. The results show that doctors move to Britain for various reasons. In most cases (59%), the decision to emigrate is made for both professional and personal reasons. The second most common profile (29%), including essentially women, comprises those who emigrate to join a spouse. The third profile (12%) concerns those who emigrate for purely professional reasons: this group is made up of men who, for the most part, are disappointed with conditions in the French-hospital system: lack of recognition, poor pay and limited career prospects. Doctors who are dissatisfied with working conditions and low revenues in France seem to find that the National Health Service provides a better environment. Whatever the original reasons for expatriation, doctors particularly appreciate the salaried status, organization of working hours and teamwork, as well as more recognition of the work done. Because of uncertainties in the representativity of the returned questionnaires, the results of our study cannot be generalized to the whole population of French doctors currently working in Britain, but it does bring to light the principal reasons for their move to Britain. Though few doctors emigrate, the trend testifies to the dissatisfaction felt by certain doctors in the French

  14. Comparing electricity distribution network revenues and costs in New South Wales, Great Britain and Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, Bruce; Littlechild, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, electricity distribution network revenues per customer in New South Wales (NSW) were twice those in Great Britain (GB). Recent price controls imply that by 2014 they will be nearly four times as high. This paper examines possible reasons for this. The main reason does not seem to be geography, operating environment or industry structure. GB and Victoria have managed to accommodate increasing demand at broadly constant or even declining costs and revenues while delivering higher quality of service, while NSW has not. The regulatory framework and the practice of the regulatory body within that framework seem relevant. Australian regulators have not used benchmarking techniques as the GB regulator has. Perhaps the most important explanatory factor is private ownership in GB and Victoria compared to state ownership in NSW. This could also impact on the nature and effectiveness of regulation. (author)

  15. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  16. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the…

  17. Development of nuclear power and its influence on the energy-supply strategy in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryniszak, W.

    1977-01-01

    Great Britain was one of the first countries to use nuclear energy on a large scale. The good experience with the reactors already installed in the basis for the development programme which is not opposed. Preliminary work for the use of the fast breeder reactor and collaboration with other countries in nuclear energy techniques is described. (H.E.G.)

  18. Motivation to Study in Higher Education: A Comparison between Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sandra; Higson, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with reasons for the motivation to study in higher education. To find out about motives, around 200 A-level students in Germany and Great Britain were asked about their plans for the time after completion of their A-levels. Through socio-demographic data the authors could deploy facts about social backgrounds and the…

  19. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  20. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Reid, Garth

    2017-12-20

    Accurate data to measure population cigarette consumption are vital for surveillance and for evaluating the impact of tobacco control policies. This study uses cigarette retail sales data to provide novel insights into trends and patterns in cigarette consumption in Great Britain. Cigarette sales estimates derived from electronic sales from most large grocery stores and a weighted representative sample of smaller convenience stores were obtained from Nielsen. Data on the number of cigarette sticks sold per calendar month and per week were obtained for Scotland and England/Wales (combined) for the period January 2008 to December 2015. Cigarette consumption per adult smoker per month was calculated using survey-based smoking prevalence estimates and mid-year population estimates. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain declined between 2008 and 2013. Cigarette sales have since stabilised at around 400 cigarettes per adult smoker per month. Cigarettes sold in 14- to 19-packs have substituted a sharp decline in 20-packs and now account for over half of all cigarettes sold in Great Britain. Cigarette consumption has been consistently higher in Scotland than England/Wales. This is due to higher sales of 20-packs in Scotland between 2008 and 2013, which has been substituted by higher sales of 14- to 19-packs in recent years. Cigarette retail sales data provide unique insights into levels and patterns of cigarette consumption and should be used for monitoring and evaluating tobacco control policy in Great Britain.

  1. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  2. The stability and instability of organic expenditures in Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns demand for organic foods in 3 European countries: Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy. Based on extensive sets of household panel data we categorize households into 4 groups according to their levels of organic consumption. Importance of sociodemographics is estimated by apply...

  3. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  4. Farmers' current attitudes to energy forestry in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R.B.; Carruthers, S.P.; Jones, P.J.; Miller, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project were twofold: first, to assess the current level of interest in energy coppice among farmers in GB and, hence, its present potential as a farm enterprise; and, second, to gauge the effects of any changes in the agricultural situation and in the 'state-of-the-art' of energy coppice that have occurred since a similar study was carried out some five years ago. (Author)

  5. Redrawing the map of Great Britain from a network of human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Carlo; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Calabrese, Francesco; Andris, Clio; Reades, Jonathan; Martino, Mauro; Claxton, Rob; Strogatz, Steven H

    2010-12-08

    Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland.

  6. Redrawing the map of Great Britain from a network of human interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ratti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland.

  7. Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Gangadharan, B; Taylor, Z; Laurenson, M K; Bradshaw, H; Hide, G; Hughes, J M; Dinkel, A; Romig, T; Craig, P S

    2003-12-01

    A national necropsy survey of red foxes was carried out across Great Britain to record Echinococcus, Trichinella and Toxoplasma. The survey did not record directly, or indirectly using coproantigen/PCR tests, evidence for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in 588 animals, although E. granulosus was suspected in six animals. Parasitological evidence for Trichinella spp. could not be found in 587 fox muscle digests, and a specific PCR test also failed to detect Toxoplasma in a sub-set of 61 random fox tongue biopsies. The upper 95% confidence interval for the above parasites was 0.60% (E. multilocularis), 0.60% (Trichinella spp.) and 5.6% (Toxoplasma). The commonest gut parasites were the hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala (41.3%) and the ascarid Toxocara canis (61.6%). This study also reports the second occurrence of Trichuris vulpis in Great Britain.

  8. Comparative Study of Flexible Pavement Designs for New Road in Great Britain and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Hanafi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the design methods for flexible pavements for new roads and overlays between two countries, Great Britain and Indonesia.Pavement design procedures provide a structure that can be accepted in a specific environmental condition and able to satisfy the anticipated traffic loading. There are many factors influencing the thickness design of pavement, such as pavement materials, traffic load and climatic conditions, there is no doubt that the method of pa...

  9. Return transport of processed radioactive waste from France and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The report on returning transport and interim storage of processed radioactive waste from France and Great Britain in vitrified block containers covers the following issues: German contracts with radioactive waste processing plants concerning the return of processed waste to Germany; optimized radioactive waste processing using vitrified block containers; the transport casks as basic safety with respect to radiation protection; interim storage of processes high-level waste by GNS in Gorleben; licensing, inspections and declarations; quality assurance and control.

  10. Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specifically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper.

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among young people in Great Britain, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Cheeseman, Hazel; Brose, Leonie S

    2018-06-01

    One percent of adults in Great Britain use waterpipe tobacco at least monthly, however national epidemiological evidence among young people is absent. This study aims to assess waterpipe tobacco prevalence and correlates among young people in Great Britain. Data were analyzed from online surveys conducted annually from 2013 to 2016 with weighted national samples of 11 to 18-year olds in Great Britain (annual n = 1936-2059). Primary outcome measures were at least monthly waterpipe tobacco use and lifetime waterpipe tobacco use. Binary logistic regression models tested the association between these outcomes and age, sex, country of residence and other tobacco consumption. Between 2013 and 2016, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1%) used waterpipe tobacco at least monthly and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.7%) used waterpipe in their lifetime. There were no changes in prevalence over time. At least monthly use was associated with older age groups [16-18 years vs. 11-15 years, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.55-4.46], male sex (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.23-2.71) and other tobacco consumption (e.g. lifetime cigarette use AOR 10.30, 95% CI 5.22-20.29). Lifetime use had similar correlates, but was not associated with male sex (AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). One in 10 young people in Great Britain have tried waterpipe tobacco, though more frequent use appears low. We found no evidence of increasing or decreasing prevalence of waterpipe use between 2013 and 2016. Being male, older and a concurrent user of other tobacco products were correlated with waterpipe tobacco use.

  12. The discharge of radioactive effluents from the nuclear power programme into western waters of Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the British nuclear power programme and the types of radioactive effluent that arise from the power stations and from the Windscale reprocessing plant. Routes by which these effluents could affect human populations, and radiation dose limits which have been laid down, are discussed. The discharge of permitted amounts of activity into western coastal waters of Great Britain, and the requirements for monitoring the discharges, are described. (U.K.)

  13. The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, H; O'Sullivan, E

    2007-12-01

    The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland was established over 30 years ago to assist anaesthetists working in developing countries. The committee has attempted to make an impact through distribution of educational materials, supporting training courses and investing in a number of small equipment projects. In 2005, the Overseas Anaesthesia Fund was set up to allow members to donate directly to support our work.

  14. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Abu Dhabi and Great Britain.Keywords: Abu Dhabi, Great Britain, colonialism.

  15. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  16. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  17. Childhood leukaemia in Great Britain and fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, R.; Bentham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The possible effects of radiation from fallout on childhood leukaemia mortality from 1950 to 1987 and registrations from 1963 to 1987 were assessed using a division of Great Britain into regions with higher rainfall and a consequently higher fallout radiation dose in the 1960s and regions with lower rainfall and a lower radiation dose. Childhood leukaemia mortality rates declined and registration rates increased throughout the period. For ages 0-14 years, the differences between rates in wet regions and dry regions were small and appeared unrelated to periods of low, medium and high radiation exposure based on dose equivalent to the red bone marrow after birth. For the 0-4 years age group the highest ratios of leukaemia death rates and registration rates in the wet compared with the dry part of Great Britain occurred in the period of highest radiation exposure after birth. The death rate ratio was significantly raised in the period of high exposure compared with the surrounding medium exposure periods, but the difference in registration rate ratios between the high exposure period and the medium exposure period following was not statistically significant. The results might be explained by survival and registration changes, or chance in the case of registrations, but do not exclude the possibility that low doses of radiation from fallout were responsible for an increased risk of leukaemia in young children in Great Britain. (author)

  18. The genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Kendall, G.M.; Rae, S.; Wall, B.F.

    1980-09-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the annual genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. It combines information from a frequency survey of diagnostic radiological examinations carried out in Great Britain in 1977 and estimates of gonadal doses for different examination types, together with population and child expectancy data. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology carried out in Great Britain in 1977, is estimated to 118 μGy (11.8 millirad) of which 113 μGy (11.3 millirad) is contributed by diagnostic radiology carried out in National Health Service hospitals. There has been a sharp fall in the contribution from obstetric examinations since 1957 when the last national survey was carried out. The contribution from most other examination types is broadly similar and there is little evidence of a change in the overall level of genetically significant dose. This is in spite of an increase in the frequency of radiological examinations per thousand of the population of about 50 per cent. No significant differences were found as between England, Scotland and Wales. The British figure compares favourably with the levels of GSD reported from other countries with developed radiological services. (author)

  19. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  20. HERBERT HOOVER, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE RUBBER CRISIS, 1923-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The existence of even a short term oversupply coupled with the business slump, a reaction from the war, led to a decline in the price of rubber. British producers succeeded in inducing the British Colonial authorities to support a scheme whereby rubber exports would be regulated in order to bring about an increase in the price of rubber. This plan, developed by the Stevenson Committee, called for a small minimum tax on all exports. Moreover, it soughtto limit production by establishing a quota based on the actual production of rubber during the 1919-1920 growing season. A progressive tax was applied to exports beyond standard production. American reaction to the scheme was varied. Secretary of Commerce Hoover, while publicly stating that the price of rubber had been low and was supportive of efforts to regulate production, behind the scenes showed a great deal of concern about the actions of the British government in regulating a commodity of which the United States was the single largest consumer. He was also linked, by some, to the idea that Great Britain sought to pay its war debt to the United States through the application of this tax. Much was made in American newspapers and the British press about Hoover’s criticism of British rubber restrictions. He was not opposed to regulating the supply of rubber, but only to the involvement of a government in the process, especially when it affected American producers and consumers. In response he proposed a scheme

  1. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  2. The use of karst geomorphology for planning, hazard avoidance and development in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anthony H.; Farrant, Andrew R.; Price, Simon J.

    2011-11-01

    Within Great Britain five main types of karstic rocks - dolomite, limestone, chalk, gypsum and salt - are present. Each presents a different type and severity of karstic geohazard which are related to the rock solubility and geological setting. Typical karstic features associated with these rocks have been databased by the British Geological Survey (BGS) with records of sinkholes, cave entrances, stream sinks, resurgences and building damage; data for more than half of the country has been gathered. BGS has manipulated digital map data, for bedrock and superficial deposits, with digital elevation slope models, superficial deposit thickness models, the karst data and expertly interpreted areas, to generate a derived dataset assessing the likelihood of subsidence due to karst collapse. This dataset is informed and verified by the karst database and marketed as part of the BGS GeoSure suite. It is currently used by environmental regulators, the insurance and construction industries, and the BGS semi-automated enquiry system. The database and derived datasets can be further combined and manipulated using GIS to provide other datasets that deal with specific problems. Sustainable drainage systems, some of which use soak-aways into the ground, are being encouraged in Great Britain, but in karst areas they can cause ground stability problems. Similarly, open loop ground source heat or cooling pump systems may induce subsidence if installed in certain types of karstic environments such as in chalk with overlying sand deposits. Groundwater abstraction also has the potential to trigger subsidence in karst areas. GIS manipulation of the karst information is allowing Great Britain to be zoned into areas suitable, or unsuitable, for such uses; it has the potential to become part of a suite of planning management tools for local and National Government to assess the long term sustainable use of the ground.

  3. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  4. CRIMEAN WAR AND ESTABLISHING OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM IN GREAT BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    SKLYAROVA ELENA

    2017-01-01

    Crimean War of 1853 1856 is a factor of important socio-political and socio-medical reforms. Study of these cases is characterized as interdisciplinary. At the edge of Crimean War Great Britain press highlighted aspiration of the empire to capture russian territories of Black sea region, also reforms and work of E.Chadwick, founder of public health system, were criticized, he was wanted to be away from members of parliament and London oligarchs due to his extreme reforms and British corruptio...

  5. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  6. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Clarke

    Full Text Available There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life.Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016. Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life.There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610. Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%. Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, p<0.010, and older age (OR = 1.09 per decade, p<0.010. Negative predictors: living with children (OR = 0.72, p<0.010 and being of "black" race/ethnicity (OR = 0.45, p<0.001.Public opinion was uniform between GB and USA, but markedly heterogeneous. Despite contemporaneous capacitous consent providing an essential legal safeguard in most jurisdictions, there was a high prevalence of preference for "measures to end my life peacefully" when

  7. What made Britannia great? Did the Industrial Revolution make Britain a world power?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    How much of Britain's high living standards and military power compared to its competitors in 1850 should be attributed to Britain having first experienced the Industrial Revolution? Examining data on real wages in the north and south of England, the Netherlands and Ireland in the Industrial Revolution era, this paper contends that most of the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution benefited Britain's competitors as much as Britain itself. Britain attained higher outputs per pers...

  8. National report of Great Britain. Risks and risk assessment according to British legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Who has got the competence in Great Britain to decide about criteria to be applied and methods to be taken in the prevention of damage thus ensuring the required safety standards and definine the maximum acceptable risk to be taken due to the operation of industrial and other facilities. The answer is laid down in the legal regulations covering virtually all industrial and technical installations. The author discusses the skeleton regulations of the 'Health and Safety at Work Act 1974', which is to be considered as the basis of British industrial law. Giving numerous examples, the author explains the legal status and administrative practice concerning the wide range of conventional technical facilities. Furthermore, he describes legal status and administrative practice concerning nuclear facilities and aircraft. After discussing methods of environmental pollution control, especially air pollution, the author enters into the regulations governing planning procedures of great relevance in Britain's legal practice, and the administrative procedures, shown by the example of the Windscale Inquiry. Finally, the author describes methods of risk assessment in other fields of law and some possible approaches to use risk analyses in the framework of the legal system. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. The economic impacts of a submarine HVDC interconnection between Norway and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard L.; Frøystad, Dag Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we analyze the profitability of different HVDC interconnection alternatives between Norway and Great Britain for present and future scenarios. The analysis is done from a merchant and a social welfare perspective. The analyses include interconnections between Norway and Scotland and Southern Great Britain, respectively, as well as an alternative link to a future offshore wind farm. From a social welfare perspective the northern interconnection alternative is profitable under all sets of assumptions. The southern alternative is profitable under present conditions, but less than the northern alternative. The alternative link to the offshore wind park is not profitable, but this result is highly dependent on market conditions. From a merchant perspective none of the alternatives is profitable, clearly illustrating that leaving investments to commercial parties does not realize all projects that increase social welfare. - Highlights: • Profitability of interconnection between Norway and GB is analyzed using simulation. • The Northern alternative increases social welfare under all assumptions. • None of the alternatives is profitable from a merchant perspective. • A link to a prospective wind farm 200 km from the GB coast is not profitable. • Social welfare increasing infrastructure may not be built on commercial conditions

  10. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fischer, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board of the UK has just completed a national survey to determine the genetically significant dose (GSD) to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. A statistically selected sample of about 80 hospitals spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales has supplied information on the numbers of patients examined in their X-ray departments during a week in June 1977, together with details of age, sex and examination technique. This sample is sufficient to make a reliable estimate of the total diagnostic work-load in all National Health Service Hospitals throughout Great Britain for a year. Gonadal doses from 16 examination types that are likely to be the main contributors to the GSD have been measured on nearly 5000 patients at 20 hospitals throug'out the country using specially developed thermoluminescent dosemeters. These gonadal doses are combined with the examination frequency figures and current values for child expectancy derived from data supplied by tthe registrar general, to estimate the GSD. Those changes in practice which have occurred since the late 1950's which may have influenced the new value for the GSD are discussed, as well as the progress that has been made in estimating population somatic doses from diagnostic radiology using clinical measurements that are currently underway. (H.K.)

  11. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  12. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  13. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  14. ‘Banter, Bollockings & Beatings’: The occupational socialisation process in Michelin-starred kitchen brigades in Great Britain and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia; Cooper, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This study seeks to conceptualise how the occupational socialisation of young chefs is conducted in Michelin-starred restaurants in Great Britain and Ireland; the key role of banter and bullying in this process is explored and critically discussed.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud This qualitative research critically discusses the data from 54 in-depth, face-to-face interviews with male and female Michelin-starred chefs in Great Britain and Ireland. A flexible interview guide ...

  15. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fisher, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    An outline account is given of a survey carried out by the NRPB in 1977 to make a reappraisal of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic x-ray examinations. Provisional estimates for the value of the GSD to the population from all diagnostic examinations conducted within the NHS and elsewhere was 17 x 10 -5 Gy (17 mrad). This represented an increase of 20% over the value of 14.1 x 10 -5 Gy (14.1 mrad) found in 1957. This was considered insignificant, considering the errors involved in the surveys. This estimate of GSD is compared with recent estimations in the following countries: Sweden, West Germany, Italy, Romania, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Taiwan, India. The frequency of x-ray examinations per thousand head of population in the U.K. is compared with that of the following countries: West Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, USA, Sweden. (U.K.)

  16. The evolution of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) in Great Britain: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, E W; Fuller, C M; Ridgeon, J H; Irvine, R M; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2014-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), is considered throughout the world as one of the most important animal diseases. For over three decades now, there has been a continuing panzootic caused by a variant virulent APMV-1 strain, so-called pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), primarily in racing pigeons, which has also spread to wild birds and poultry. PPMV-1 isolations have been made in Great Britain every year since 1983. In this study, we have completed a comparative phylogenetic analysis based on a 374 nucleotide section of the fusion protein gene of 63 isolates of PPMV-1 that were isolated over a 26-year period; 43 of these were sequenced for this study. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that all were closely related and placed in the genetic sublineage 4b (VIb), subdivision 4biif. © 2012 Crown copyright.

  17. Mixing height and mass balance of SO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere above Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, J.A.; Branson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the SO/sub 2/ concentration at heights ranging from 150 to 1200 m were made at Cardington, Bedfordshire, using lightweight samplers carried on the cable of the tethered balloon. A value of 1200 m for the mean mixing height for SO/sub 2/ was deduced from the measurements. This value indicates that dry deposition limits the mean lifetime of SO/sub 2/ to about 2 days. The results of the national survey of air pollution were used to derive an area-mean concentration of 36 micrograms/m3 for SO/sub 2/ over Great Britain (excluding the north of Scotland, West Wales and the South West Peninsula) and this result is used in a discussion of the mass balance of atmospheric sulphur over this area.

  18. [Need-based resource allocation--experiences with the RAWP formula in Great Britain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H; Menke, R

    1997-07-01

    The RAWP formula used for resource allocation in Great Britain between 1976 and 1991 is a morbidity-oriented instrument of controlling, which has so far received only little attention in Germany. The development of this model was supported by the intention to intervene in the regional pattern of hospital supply by means of resource allocation and to refine it according to the guiding principles of equity and efficiency. The basic elements-regional population, average bed use, ICD chapter-specific SMRs-are discussed and the various modifications outlined. The RAWP formula's potentials of controlling resulted in a progressive reduction of the apparent disparities between regions in hospital supply, and knee was considered to be a "qualified success". The future development in the sense of an internal market addressed.

  19. The ITE Land classification: Providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R G; Barr, C J; Gillespie, M K; Howard, D C

    1996-01-01

    The surface of Great Britain (GB) varies continuously in land cover from one area to another. The objective of any environmentally based land classification is to produce classes that match the patterns that are present by helping to define clear boundaries. The more appropriate the analysis and data used, the better the classes will fit the natural patterns. The observation of inter-correlations between ecological factors is the basis for interpreting ecological patterns in the field, and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Classification formalises such subjective ideas. The data inevitably comprise a large number of factors in order to describe the environment adequately. Single factors, such as altitude, would only be useful on a national basis if they were the only dominant causative agent of ecological variation.The ITE Land Classification has defined 32 environmental categories called 'land classes', initially based on a sample of 1-km squares in Great Britain but subsequently extended to all 240 000 1-km squares. The original classification was produced using multivariate analysis of 75 environmental variables. The extension to all squares in GB was performed using a combination of logistic discrimination and discriminant functions. The classes have provided a stratification for successive ecological surveys, the results of which have characterised the classes in terms of botanical, zoological and landscape features.The classification has also been applied to integrate diverse datasets including satellite imagery, soils and socio-economic information. A variety of models have used the structure of the classification, for example to show potential land use change under different economic conditions. The principal data sets relevant for planning purposes have been incorporated into a user-friendly computer package, called the 'Countryside Information System'.

  20. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana

    2015-01-01

    In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  1. "Against Fascism, War and Economies": The Communist Party of Great Britain's Schoolteachers during the Popular Front, 1935-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The Popular Front line made the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) a more hospitable place for "brain workers." The emphasis the line placed on mass ideological and cultural struggle against fascism meant that they became important allies to be won for the working class. As the principal transmitters of ideology and culture to the…

  2. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers' Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Fuchyla, Olena; Ihnatiuk, Halyna

    2017-01-01

    The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always…

  3. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    Landslides in Great Britain (GB) pose a risk to infrastructure, property and livelihoods. Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in GB by searching electronic archives of local and regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) are responsible for updating and maintaining records of GB landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of approximately 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. Here we aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events and (ii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the LexisNexis digital archive of 568 local and regional newspapers published in the UK. The first step in the methodology was to construct Boolean search criteria that optimised the balance between minimising the number of irrelevant articles (e.g. "a landslide victory") and maximising those referring to landslide events. This keyword search was then applied to the LexisNexis archive of newspapers for all articles published between 1 January and 31 December 2012, resulting in 1,668 articles. These articles were assessed to determine whether they related to a landslide event. Of the 1,668 articles, approximately 30% (~700) referred to landslide events, with others referring to landslides more generally or themes unrelated to landslides. Examples of information obtained from newspaper articles included: date/time of landslide occurrence, spatial location, size, impact, landslide type and triggering mechanism, although the amount of detail and precision attainable from individual articles was variable. Of the 700 articles found for

  4. Electronic cigarette use in young people in Great Britain 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, B; Dockrell, M J; Arnott, D; Britton, J; Cheeseman, H; Jarvis, M J; McNeill, A

    2015-09-01

    The recent growth in the market for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has led to concerns over their use by young people. It is therefore important to examine trends in the perception and use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes in this group. Two-wave cross-sectional survey design. Young people aged 11-18 in Great Britain were surveyed online by YouGov in 2013 and 2014. Use of e-cigarettes, together with perceived health harms and intention to use were assessed and compared in relation to cigarette smoking history, age and gender. Ever-use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 4.6% (95% CI 3.8-5.7) in 2013 to 8.2% (95% CI 7.0-9.6) in 2014. Monthly or more use of e-cigarettes increased from 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.5) to 1.7 (1.2-2.4), but remained rare in never-smokers at under 0.2%. The proportion of young people who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful to users than cigarettes fell from 73.4% (95% CI 71.0-75.8) to 66.9% (95% CI 64.5-69.2), while the proportion who considered e-cigarettes to cause similar levels of harm increased from 11.8% (95% CI 10.0-13.5) to 18.2% (95% CI 16.3-20.1). Of the 8.2% of e-cigarette ever-users in 2014, 69.8% (95% CI 62.2%-77.3%) had smoked a cigarette prior to using an e-cigarette, while 8.2% (95% CI 4.1%-12.2%) first smoked a cigarette after e-cigarette use. A growing proportion of young people in Great Britain believe e-cigarettes are as harmful as smoking tobacco. Use of e-cigarettes by young people is increasing, but is largely confined to those who smoke. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical study of peak-load pricing and investment policies for the domestic market of gas in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzoannos, J

    1977-06-01

    This paper reports the main results of a study aimed at determining empirically an optimal structure of seasonal tariffs for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. The study first involves the development of a peak-load pricing model which maximizes social welfare. The model is then quantified with cost and demand functions which have been statistically estimated for Great Britian using data for town gas. The procedure of estimating these functions is based on an error components model. The seasonal pricing and investment policy resulting from the solution to the above model is then compared with the existing policy for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. It is shown that the former is superior to the latter in terms of improvements in social welfare and capacity utilization. 22 references.

  6. Sea level change in Great Britain between 1859 and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    2018-04-01

    Short records of sea level measurements by the Ordnance Survey at 31 locations in 1859-1860, together with recent Mean Sea Level (MSL) information from the UK tide gauge network, have been used to estimate the average rates of sea level change around the coast of Great Britain since the mid-19th century. Rates are found to be approximately 1 mm yr-1 in excess of those expected for the present day based on geological information, providing evidence for a climate-change related component of the increase in UK sea level. In turn, the rates of change of MSL for the past 60 yr are estimated to be ˜1 mm yr-1 in excess of the long-term rates since 1859, suggesting an acceleration in the rate of sea level rise between the 19th and 20th/21st centuries. Although the historical records are very short (approximately a fortnight), this exercise in `data archaeology' shows how valuable to research even the shortest records can be, as long as the measurements were made by competent people and the datums of the measurements were fully documented.

  7. WIND TURBINES CAUSE CHRONIC STRESS IN BADGERS (MELES MELES) IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Roseanna C N; Smith, Valerie J; Fowkes, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of data exists with which to assess the effects of wind turbines noise on terrestrial wildlife, despite growing concern about the impact of infrasound from wind farms on human health and well-being. In 2013, we assessed whether the presence of turbines in Great Britain impacted the stress levels of badgers ( Meles meles ) in nearby setts. Hair cortisol levels were used to determine if the badgers were physiologically stressed. Hair of badgers living 10 km from a wind farm. This demonstrates that affected badgers suffer from enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and are physiologically stressed. No differences were found between the cortisol levels of badgers living near wind farms operational since 2009 and 2012, indicating that the animals do not become habituated to turbine disturbance. Cortisol levels in the affected badgers did not vary in relation to the distance from turbines within 1 km, wind farm annual power output, or number of turbines. We suggest that the higher cortisol levels in affected badgers is caused by the turbines' sound and that these high levels may affect badgers' immune systems, which could result in increased risk of infection and disease in the badger population.

  8. Ecological investigations on plant associations in differently disturbed heavy-metal contaminated soils of Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W

    1968-01-01

    In different areas of Great Britain comparing ecological studies have been made on disturbed and undisturbed heavy metal contaminated soils. In Grizedale (Pennine), sampling of an undisturbed transect having high levels of major nutrients showed marked differentiation within a small area, only related to the plant available levels of zinc, copper, and lead. However, studies on disturbed heavy metal soils and spoil-heaps revealed a low water capacity and a low supply of major nutrients, particularly of N and P. These suggest that here both the enrichment of heavy metals and the considerable decrease of other nutrients are important in determining the heavy metal vegetation, and in maintaining it against other species. The quantity of zinc in plants is not related to the total or plant-available amount of zinc in soil, but confirmed physiological experiments on the influence of phosphorus and different zinc compounds (complexed or inorganic) on the uptake and distribution of zinc in Thlaspi alpestre and Minnartia rerum. Also an antagonism between lead and copper was revealed. 24 references.

  9. Welfare and competition effects of electricity interconnection between Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of additional interconnection on welfare and competition in the Irish electricity market. I simulate the wholesale electricity markets of the island of Ireland and Great Britain for 2005. I find that in order for the two markets to be integrated in 2005, additional interconnection would have to be large. The amount of interconnection decreases for high costs of carbon, since this causes the markets to become more similar. This suggests that in the absence of strategic behavior of firms, most of the gains from trade derive not from differences in size between countries, but from technology differences and are strongly influenced by fuel and carbon costs. Social welfare increases with interconnection, although at a decreasing rate. As the amount of interconnection increases, there are also positive effects on competition in Ireland, the less competitive of the two markets. Finally, it is unlikely that private investors will pay for the optimal amount of interconnection since their returns are significantly smaller than the total social benefit of interconnection. (author)

  10. Preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence of horses and ponies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  12. Changes in self-reported driving intentions and attitudes while learning to drive in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, S; Kinnear, N A D; McKenna, F P; Allsop, R E; Horswill, M S

    2013-10-01

    Novice drivers are overrepresented in traffic collisions, especially in their first year of solo driving. It is widely accepted that some driving behaviours (such as speeding and thrill-seeking) increase risk in this group. Increasingly research is suggesting that attitudes and behavioural intentions held in the pre-driver and learning stage are important in determining later driver behaviour in solo driving. In this study we examine changes in several self-reported attitudes and behavioural intentions across the learning stage in a sample of learner drivers in Great Britain. A sample of 204 learner drivers completed a self-report questionnaire near the beginning of their learning, and then again shortly after they passed their practical driving test. Results showed that self-reported intentions regarding speed choice, perceptions regarding skill level, and intentions regarding thrill-seeking (through driving) became less safe over this time period, while self-reported intentions regarding following distance and overtaking tendency became safer. The results are discussed with reference to models of driver behaviour that focus on task difficulty; it is suggested that the manner in which behind-the-wheel experience relates to the risk measures of interest may be the key determining factor in how these change over the course of learning to drive. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 'Do no harm'? Professional regulation of disabled nursing students and nurses in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Chih Hoong; Fong, Janice

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of the findings of a General Formal Investigation launched by the Disability Rights Commission, Great Britain into the impact of regulatory fitness standards on disabled people, and on nursing students and nurses in particular. The potential for systemic discrimination against disabled nursing professionals lies in the existence and nature of regulatory fitness standards, as well as in how these are interpreted and implemented in practice. A review of relevant legislation, regulation and guidance was conducted to explore the interaction of the regulatory framework with the Disability Discrimination Act. A formal call to key national stakeholder organizations solicited information on perceptions of the regulatory framework and the adequacy of guidance issued. Independent research was commissioned on disabled people's disclosure of disability, informal and formal decision-making around fitness within the educational, and employment contexts. An Inquiry Panel examined all evidence sources, solicited further oral evidence from key organizations, and developed recommendations. No mention was found of the Disability Discrimination Act in any regulation and guidance governing nursing prior to 2006. There are particular requirements for 'good health and good character'. Respondents from key national stakeholder organizations, higher educational institutions and employers struggle to interpret the fitness requirements consistently. Implementation is variable, with reliance on ad hoc self-initiated strategies. The variability of interpretation and implementation can lead to discrimination against disabled people. The imprecision of fitness requirements and variability of implementation raise serious doubts about their utility in managing risk.

  14. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  15. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  16. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  17. The Production of National Scale Models for Natural Geohazards in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, Katherine

    2010-05-01

    Although Great Britain (GB), is untroubled by large-magnitude earthquakes or tsunamis, there is a growing financial and health threat from geohazards affecting both people and property (principally from flooding, shrink-swell clays, landslides, coastal erosion, radon and soluble rocks). This is both in terms of direct costs for remediation and indirectly from higher insurance premiums. For example, the Association of British Insurers reported that the 2007 summer floods cost Britain approximately £3billion; a figure which is predicted to triple every decade due to the increasing value of assets and potential increase in flood occurrence due to environmental change. Remediation from damage caused by shrink-swell clays alone is estimated to cost the insurance industry an average of over £300 million per year an amount that will inevitably increase given current predictions for future climate it is therefore essential that we are able to quantify and strategically assess the occurrence of geohazards in GB as a whole. This will enable us to understand their relationship to critical infrastructure (hospitals, utilities and major transportation routes), industry and major urban centres and provide an understanding of the environmental impacts that an increase in any one of these geohazards might have on, the lives of the British people, for example, flooding and associated landslides can affect the mobilisation of confined contaminants and subsequently the character and use of available land in the future. Since 2002 the British Geological Survey (BGS) has been developing national-scale models of natural geohazards in GB for just this purpose. These include, to date, landslides, shrink-swell, soluble rocks, compressible and collapsible deposits, groundwater flooding, geological indicators of flooding, radon potential, potentially harmful elements in soil, and mining hazards. The models have been created using a combination of expert knowledge (from both within BGS and

  18. Spatial clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain during the period 1969-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Alexander, Freda E; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2009-02-15

    The aetiology of childhood cancer is poorly understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. The presence of spatial clustering is indicative of a very localized environmental component to aetiology. Spatial clustering is present when there are a small number of areas with greatly increased incidence or a large number of areas with moderately increased incidence. To determine whether localized environmental factors may play a part in childhood cancer aetiology, we analyzed for spatial clustering using a large set of national population-based data from Great Britain diagnosed 1969-1993. The Potthoff-Whittinghill method was used to test for extra-Poisson variation (EPV). Thirty-two thousand three hundred and twenty-three cases were allocated to 10,444 wards using diagnosis addresses. Analyses showed statistically significant evidence of clustering for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) over the whole age range (estimate of EPV = 0.05, p = 0.002) and for ages 1-4 years (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.015). Soft-tissue sarcoma (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.04) and Wilms tumours (estimate of EPV = 0.04, p = 0.007) also showed significant clustering. Clustering tended to persist across different time periods for cases of ALL (estimate of between-time period EPV = 0.04, p =0.003). In conclusion, we observed low level spatial clustering that is attributable to a limited number of cases. This suggests that environmental factors, which in some locations display localized clustering, may be important aetiological agents in these diseases. For ALL and soft tissue sarcoma, but not Wilms tumour, common infectious agents may be likely candidates.

  19. The Paranormal is (Still) Normal: The Sociological Implications of a Survey of Paranormal Experiences in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, MA; Burrows, R; Wooffitt, R

    2014-01-01

    Historically, there has been limited sociological interest in the paranormal and no systematic study of reported paranormal experiences. There are also few medium-to-large-scale survey results with nationally representative populations focusing on paranormal experiences. This paper provides details of an exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with a nationally representative sample of 4,096 adults aged 16 years and over across Great Britain . Our findings show that 37 per cent of British adults...

  20. Representativeness of Social Media in Great Britain: Investigating Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+, and Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Grant; Lutz, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The accepted and peer reviewed manuscript to the article Sociological studies show that Internet access, skills, uses, and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social characteristics of users of distinct social media platforms. We address this issue using a representative survey of Great Britain and investigate the social characteristics of six major social media platforms. We find that age and socioeconomic status...

  1. Quantifying gross vs. net agricultural land use change in Great Britain using the Integrated Administration and Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Samuel J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Levy, Peter E.; Thomson, Amanda M.; Moxley, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Land use change has impacts upon many natural processes, and is one of the key measures of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. Agricultural land covers 70% of Great Britain's (GB) land surface and annually undergoes disturbance and change through farming practices such as crop rotation, ploughing and the planting and subsequent logging of forestry. It is important to quantify how much of GB's agricultural land undergoes such changes and what those changes are at an annual temporal resolu...

  2. Using large hydrological datasets to create a robust, physically based, spatially distributed model for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological systems requires further quantification in order to inform water management. This study intends to conduct such analysis using hydrological models. Such models are of varying forms, of which conceptual, lumped parameter models and physically-based models are two important types. The majority of hydrological studies use conceptual models calibrated against measured river flow time series in order to represent catchment behaviour. This method often shows impressive results for specific problems in gauged catchments. However, the results may not be robust under non-stationary conditions such as climate change, as physical processes and relationships amenable to change are not accounted for explicitly. Moreover, conceptual models are less readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. As such, the physically based, spatially distributed model SHETRAN is used in this study to develop a robust and reliable framework for modelling historic and future behaviour of gauged and ungauged catchments across the whole of Great Britain. In order to achieve this, a large array of data completely covering Great Britain for the period 1960-2006 has been collated and efficiently stored ready for model input. The data processed include a DEM, rainfall, PE and maps of geology, soil and land cover. A desire to make the modelling system easy for others to work with led to the development of a user-friendly graphical interface. This allows non-experts to set up and run a catchment model in a few seconds, a process that can normally take weeks or months. The quality and reliability of the extensive dataset for modelling hydrological processes has also been evaluated. One aspect of this has been an assessment of error and uncertainty in rainfall input data, as well as the effects of temporal resolution in precipitation inputs on model calibration. SHETRAN has been updated to accept gridded rainfall

  3. The development of occupational, public and environmental radiation protection legislation in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.; Chandler, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In Great Britain, legislation to protect workers exposed to ionising radiation has developed separately from, but largely in parallel with, legislation to protect the public and the environment. Occupational radiation protection started from a narrow and industry specific base in 1947. Over the succeeding years, and partly in response to the obligations arising from the United Kingdom's accession to the European Community, this narrow base has broadened. As the nuclear power industry developed in Great Britain so did a separate and rigorous regulatory regime for nuclear installations, starting with the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959. The 1959 Act was amended by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. From 1974, all occupational health and safety legislation began to be brought under the umbrella of a new legal framework, the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, which for the first time adopted an across-the board approach to all work activities and goal-setting, rather than prescriptive, legislation. The purpose of the Act was to provide one comprehensive and integrated system of law concerning health and safety (including the self-employed) and also public safety, so far as it was affected by work activities. The Act also provided for consultation with all interested parties during the development of legislation. The first across the board occupational radiation protection legislation, covering all uses and users of ionising radiation (including, for the first time, exposure to natural radiation), arrived with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and supporting Approved Codes of Practice and non-statutory guidance. The need for some controls on the use of radioactive materials that went wider than simply the protection of workers was recognised in 1948, when the first Radioactive Substances Act was made. Although the 1948 Act was the first to mention radioactive waste specifically, it proved ineffective as a regulatory tool. The first

  4. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  5. Work aggravated asthma in Great Britain: a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Lisa; Sumner, Jade; Delic, Julian; Henneberger, Paul; Fishwick, David

    2018-04-12

    Work aggravated asthma (WAA), asthma made worse by but not caused by workplace exposures, can have a negative impact on personal, social, financial and societal costs. There is limited data on prevalence levels of WAA in Great Britain (GB). The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WAA in GB, and to assess its potential causes.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional postal questionnaire study was carried out. A total of 1620 questionnaires were sent to three populations of adults with asthma. The questionnaire recorded; demographic details, current job, self-reported health status, presence of asthma and respiratory symptoms, duration and severity of symptoms and medication requirements. Questions relating to work environment and employers' actions were included, and each participant completed an assessment of health-related quality of life using the EuroQol Research Foundation EQ-5D. There were 207 completed questionnaires; response rates were 6% primary care, 45% secondary care and 71% Asthma UK. This represented a 13% overall response rate. Self-reported prevalence of WAA was 33% (95% CI 24.4-41.6%). In all, 19% of workers had changed their job because of breathing problems. Workers with WAA reported higher levels of work-related stress. Quality of life using the EQ-5D utility index was lower in those with WAA. WAA is a common problem in asthmatics in GB. This result is in keeping with international prevalence rates. Further research could assist the understanding of the most significant aggravants to asthma at work and help define appropriate interventions by workplaces.

  6. Work-related ill-health: Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Great Britain 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Noone, P; Bourke, J; Hayes, J; Turner, S; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Data on work-related ill-health (WRIH) in the Republic of Ireland is inconsistent. To compare the incidence of WRIH in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), Northern Ireland (NI) and Great Britain (GB) reported by clinical specialists in skin and respiratory medicine and by specialist occupational physicians (OPs). Analysis of data reported to three surveillance schemes in The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in ROI and corresponding UK schemes. Contact dermatitis was the most frequently reported skin disease in the three areas. Asthma was the most frequently-reported respiratory disease in the ROI, while asbestos-related cases predominate in GB and NI. Mental health disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders were reported most frequently by OPs. Annual average incidence rates for skin disease were 2 per 100000 employed (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) in the ROI and 7 per 100000 for GB (95% CI 4.8-9.4). Unadjusted incidence rates for respiratory disease were 1 (95% CI 0.3-1) and 8 (95% CI 6.1-10.7) per 100000 in the ROI and GB, respectively; adjusted for reporter non-response, these figures increased to 15 (95% CI 11.3-19.6) and 32 (95% CI 28.4-35.6) per 100000 respectively. This is the first paper to include THOR data on WRIH from the ROI, NI and GB. Consistent and dedicated data collection in the ROI via the THOR schemes is viable and important in the light of a deficit of occupational ill-health data. Sustained efforts to improve participation are underway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Whay, Helen R

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively.

  8. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V.; Buller, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively. PMID:27501387

  9. Grassland futures in Great Britain - Productivity assessment and scenarios for land use change opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Aiming; Holland, Robert A; Taylor, Gail; Richter, Goetz M

    2018-09-01

    To optimise trade-offs provided by future changes in grassland use intensity, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of respective grassland productivities are required at the systems level. Here, we benchmark the potential national availability of grassland biomass, identify optimal strategies for its management, and investigate the relative importance of intensification over reversion (prioritising productivity versus environmental ecosystem services). Process-conservative meta-models for different grasslands were used to calculate the baseline dry matter yields (DMY; 1961-1990) at 1km 2 resolution for the whole UK. The effects of climate change, rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and technological progress on baseline DMYs were used to estimate future grassland productivities (up to 2050) for low and medium CO 2 emission scenarios of UKCP09. UK benchmark productivities of 12.5, 8.7 and 2.8t/ha on temporary, permanent and rough-grazing grassland, respectively, accounted for productivity gains by 2010. By 2050, productivities under medium emission scenario are predicted to increase to 15.5 and 9.8t/ha on temporary and permanent grassland, respectively, but not on rough grassland. Based on surveyed grassland distributions for Great Britain in 2010 the annual availability of grassland biomass is likely to rise from 64 to 72milliontonnes by 2050. Assuming optimal N application could close existing productivity gaps of ca. 40% a range of management options could deliver additional 21∗10 6 tonnes of biomass available for bioenergy. Scenarios of changes in grassland use intensity demonstrated considerable scope for maintaining or further increasing grassland production and sparing some grassland for the provision of environmental ecosystem services. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles E Budge

    Full Text Available The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee (Apis mellifera, which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid 'true' males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

  11. Risk factors for epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Iuri; Willis, Sarah Caroline; Schafheutle, Ellen Ingrid; Hassell, Karen

    2018-04-09

    Purpose Organisational culture (OC) shapes individuals' perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it. Design/methodology/approach Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work. Findings Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions - business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate ( r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes. Originality/value This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.

  13. Marginal greenhouse gas emissions displacement of wind power in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R. Camilla; Harrison, Gareth P.; Chick, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty over the effect of wind power on the operation of power systems, and the consequent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions displacement; this is used to project emissions reductions that inform energy policy. Currently, it is approximated as the average emissions of the whole system, despite an acknowledgement that wind will actually displace only the generators operating on the margin. This article presents a methodology to isolate the marginal emissions displacement of wind power from historical empirical data, taking into account the impact on the operating efficiency of coal and CCGT plants. For Great Britain over 2009–2014, it was found that marginal emissions displacement has generally been underestimated with, for example, the emissions displacement factor for wind being 21% higher than that the average emissions factor in 2010. The actual displacement depends upon the relative merit of coal and CCGT, with a greater discrepancy between marginal displacement and average emissions during more normal system operation, suggesting that policies to penalise high-carbon generation can increase the effectiveness of wind at reducing GHG emissions. Furthermore, it was also identified that wind power is almost as technically effective as demand-side reductions at decreasing GHG emissions from power generation. - Highlights: • Marginal emissions displacement was calculated from operational data for 2009–2014. • Existing estimates of emissions displacement are generally low. • Emissions displacement is a function of the relative merit of coal and CCGT plants. • Policies to penalise high-carbon generation should increase emissions displacement. • Wind almost as effective as demand-reduction at reducing emissions.

  14. Great Britain Storm Surge Modeling for a 10,000-Year Stochastic Catalog with the Effect of Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Blair, A.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Storm surge caused by Extratropical Cyclones (ETCs) has significantly impacted not only the life of private citizens but also the insurance and reinsurance industry in Great Britain. The storm surge risk assessment requires a larger dataset of storms than the limited recorded historical ETCs. Thus, historical ETCs were perturbed to generate a 10,000-year stochastic catalog that accounts for surge-generating ETCs in the study area with return periods from one year to 10,000 years. Delft3D-Flexible Mesh hydrodynamic model was used to numerically simulate the storm surge along the Great Britain coastline. A nested grid technique was used to increase the simulation grid resolution up to 200 m near the highly populated coastal areas. Coarse and fine mesh models were calibrated and validated using historical recorded water elevations. Then, numerical simulations were performed on a 10,000-year stochastic catalog. The 50-, 100-, and 500-year return period maps were generated for Great Britain coastal areas. The corresponding events with return periods of 50-, 100-, and 500-years in Humber Bay and Thames River coastal areas were identified, and simulated with the consideration of projected sea level rises to reveal the effect of rising sea levels on the inundation return period maps in two highly-populated coastal areas. Finally, the return period of Storm Xaver (2013) was determined with and without the effect of rising sea levels.

  15. Why Great Britain's success in Beijing could have been anticipated and why it should continue beyond 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, A M; Balmer, N J; Winter, E M

    2009-12-01

    Home advantage in the summer Olympic Games is well known. What is not so well known is that countries that host the Olympic Games perform better in the games before and after the games in which they were hosts. To model/quantify the significance associated with these "hosting" effects and to explain the likely causes of Great Britain's improved medals haul in Beijing, while examining implications for London 2012 and beyond. Using all hosting cities/countries since World War II and analysing the number of medals awarded to competitors as a binomial proportion (p) response variable within a logit model, we identified a significant increase in the probability/odds of a country obtaining a medal in the Olympic Games before, during and after hosting the Olympics. Funding appears to be an important factor when explaining these findings. Almost all countries that have been awarded the games after World War II would appear to have invested heavily in sport before being awarded the games. A second factor in Great Britain's success is the legacy of hosting the Commonwealth Games in 2002 (a post-hosting games effect) that undoubtedly provided an infrastructure that benefited, in particular, cycling. Whether the International Olympics Committee either consciously or subconsciously take these factors into account is unclear when awarding the games to a city. What is clear is that based on these findings, Great Britain's prospects of maintaining the Olympic success achieved in Beijing is likely to continue to London 2012 and beyond.

  16. Communication of 19 June 1997 received from the resident representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 19 June 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, referring to the Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong done at Vienna on 4 February 1983

  17. Barriers to accessing abortion services and perspectives on using mifepristone and misoprostol at home in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Schellekens, Marlies; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    To examine reasons for seeking abortion services outside the formal healthcare system in Great Britain, where abortion is legally available. We conducted a mixed-methods study among women resident in England, Scotland, and Wales who requested at-home medication abortion through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web (WoW) between November 22, 2016, and March 22, 2017. We examined the demographics and circumstances of all women requesting early medication abortion and conducted a content analysis of a sample of their anonymized emails to the service to explore their reasons for seeking help. Over a 4-month period, 519 women contacted WoW seeking medication abortion. These women were diverse with respect to age, parity, and circumstance. One hundred eighty women reported 209 reasons for seeking abortion outside the formal healthcare setting. Among all reasons, 49% were access barriers, including long waiting times, distance to clinic, work or childcare commitments, lack of eligibility for free NHS services, and prior negative experiences of abortion care; 30% were privacy concerns, including lack of confidentiality of services, perceived or experienced stigma, and preferring the privacy and comfort of using pills at home; and 18% were controlling circumstances, including partner violence and partner/family control. Despite the presence of abortion services in Great Britain, a diverse group of women still experiences logistical and personal barriers to accessing care through the formal healthcare system, or prefer the privacy of conducting their abortions in their own homes. Health services commissioning bodies could address existing barriers if supported by policy frameworks. The presence of multiple barriers to accessing abortion care in Great Britain highlights the need for future guidelines to recommend a more woman-centered approach to service provision. Reducing the number of clinic visits and designing services to meet the needs of those living in

  18. Demographics of dogs, cats, and rabbits attending veterinary practices in Great Britain as recorded in their electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Noble, Peter-John M; Jones, Phil H; Menacere, Tarek; Buchan, Iain; Reynolds, Suzanna; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Everitt, Sally; Radford, Alan D

    2017-07-11

    Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors. Electronic health records were captured by the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), from 143 practices (329 sites) in Great Britain. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and species and breed ownership, and preventative health care interventions. Dogs made up 64.8% of the veterinary-visiting population, with cats, rabbits and other species making up 30.3, 2.0 and 1.6% respectively. Compared to cats, dogs and rabbits were more likely to be purebred and younger. Neutering was more common in cats (77.0%) compared to dogs (57.1%) and rabbits (45.8%). The insurance and microchipping relative frequency was highest in dogs (27.9 and 53.1%, respectively). Dogs in the veterinary-visiting population belonging to owners living in least-deprived areas of Great Britain were more likely to be purebred, neutered, insured and microchipped. The same association was found for cats in England and for certain parameters in Wales and Scotland. The differences we observed within these populations are likely to impact on the clinical diseases observed within individual veterinary practices that care for them. Based on this descriptive study, there is an indication that the population structures of companion animals co-vary with human and environmental factors such as the predicted socioeconomic level linked to the owner's address. This 'co-demographic' information suggests that further

  19. Fitness for purpose of pharmacy technician education and training: The case of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jee, Samuel D; Willis, Sarah C

    To enable pharmacists to become increasingly patient-centered, clinical professionals, they need to work with suitably trained and competent support staff; pharmacy technicians (PTs) may be the most appropriate to take on additional roles and responsibilities. However, clarity on PT roles, particularly in community pharmacy, is lacking, and pharmacists may be reluctant to delegate due to concerns over PTs' competence. This paper aims to explore the fitness for purpose of PT education and training in Great Britain. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with face-to-face and distance education providers; and different types of community (n = 16) and hospital pharmacy (n = 15) employers. Interviews explored views on education delivery, work-based learning and assessment, and quality assurance; they were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Interviews informed a questionnaire that was piloted and distributed (with reminders) to all 1457 recently registered PTs. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). University ethics approval was obtained. Staff in 17 Further Education (FE) colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organizations were interviewed. Participants from different sectors, education providers and employing organizations questioned whether standards met current practice requirements. Certain topics were considered as redundant or over-taught whereas others, such as professionalism (attitudes, behaviors), were perceived to be lacking. Hospital interviewees felt that PT education and training lacked clinical detail, whereas many community interviewees felt that requirements for PTs were more advanced than required. Various comments suggested that PTs' roles in community pharmacy were not clearly defined or sufficiently different from other support staff. In order to define appropriate and up

  20. Chest physician-reported, work-related, long-latency respiratory disease in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Darnton, Andrew; Gittins, Matthew; Stocks, S Jill; Ross, David; Barber, Chris M; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-12-01

    Much of the current burden of long-latency respiratory disease (LLRD) in Great Britain is attributed to historical asbestos exposure. However, continuing exposure to other agents, notably silica, also contributes to disease burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of work-related LLRD reported by chest physicians in Great Britain, including variations by age, gender, occupation and suspected agent.LLRD incidence and incidence rate ratios by occupation were estimated (1996-2014). Mesothelioma cases by occupation were compared with proportional mortality ratios.Cases were predominantly in men (95%) and 92% of all cases were attributed to asbestos. Annual average incidence rates (males) per 100 000 were: benign pleural disease, 7.1 (95% CI 6.0-8.2); mesothelioma, 5.4 (4.8-6.0); pneumoconiosis, 1.9 (1.7-2.2); lung cancer, 0.8 (0.6-1.0); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 0.3 (0.2-0.4). Occupations with a particularly high incidence of LLRD were miners and quarrymen (COPD), plumbers and gas fitters (asbestosis), and shipyard and dock workers (all other categories). There was a clear concordance between cases of SWORD mesothelioma and proportional mortality ratios by occupation.Occupationally caused LLRD continues to contribute to a significant disease burden. Many cases are attributable to past exposure to agents such as asbestos and silica, but the potential for occupational exposures persists. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  2. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  3. Developing pathways to low carbon land-based passenger transport in Great Britain by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Abigail L.; Tight, Miles; Pridmore, Alison; May, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to examine strategic pathways to low carbon personal transport in Britain and to compare these with the current trajectory of transport policy. A 2050 baseline was established using trend information, forecasts and best evidence from the literature on response to policy intervention. A range of strategies are tested including: technological development, pricing, public transport and soft measures. We conclude that even dramatic technological advance cannot meet the more stringent targets for carbon reduction in the absence of considerable behavioural change. The most promising combinations of measures involve clear price signals to encourage both a reduction in the use of motorised transport and the development and purchase of more efficient vehicles; decarbonisation of public transport and facilitating measures to enhance access whilst reducing the need for motorised travel

  4. Priority setting for invasive species management: risk assessment of Ponto-Caspian invasive species into Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C

    2013-03-01

    Invasive species drive important ecological and economic losses across wide geographies, with some regions supporting especially large numbers of nonnative species and consequently suffering relatively high impacts. For this reason, integrated risk assessments able to screen a suite of multiple invaders over large geographic areas are needed for prioritizing the allocation of limited resources. A total of 16 Ponto-Caspian aquatic species (10 gammarids, one isopod, two mysids, and three fishes) have been short-listed as recent or potential future invaders of British waters, whose introduction and spread is of high concern. In this study, we use multiple modeling techniques to assess their risk of establishment and spread into Great Britain. Climate suitability maps for these 16 species differed depending on the eastern and western distribution of species in continental Europe, which was related to their respective migration corridor: southern (Danube-Rhine rivers), and northern (Don and Volga rivers and Baltic lakes). Species whose suitability was high across large parts of Great Britain included four gammarids (Cheliorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus bispinosus, D. villosus, and Echinogammarus trichiatus) and a mysid (Hemimysis anomala). A climatic "heat map" combining the results of all 16 species together pointed to the southeast of England as the area most vulnerable to multiple invasions, particularly the Thames, Anglian, Severn, and Humber river basin districts. Regression models further suggested that alkalinity concentration > 120 mg/L in southeast England may favor the establishment of Ponto-Caspian invaders. The production of integrated risk maps for future invaders provides a means for the scientifically informed prioritization of resources toward particular species and geographic regions. Such tools have great utility in helping environmental managers focus efforts on the most effective prevention, management, and monitoring programs.

  5. The development of a sub-daily gridded rainfall product to improve hydrological predictions in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Freer, Jim; Coxon, Gemma; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Woods, Ross; Liguori, Sara

    2015-04-01

    In Great Britain and many other regions of the world, flooding resulting from short duration, high intensity rainfall events can lead to significant economic losses and fatalities. At present, such extreme events are often poorly evaluated using hydrological models due, in part, to their rarity and relatively short duration and a lack of appropriate data. Such storm characteristics are not well represented by daily rainfall records currently available using volumetric gauges and/or derived gridded products. This research aims to address this important data gap by developing a sub-daily gridded precipitation product for Great Britain. Our focus is to better understand these storm events and some of the challenges and uncertainties in quantifying such data across catchment scales. Our goal is to both improve such rainfall characterisation and derive an input to drive hydrological model simulations. Our methodology involves the collation, error checking, and spatial interpolation of approximately 2000 rain gauges located across Great Britain, provided by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Error checking was conducted over the entirety of the TBR data available, utilising a two stage approach. First, rain gauge data at each site were examined independently, with data exceeding reasonable thresholds marked as suspect. Second, potentially erroneous data were marked using a neighbourhood analysis approach whereby measurements at a given gauge were deemed suspect if they did not fall within defined bounds of measurements at neighbouring gauges. A total of eight error checks were conducted. To provide the user with the greatest flexibility possible, the error markers associated with each check have been recorded at every site. This approach aims to enable the user to choose which checks they deem most suitable for a particular application. The quality assured TBR dataset was then spatially interpolated to produce a national

  6. The response of the radionuclide monitoring programme for agricultural products in Great Britain to the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of the radiation monitoring and control programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Great Britain is to ensure the safety of foodstuffs. The particular responsibility of my department within the Ministry is the analysis of agricultural products for the presence of radionuclides entering the human food chain from atmospheric releases. The Ministry also has a laboratory which monitors the marine environment. This presentation describes the surveillance programme for agricultural foodstuffs and show how it was used to monitor the deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and shows some of the monitoring data obtained and indicate how the information was used in formulating protective measures. It also mentions future plans

  7. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... continents (Zwaan & de Bruin 2012). Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal, to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats (Armbruster and Mikos 2009), and to what degree...... the global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the format to local audience tastes. A few trans-national, comparative textual analyses of various adaptations of the same formats have been carried out to reveal the differences between adaptations (e.g. Mikos and Perotta 2012...

  8. The response of the radionuclide monitoring programme for agricultural products in Great Britain to the accident at Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J A [Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1986-07-01

    The overall objective of the radiation monitoring and control programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Great Britain is to ensure the safety of foodstuffs. The particular responsibility of my department within the Ministry is the analysis of agricultural products for the presence of radionuclides entering the human food chain from atmospheric releases. The Ministry also has a laboratory which monitors the marine environment. This presentation describes the surveillance programme for agricultural foodstuffs and show how it was used to monitor the deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and shows some of the monitoring data obtained and indicate how the information was used in formulating protective measures. It also mentions future plans.

  9. Communication dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA concerning enrichment bonds - A voluntary scheme for reliable access to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA attaching a UK Non-paper entitled 'Food for Thought: Enrichment Bonds - A Voluntary Scheme for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel'. As requested in that letter, the letter and the attachment is now being circulated for the information of all Member States

  10. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States

  11. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States [es

  12. Values and love styles in Turkey and Great Britain: an intercultural and intracultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanrı, Çağla; Goodwin, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Little previous research has examined the relationship between values and love styles, and none has done so across cultures or intracultural regions. This research was the first attempt to explore the correlation between individual-level values and love styles, and examined both within- and between-cultural variations in love styles. In this study 224 participants from Turkey and Britain, from urban or rural locations, completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Love Attitudes Scale measure of love styles. Pancultural analyses demonstrated significant correlations between certain value dimensions and love styles. In particular, agape (selfless love) was positively correlated with self-transcendence, ludus (game-playing love) was positively correlated with self-enhancement, and pragma (realistic love) was positively correlated with conservation. The inclusion of location and nationality and their interactions with values in the multiple regression analyses significantly increased the variance explained by values for five of the six love styles. Multivariate analyses indicated that ludus, storge, mania, and pragma were all significantly higher among Turkish respondents; pragma, mania, and agape all higher amongst rural respondents. Eros was highest among rural British respondents; storge, pragma, and agape highest among rural Turks. When these culture effects were explored, conservation significantly mediated the relationship between the groups of more conservative rural Turks (versus other participants) and both pragmatic and storgic love styles. Findings are discussed in the light of disparities in values and relationship styles within cultures, and the need to include both intracultural and intercultural variations in cross cultural research.

  13. Experiences with Railway Regulation in Great Britain and the Czech Republic – Round Table Report1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nash Chris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Round Table was to compare British and Czech experiences with railway regulation and competition introduction and to determine which lessons can be learnt. Special attention was paid to the question of whether the very complex British reform can be an inspiration for further liberalisation of the railway sector in the Czech Republic or whether there are any reform mistakes that are best avoided. Based on two introductory presentations and subsequent plenary discussion, some consensus emerged. The participants agreed that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to railway regulation and that the introduction of competition should take into account the different circumstances of a particular country. Franchising in passenger operations in Britain successfully stimulated demand but also increased costs to the industry, so its implementation should be completed with care. It seems very unlikely that open-access competition would be a viable solution for the whole passenger rail market because it is limited to a few commercially attractive routes, and as Czech experience suggests, it creates many new problems. Finally, it was confirmed that a strong and dedicated regulator is needed in a newly liberalised environment in order to solve many emerging conflicts and disputes.

  14. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Country specific associations between social contact and mental health: evidence from civil servant studies across Great Britain, Japan and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, N; Chandola, T; Lallukka, T; Sekine, M; Lahelma, E; Tatsuse, T; Marmot, M G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about which component, such as social contact of social networks is associated with mental health or whether such an association can be observed across countries. This study examined whether the association between frequent social contact and mental health differs by composition (relatives or friends) and whether the associations are similar across three occupational cohorts from Great Britain, Japan, and Finland. Cross-sectional analysis of data from three prospective cohort studies. Participants were civil servants of a prospective cohort study based in London (Men: n = 4519; Women: n = 1756), in the West Coast of Japan (Men: n = 2571; Women: n = 1102), and in Helsinki, Finland (Men: n = 1181; Women: n = 5633); we included the information on study variables which is complete. Mental health function was the study outcome, indicated by the total score from the Mental Health Component on the Short Form Health Survey36. Participants reported frequencies of contacts with their relatives or friends via a questionnaire. Age, marital status, and occupational position were treated as confounders in this study. Findings from multiple regression showed that the associations between social contact and mental health function were different depending on country of origin and gender. Among British or Japanese men, frequent contact with both friends and relatives was positively associated with their mental health function, while only social contact with friends was significantly associated with mental health of Finnish men. In women, the patterns of the associations between social contact and mental health were more distinctive: friends for Great Britain, relatives for Japan, and friends and relatives for Finland. These significant associations were independent of the confounders. Social contact was related to mental health of working people; however, culture and gender are likely to be tapped into. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public

  16. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.

  17. A frequency survey of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977 for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Harries, S.V.; Rae, S.

    1980-06-01

    Medical irradiation is the largest man-made contributor to the radiation dose received by the population of Great Britain, and diagnostic radiology is the most important component of medical irradiation. The work described here is a survey of the numbers and types of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977. The overall level of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain as a whole is reported and separate estimates for England, Wales and Scotland are given. Discussion of topics such as the frequency of particular types of examination, the number of films per examination and the use of gonad shields is included, and the results of the present survey are compared with those of the last national survey which was carried out in 1957. Also reported is an estimate of the amount of radiology undertaken outside the Health Service. The findings will be combined with estimates of gonadal doses from the different examinations and child expectancy data to estimate the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain. (author)

  18. Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsoidea): first records of the brush-clawed shore crab from Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, C. A.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Davies, Clare J.; Delduca, E. L.; Hatton, J. C.; Herbert, Roger J.H.; Clark, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The brush-clawed shore crab is reported from the River Medway, Kent and the River Colne, Essex, England. These represent the first records of Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 from Great Britain. If H. takanoi becomes established in GB, it may pose a threat to populations of the native shore crab Carcinus maenas.

  19. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale and its attachment dated 1 July 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, making available information on its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium as of 31 December 1997

  20. The Model of Unification and the Model of Diversification of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; presentation…

  1. Entanglement and Transnational Transfer in the History of Infant Schools in Great Britain and "Salles D'asile" in France, 1816-1881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    The historical developments of infant schools in Great Britain and "salles d'asile" in France--both precursors of present-day preschools--were interconnected. However, historians have not yet analysed specifically how transnational exchange influenced the growth and nature of these institutions. Drawing on archival data and secondary…

  2. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  3. Presentation of the Book “The Golden Horde in World History” (Oxford, Great Britain, April 7–8, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Giniyatullina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available April 8, 2017 the multi-authored monograph “The Golden Horde in World History” (Kazan, Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences Publ., 2017. 968 p. + 28 p. with colour insert was presented at the conference “Tatars in World History” (April 7–8, 2017, Oxford, Great Britain. The conference was organized by the University of Oxford and Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. The idea was also supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the World Congress of Tatars, the Alliance of Tatars of Europe and the Association of Tatars of Great Britain. The conference was opened with welcoming speeches by the deputy mayor of Oxford, Ray Hamberstone; Head of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Rafael Khakimov; famous British historian, specialist in early medieval Russia, the Caucasus and Byzantium, Professor Jonathan Shepard. Also the adviser on information, press and culture, Konstantin Shlykov, welcomed the guests and participants of the conference on behalf of the Embassy of the Russian Federation in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In his welcoming address, Head of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Rafael Khakimov, noted that the monograph “The Golden Horde in World History” is the fruit of the joint work of the researchers of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and the University of Oxford. Now these works are also available in English at the Bodleian Library of Oxford University. The chief editor of “The Golden Horde in World History”, a researcher at the University of Oxford, Marie Favereau, thanked colleagues from the Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and from the Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences for fruitful academic cooperation and stressed the importance of conducting further research on

  4. Implementation of guidelines on oxytocin use at caesarean section: a survey of practice in Great Britain and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Sharon R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations on women worldwide. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. Various clinical guidelines address oxytocin use at the time of caesarean section. We previously reported wide variation in practice amongst clinicians in the United Kingdom in the use of oxytocin at caesarean section. The aim of this current study was to determine whether the variation in approach is universal across the individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland and whether this reflects differences in interpretation and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a survey of practice in the five individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland. A postal questionnaire was sent to all lead consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists with responsibility for the labour ward. We explored the use of oxytocin bolus and infusion, the measurement of blood loss at caesarean section and the rates of major haemorrhage. Existing clinical guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and ALSO (Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics) were used to benchmark reported practice against recommended practice for the management of blood loss at caesarean section. RESULTS: The response rate was 82% (391 respondents). Use of a 5 IU oxytocin bolus was reported by 346 respondents (85-95% for individual countries). In some countries, up to 14% used a 10 IU oxytocin bolus despite recommendations against this. Routine use of an oxytocin infusion varied greatly between countries (11% lowest-55% highest). Marked variations in choice of oxytocin regimens were noted with inconsistencies in the country-specific recommendations, e.g. NICE (which covers England and Wales) recommends a 30 IU oxytocin infusion over 4h, but only 122 clinicians (40%) used this. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan; Shahab, Lion; McNeill, Ann

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are

  7. Future Flows Climate: an ensemble of 1-km climate change projections for hydrological application in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Climate was developed as part of the project ''Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications, and to enable climate change uncertainty and climate variability to be accounted for in the assessment of their possible impacts on the environment.

    Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE that is part of the basis of UKCP09 and includes projections in available precipitation (water available to hydrological processes after snow and ice storages have been accounted for and potential evapotranspiration. It corresponds to an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1950 to December 2098, each a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3. Data are provided on a 1-km grid over the HadRM3 land areas at a daily (available precipitation and monthly (PE time step as netCDF files.

    Because systematic biases in temperature and precipitation were found between HadRM3-PPE and gridded temperature and precipitation observations for the 1962–1991 period, a monthly bias correction procedure was undertaken, based on a linear correction for temperature and a quantile-mapping correction (using the gamma distribution for precipitation followed by a spatial downscaling. Available precipitation was derived from the bias-corrected precipitation and temperature time series using a simple elevation-dependant snow-melt model. Potential evapotranspiration time series were calculated for each month using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equations and bias-corrected temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed from HadRM3-PPE along with latitude of the grid and the day of the year.

    Future Flows Climate is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. It is the

  8. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol

  10. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  11. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simon J; Ford, Jonathan R; Cooper, Anthony H; Neal, Catherine

    2011-03-13

    Since the first prehistoric people started to dig for stone to make implements, rather than pick up loose material, humans have modified the landscape through excavation of rock and soil, generation of waste and creation of artificial ground. In Great Britain over the past 200 years, people have excavated, moved and built up the equivalent of at least six times the volume of Ben Nevis. It is estimated that the worldwide deliberate annual shift of sediment by human activity is 57,000 Mt (million tonnes) and exceeds that of transport by rivers to the oceans (22,000 Mt) almost by a factor of three. Humans sculpt and transform the landscape through the physical modification of the shape and properties of the ground. As such, humans are geological and geomorphological agents and the dominant factor in landscape evolution through settlement and widespread industrialization and urbanization. The most significant impact of this has been since the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, coincident with increased release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The anthropogenic sedimentological record, therefore, provides a marker on which to characterize the Anthropocene.

  13. Survey of the provision of prophylactic dental care for horses in Great Britain and Ireland between 1999 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P M; Andrew, R; Brannon, H; Burgess, R; Gibson, A; Little, J C; Orange, B; Ross, L; Rudolph, T; Shaw, D J

    2004-11-27

    A survey of 854 horse owners, trainers and equestrian managers in 10 regions of Great Britain and Ireland showed that 83 per cent provided their horses with routine prophylactic dental care at fixed intervals, including 49 per cent at intervals of 12 months and 30 per cent at intervals of six months; a further 10 per cent provided it only when they felt it was required and 7 per cent did not provide it at all. Overall, 44 per cent of the owners had their horse's wolf teeth (first premolar) extracted routinely; when prophylactic dentistry was provided, it was carried out solely by equine dental technicians (EDTS) for 53 per cent of owners, solely by veterinarians for 35 per cent, by both EDTS or veterinarians for 10 per cent of owners and by other than veterinarians or EDTS for 1 per cent. There was confusion among some horse owners concerning the qualifications of the EDTS, because no recognised British qualification was available until towards the end of this survey in 2001. Several reasons were cited by owners for choosing between veterinarians and EDTS including their perceived qualifications, personal recommendations, costs, the availability of a wide range of dental equipment and sedation, and the time and effort devoted to the procedures.

  14. Current levels of gonadal irradiation from a selection of routine diagnostic X-ray examinations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Fisher, E.S.; Shrimpton, P.C.; Rae, S.

    1980-07-01

    The gonadal doses from 13 types of diagnostic examination have been measured at 21 hospitals throughout the country in preparation for a new assessment of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. Thermoluminescent dosemeters, consisting of lithium borate powder contained in adhesive polythene sachets, were used for the measurements. They were attached to patients to monitor the testes dose directly or the entrance skin dose at the level of the ovaries. Skin doses were converted to ovarian doses using factors obtained by measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom exposed to a range of typical diagnostic X-ray fields. The results indicate that for some types of examination there has been an increase and for others there has been a reduction in the mean gonadal dose delivered per examination since a similar survey was made 20 years ago. Individual gonadal doses for the same examination still ranged over 3 or 4 orders of magnitude throughout the country with distributions described by coefficients of variation that were no less than those found in the late 1950s. This large variability in patient exposure, together with the observation that examinations were satisfactorily conducted on children with a much higher degree of gonadal protection than that offered to young adults, indicates that many patients must be receiving doses that are unnecessarily high. (author)

  15. Evidence for more cost-effective surveillance options for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ben A; Arnold, Mark E; Radia, Devi; Gilbert, Will; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Stärk, Katharina Dc; Van Klink, Ed; Guitian, Javier

    2017-08-10

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are an important public health concern. Since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, active surveillance has been a key element of the European Union's TSE control strategy. Success of this strategy means that now, very few cases are detected compared with the number of animals tested. Refining surveillance strategies would enable resources to be redirected towards other public health priorities. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on several alternative strategies involving reducing the number of animals tested for BSE and scrapie in Great Britain and, for scrapie, varying the ratio of sheep sampled in the abattoir to fallen stock (which died on the farm). The most cost-effective strategy modelled for BSE involved reducing the proportion of fallen stock tested from 100% to 75%, producing a cost saving of ca GBP 700,000 per annum. If 50% of fallen stock were tested, a saving of ca GBP 1.4 million per annum could be achieved. However, these reductions are predicted to increase the period before surveillance can detect an outbreak. For scrapie, reducing the proportion of abattoir samples was the most cost-effective strategy modelled, with limited impact on surveillance effectiveness. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  17. Immigration agenda in Domestic Politics in the Great Britain: Main Participants and Controversy in Conditions of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Константиновна Мамедова

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available British Labour government has been implementing a policy of multiculcuralism in Great Britain for the last ten years. New Labour multicultural policy is based on cultural diversity and could be built up in a society of social cohesion. But in the beginning of the XXI century the tolerant attitude towards members of the British ethnic minorities clashed with the religious consciousness strengthening among radical British Muslims. It was obvious that Labour government lacked effective instruments to deal with this group of people. Serious mistakes in immigration policy have made sufficient negative impact on Labour government popularity rates. Global financial recession have caused more troubles and made political perspectives of Mr. Brown government vaguer. Such situation in its turn leads to the increase of popularity of British Conservative party and even of far right party - British National party, which is famous for its racist statements. British observers star to talk that the political leadership faces the necessity to revise the multicultural policy.

  18. The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboo Lesh Gowreesunker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT and renewable heat incentive (RHI schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD, and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively higher electricity-to-heat use ratio, compared to other types of farms, which will favour biogas boilers.

  19. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O 3 , with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O 3 impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O 3 tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. - Econometric study of British winter wheat trial plot data suggests lower economic loss than predicted from experiments.

  20. Boxing injury epidemiology in the Great Britain team: a 5-year surveillance study of medically diagnosed injury incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Palmer-Green, Deborah; Gatt, Ian; Bilzon, James; Beardsley, Chris

    2015-09-01

    There has been no comprehensive injury report of elite-level amateur boxers in competition and training. We reviewed injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2009. Longitudinal, prospective injury surveillance over 5 years of the GB boxing squad from 2005 to 2009. 66 boxers passed through the squad. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training, and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 h. More injuries affected the hand than any other body location. This was the case overall, in training and competition individually, and for both new and recurrent injuries. More injuries occurred during training than during competition, and most injuries were new rather than recurrent. Total injury rate during competition was 828 per 1000 h and hand injury rate in competition was 302 injuries per 1000 h. Hand injury rate in competition was significantly higher than at the other locations. The incidence of concussion is comparatively low. Injury prevention should aim to protect the hands and wrists of elite amateur boxers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The new electricity market law in Great Britain; Das neue Strommarktgesetz in Grossbritannien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Markus [nuances public affairs, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Midway through the current legislative period the British government has created a new framework for its energy policy. At the centre of the electricity market reform (EMR) of the Conservative and Liberal Democrat Cabinet under David Cameron is the introduction of a capacity market driven by an auction mechanism. When the law was passed in late December 2013 Liberal Democrat Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Edward Davey said the British government hoped the reform would release 130 bn euros of investment, creating more than 250,000 jobs in the energy and energy efficiency sector. While the initial parliamentary consultations on the Energy Act, in 2012, revolved around expert issues, today the new energy policy has reached the whole of society.

  2. Gamma-ray dose-rates to human tissues from natural external sources in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.

    1960-01-01

    The information on environmental gamma radiation given in the last report (Spiers, 1956) was limited by the small amount of experimental data then available. Considerably more information has been accumulated since then and a summary has been published in the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on te Effects of Atomic Radiation 1958). The data reported from Austria, France, Sweden and the U.S.A. show that in general dose-rates out-of-doors range from about 0 mrads per year over sedimentary rocks to about 200 mrads per year in granite districts. In houses a similar range of doserates is indicated, the rates in individual houses depending upon the nature of the building materials. In some parts of the world, however, very much higher dose-rates have been observed. On the extensive area of monazite sand in the Kerala State of India dose-rates of up to 4000 mrads per year have been recorded and the mean dose-rate for 10 villages with a total population of 52,000 has been estimated to be 1270 mrads per year. Mean dose-rates of 500 and 1600 mrads per year have also been reported from two localities in Brazil

  3. Gamma-ray dose-rates to human tissues from natural external sources in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiers, F W

    1960-12-01

    The information on environmental gamma radiation given in the last report (Spiers, 1956) was limited by the small amount of experimental data then available. Considerably more information has been accumulated since then and a summary has been published in the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on te Effects of Atomic Radiation 1958). The data reported from Austria, France, Sweden and the U.S.A. show that in general dose-rates out-of-doors range from about 0 mrads per year over sedimentary rocks to about 200 mrads per year in granite districts. In houses a similar range of doserates is indicated, the rates in individual houses depending upon the nature of the building materials. In some parts of the world, however, very much higher dose-rates have been observed. On the extensive area of monazite sand in the Kerala State of India dose-rates of up to 4000 mrads per year have been recorded and the mean dose-rate for 10 villages with a total population of 52,000 has been estimated to be 1270 mrads per year. Mean dose-rates of 500 and 1600 mrads per year have also been reported from two localities in Brazil.

  4. Permanent Income Inequality: Australia, Britain, Germany, and the United States Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Leigh

    2009-01-01

    A common critique of most measures of income inequality, which are based on a single year's income, is that they fail to take account of income mobility. If income fluctuations are large, and individuals can smooth consumption, then high inequality and high mobility may be no worse than low inequality and low mobility. To test this, I use panel data from four countries – Australia, Britain, Germany and the United States – and estimate measures of permanent income inequality that are based on ...

  5. Patents and the first industrial revolution in the United States, France and Britain, 1700-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Bottomley, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent historiography of three national patent systems during the period of the first industrial revolution – the United States, France and, in particular detail, Britain. The purpose of the paper is two-fold. First, to show in a comparative framework how the institutional parameters of a patent system influence inventive activity. Second, to show that patents can, under certain circumstances, provide a net benefit to society.

  6. Support for e-cigarette policies: a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Partos, Timea R; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette regulations are the topic of extensive debate. Approaches vary worldwide, and limited evidence is available on public support for specific policies or what influences support. The present study aimed to assess smokers' and ex-smokers' support for 3 e-cigarette policies: (1) equal or higher availability relative to cigarettes, (2) advertising, (3) use in smoke-free places, and to assess changes in support over time and associations with respondent characteristics. Smokers and ex-smokers (n=1848) provided 3279 observations over 2 waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal web-based survey in Great Britain. Multivariable logistic regressions fitted using generalised estimating equations assessed change in policy support over time, and associations between support and demographics (age, gender and income), smoking and e-cigarette use status, nicotine knowledge and perceived relative harm. Equal or higher relative availability was supported by 79% in 2013 and 76% in 2014; advertising by 66% and 56%, respectively; neither change was significant in adjusted analyses. Support for use in smoke-free places decreased significantly from 55% to 45%. Compared with ex-smokers, smokers were more likely to support advertising and use in smoke-free places. Respondents using e-cigarettes, those who perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, and those with more accurate knowledge about nicotine were more likely to support all 3 policies. Less restrictive e-cigarette policies were more likely to be supported by e-cigarette users, and respondents who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes, or knew that nicotine was not a main cause of harm to health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Use of Flood Seasonality in Pooling-Group Formation and Quantile Estimation: An Application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Bell, Victoria; Stewart, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Regional flood frequency analysis is one of the most commonly applied methods for estimating extreme flood events at ungauged sites or locations with short measurement records. It is based on: (i) the definition of a homogeneous group (pooling-group) of catchments, and on (ii) the use of the pooling-group data to estimate flood quantiles. Although many methods to define a pooling-group (pooling schemes, PS) are based on catchment physiographic similarity measures, in the last decade methods based on flood seasonality similarity have been contemplated. In this paper, two seasonality-based PS are proposed and tested both in terms of the homogeneity of the pooling-groups they generate and in terms of the accuracy in estimating extreme flood events. The method has been applied in 420 catchments in Great Britain (considered as both gauged and ungauged) and compared against the current Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) PS. Results for gauged sites show that, compared to the current PS, the seasonality-based PS performs better both in terms of homogeneity of the pooling-group and in terms of the accuracy of flood quantile estimates. For ungauged locations, a national-scale hydrological model has been used for the first time to quantify flood seasonality. Results show that in 75% of the tested locations the seasonality-based PS provides an improvement in the accuracy of the flood quantile estimates. The remaining 25% were located in highly urbanized, groundwater-dependent catchments. The promising results support the aspiration that large-scale hydrological models complement traditional methods for estimating design floods.

  8. The effect of badger culling on breakdown prolongation and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

  9. Performance of industrial melting pots in the provision of dynamic frequency response in the Great Britain power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Meng; Wu, Jianzhong; Galsworthy, Stephen J.; Gargov, Nikola; Hung, William H.; Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Thermodynamics of Melting Pot (MP) loads is modeled based on field measurements. •Power consumption of MPs is controlled to keep varying with grid frequency changes. •Frequency response (FR) of MPs is similar but faster than that of generators. •FR provided by loads can mitigate the impact of reduced system inertia. •Firm FR in the GB power system is most beneficial for load aggregators to tender. -- Abstract: As a result of the increasing integration of Renewable Energy Source (RES), maintenance of the balance between supply and demand in the power system is more challenging because of RES’s intermittency and uncontrollability. The smart control of demand is able to contribute to the balance by providing the grid frequency response. This paper uses the industrial Melting Pot (MP) loads as an example. A thermodynamic model depicting the physical characteristics of MPs was firstly developed based on field measurements carried out by Open Energi. A distributed control was applied to each MP which dynamically changes the aggregated power consumption of MPs in proportion to changes in grid frequency while maintaining the primary heating function of each MP. An aggregation of individual MP models equipped with the control was integrated with the Great Britain (GB) power system models. Case studies verified that the aggregated MPs are able to provide frequency response to the power system. The response from MPs is similar but faster than the conventional generators and therefore contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions by replacing the spinning reserve capacity of fossil-fuel generators. Through the reviews of the present balancing services in the GB power system, with the proposed frequency control strategy, the Firm Frequency Response service is most beneficial at present for demand aggregators to tender for. All studies have been conducted in partnership between Cardiff University, Open Energi London – Demand Aggregator, and National

  10. Institutional Determinants of Organizational Change in Primary Education in Nineteenth Century America and Britain. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelser, Neil J.

    Using historical documents, this report traces the development of the system of primary education in Great Britain and the United States. During the period between 1810 and 1870, both Britain and the United States attempted to form an organization for primary schooling and achieved great progress in the institutionalization and growth of mass…

  11. "The greatest victory which the chemist has won in the fight (…) against Nature": Nitrogenous fertilizers in Great Britain and the British Empire, 1910s-1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses the rise of synthetic nitrogen in Great Britain and its empire, from the First World War to the aftermath of the Second World War. Rather than focus solely on technological innovations and consumption statistics, it seeks to explain how nitrogen was a central element in the expansion of a form of agricultural governance, which needed simplified, stable, and seemingly universal input/output formulae. In the first half of the twentieth century, nitrogen was thus gradually constructed as a global indicator of development, as it was particularly adapted to scientific and political regimes increasingly relying upon abstraction and quantification. Yet, the history of nitrogenous fertilizers in the interwar years also shows that this cannot be reduced to a simple story of triumphant modernity, as their development and globalization was imperfect, unstable, accompanied by resistance and the resilience or emergence of other models. Rather than assuming an all-powerful "state" project, the paper thus seeks to recover the multiplicity of actors, and attempts to account for the rise of nitrogenous fertilizers; not just as the progressive application of a technological breakthrough, but as a difficult process embedded in technological, financial, and military constraints, corporate strategies, political imperatives, and the changing institutional framework of agricultural research.

  12. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  13. The text of the Agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards to nuclear material supplied from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is presented

  14. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  15. Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

  16. Impact of Climate Change on high and low flows across Great Britain: a temporal analysis and uncertainty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Lindsay; Collet, Lila

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant challenges to water management posed by both floods and droughts. In the UK, since 2000 flooding has caused over £5Bn worth of damage, and direct costs from the recent drought (2011-12) are estimated to be between £70-165M, arising from impacts on public and industrial water supply. Projections of future climate change suggest an increase in temperature and precipitation trends which may exacerbate the frequency and severity of such hazards, but there is significant uncertainty associated with these projections. It thus becomes urgent to assess the possible impact of these changes on extreme flows and evaluate the uncertainties related to these projections, particularly changes in the seasonality of such hazards. This paper aims to assess the changes in seasonality of peak and low flows across Great Britain as a result of climate change. It is based on the Future Flow database; an 11-member ensemble of transient river flow projections from January 1951 to December 2098. We analyse the daily river flow over the baseline (1961-1990) and the 2080s (2069-2098) for 281 gauging stations. For each ensemble member, annual maxima (AMAX) and minima (AMIN) are extracted for both time periods for each gauging station. The month of the year the AMAX and AMIN occur respectively are recorded for each of the 30 years in the past and the future time periods. The uncertainty of the AMAX and AMIN occurrence temporally (monthly) is assessed across the 11 ensemble members, as well as the changes to this temporal signal between the baseline and the 2080s. Ultimately, this work gives a national picture (spatially) of high and low flows occurrence temporally and allows the assessment of possible changes in hydrological dynamics as a result of climate change in a statistical framework. Results will quantify the uncertainty related to the Climate Model parameters which are cascaded into the modelling chain. This study highlights the issues

  17. Contact structures in the poultry industry in Great Britain: Exploring transmission routes for a potential avian influenza virus epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercial poultry industry in United Kingdom (UK is worth an estimated £3.4 billion at retail value, producing over 174 million birds for consumption per year. An epidemic of any poultry disease with high mortality or which is zoonotic, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, would result in the culling of significant numbers of birds, as seen in the Netherlands in 2003 and Italy in 2000. Such an epidemic would cost the UK government millions of pounds in compensation costs, with further economic losses through reduction of international and UK consumption of British poultry. In order to better inform policy advisers and makers on the potential for a large epidemic in GB, we investigate the role that interactions amongst premises within the British commercial poultry industry could play in promoting an AIV epidemic, given an introduction of the virus in a specific part of poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Results Poultry premises using multiple slaughterhouses lead to a large number of premises being potentially connected, with the resultant potential for large and sometimes widespread epidemics. Catching companies can also potentially link a large proportion of the poultry population. Critical to this is the maximum distance traveled by catching companies between premises and whether or not between-species transmission could occur within individual premises. Premises closely linked by proximity may result in connections being formed between different species and or sectors within the industry. Conclusion Even quite well-contained epidemics have the potential for geographically widespread dissemination, potentially resulting in severe logistical problems for epidemic control, and with economic impact on a large part of the country. Premises sending birds to multiple slaughterhouses or housing multiple species may act as a bridge between otherwise separate sectors of the industry, resulting in the potential for large

  18. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men whohave sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey.\\ud Methods: We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men inthe same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European...

  19. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  20. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  1. The image of Great Britain in the interpretation of journalists of the military periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and analyses the image of Great Britain which at the beginning of the last century was formed by Russian journalists on the pages of the pro-government periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”. Within this work the British Empire appears to be one of Russia's main competitors in the struggle for the leading positions in the international arena. This research analyses more than 60 issues of this periodical. In conclusion, in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century periodicals had a special role in informational impact on people's minds.

  2. A first estimate of the structure and density of the populations of pet cats and dogs across Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter, James; Fouracre, David; Smith, Graham C

    2017-01-01

    Policy development, implementation, and effective contingency response rely on a strong evidence base to ensure success and cost-effectiveness. Where this includes preventing the establishment or spread of zoonotic or veterinary diseases infecting companion cats and dogs, descriptions of the structure and density of the populations of these pets are useful. Similarly, such descriptions may help in supporting diverse fields of study such as; evidence-based veterinary practice, veterinary epidemiology, public health and ecology. As well as maps of where pets are, estimates of how many may rarely, or never, be seen by veterinarians and might not be appropriately managed in the event of a disease outbreak are also important. Unfortunately both sources of evidence are absent from the scientific and regulatory literatures. We make this first estimate of the structure and density of pet populations by using the most recent national population estimates of cats and dogs across Great Britain and subdividing these spatially, and categorically across ownership classes. For the spatial model we used the location and size of veterinary practises across GB to predict the local density of pets, using client travel time to define catchments around practises, and combined this with residential address data to estimate the rate of ownership. For the estimates of pets which may provoke problems in managing a veterinary or zoonotic disease we reviewed the literature and defined a comprehensive suite of ownership classes for cats and dogs, collated estimates of the sub-populations for each ownership class as well as their rates of interaction and produced a coherent scaled description of the structure of the national population. The predicted density of pets varied substantially, with the lowest densities in rural areas, and the highest in the centres of large cities where each species could exceed 2500 animals.km-2. Conversely, the number of pets per household showed the opposite

  3. The Lancet Countdown on health benefits from the UK Climate Change Act: a modelling study for Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin L; Lott, Melissa C; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Dajnak, David; Walton, Heather; Holland, Mike; Pye, Steve; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B; Beevers, Sean D

    2018-05-01

    Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes. We used four scenarios and focused on the air pollution implications from fine particulate matter (PM 2·5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone. The four scenarios were baseline, which assumed no further climate actions beyond those already achieved and did not meet the UK's Climate Change Act (at least an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050 compared with 1990) target; nuclear power, which met the Climate Change Act target with a limited increase in nuclear power; low-greenhouse gas, which met the Climate Change Act target without any policy constraint on nuclear build; and a constant scenario that held 2011 air pollutant concentrations constant until 2050. We predicted the health and economic impacts from air pollution for the scenarios until 2050, and the inequalities in exposure across different socioeconomic groups. NO 2 concentrations declined leading to 4 892 000 life-years saved for the nuclear power scenario and 7 178 000 life-years saved for the low-greenhouse gas scenario from 2011 to 2154. However, the associations that we used might overestimate the effects of NO 2 itself. PM 2·5 concentrations in Great Britain are predicted to decrease between 42% and 44% by 2050 compared with 2011 in the scenarios that met the Climate Change Act targets, especially those from road traffic and off-road machinery. These reductions in PM 2·5 are tempered by a 2035 peak (and subsequent decline) in biomass (wood burning), and by a large

  4. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and the United Kingdom had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  5. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Kuprina, T A; Fetisov, V A; Minaeva, P V

    2018-01-01

    This article continues the series of previous publications of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) designed to evaluate the quality of autopsies carried out by the coroners in the Great Britain. It was shown that only in 13 to 55% of the 1,691 case the operators had an opportunity to refer the necropsy materials for the pathological study. The problems encountered in association with histological and toxicological analysis arose from the misunderstanding between the coroners and the pathologists as regard the organizational aspects of autopsy studies as swell as the financial and economic considerations. The Coroner Rules that had been adopted in 1984 and remained in force in the country until 2005 needed to be radically revised, corrected, and amended to facilitate the solution of a number of problems and eliminate the formal organizational and technical contradictions that hampered the further improvement of the quality of autopsies that must be performed by the corners at the national rather than the local level. The maximum number of the unacceptable results were revealed in the protocols of autopsires carried out by the forensic medical experts. All pathologists in the Great Britain are recommended to pay special attention to all cases of sudden death of the adult subjects and the deceased epileptic patients. The detailed investigations are mandatory in all cases of death following medical manipulations, such as surgical interventions, and complications.

  6. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  7. Similarities and differences in imperial administration Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina 1878-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Anja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the similarities and differences of the position of Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the age of New Imperialism. Comparative approach will allow us to put both situations in their historical context. Austria-Hungary’s absorption of Bosnia-Herzegovina was part of colonial involvement throughout the world. Egypt and Bosnia-Herzegovina were formally parts of the Ottoman Empire, although occupied and administrated by European Powers. Two administrators, Evelyn Baring as consul-general in Egypt and Benjamin von Kállay as civil administrator of Bosnia-Herzegovina, believed that it was their duty to bring “civilization”, prosperity and western culture to these lands - a classic argumentation found in the New Imperialism discourse. One of the most important tasks for both administrators was fighting the national movements, which led to the suppression of political freedoms and the introduction of a large administrative apparatus to govern the newly-occupied lands. Complete control over political life and the educational system was also one of the major features of both administrations. Both Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina never tackled the agrarian question for their own political reasons. British rule in Egypt and Austro-Hungarian in Bosnia-Herzegovina bore striking resemblances.

  8. Ecological landscape elements: long-term monitoring in Great Britain, the Countryside Survey 1978-2007 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Maskell, Lindsay C.; Smart, Simon M.; Scott, W. Andrew; Henrys, Peter A.; Howard, David C.; Wright, Simon M.; Brown, Michael J.; Scott, Rod J.; Stuart, Rick C.; Watkins, John W.

    2018-04-01

    The Countryside Survey (CS) of Great Britain (GB) provides a unique and statistically robust series of datasets, consisting of an extensive set of repeated ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 29 years. CS was first undertaken in 1978 to provide a baseline for ecological and land use change monitoring in the rural environment of GB, following a stratified random design, based on 1 km squares. Originally, eight random 1 km squares were drawn from each of 32 environmental classes, thus comprising 256 sample squares in the 1978 survey. The number of these sites increased to 382 in 1984, 506 in 1990, 569 in 1998 and 591 in 2007. Detailed information regarding vegetation types and land use was mapped in all five surveys, allowing reporting by defined standard habitat classifications. Additionally, point and linear landscape features (such as trees and hedgerows) are available from all surveys after 1978. From these stratified, randomly located sample squares, information can be converted into national estimates, with associated error terms. Other data, relating to soils, freshwater and vegetation, were also sampled on analogous dates. However, the present paper describes only the surveys of landscape features and habitats. The resulting datasets provide a unique, comprehensive, quantitative ecological coverage of extent and change in these features in GB. Basic results are presented and their implications discussed. However, much opportunity for further analyses remains. Data from each of the survey years are available via the following DOIs: Landscape area data 1978: https://doi.org/10.5285/86c017ba-dc62-46f0-ad13-c862bf31740e" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5285/86c017ba-dc62-46f0-ad13-c862bf31740e, 1984: https://doi.org/10.5285/b656bb43-448d-4b2c-aade-7993aa243ea3" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5285/b656bb43-448d-4b2c-aade-7993aa243ea3, 1990: https://doi.org/10.5285/94f664e5-10f2-4655-bfe6-44d745f5dca7" target

  9. A collection of evidence for the impact of the economic recession on road fatalities in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Louise; Wallbank, Caroline; Broughton, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    There was a considerable reduction in the number of fatalities on British roads between 2007 and 2010. This substantial change led to debate as to the cause of the reduction. Multiple sources of information and evidence have been collated including STATS19 road accident data, population data, socio-demographic data, economic patterns, weather trends and traffic and vehicle data. Summary analyses of these data sources show a reduction in overall traffic, a large reduction in HGV traffic, a reduction in young male drivers, a reduction in speeding, and a reduction in drink driving during the recession period. All of these reductions can be associated with a reduction in fatal accidents and have led to the conclusion that the economic recession changed behaviours in such a way that fewer people were killed on the roads in Britain during this period. Copyright © 2015 TRL Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane A; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Students' Preferences for Lecturers' Personalities in Britain, Malaysia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Maakip, Ismail; Ahmad, Sharani; Hudani, Nurul; Voo, Peter S. K.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Garwood, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    This study examined students' preferences for lecturers' personalities on three continents. Two-hundred and 35 university students in Malaysia, 347 university students in Britain and 139 university students in the United States provided ratings of 30 desirable and undesirable lecturer trait characteristics, which were coded into an internally…

  12. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  13. Decomposition of factors determining the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain (1970-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyeong [The Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), 2311 Daehwa-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-Shi, Gyeonggi-do, 411-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most important of the greenhouse gases that are causing global warming. The transport sector currently accounts for more than one-quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions and more importantly its share in total emissions is increasing in most countries. This paper investigates the key factors in the change in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain over the last 30 years. It attempts to disentangle determinants of growth in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel, which has the largest share of emissions in road transport. The study is based on various decomposition analyses, starting from the IPAT identity. As summarised in the IPAT identity, the degree of the Impact of human activity on the environment is determined by changes in Population, Affluence (per-capita consumption) and Technology (environmental impact per quantity of consumption). In the case of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain, the affluence (A) factor (car driving distance per person) was a dominant force for the growth of emissions over the last 30 years. Not only do people travel longer distances by cars than 30 years ago, but car occupancy rates have also decreased, contributing to the growth of car driving distance per person. Although technology (T) factors such as fuel efficiency and fuel substitution to diesel fuel partly cancelled out these growth effects of affluence factors, this contribution was relatively small. However, in the 1990s there emerged a different pattern in the trend. Of the affluence (A) factors, the growth rate of car trip distance per person weakened considerably. As for the technology (T) effect, the carbon intensity of car driving kept decreasing over this period. Therefore, although CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel (I) continued to increase, the growth rate became substantially lower than in the earlier periods. More detailed investigation into the determinants of both affluence (A) factors and technology (T

  14. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Fetisov, V A; Filimonov, B A; Gusarov, A A

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the experience of the coroners and pathologists in the Great Britain based on the results of the coroner's autopsies and recommendations of the experts involved in the activities carried out in the framework of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD). The recommendations are designed to reform the country's medical examiner system, improve the equipment of the mortuary facilities, and optimize funding for the autopsy studies. The authors consider in the chronological order the following issues of the coroners and pathologists' activities: organization of their work and its procedural aspects, ordering coroner's autopsies, preparation for their performance, analysis of the relevant documentation (autopsy reports) and medical case histories (discharge summaries). Also discussed are the recommendations of the NCEPOD experts for the improvement of the said studies with the detailed analysis of the causes underlying the aforementioned problems and concise comments of the authors.

  15. Recruitment of childhood leukaemia patients to clinical trials in Great Britain during 1980-2007: variation by birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjali; Diggens, Nicole; Stiller, Charles; Richards, Sue; Stevens, Michael C G; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-05-01

    To assess recruitment of children to national clinical trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Great Britain during 1980-2007 and describe variation by some factors that might influence trial entry. Records of leukaemia patients aged 0-14 years at diagnosis were identified in the National Registry of Childhood Tumours and linked to birth registrations, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group records, Hospital Episode Statistics and Medical Research Council clinical trial registers. Trial entry rates were compared between categories of birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. 9147 ALL and 1466 AML patients were eligible for national clinical trials during 1980-2007. Overall recruitment rates were 81% and 60% respectively. For ALL, rates varied significantly with congenital malformation (Down syndrome 61%, other malformations 80%, none 82%; p4000 g 67%; p=0.001) and congenital malformation (Down syndrome 28%, other malformations 56%, none 63%; pcongenital malformations.

  16. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  17. Comparing the Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry for Sitka Spruce in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Davies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently continuous cover forestry (CCF has become an accepted approach to forest management in Britain, but uncertainty about its economic consequences may be a barrier to its wider use. A study was carried out to examine the costs and revenues of transforming a stand of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. to CCF. The main conclusion is that transformation to CCF need not be more costly than clearfelling and replanting if natural regeneration is successful and the aim is to produce a simple canopy structure. The long-term value of transformation to a more complex canopy structure, with three or more strata, is lower and the extra costs need to be justified in terms of management objectives. The main output from the study is an analysis spreadsheet that empowers practitioners and policy makers to investigate the effects of costs, revenues and discount rates on estimates of net present value over 20 years, 100 years and in perpetuity, to suit local conditions. This paper summarises the method and results of the study in a British context, sets these in a wider international context, and considers the merits, applications and possible further developments of the approach.

  18. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J.; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  19. Britain at sea; Briten in Seenot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Lewis

    2012-08-15

    Offshore wind power in Great Britain is not developing as expected. While Britain is still the world's leader in this field, uncertainty concerning the future reimbursement and rate structure model is delaying investments.

  20. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  2. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  3. Style Congruency and Persuasion: A Cross-Cultural Study Into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Business Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, B.C.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Pair, R.G. le; Blanc-Damen, S. le

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—Research problem: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether style congruency on the dimensions succinct-elaborate and instrumental-affective influenced the persuasiveness of business newsletters in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Research question: Is a writing style

  4. Communication dated 5 September 2005 received from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency concerning a letter from the Government of the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 5 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom, attaching a letter dated 31 August 2005 from the Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States. In the light of the request expressed by the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom in that Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the attached letter are hereby circulated for the information of all Member States

  5. The history of euthanasia debates in the United States and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, E J

    1994-11-15

    Debates about the ethics of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide date from ancient Greece and Rome. After the development of ether, physicians began advocating the use of anesthetics to relieve the pains of death. In 1870, Samuel Williams first proposed using anesthetics and morphine to intentionally end a patient's life. Over the next 35 years, debates about the ethics of euthanasia raged in the United States and Britain, culminating in 1906 in an Ohio bill to legalize euthanasia, a bill that was ultimately defeated. The arguments propounded for and against euthanasia in the 19th century are identical to contemporary arguments. Such similarities suggest four conclusions: Public interest in euthanasia 1) is not linked with advances in biomedical technology; 2) it flourishes in times of economic recession, in which individualism and social Darwinism are invoked to justify public policy; 3) it arises when physician authority over medical decision making is challenged; and 4) it occurs when terminating life-sustaining medical interventions become standard medical practice and interest develops in extending such practices to include euthanasia.

  6. The Role Of Public Opinion Of Great Britain Of The Second Half Of The 19th Century In The Development Of The Social Legislation In Years 1870-1890 Of Queen Victoria’s Reign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using primary sources in Russian and British historiography, the author analyzes the evolution of public thought in Great Britain in the second half of the 19th century, its turn from individualism and principle of “night-watchman state” to a more socially-oriented position. This transformation, which occurred under the influence of both evident and hidden factors, was one of the key prerequisites for formation in the seventh decade of the 19th century of the New Toryism and “social liberalism” doctrines, the framework of which was used by the British government to chart a course for systematic social reforms in the areas of health care, elementary education, residential development and labor law. By analyzing the views of J. Bentham, J.S. Mill and T.H. Green, as well as literary works of the period in question, the author traces the process of alienation of the “laissez-faire” policy (the classical principle of state non-interference in economy by a certain part of the British society and the readiness to reassess the role of the state in the social sphere. The article presents in detail the search for philosophical, social and socialistic thought, aimed at solving the deepest social problems and predicating, in many aspects, the cycle of social reforms carried out by the Disraeli and Gladstone cabinets under the auspices of the state in the middle of the late Victorian period. The author points out that the social policy of the prime ministers W. Gladstone in 1868-1874 and B. Disraeli in 1874-1800 was historically the first precedent when the liberal doctrine which took the shape of the so-called Manchester liberalism in Great Britain had to recognize the principles of social state, economic regulation and a stronger role of the state in the British society. The author notes that the foundations of most of the social reforms that are now perceived as integral components of a modern democratic society were laid precisely in this

  7. El estudio de la historia del Reino Unido y la tecnología educativa / IT supportedlearning of the history of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Macias Macias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major in English Language was inaugurated in 2005 in the University of Camagüey, starting with the improved Syllabus “C”. Prevailing conditions in the Cuban economy cause that literature for teaching the vast number of students in higher education to become a critical issue for the teaching-learning process. Nonetheless, with the ever-increasing existence of computers, laptops, and tablets, the number of computer labs in schools, and the Youth Computer Clubs in neighborhoods, to provide computer products for independent study is one of the solutions to the aforementioned problem of literature. Out of this reality, there emerged the idea of developing a computer program as a teaching aid for the subject History of the English Speaking People (Great Britain, which will not only offer the contents for studying but also exercises to help assimilate these contents. The program was used in the second semester of the 15-16 school term with good results as exposed in this paper. Keywords: Foreign languages, IT, independent study, CALL

  8. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 1: Review of epidemiology and laboratory submissions in Great Britain 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Downs, S H; Crawshaw, T R; Upton, P A; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), can infect a broad range of mammalian species in addition to domestic and feral cattle and badgers. Since legislation introduced in 2006 in Great Britain requires animal keepers, meat inspectors and veterinarians to notify the authorities of suspect bTB lesions or the isolation of M. bovis in any mammal excluding humans, the organism has been increasingly identified in domestic species other than cattle. Although in most cases 'spill-over' hosts, these remain a potential source of infection for cattle, wildlife, and possibly humans. In this first part of a two-part review of M. bovis infections in non-bovine domestic species, current knowledge of the epidemiology of such infections is presented along with novel data relating to diagnostic submissions for mycobacterial culture between 2004 and 2010. Over this period M. bovis infection was identified in 116 cats, 7 dogs, 34 llamas, 133 alpacas, 35 goats, 24 sheep and 85 pigs and wild boar. The risk that such infections pose to the control of bTB, and as zoonoses, is discussed. In part two, the options available to diagnose bTB in these species, as well as the challenges posed to disease detection and control will be discussed in depth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The analysis of isurance in case of travel agency insolvency on the Czech market and the comparison with other kinds of bonding in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the topic of customer protection. The protection covers insolvency of travel agency and comes out from the Council Directive 90/314/EEC. In the Czech Republic this Council directive is implemented into Czech law through the Act No. 159/1999 Coll. on Conducting Business in Some Areas of the Tourism Sector. Unfortunately, the act is considered to be not up to date therefore novelization is being prepared. The article describes insurance as the one and only customer protection in the Czech Republic. Simultaneously, there are set other possibilities of customer guarantee in case of travel agency bankrupt which are successfully used in other European countries. One part of the article is dedicated to detail analysis of this problem in Great Britain. The result of provided analyses and research – proposal of guarantee model through insurance section which would be a part of Association of Travel Agencies and Tour operators. The goal of the model is to clear away present weaknesses in this field.

  10. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Ju; Kuprina, T A; Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A

    This article extends the previous publication of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) issued in the Great Britain in 2006. The analysis has demonstrated that all autopsy studies should invariably involve measurement of the corpse length and weight (including body mass index) as well as the detailed description of all injuries to the body (or references to their absence). All autopsy studies should be carried out only by a medical professional (e.g. a pathologist, histologist, forensic medical expert, etc.). The thorough examination of the cadaver is mandatory prior to evisceration. The maximum scope of the examination of all body cavities with the comprehensive description of all internal organs and systems is compulsory. Putrefaction and decomposition of the corpse can not be regarded as a justification for its perfunctory ('restricted') inspection; on the contrary, these dictate the necessity of a more careful examination with the compulsory description of all organs and body systems as well as harvesting biological fluids and tissues for the laboratory analyses (including histological, toxicological, and other relevant studies).

  11. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  12. The Practical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis: A Multidisciplinary Symposium Held at the Annual Meeting of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Manchester 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam; Puleston, Joanne M; Duggan, Sinead; Hart, Andrew; Conlon, Kevin C; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2018-01-16

    This study is about a questionnaire survey of delegates attending the chronic pancreatitis symposium at the 2016 meeting of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland and seeks a multidisciplinary "snapshot" overview of practice. A questionnaire was developed with multidisciplinary input. Questions on access to specialist care, methods of diagnosis and treatment including specific scenarios were incorporated. Eighty-three (66%) of 125 delegates effectively participated in this survey. Twenty-four (29%) had neither a chronic pancreatitis MDT in their hospital nor a chronic pancreatitis referral MDT. Most frequently utilised diagnostic modalities were CT, MR and EUS with no respondents utilising duodenal intubation tests. Initial treatment was provided through non-opiate analgesia by 69 (93%), through the use of opiates by 56 (76%) and through the use of co-analgesics by 49 (66%). Fifty two (68%) routinely referred patients with alcohol-related disease for counselling. Preferred treatment for large duct disease without mass was endoscopic therapy. In older patients with a mass, pancreaticoduodenectomy was preferred. This is a small study likely to be skewed by sampling bias but is thought to be the first multidisciplinary survey of the management of chronic pancreatitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The results show a need for comprehensive access to specialist pancreatitis MDT care and there remains substantial variation in management. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. The impact of increased interconnection on electricity systems with large penetrations of wind generation. A case study of Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, E.; Tuohy, A.; Keane, A.; Flynn, D.; O'Malley, M.; Meibom, P.; Mullane, A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection has been highlighted as potentially facilitating the integration of wind generation in power systems by increasing the flexibility to balance the variable wind output. This paper utilizes a stochastic unit commitment model to simulate the impacts of increased interconnection for the island of Ireland with large penetrations of wind generation. The results suggest that increased interconnection should reduce average prices in Ireland, and the variability of those prices. The simulations also suggest that while increased interconnection may reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland, Great Britain would experience an increase in emissions, resulting in total emissions remaining almost unchanged. The studies suggest that increased interconnection would not reduce excess wind generation. This is because under unit commitment techniques which incorporate wind power forecasts in the scheduling decisions, wind curtailment is minimal even with low levels of interconnection. As would be expected an increase in interconnection should improve system adequacy considerably with a significant reduction in the number of hours when the load and reserve constraints are not met. (author)

  15. Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dennis J; Manvell, Ruth J; Irvine, Richard; Londt, Brandon Z; Cox, Bill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Banks, Jill; Browna, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in March 2006 in the sea off the east coast of Scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a Canada goose found dead over the period extending from late December 2007 to late February 2008 on or close to a swannery on the south coast of England. The other two outbreaks occurred in commercial poultry in January 2007 and November 2007, both in the county of Suffolk. The first of these poultry outbreaks occurred on a large turkey farm, and there was no further spread. The second outbreak occurred on a free-range farm rearing turkeys, ducks, and geese and spread to birds on a second turkey farm that was culled as a dangerous contact. Viruses isolated from these five outbreaks were confirmed to be Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses; the quarantine outbreak was attributed to a clade 2.3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses.

  16. Wider-community Segregation and the Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Diversity on Social Capital: An Investigation into Intra-Neighbourhood Trust in Great Britain and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that neighbourhood ethnic diversity is negatively associated with intra-neighbourhood social capital. This study explores the role of segregation and integration in this relationship. To do so it applies three-level hierarchical linear models to two sets of data from across Great Britain and within London, and examines how segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested impacts trust amongst neighbours. This study replicates the increasingly ubiquitous finding that neighbourhood diversity is negatively associated with neighbour-trust. However, we demonstrate that this relationship is highly dependent on the level of segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested. Increasing neighbourhood diversity only negatively impacts neighbour-trust when nested in more segregated wider-communities. Individuals living in diverse neighbourhoods nested within integrated wider-communities experience no trust-penalty. These findings show that segregation plays a critical role in the neighbourhood diversity/trust relationship, and that its absence from the literature biases our understanding of how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion.

  17. Environmental impacts of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in Great Britain in 2001: the use of risk analysis to manage the risks in the countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K C

    2002-12-01

    Restrictions imposed for more than ten months throughout Great Britain in 2001 to control and eradicate foot and mouth disease (FMD) had a damaging effect on tourism and rural businesses. Risk assessment can play a valuable role in ensuring that the action taken is proportionate to the risk, and that countryside activities are allowed to resume when this can be done without compromising the objective of controlling and eradicating the disease. A risk assessment unit was established at the commencement of the epidemic to consider the risks posed by particular activities, to identify ways of managing those risks, and to make recommendations which could be used by policy makers when deciding what action to take. The assessments produced by the unit were published and the scientific rationale which supported policy and procedural changes was thereby exposed to public scrutiny and criticism. The author lists the activities subjected to veterinary risk assessments and describes how the process was used to consider public access to the countryside, leading to policy changes which within nine months resulted in the reopening of more than 96% of footpaths and bridleways without causing new outbreaks of FMD. A completed risk assessment is also included.

  18. Estimating risk factors for farm-level transmission of disease: Foot and mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Bessell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling an epidemic would be aided by establishing whether particular individuals in infected populations are more likely to transmit infection. However, few analyses have characterised such individuals. Such analyses require both data on who infected whom and on the likely determinants of transmission; data that are available at the farm level for the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease epidemic in Great Britain. Using these data a putative number of daughter infected premises (IPs resulting from each IP was calculated where these daughters were within 3 km of the IP. A set of possible epidemiological, demographic, spatial and temporal risk factors were analysed, with the final multivariate generalised linear model (Poisson error term having 6 statistically significant (p<0.05 main effects including geographic area, local cattle and sheep densities, and the number of non-IP culls. This model demonstrates that farms are heterogeneous in their propensity to transmit infection to other farms and, importantly, that it may be possible to identify holdings that are at high risk of spreading disease a priori. Such information could be used to help prioritise the response to an epidemic. Keywords: Foot and mouth disease, Epidemiology, Risk modelling, Livestock, Disease control

  19. Designing low-carbon power systems for Great Britain in 2050 that are robust to the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Price, James; Fais, Birgit; Li, Pei-Hao; Sharp, Ed

    2018-05-01

    The design of cost-effective power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires a modelling approach that simultaneously represents the whole energy system combined with the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of VRE. Here, we soft-link a long-term energy system model, which explores new energy system configurations from years to decades, with a high spatial and temporal resolution power system model that captures VRE variability from hours to years. Applying this methodology to Great Britain for 2050, we find that VRE-focused power system design is highly sensitive to the inter-annual variability of weather and that planning based on a single year can lead to operational inadequacy and failure to meet long-term decarbonization objectives. However, some insights do emerge that are relatively stable to weather-year. Reinforcement of the transmission system consistently leads to a decrease in system costs while electricity storage and flexible generation, needed to integrate VRE into the system, are generally deployed close to demand centres.

  20. Hand and Wrist Injuries in Elite Boxing: A Longitudinal Prospective Study (2005-2012) of the Great Britain Olympic Boxing Squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Gatt, Ian; Hayton, Mike; Beardsley, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to explore prospectively the nature and duration of hand and wrist injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2012. Methods: Longitudinal prospective injury surveillance of the GB boxing squad was performed from 2005 to 2012. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 hours. Results: Finger carpometacarpal instability and finger metacarpophalangeal joint extensor hood and capsule sprain also known as "boxer's knuckle" injuries were significantly more common than other injury diagnoses. The number of injuries during training or competition was similar, which is remarkable given the far greater number of training hours than competition hours performed. Injury rate for hand and wrist injuries in competition was 347 injuries per 1000 hours, while the estimated injury rate in training was <0.5 injuries per 1000 hours. Conclusion: Carpometacarpal instability and boxer's knuckle were more common than any other kind of hand and wrist injury in this cohort of elite amateur boxers. The rate of hand and wrist injuries was higher in competition than in training. Our study highlights the importance of hand and wrist injury prevention in the competition environment.

  1. Policy proceses, principles and decision making of the environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of French environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system and the influence of ecological topics on the politics of the central level. The implementation of central environmental topics of lower levels - regional departmental and communal level. Presentation of the state of the French environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil, Radiactivity and Noise). Beyond that this report evaluates French positions and activities of environmental policy on EEC-level and worldwide. Finally the bilateral cooperation on the field of environmental protection between France and the Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed. (orig.) With 31 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs [de

  2. State Government Revenue Recovery from the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; David L. Sjoquist

    2014-01-01

    The "Great Recession" lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, and it wreaked havoc on the revenues of state (and local) governments. While the U.S. economy has improved since the end of the Great Recession, state government revenues have in most cases still not completely recovered. We use various indicators to measure how different states have -- or have not -- recovered in the aftermath of the Great Recession, and we also attempt to explain why these different patterns of recovery have emer...

  3. The development of an approach to assess critical loads of acidity for woodland habitats in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Langan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside other countries that are signatories to the UNECE Convention Long Range Transboundary on Air Pollution, the UK is committed to reducing the impact of air pollution on the environment. To advise and guide this policy in relation to atmospheric emissions of sulphur and nitrogen, a critical load approach has been developed. To assess the potential impact of these pollutants on woodland habitats a steady state, simple mass balance model has been parameterised. For mineral soils, a Ca:Al ratio in soil solution has been used as the critical load indicator for potential damage. For peat and organic soils critical loads have been set according to a pH criterion. Together these approaches have been used with national datasets to examine the potential scale of acidification in woodland habitats across the UK. The results can be mapped to show the spatial variability in critical loads of the three principal woodland habitat types (managed coniferous, managed broadleaved/ mixed woodland and unmanaged woodland. The results suggest that there is a wide range of critical loads. The most sensitive (lowest critical loads are associated with managed coniferous followed by unmanaged woodland on peat soils. Calculations indicate that at steady state, acid deposition inputs reported for 1995–1997 result in a large proportion of all the woodland habitats identified receiving deposition loads in excess of their critical load; i.e. critical loads are exceeded. These are discussed in relation to future modelled depositions for 2010. Whilst significant widespread negative impacts of such deposition on UK woodland habitats have not been reported, the work serves to illustrate that if acid deposition inputs were maintained and projected emissions reductions not achieved, the long-term sustainability of large areas of woodland in the UK could be compromised. Keywords: critical loads, acid deposition, acidification, woodland, simple mass balance model

  4. The United States and Great Britain: Responses to the 1980 Boycott of the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James H.

    There have been several ways in which sport has been used as a mechanism of public diplomacy. First, the sporting arena provides a setting in which a country can define its aspirations for status or prestige among nations. Second, the nature of competition between countries reflects current diplomatic agreements. Third, the most familiar role of…

  5. Integrating national surveys to estimate small area variations in poor health and limiting long-term illness in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Graham; Aitken, Grant; Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz

    2017-08-28

    This study aims to address, for the first time, the challenges of constructing small area estimates of health status using linked national surveys. The study also seeks to assess the concordance of these small area estimates with data from national censuses. Population level health status in England, Scotland and Wales. A linked integrated dataset of 23 374 survey respondents (16+ years) from the 2011 waves of the Health Survey for England (n=8603), the Scottish Health Survey (n=7537) and the Welsh Health Survey (n=7234). Population prevalence of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness. A multilevel small area estimation modelling approach was used to estimate prevalence of these outcomes for middle super output areas in England and Wales and intermediate zones in Scotland. The estimates were then compared with matched measures from the contemporaneous 2011 UK Census. There was a strong positive association between the small area estimates and matched census measures for all three countries for both poorer self-rated health (r=0.828, 95% CI 0.821 to 0.834) and limiting long-term illness (r=0.831, 95% CI 0.824 to 0.837), although systematic differences were evident, and small area estimation tended to indicate higher prevalences than census data. Despite strong concordance, variations in the small area prevalences of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness evident in census data cannot be replicated perfectly using small area estimation with linked national surveys. This reflects a lack of harmonisation between surveys over question wording and design. The nature of small area estimates as 'expected values' also needs to be better understood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-10-15

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  8. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Brennan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission. Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  9. Non-European Union doctors in the National Health Service: why, when and how do they come to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edward B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%, 'better work environment' (7.1% and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%. Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%, with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%, few report that they would be unaffected (3.7% and the rest are unsure (9.8%. Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries.

  10. Socio-economic patterning in early mortality of patients aged 0-49 years diagnosed with primary bone cancer in Great Britain, 1985-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Feltbower, Richard G; James, Peter W; Libby, Gillian; Stiller, Charles; Norman, Paul; Gerrand, Craig; McNally, Richard J Q

    2018-04-01

    Studies have shown marked improvements in survival between 1981 and 2000 for Ewing sarcoma patients but not for osteosarcoma. This study aimed to explore socio-economic patterning in early mortality rates for both tumours. The study analysed all 2432 osteosarcoma and 1619 Ewing sarcoma cases, aged 0-49 years, diagnosed in Great Britain 1985-2008 and followed to 31/12/2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate risk of dying within three months, six months, one year, three years and five years after diagnosis. Associations with Townsend deprivation score and its components were examined at small-area level. Urban/rural status was studied at larger regional level. For osteosarcoma, after age adjustment, mortality at three months, six months and one year was associated with higher area unemployment, OR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06) respectively per 1% increase in unemployment. Mortality at six months was associated with greater household non-car ownership, OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.00, 1.03). For Ewing sarcoma, there were no significant associations between mortality and overall Townsend score, nor its components for any time period. For both tumours increasing mortality was associated with less urban and more remote rural areas. This study found that for osteosarcoma, early mortality was associated with residence at diagnosis in areas of higher unemployment, suggesting risk of early death may be socio-economically determined. For both tumours, distance from urban centres may lead to greater risk of early death. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  12. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stuart M; Webber, Michael E; Chalmers, Hannah L; King, Carey W

    2011-01-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO 2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO 2 (USD/tCO 2 ). CO 2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO 2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO 2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO 2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO 2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO 2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO 2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO 2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO 2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO 2 capture is economical, operating CO 2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO 2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  13. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  14. Description of veterinary events and risk factors for fatality in National Hunt flat racing Thoroughbreds in Great Britain (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S E; Rosanowski, S M; Stirk, A J; Verheyen, K L P

    2017-11-01

    No large-scale studies have described veterinary events occurring in National Hunt (NH) flat racing or investigated risk factors for fatality in this race type. To describe injuries and conditions requiring veterinary attendance on race day and to determine risk factors for racehorse fatality in NH flat racing in Great Britain. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2013). Information from all NH flat races held over the study period, including horse, race and veterinary event report details, was combined. Veterinary events were described by type and anatomical structure(s) affected. Incidence per 1000 starts were calculated for all veterinary events and by event group, and stratified by certain horse- and race-level variables. Risk factors for fatality were determined using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Over the 14-year study period, 544 veterinary events were recorded, providing an overall incidence of 13.0 events per 1000 starts. The most common events were bone injuries (23.5%) and tendon or ligament injuries (16.4%). A fatal outcome was recorded for 117 horses (21.5% of all events), resulting in an incidence of 2.9 deaths per 1000 starts. Odds of fatality were 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-11.82; P = 0.02) times higher in races restricted to conditional jockeys compared to those that were not. Horses starting in their first race experienced 1.44 (95% CI 1.00-2.08; P = 0.05) times the odds of death compared to those that had raced before. Classification of veterinary events frequently relied upon presumptive diagnosis. This study provides a benchmark for the ongoing surveillance of veterinary events in NH flat racing. These results support the phasing out of NH flat races restricted to conditional jockeys and highlight the need for further work to establish why NH flat racing Thoroughbreds competing in their first race are at increased risk for death. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Current UK practice of pediatric supraglottic airway devices - a survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Anthony E D; White, Michelle C; Engelhardt, Thomas; Bayley, Guy; Beringer, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Over half of general anesthetics in the UK involve supraglottic airway devices (SADs). The National Audit Project 4 undertaken by the Royal College of Anaesthetists demonstrated that aspiration was the most frequent complication relating to SAD use. SADs designed to reduce this risk (second-generation devices) are increasingly recommended in both adults and children. As well as routine use, SADs are recommended for use in cases of 'difficult airway'. This survey assessed current usage of SADs in routine practice and difficult airways. Sixteen questions, approved by the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) survey committee, were distributed to all its members. Two hundred and forty-four members responded. Eighty-eight percent preferentially use first-generation rather than second-generation devices. The most important design feature was the availability of a complete range of sizes (84%). Seventy-seven percent felt that randomized controlled trials assessing SAD safety in children are needed. In cases of failed intubation, classically shaped SADs are preferred (79%). Three percent of responders intubate via an SAD routinely. Eighteen percent have employed this technique in an emergency. Thirty-six percent of responders have found an SAD to function poorly. Pediatric anesthesiologists appear slow to embrace second-generation SADs. The role of SADs in the management of difficult airways is widely accepted. Research currently has little influence over the choice of which SAD to use, which is more likely determined by personal choice and departmental preference. There is a risk that some SADs are unsafe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Restrictions on the use of e-cigarettes in public and private places-current practice and support among adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; McNeill, Ann; Arnott, Deborah; Cheeseman, Hazel

    2017-08-01

    Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people's attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain. Descriptives for all measures; multivariable logistic regressions assessed correlates of allowing e-cigarette use and support for extension of legislation. Most (79%) reporting on workplace policies reported some level of restrictions on e-cigarette use. Small majorities would not allow e-cigarette use in their home (58%) and supported an extension of smoke-free legislation (52%; 21% opposed). Allowing use was less likely and supporting an extension more likely among men, respondents from a higher socio-economic status, ex-smokers, never-smokers, non-users of e-cigarettes and respondents with increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes or nicotine (all P e-cigarette use. Over half of adults would not allow use of e-cigarettes in their home and support prohibiting the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free places. Adjusting for socio-demographics, more restrictive attitudes are more common among never-smokers, never-users and those with increased perception of relative harms of e-cigarettes or nicotine as cause of smoking-related illness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. The independent nuclear state. The United States, Britain and the military atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    A chronological account and overview are presented of the 40-year history of British military research, development and production work in atomic energy. The United Kingdom's efforts in this field have always had close links with equivalent activities in the United States, and have often been conducted on a mutually co-operative basis. This book contains descriptions of the technical evolution of British nuclear weapon designs and production models, estimates of annual output figures for fissile material and weapon types, and indications of the nature of the weapon-testing programme. Decision-points are charted. The impact of the agreements with the United States, both upon weapon development and production programmes and upon stockpiling, is analysed, as well as their effects upon the nuclear submarine programme. The impact of later events upon Anglo-American relations is identified, together with the recent British attempts to move to a closer political association with Europe. The study concludes by evaluating the essential nature of four decades of United Kingdom military nuclear development, and identifying the practical limits imposed by past policies upon any attempt by a British government to implement a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament. (author)

  18. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 17 July 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United Kingdom, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. The Government of the United Kingdom has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high enriched uranium (HEU), and of civil depleted, natural and low enriched uranium (DNLEU) in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, as of 31 December 2002. 3. In the light of the requests expressed by the Government of the United Kingdom in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) and in its Note Verbale of 17 July 2003, the Note Verbale of 17 July 2003 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  19. The accuracy of the National Equine Database in relation to vector-borne disease risk modelling of horses in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C A; Lo Iacono, G; Gubbins, S; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R

    2013-05-01

    The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use. Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horse-owner geographic separation. During 2005-2010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-9.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.3-6.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.2-3.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.2-29.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.0-13.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.9-17.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.9-56.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.3-93.7%) of horses resided within 10 km of their owners. Data from a small sample survey suggest the majority of data on NED are accurate but a proportion of inaccuracies exist that may cause delay in locating horses and contacting owners during a disease outbreak. The probability that horses are located in the same postcode sector as the owner's home address is larger in rural areas. Appropriate adjustment for population size, horse-owner spatial separation and land usage would facilitate meaningful use of the national horse population derived from NED for risk modelling of incursions of equine diseases into Great

  20. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be unlikely to reduce health

  1. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  2. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [es

  3. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  4. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [es

  5. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [es

  6. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  7. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [es

  8. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 3 August 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004

  9. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 2 August 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003

  10. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [fr

  11. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [fr

  12. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [fr

  13. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  14. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006

  15. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  16. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012

  17. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  18. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008

  19. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [fr

  20. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [fr

  1. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [fr

  2. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  3. Towards monitoring of geohazards with ESA's Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data: nationwide feasibility mapping over Great Britain calibrated using ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT PSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Bateson, Luke; Dashwood, Claire; Jordan, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Following the success of its predecessors ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT, ESA's Sentinel-1 constellation will provide routine, free of charge and globally-available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations of the Earth's surface starting in 2013, with 12day repeat cycle and up to 5m spatial resolution. The upcoming availability of this unprecedented and long-term radar-based observation capacity is stimulating new scientific and operational perspectives within the geohazards and land monitoring community, who initiated and is being working on target preparatory studies to exploit this attractive and rich reservoir of SAR data for, among others, interferometric applications. The Earth and Planetary Observation and Monitoring, and the Shallow Geohazards and Risks Teams of the British Geological Survey (BGS) are routinely assessing new technologies for geohazard mapping, and carrying out innovative research to improve the understanding of landslide processes and their dynamics. Building upon the successful achievements of recent applications of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) to geohazards mapping and monitoring in Europe, and with the aim of enhancing further the research on radar EO for landslide management in Britain, since the beginning of 2012 the BGS has been carrying out a research project funded by internal NERC grants aimed at evaluating the potential of these techniques to better understand landslide processes over Great Britain. We mapped the PSI feasibility over the entire landmass, based on the combination of topographic and landuse effects which were modelled by using medium to high resolution DEMs, land cover information from the EEA CORINE Land Cover map 2006, and six PSI datasets over London, Stoke-on-Trent, Bristol/Bath, and the Northumberland-Durham region, made available to BGS through the projects ESA-GMES Terrafirma and EC-FP7 PanGeo. The feasibility maps for the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ascending and descending modes showed that topography is not

  4. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  5. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  6. Disease prevention as social change: the state, society, and public health in the United States, France, Great Britain, and Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Constance A

    2007-01-01

    .... While the Foundation endeavors to assure the accuracy and objectivity of each book it publishes, the conclusions and interpretations in Russell Sage Foundation publications are those of the authors and not of the Foundation, its Trustees, or its staff. Publication by Russell Sage, therefore, does not imply Foundation endorsement. Kenneth D....

  7. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  8. “How Grand is Our Design For Europe?”: Integration Plans of The Great Britain in the Late of 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Khakhalkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK European Union membership referendum 2016 and its results actualized the study of the British initiatives in the sphere of integration before the entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. The article is devoted to the little-known in Russian historiography "Grand Design"of H. Macmillan, nominated in the wake of the failure of the Suez operation against Egypt in 1956. Plan with such bright and eye-catching name suggested the creation of a broad integration group in Europe as alternative with Britain as a leader to the preparing for the establishment of projects of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic energy community. The project was designed to restore the prestige of the Conservative Party and to strengthen the shaky position of Britain in NATO and European affairs after Suez Crisis. At the same time the emergence of the plan reflected the desire of the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan to weaken the struggle inside political establishment between supporters and opponents of the country's full-fledged participation in the European integration and take the lead in the integration movement from France. Analysis of the content of the project and attempts to implement it within the framework of a Free Trade Area (FTA reveals the essence of the "special position" of the UK towards supranational integration and the British vision of the future of European integration. Modern United Kingdom appeared in the new European realities after the Referendum on the country’s membership in the European Union and returns to the starting point on the path of supranational integration and to the search for its place in Europe. In these circumstances, the ideas expressed by British politicians more than half a century ago, may again prove to be demanded and relevant.

  9. Opencast coal mining and site restoration in Britain today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, K.

    1981-05-07

    Production of opencast coal in Great Britain totalled around 13 million tons in 1980. Compared with underground coal, average profits are high and production costs low. Opencast mines thus make an important contribution to high-grade coal supply in Great Britain and to the financial situation of the National Coal Board. Former open-cast mines in Great Britain have been restored into leisure and pleasure regions that have become part of the rural scene.

  10. A variation on forced migration: Wilhelm Peters (Prussia via Britain to Turkey) and Muzafer Sherif (Turkey to the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    In 1933 the Turkish Republic formally offered university positions to 30 German-speaking academics who were dismissed with the coming to power of the National Socialist Government. That initial number went up to 56 with the inclusion of the technical assistants. By 1948 the estimated total had increased to 199. Given renewable five-year contracts with salaries substantially higher than their Turkish counterparts, the foreign émigrés were to implement the westernization program of higher education. The ten year-old secular Turkish Republic's extensive social reforms had encompassed the adoption of the Latin alphabet, and equal rights for women, removing gender bias in hiring. Such a high concentration of émigré academics in one institution, "the highest anywhere in the world," provides a unique opportunity to study a subject which has been neglected. In this article two cases in psychology will be examined: Wilhelm Peters (1880-1963), who came, via Britain, to Istanbul in 1936 from the University of Jena in Germany, and Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988) who went to the United States from Ankara University in 1945. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to identify the features that are specific to the German experience, and those that are shared and underlie translocation in science within the multifaceted complexity of the process of forced migration.

  11. Decision making on the Breeder reactor in Britain and the United States: problems and solutions in the plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydell, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    One objective of this study is to develop a framework of analysis that is useful for investigating the conditions shaping the respective roles of science and politics in decision making on technology policy. The analytical framework used focuses upon the interactive R and D process and specifies the factors affecting change in and of that process. The distinguishing feature of this new analytical framework is its utility for investigating how participants in and R and D process go about defining and solving a growing variety of problems that they encounter as the costs, impacts, and stakes of technological change become more readily apparent. The framework is then applied to a particularly complex and politically controversial technology, the nuclear breeder reactor. Britain and the United States, the original pioneers of technology utilizing plutonium to produce electricity, were singled out in order to test the utility of the analytical framework for the comparative study of the R and D decision-making process. Although the study does not purport to have exhausted all possible interpretations of this complex subject, the results of the study suggest that the interactive R and D process represents an improvement over conventional modes of conceptualizing how R and D policies are formulated and changed. Efforts to resolve major national and international problems relating to science and technology will ultimately succeed only to the extent that these efforts are grounded in a deeper understanding of the conditions affecting how these problems are defined and approached in actual decision-making environments

  12. The Bible in America and Britain at War

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This year marks the centenary of America’s entrance into what was known as the Great War on the side of France and Great Britain. On April 6, 1917, having passed both the Senate and the House of Representatives, the United States of America declared war against Germany. Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the people of the United States of America: Therefore, be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of...

  13. The measurement of adult blood pressure and management of hypertension before elective surgery: Joint Guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Hypertension Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, A; McCormack, T; Carlisle, J; Anderson, S; Pichel, A; Beckett, N; Woodcock, T; Heagerty, A

    2016-03-01

    This guideline aims to ensure that patients admitted to hospital for elective surgery are known to have blood pressures below 160 mmHg systolic and 100 mmHg diastolic in primary care. The objective for primary care is to fulfil this criterion before referral to secondary care for elective surgery. The objective for secondary care is to avoid spurious hypertensive measurements. Secondary care should not attempt to diagnose hypertension in patients who are normotensive in primary care. Patients who present to pre-operative assessment clinics without documented primary care blood pressures should proceed to elective surgery if clinic blood pressures are below 180 mmHg systolic and 110 mmHg diastolic. © 2016 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Medicalising disability? Regulation and practice around fitness assessment of disabled students and professionals in nursing, social work and teaching professions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Chih Hoong

    2009-01-01

    The reliance on medical information and on occupational health (OH) professionals in ascertaining fitness of applicants and registrants within the educational and employment contexts may lead to the medicalisation of disability. The Disability Rights Commission's Formal Investigation into the regulation of three public sector professions of nursing, social work and teaching in Britain sheds light on the nature of regulatory fitness requirements and how these are implemented in practice. The multi-pronged investigation included a review of relevant statutory and regulatory frameworks, formal written and oral evidence submitted by key stakeholder organisations and research into formal and informal fitness assessments within the education and employment contexts. There are varied and vague fitness requirements in all three professions. OH professionals figure prominently in formal and informal decision-making around fitness within education and employment settings, regardless of regulatory prescriptions. There is a multitude of approaches. There are, however, particular issues in the deployment of OH expertise within the employment setting. The determination of fitness should not rely solely on medical information. Blanket fitness requirements that are not contextualized against specific competencies for particular jobs are inappropriate. More collaborative and integrated working is necessary, particularly in exploring how reasonable adjustments may be provided to enable safe and effective practice. The positive spirit of the disability equality duty should be embraced.

  15. Report of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland/British Society of Gastroenterology Colorectal Polyp Working Group: the development of a complex colorectal polyp minimum dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattree, A; Barbour, J A; Thomas-Gibson, S; Bhandari, P; Saunders, B P; Veitch, A M; Anderson, J; Rembacken, B J; Loughrey, M B; Pullan, R; Garrett, W V; Lewis, G; Dolwani, S; Rutter, M D

    2017-01-01

    The management of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) is complex, with widespread variation in management and outcome, even amongst experienced clinicians. Variations in the assessment and decision-making processes are likely to be a major factor in this variability. The creation of a standardized minimum dataset to aid decision-making may therefore result in improved clinical management. An official working group of 13 multidisciplinary specialists was appointed by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) to develop a minimum dataset on LNPCPs. The literature review used to structure the ACPGBI/BSG guidelines for the management of LNPCPs was used by a steering subcommittee to identify various parameters pertaining to the decision-making processes in the assessment and management of LNPCPs. A modified Delphi consensus process was then used for voting on proposed parameters over multiple voting rounds with at least 80% agreement defined as consensus. The minimum dataset was used in a pilot process to ensure rigidity and usability. A 23-parameter minimum dataset with parameters relating to patient and lesion factors, including six parameters relating to image retrieval, was formulated over four rounds of voting with two pilot processes to test rigidity and usability. This paper describes the development of the first reported evidence-based and expert consensus minimum dataset for the management of LNPCPs. It is anticipated that this dataset will allow comprehensive and standardized lesion assessment to improve decision-making in the assessment and management of LNPCPs. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Markets and medicine: the politics of health care reform in Britain, Germany, and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giaimo, Susan

    2002-01-01

    ...: The Limits of Markets in Health Care 193 Appendix: Information on Interviews and Methodology 225 Notes 233 Bibliography 263 Index 293 List of TablesTables I. Physicians' Earnings Relative to Other Occupations in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States, 1965-92 13 2. Physicians' Mean Gross Income in the United Kingdom, Germany, and...

  17. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  18. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  19. 27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  20. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  1. Airport drop-off and pick-up charges in Great Britain : will they come to the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    As transportation network companies (TNCs) like Uber and Lyft drive a change in modern transport behaviors, fewer passengers : pay for services such as parking or commercial vehicle drop-off at airports, meaning that what once was a primary revenue :...

  2. Child Poverty and the Great Recession in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bitler; Hilary Hoynes; Elira Kuka

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the Great Recession, median real household income fell from $61,597 in 2007 to $57,025 in 2010 and $51,007 in 2012. Given that the effects of the Great Recession on unemployment were greater for less skilled workers the authors expect the effects of the Great Recession on household incomes to be larger in relative terms for individuals in the lower end of the income distribution. To explore this issue, in this paper, they comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recess...

  3. Nuclear Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyard, P

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: (preface) the new resistance; (1) the weapons connection; (2) the AGR - a bungled programme; (3) reactor choice - a fearful dilemma; (4) the deadly atom (uranium - mining, processing, enrichment of U-235, political and international aspects); (5) the fast reactor - how safe; (6) radiation risk and cancer; (7) atomic waste - the industry's Achilles Heel; (8) accidents - the ever-present threat; (9) the growing opposition; (10) the nuclear state.

  4. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  5. Chapter 16. Conservation status of great gray owls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Previous chapters outlined the biology and ecology of great gray owls as well as the ecology of this species in the western United States. That technical review provides the basis to assess the current conservation status of great gray owls in the United States. Are populations of great gray owls in the United States currently threatened? Are current land management...

  6. Inspiration from britain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November......Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  7. Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain using the General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    British alcohol consumption and abstinence rates have increased substantially in the last 3 decades. This study aims to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects to improve our understanding of these trends and suggest groups for targeted interventions to reduce resultant harms. Age, period, cohort analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys using separate logistic and negative binomial models for each gender. Great Britain 1984-2009. Annual nationally representative samples of approximately 20 000 adults (16+) within 13 000 households. Age (eight groups: 16-17 to 75+ years), period (six groups: 1980-84 to 2005-09) and birth cohorts (19 groups: 1900-04 to 1990-94). Outcome measures were abstinence and average weekly alcohol consumption. Controls were income, education, ethnicity and country. After accounting for period and cohort trends, 18-24-year-olds have the highest consumption levels (incident rate ratio = 1.18-1.15) and lower abstention rates (odds ratio = 0.67-0.87). Consumption generally decreases and abstention rates increase in later life. Until recently, successive birth cohorts' consumption levels were also increasing. However, for those born post-1985, abstention rates are increasing and male consumption is falling relative to preceding cohorts. In contrast, female drinking behaviours have polarized over the study period, with increasing abstention rates accompanying increases in drinkers' consumption levels. Rising female consumption of alcohol and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom. Recent declines in alcohol consumption appear to be attributable to reduced consumption and increased abstinence rates among the most recent birth cohorts, especially males, and general increased rates of abstention across the study period. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Population health concerns during the United States' Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Dredze, Mark; Ayers, John W

    2014-02-01

    Associations between economic conditions and health are usually derived from cost-intensive surveys that are intermittently collected with nonspecific measures (i.e., self-rated health). This study identified how precise health concerns changed during the U.S. Great Recession analyzing Google search queries to identify the concern by the query content and their prevalence by the query volume. Excess health concerns were estimated during the Great Recession (December 2008 through 2011) by comparing the cumulative difference between observed and expected (based on linear projections from pre-existing trends) query volume for hundreds of individual terms. As performed in 2013, the 100 queries with the greatest excess were ranked and then clustered into themes based on query content. The specific queries with the greatest relative excess were stomach ulcer symptoms and headache symptoms, respectively, 228% (95% CI=35, 363) and 193% (95% CI=60, 275) greater than expected. Queries typically involved symptomology (i.e., gas symptoms) and diagnostics (i.e., heart monitor) naturally coalescing into themes. Among top themes, headache queries were 41% (95% CI=3, 148); hernia 37% (95% CI=16, 142); chest pain 35% (95% CI=6, 313); and arrhythmia 32% (95% CI=3, 149) greater than expected. Pain was common with back, gastric, joint, and tooth foci, with the latter 19% (95% CI=4, 46) higher. Among just the top 100, there were roughly 205 million excess health concern queries during the Great Recession. Google queries indicate that the Great Recession coincided with substantial increases in health concerns, hinting at how population health specifically changed during that time. © 2013 Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  9. Fish tissue contamination in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP...

  10. Standardization of Primary Education in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovaya, Yelena B.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…

  11. Plutonium in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Barry, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    From time to time the authors have measured the Pu content of tissues taken at autopsy from people who had worked in the Pu-processing industries including some from Sellafield Works in Cumbria. During the work it became apparent that the results would be more enlightening if they could be compared with the levels of Pu in people who had not worked in the nuclear energy industries. With the objective of making this comparison, the authors commenced a series of Pu analyses on tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public, who might be expected to have received their body deposits of Pu from fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions. This note augments some results reported previously in summary form

  12. FAB - Underwater and underground electric connection between France and Great Britain via Aurigny. File of presentation of the project and of its investigation area. Project synthesis. Impact study constituting an incidence document under the Law on Water. Ground brochure + Sea brochure. Non technical summary. Deliberated opinion of the Environmental Authority on the underwater and underground electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny (FAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This document gathers several reports. The first one indicates the actors involved in the project of electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny, presents various technical aspects and works of this project, and proposes a definition and a description of the concerned area. The second report proposes a synthetic presentation of the project: agreement process, project interest, project definition and equipment locations, project technical components and aspects, onshore and offshore environmental aspects, project status and planning. The third report analyses the various onshore aspects of the interconnection project: project description, initial situation of the environment, analysis of the project effects on the environment and on health, analysis of cumulated effects with other known projects, sketches of examined substitution solutions and reasons for the selection of the project, elements of analysis of compliance with land uses and various planning documents, measures aimed at avoiding, reducing or compensating project effects, methods to assess initial status and effects, faced difficulties. The fourth report addresses the same issues as the previous one but for offshore aspects. The fifth report is a non technical summarised presentation of the project which presents the French side, describes the elaboration approach, the offshore and onshore legs of the project, an assessment of impacts on Natura 2000 sites. It notably contains several detailed geographical and geological maps to illustrate and to highlight the various environmental, geological, economic, social, urban or landscape impacts. The last document is the detailed opinion of the Environmental Authority on this project. It addresses the context, the project principle, implementation and cost, environmental stakes and challenges, and impacts

  13. State of damage of radiation facilities in great Hanshin earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The southern Hyogo Prefecture earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in the early morning of January 17, 1995. The outline of the earthquake and dead and injured, the damages of buildings, life lines, roads, railways and harbors, liquefaction phenomena, the state of occurrence of fires and so on are reported. The districts where the earthquakes of magnitude 5 or stronger occurred, and the radiation facilities in those districts are shown. The state of damage of radiation facilities in past earthquakes is summarized. From January 17 to 19 after the earthquake, Science and Technology Agency gave necessary instruction to and heard the state of damage from 79 permitted facilities in the areas of magnitude 7 or 6 by telephone, and received the report that there was not the fear of radiation damage in all facilities. Also the state of damage of radiation facilities was investigated at the actual places, and the questionnaires on the state of radiation facilities and the action at the time of the earthquake were performed. The state of radiation facilities accompanying the earthquake is reported. The matters to be reflected to the countermeasures to earthquakes anew for the protection of facilities, communication system, facility checkup system and the resumption of use are pointed out. (K.I.)

  14. The Brexit challenge for Britain and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjon Boriçi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the membership of the Great Britain in the European Union in 1973, the relations of Britain with the institutions and member countries of the European Union have been correct. The greatest problem of the Great Britain remains beyond any doubt the delegation of its "independence" in the European Union’s structures. For the ultra conservatives was unimaginable that a country that has never been conquered (since the times of the Romans 55 B.C. would deliver the proper sovereignty to a community of continental countries and above all to the Franco-German policies who, especially the last one, enjoys a great doubt among the British politics. The paper I present tries to explain the obstacles between British and European politics in historic, economic and diplomatic terms as well as the rise of skepticism among the European leaders themselves during the past decades following the end of the Second World War. In an academic approach, in this paper, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between European and British economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the policies of the European Union in the global era. Brexit of course represents the sharpest challenge of the moment for the Great Britain and the European Union in the global era.

  15. Moments of greatness: entering the fundamental state of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    When we do our best work as leaders, we don't imitate others. Rather, we draw on our own values and capabilities. We enter what author Robert Quinn calls the fundamental state of leadership. This is a frame of mind we tend to adopt when facing a significant challenge: a promotion opportunity, the risk of professional failure, a serious illness, a divorce, the death of a loved one, or any other major life jolt. Crisis calls, and we rise to the occasion. But we don't need to spend time in the dark night of the soul to reach this fundamental state. We can make the shift at any time by asking ourselves-and honestly answering--four transformative questions: Am I results centered? (Am I willing to leave my comfort zone to make things happen?) Am I internally directed? (Am I behaving according to my values rather than bending to social or political pressures?) Am I other focused? (Am I putting the collective good above my own needs?) Am I externally open? (Am I receptive to outside stimuli that may signal the need for change?) When we can answer these questions in the affirmative, we're prepared to lead in the truest sense. Of course, we can't sustain the fundamental state of leadership indefinitely. Fatigue and external resistance pull us out of it. But each time we reach it, we then return to our everyday selves a bit more capable, and we usually boost the performance of the people around us. Over time, we create a high-performance culture--and that can be sustained.

  16. Estados Unidos e Grã-Bretanha no Brasil: transição de poder no entreguerras The United States and Britain in Brazil: transition of power in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Vargas Garcia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Com enfoque sobretudo na década de 20, este artigo tem por objetivo fornecer elementos para uma melhor compreensão da transição de poder no Brasil da Grã-Bretanha para os Estados Unidos, processo de longo prazo que teve conseqüências duradouras para as relações internacionais do país no século XX. A maciça penetração norte-americana na economia brasileira é abordada em termos de investimentos diretos (como no caso do setor automobilístico, comércio exterior e finanças. A influência britânica, por sua vez, entrou em crise devido ao impacto da Primeira Guerra Mundial e não logrou reverter a tendência ao declínio no período entreguerras. Sugere-se que, se o grande embate por supremacia nos anos 30 ocorreu entre os Estados Unidos e a Alemanha, nos anos 20 a principal disputa no Brasil se deu entre os interesses conservadores da Grã-Bretanha e o desafio norte-americano.By focusing mainly on the 1920s, this article aims at providing material for a better understanding of the transition of power in Brazil from Britain to the United States, a long-term process with lasting consequences for the country's international relations in the twentieth century. The massive US encroachment upon the Brazilian economy is examined in terms of direct investments (including the case of the automobile sector, foreign trade and finance. British influence, on the other hand, was shattered by the impact of the First World War and the trend towards decline in the interwar period could not be reversed. It is suggested that, if the great battle for supremacy in the 1930s opposed the United States and Germany, in the 1920s the major dispute in Brazil was the clash between Britain's conservative interests and the US challenge.

  17. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the

  18. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    It was thirty years ago that British industry held the first ever trade fair at CERN and industrial links between Britain and the Laboratory have never looked back. Speaking at the opening of the 1998 "Britain at CERN" exhibition on 20 October, H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse, British Ambassador to Switzerland, underlined the value of CERN contracts to British industry saying that "The prize is well worth going for, I understand that contracts worth  1.5bn will be awarded over the next six years".

  19. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

    1992-02-01

    In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to

  20. To what extent were ideas and beliefs about eugenics held in Nazi Germany shared in Britain and the United States prior to the second world war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Emily

    2004-06-01

    The term eugenics was first coined by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1883. The eugenic movement gained public popularity across Europe and North America at the end of the Victorian era, fuelled by the concept of 'social Darwinism' and public fear of a decline in the number of ideal citizens. The origins of eugenic legislation can be found in the USA's immigration acts of the early 1880's. Indiana was the first state to pass sterilisation laws, in 1907. The laws that followed were used as templates by the Nazis, thirty years later. In Britain the Wood Committee (1924) and the Brock Committee (1931) both put pressure on parliament to introduce eugenic laws but were defeated. The anti-eugenics movement was stronger than in other protestant European countries and eugenics fell out of favour as the 1930's progressed. In the USA however, support remained strong, leading one activist to comment in 1934, 'The Germans are beating us at our own game'. There appears to have been little emphasis on eugenics in the Weimar Parliament, but the Nazi's legislation, on coming to power in 1933, surpassed anything conceived on either side of the Atlantic at the outbreak of war in 1939.

  1. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  2. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  3. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  4. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, James

    2017-06-01

    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Britain's nuclear workhorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Britain's record in the field of nuclear power is briefly summarised. The success of the Magnox reactors is attributed to their reliability, good safety record, and the competitiveness of the fuel costs. The GR stations are expected to prove extremely valuable in spite of initial setbacks. In planning for future plant, it is suggested that the best way of utilizing the financial, human, and material resources required is by international collaboration on design and development. (U.K.)

  6. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    ravaged by a brutal armed conflict. In comparison to the three past presidents, Joseph Kabila has managed to restore political stability and calm to much...DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region

  7. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  8. Multiculturalism as Governmentality in Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    Britain has been a multicultural nation for the better part of the past century, but multiculturalism has only manifested itself as a political phenomenon roughly since the Rushdie affair. Multiculturalism did not emerge as a proactive political initiative, but became a strategy for solving...... the problems ushered in by the multicultural society. Specifically, the challenges arose following the recent history immigration and emerged as discrimination, hate speech, reaffirmed religious identities, terrorism and radicalism. These challenges and politics of British multiculturalism have been studied...... be understood as the guiding principles of the modern British state? Is a multicultural politics, as applied by the British government, the better strategy for solving the problems and reaffirming its position as the immediately apparent governing institution of society?...

  9. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  10. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  11. Reproductive technology: in Britain, the debate after the Warnock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Raanan

    1987-06-01

    Gillon contributes an article on Great Britain to the Hastings Center Report series on reproductive technologies outside the United States. In 1984 the Warnock Committee's report represented the first attempt by a national government to formulate a policy on reproductive issues such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and research on human embryos. Reaction to the Warnock report has focused on its recommendations to ban commercial surrogacy and to allow experimentation on embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Legislation on surrogacy was passed in 1985, while bills banning embryo research failed in 1986. A 1986 government consultation paper called for discussion of other aspects of the Warnock report, including its recommendation that a statutory licensing authority to regulate reproductive technologies be established. Gillon predicts that no new legislation will be enacted under the present government.

  12. Great Blunders?: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, and the Proposed United States/Mexico Border Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerbein, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall which reveals that both grew from unique political, historical, geographical, cultural, and economic circumstances. The purpose of this article is to provide new arguments for a debate that all too often has been waged with emotions, polemics, and misinformation. The…

  13. State-of-the-art techniques for inventory of Great Lakes aquatic habitats and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brock, R.H.; Bukata, R.P.; Dawson, J.J.; Horvath, F.J.; Busch, W.-Dieter N.; Sly, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    This section of the Classification and Inventory of Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat report was prepared as a series of individually authored contributions that describe, in various levels of detail, state-of-the-art techniques that can be used alone or in combination to inventory aquatic habitats and resources in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. No attempt was made to review and evaluate techniques that are used routinely in limnological and fisheries surveys and inventories because it was felt that users of this document would be familiar with them.

  14. Reviews Book: Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Equipment: SEP Spectroscope Books: Quantum Gods / The Universe Places to visit: The Royal Institution of Great Britain Book: What is this Thing Called Science? Book: Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Equipment: La Crosse Anemometer Book: Wonder and Delight Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND SEP Spectroscope Flatpacked classroom equipment for pupils aged 10 and over Quantum Gods Book attacks spiritualism and religion with physics The Universe Study of whether physics alone can explain origin of universe La Crosse Anemometer Handheld monitor is packed with useful features Wonder and Delight Essays in science education in honour of Eric Rogers WORTH A LOOK Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Pop-up book explains background to complex physics The Royal Institution of Great Britain RI museum proves interesting but not ideal for teaching What is this Thing Called Science? Theory and history of science in an opinionated study Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Explanation of how science is best communicated to the public WEB WATCH Particle physics simulations vary in complexity, usefulness and how well they work

  15. Memorializing colonial genocide in Britain: the case of Tasmania

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Britain is a post-genocidal state, although it (not surprisingly) has no official means for the memorialization of its colonial genocides. Britain cannot however be simply considered amnesiac about its genocidal past, which it has informally memorialized across various cultural genres. This article explores this observation through a case study of the ways in which the genocide of Indigenous Tasmanians has been remembered and indeed memorialized. Accounts of the genocide of Indigenous Tasmani...

  16. Early emergence of anthropogenically forced heat waves in the western United States and Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hosmay; West, Robert; Dong, Shenfu; Goni, Gustavo; Kirtman, Ben; Lee, Sang-Ki; Atlas, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Climate projections for the twenty-first century suggest an increase in the occurrence of heat waves. However, the time at which externally forced signals of anthropogenic climate change (ACC) emerge against background natural variability (time of emergence (ToE)) has been challenging to quantify, which makes future heat-wave projections uncertain. Here we combine observations and model simulations under present and future forcing to assess how internal variability and ACC modulate US heat waves. We show that ACC dominates heat-wave occurrence over the western United States and Great Lakes regions, with ToE that occurred as early as the 2020s and 2030s, respectively. In contrast, internal variability governs heat waves in the northern and southern Great Plains, where ToE occurs in the 2050s and 2070s; this later ToE is believed to be a result of a projected increase in circulation variability, namely the Great Plain low-level jet. Thus, greater mitigation and adaptation efforts are needed in the Great Lakes and western United States regions.

  17. Boundaries of Welfare between the EU and Member States during the ‘Great Recession’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Pochet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    -state reform changes over time in line with socio-economic conditions as well as shifting political-party governmental coalitions in the Council. We argue that in particular the economically oriented actors, including the European Central Bank, have been successful in the context of the Great Recession. More...... recently, social priorities around notions such as social investment are becoming more central in the EU debate on economic and social policy....

  18. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec. Sec. 52.01 to 52.1018), revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 252, in Sec. 52.220, paragraph (c)(345)(i)(D) is added to...

  19. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  20. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  1. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  2. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  3. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  4. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  5. On Death Ground: Why Weak States Resist Great Powers Explaining Coercion Failure in Asymmetric Interstate Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    After mediation by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and South African President Nelson Mandela , however, Qadhafi finally handed the two suspects over...if the two accused were not handed over the U.S.-Britain would seek tougher sanctions. During a visit by Nelson Mandela on 19 March 1999 Qadhafi...potential commitment issues by involving UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and South African President Nelson Mandela in the final talks. This success

  6. 美、英、法代孕法律规制的伦理思考%Ethical Reflection on Legal Regulation about Surrogacy in the United States, Britain and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席欣然; 张金钟

    2011-01-01

    Surrogacy has been suffering from ethical controversy since it comes out. Should it be prohibited or be permitted? How to regulate it will be the best? Countries in the world which is represented by the United States, Britain and France take different attitudes towards the law about surrogacy. Ethical and legal problems associated with surrogacy cannot be a-voided. By analyzing the legal regulation about surrogacy in the United States, Britain and France, it points out its ethical problems and proposes that the combination of law and ethics is the essential way to regulate surrogacy.%代孕,自从其问世以来便饱受伦理争议.应当一禁了之还是包容开放?如何规范才是最佳抉择?以美、英、法为代表的世界各国对代孕采取了不同的法律态度,其伴随的伦理法律问题已不容回避.从分析美、英、法三国的代孕法律规制出发,指出其伦理难题,结合实际,提出法与伦理的结合是规范代孕的必由之路.

  7. Biological and ecological science for Wisconsin—A Great Lakes and Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-03-06

    Wisconsin and natural resources go hand-in-hand. Tourism, which generates $19 billion annually and sustains about 200,000 jobs, depends on an abundance of lakes, rivers, shorelines, and woodlands for fishing, hunting, boating, and other outdoor recreation. Rivers and floodplains in the Upper Mississippi Basin, including the Mississippi River, are part of a five-State corridor that generates more than $300 billion annually and sustains millions of manufacturing, tourism, transportation, and agricultural jobs. Wisconsin also is a Great Lakes State with more than 800 miles of shoreline, and the fisheries of lakes Superior and Michigan deliver $185 million annually and provide thousands of jobs.

  8. "Roots" in Britain: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon; Robinson, John P.

    A study was undertaken to investigate, from a uses and gratifications perspective, the effects of serious television drama shown in a foreign country. Specifically, the study examined the impact of "Roots," a highly acclaimed American television drama on slavery, in Great Britain and provided comparisons with the findings of…

  9. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  10. Extended great deluge algorithm for the imperfect preventive maintenance optimization of multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahas, Nabil; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Ait-Kadi, Daoud; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with preventive maintenance optimization problem for multi-state systems (MSS). This problem was initially addressed and solved by Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. It consists on finding an optimal sequence of maintenance actions which minimizes maintenance cost while providing the desired system reliability level. This paper proposes an approach which improves the results obtained by genetic algorithm (GENITOR) in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. The considered MSS have a range of performance levels and their reliability is defined to be the ability to meet a given demand. This reliability is evaluated by using the universal generating function technique. An optimization method based on the extended great deluge algorithm is proposed. This method has the advantage over other methods to be simple and requires less effort for its implementation. The developed algorithm is compared to than in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203] by using a reference example and two newly generated examples. This comparison shows that the extended great deluge gives the best solutions (i.e. those with minimal costs) for 8 instances among 10

  11. Endgame for the West in Afghanistan? Explaining the Decline in Support for the War in Afghanistan in the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    moderate Taliban or working through warlord proxies. Opponents of the Afghan war have also fre- quently invoked Britain’s Victorian reversals in the...in a more tightly drawn fashion .188 However, having first adopted a more disciplined rhetorical strategy, Brown reverted to a plethora of ra...rhetoric and win back support for the war in a similar fashion to Brown and Milliband, it would have 84 been interesting to see if Canadian support

  12. Nuclear energy policy in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, David.

    1978-01-01

    The history of nuclear energy development in Britain is outlined. Presently three major strategic decisions remain undecided. One is the choice of a thermal reactor type for the steady expansion of nuclear electricity capacity until the end of this century. Another is the reprocessing of spent oxide fuel which at present offers Britain its most promising foreign market. The third one is the future of fast breeders after the successfull demonstration of the 250 MWe prototype reactor at Dounreay [fr

  13. States with a great number of quasi-particles in even lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, G.; Manfredi, V.R.

    1975-01-01

    The even lead isotopes have been studied by means of a spectral distribution calculation in the sub-spaces defined by their number of quasi-particles. The comparison with results obtained in the thin isotopes shows that the overlap of the various sub-spaces is strongly dependent on the residual interaction used; namely, states with a great number of quasi-particles do exist in the low energy part of the spectra. The problem of spurious states implied by this method, states responsible for an over-estimation of the sub-space coupling, is treated and various corrections are proposed for the dimensions as well as for the centroids and widths of the sub-spaces [fr

  14. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  15. How Different Newspapers Cover Xingjian Conflicts from Human Right Perspective? A Frame Analysis of 10 Newspapers from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Mainland China, Britain and Unites States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hwa Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drastic increase of riots has been noted in Xingjian, the far-western Chinese region, in recent years, resulting in international media concerns about its ethnic conflicts, terrorism and human rights abuses. How different newspapers covered those conflict events from the human rights perspective? The paper aims to analyze different news frames of 10 newspapers: 4 major Taiwan newspapers, 2 China’s major newspapers, 2 Hong Kong newspapers, New York Times of US and The Guardian in Britain. Adopting a content analysis of 7 major Xingjian riots coverage during 2013/06 to 2013/12, the research finds out that there are 2 major frames, one is the China official frame, which shows less news sources with one-sided pro-regime position, accusing the protesters, concerning less human rights abuses. While the “critical frame” demonstrates more news sources from different positions, accusing both the regime and the protesters, and covering more human rights abuses.

  16. THE GREAT RECESSION AND RECENT EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E

    The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students' employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States. More specifically, we examine recent trends in teenage employment using 6 cohorts each of 8 th , 10 th , and 12 th graders (from 2006 to 2011, spanning before, during and after the Great Recession). Results show a gradual decline in school year employment since 2006, including the years after the official end of the recession. Employment during the school year is especially low among 8 th and 10 th graders, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black youth, and students from disadvantaged backgrounds (based upon parental education), though the recent drop in work has varied little by population subgroups. The decline in employment is, however, concentrated among the oldest students, and working intensely (over 20 hours per week) has dropped more than working moderate hours. Students are more likely to babysit and do lawn work and less likely to hold jobs in office, clerical, and sales positions than in years past. These patterns and recent shifts in job type suggest some degree of job replacement by older workers.

  17. You say you want a revolution?: popular music and revolt in France, The United States, and Britain during the late 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Mitchell

    2009-11-01

    analyses the role of popular music (rock music in the 1960s’counterculture. It is not an exercise in musicology or sociology, though it may inadvertently tread on the toes of those disciplines. It adopts an explicitly compara­tive historical approach to the phenomenon, uti­lising case studies of three contrasting societies – two in Western Europe, plus the United states. The argument here is that despite that this music challenged many social convention and helped to ‘emancipate’ its consumers, its uses and role in the USA, Britain, and France were frequently dissi­milar. Often, these were determined by differing national circumstances and traditions. The piece disputes also the notion of a united and radical counterculture and attempts to illuminate the na­ture of youth rebellion in each of the countries that it examines. This paper seeks to suggest that the 1960s’ youth-based movements for social change were frequently responding to local or parochial problems in their protests. 1968 is taken as the main focus here, partly because it permits an exa­mination of the intense Parisian revolt that broke out in that year, but also because it is frequently conceptualised as the decade’s hinge. 1968 is the year when the optimistic mind-set of the preceding five or so years started to give way to frustration and disillusionment.

  18. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  19. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Great Recession" (2007) was associated with changes in M/F in the United States (US). Annual monthly live births by gender for January 2006 to December 2008 were obtained from United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2007, there were 4316233 live births [M/F: 0.51157; 95% confidence intervals: 0.51110-0.51205). M/F rose between January and June, and then fell sharply between August and December. M/F was statistically significantly lower in the second half of 2007 (p=0.007). The dip in M/F from June to July was also significant (p=0.02). These findings were not replicated in the amalgamated data for 2006 and 2008. The United States housing boom of the mid-2000s was fueled by rising house prices and cheap mortgages given to credit-poor buyers. A halt in rising house prices resulted in defaults and foreclosures, triggering the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The associated stress appears to have decreased M/F in the US.

  20. The United States after the great recession: the challenge of sustainable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, Joshua [The Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies (United States); Steven, David [The Brookings Institution Center and the Center on International Cooperation at New York University (United States); Langley, Claire [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. economic growth model, assesses its’ ability to respond to the key economic, environmental and social challenges currently facing the U.S. and proposes policies that if adopted would move the U.S. onto a more sustainable growth path. The paper provides scenarios of projected future growth trajectories, as well as recommendations for specific policies in key areas: employment, infrastructure, energy and fiscal rebalancing. To reach this goal this paper focuses on four areas for action: Increasing employment, which is the most urgent priority to accelerate recovery from the Great Recession, while addressing underlying structural issues that have led to a decade of poor economic outcomes for most citizens; Investing in the future, as the key marker of whether the United States is prepared to make farsighted decisions to improve education, build new infrastructure and increase innovation; Maximizing an increased energy endowment in a way that grows the economy, while reinforcing the trend towards reducing resource demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and, Fiscal rebalancing, where the United States must insulate economic recovery from the process of fiscal reform while reducing and stabilizing debt over the long term. Finally, we argue that President Obama can re-energize America’s global leadership if he builds on a platform of domestic actions that enhance the sustainability of America’s society and economy.

  1. Kinds of damage that could result from a great earthquake in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, M.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12 a series of three great earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid, Missouri seismic zone in the central United States. In addition to the three principal shocks, at least 15 other earthquakes of intensity VIII or more occurred within a year of the first large earthquake on December 16, 1811. The three main shocks were felt over the entire eastern United States. They were strong enough to cause minor damage cause minor damage as far away as Indiana and Ohio on the north, the Carolinas on the east, and southern Mississippi to the south. They were strong enough to cause severe or structural damage in parts of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. A later section in this article describes what happened in the epicentral region. Fortunately, few people lived in the severely shaken area in 1811; that is not the case today. What would happen if a series of earthquakes as large and numerous as the "New Madrid" earthquakes were to occur in the New Madrid seismic zone today?

  2. Mechanisms of Diurnal Precipitation over the United States Great Plains: A Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.-I.; Choi, I.; Tao, W.-K.; Schubert, S. D.; Kang, I.-K.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of summertime diurnal precipitation in the US Great Plains were examined with the two-dimensional (2D) Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud-resolving model (CRM). The model was constrained by the observed large-scale background state and surface flux derived from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program s Intensive Observing Period (IOP) data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP). The model, when continuously-forced by realistic surface flux and large-scale advection, simulates reasonably well the temporal evolution of the observed rainfall episodes, particularly for the strongly forced precipitation events. However, the model exhibits a deficiency for the weakly forced events driven by diurnal convection. Additional tests were run with the GCE model in order to discriminate between the mechanisms that determine daytime and nighttime convection. In these tests, the model was constrained with the same repeating diurnal variation in the large-scale advection and/or surface flux. The results indicate that it is primarily the surface heat and moisture flux that is responsible for the development of deep convection in the afternoon, whereas the large-scale upward motion and associated moisture advection play an important role in preconditioning nocturnal convection. In the nighttime, high clouds are continuously built up through their interaction and feedback with long-wave radiation, eventually initiating deep convection from the boundary layer. Without these upper-level destabilization processes, the model tends to produce only daytime convection in response to boundary layer heating. This study suggests that the correct simulation of the diurnal variation in precipitation requires that the free-atmospheric destabilization mechanisms resolved in the CRM simulation must be adequately parameterized in current general circulation models (GCMs) many of which are overly sensitive to the parameterized boundary layer heating.

  3. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  4. Physical and chemical controls (fO2, T, pH) of the opposite behaviour of U and Sn-W as examplified by hydrothermal deposits in France and Great-Britain, and solubility data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubessy, J.; Nguyen-Trung, C.; Cathelineau, M.; Cuney, M.; Leroy, J.; Poty, B.; Ramboz, C.; Charoy, B.; Weisbrod, A.

    1987-01-01

    In uranium deposits, fO 2 and fS 2 of mineralizing fluids are higher than values fixed by the pyrite-hematite-magnetite triple point, as shown by uraninite-hematite and/or pyrite mineral association. The stability of quartz-K feldspar-muscovite paragenesis in the wall-rocks of hydrothermal U deposits indicates weakly acid pH. By contrast, in the Sn-W occurrences from the French Southern Massif Central, the fO 2 of mineralizing fluids is between Ni-NiO and Q-F-M buffers as shown by fluid inclusions. The pH of these fluids is weakly acid to weakly basic. Sn-W mineralizing fluids from Cornwall are by contrast purely aqueous and acid. Experimental data on UO 2 , SnO 2 , FeWO 4 , CaWO 4 solubility and metal species in fluids show that fO 2 > H-M are required for uranium transport whereas fO 2 ≤ Ni-NiO favours Sn transport. The fluid oxidation state has no direct influence on the transport and deposition of tungsten. The fO 2 control on the hydrothermal transport properties of these three metals is related on the one hand to the fluid and rock composition, and on the other hand to the minimal 320 0 C temperature required for homogeneous equilibria in the C-O-H system to control the oxidation state at low values. At high temperatures, Sn, Fe and Ca chloride complexes are more stable than carbonate and phosphate uranium complexes. All these results show that temperature and fO 2 account for the opposite behaviour of uranium and tin-tungsten in hydrothermal systems between 300 0 to 500 0 C

  5. The History of Language Learning and Teaching in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an introduction, based on the most recent research available, to the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Britain. After an overview of the state of research, I consider which languages have been learnt, why and how that has changed; the role of teachers and tests in determining what was taught; changes in how…

  6. The allure of new immigrant destinations and the Great Recession in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard; Townley, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990s, the immigrant population in the United States dispersed to non-traditional settlement locations (what have become known as “new immigrant destinations”). This paper examines whether the allure of new destinations persisted in the 2000s with a particular focus on the internal migration of the foreign born during the recent deep recessionary period and its aftermath. Three specific questions motivate the analysis. First, are immigrants, much like the US-born population, becoming less migratory within the country over time? Second, is immigrant dispersal from traditional gateways via internal migration continuing despite considerable economic contraction in many new destination metropolitan areas? Third, is immigration from aboard a substitute for what appears to be declining immigrant internal migration to new destinations? The findings reveal a close correlation between the declining internal migration propensity of the US-born and immigrants in the last two decades. We also observe parallels between the geographies of migration of native- and foreign-born populations with both groups moving to similar metropolitan areas in the 1990s. This redistributive association, however, weakened in the subsequent decade as new destination metropolitan areas lost their appeal for both groups, especially immigrants. There is no evidence to suggest that immigration from abroad is substituting for the decline in immigrant redistribution through internal migration to new destinations. Across destination types the relationship between immigration from abroad and the internal migration of the foreign born remained the same before, during, and after the Great Recession. PMID:24791036

  7. The allure of new immigrant destinations and the Great Recession in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard; Townley, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In the 1990s, the immigrant population in the United States dispersed to non-traditional settlement locations (what have become known as "new immigrant destinations"). This paper examines whether the allure of new destinations persisted in the 2000s with a particular focus on the internal migration of the foreign born during the recent deep recessionary period and its aftermath. Three specific questions motivate the analysis. First, are immigrants, much like the US-born population, becoming less migratory within the country over time? Second, is immigrant dispersal from traditional gateways via internal migration continuing despite considerable economic contraction in many new destination metropolitan areas? Third, is immigration from aboard a substitute for what appears to be declining immigrant internal migration to new destinations? The findings reveal a close correlation between the declining internal migration propensity of the US-born and immigrants in the last two decades. We also observe parallels between the geographies of migration of native- and foreign-born populations with both groups moving to similar metropolitan areas in the 1990s. This redistributive association, however, weakened in the subsequent decade as new destination metropolitan areas lost their appeal for both groups, especially immigrants. There is no evidence to suggest that immigration from abroad is substituting for the decline in immigrant redistribution through internal migration to new destinations. Across destination types the relationship between immigration from abroad and the internal migration of the foreign born remained the same before, during, and after the Great Recession.

  8. Child Poverty, the Great Recession, and the Social Safety Net in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne; Hoynes, Hiliary; Kuku, Elira

    In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty. We also find that the protective effect of the safety net is not similar across demographic groups, and that children from more disadvantaged backgrounds, such as those living with Hispanic or single heads, or particularly those living with immigrant household heads—or immigrant spouses—experience larger poverty cyclicality than those living with non- Hispanic white or married heads, or those living with native household heads with native spouses. Our findings hold across a host of choices for how to define poverty. These include measures based on absolute thresholds or more relative thresholds. They also hold for measures of resources that include not only cash and near-cash transfers net of taxes but also several measures of the value of public medical benefits.

  9. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  10. The development of turbojet aircraft in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A multi-national comparison of aeronautical engineering, 1935--1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelec, Sterling Michael

    In the 1930s aeronautical engineering needed revision. A presumptive anomaly was envisaged as piston-engine aircraft flew higher and faster. Radical alternatives to piston engines were considered in the unending quest for speed. Concurrently, but unwittingly, two turbojet engine programs were undertaken in Europe. The air-breathing three-stage turbojet engine was based on previous turbine technology; the revolutionary idea was the gas turbine as a prime mover for aircraft. In Germany, Dr. Hans von Ohain was the first to complete a flight-worthy turbojet engine for aircraft. Installed in a Heinkel designed aircraft, the Germans began the jet age on 27 August 1939. The Germans led throughout the war and were the first to produce jet aircraft for combat operations. The principal limiting factor for the German jet program was a lack of reliable engines. The continuing myths that Hitler orders, too little fuel, or too few pilots hindered the program are false. In England, Frank Whittle, without substantial support, but with dogged determination, also developed a turbojet engine. The British came second in the jet race when the Whittle engine powered the Gloster Pioneer on 15 May 1941. The Whittle-Gloster relationship continued and produced the only Allied combat jet aircraft during the war, the Meteor, which was confined to Home Defense in Britain. The American turbojet program was built directly from the Whittle engine. General Electric copied the Whittle designs and Bell Aircraft was contracted to build the first American jet plane. The Americans began the jet age on 1 October 1942 with a lackluster performance from their first jet, the Airacomet. But the Americans forged ahead, and had numerous engine and airframe programs in development by the end of the war. But, the Germans did it right and did it first. Partly because of a predisposition towards excellent engineering and physics, partly out of necessity, the Germans were able to produce combat turbojet aircraft

  11. Will Jazz Survive? Thoughts on the State of the Great American Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Playthell

    1983-01-01

    Jazz is undoubtedly the great North American contribution to art, yet this art form is undermined by the White music elite which chooses instead to support institutions that perpetuate European music. When jazz is given attention in the mass media, both its Black origins and the great Black jazz artists are largely ignored. (GC)

  12. The Great Recession, insurance mandates, and the use of in vitro fertilization services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Huckman, Robert S; Hornstein, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between economic activities, insurance mandates, and the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States. We examined the correlation between the coincident index (a proxy for overall economic conditions) and IVF use at the national level from 2000 to 2011. We then analyzed the relationship at the state level through longitudinal regression models. The base model tested the correlation at the state level. Additional models examined whether this relationship was affected, both separately and jointly, by insurance mandates and the Great Recession. Not applicable. Not applicable. None. Direction and magnitude of the relationship between the coincident index and IVF use, and influences of insurance mandates and the Great Recession. The coincident index was positively correlated with IVF use at the national level (correlation coefficient = 0.89). At the state level, an increase of one unit in the coincident index was associated with an increase of 16 IVF cycles per 1 million women, with a significantly greater increase in IVF use in states with insurance mandates than in states without mandates (27 versus 15 IVF cycles per 1 million women). The Great Recession did not alter the relationship between the coincident index and IVF use. Our study demonstrates a positive relationship between the economy and IVF use, with greater magnitude in states with insurance mandates. This relationship was not affected by the Great Recession regardless of mandated insurance coverage. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. News on the development of nuclear energy in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenfeld, M. von

    1991-01-01

    Governmental influence on public utilities and on the government-controlled nuclear industry so far has been much stronger than in the Federal Republic. This influence was cut back considerable when denationalization pursuant to the Electricity Act 1989 took effect, but not for the nuclear industry. Despite governmental declarations to the contrary, the big reactor building program has shrunk to one started reactor being finished. The reasons for turning away from nuclear energy are not so much to be found with the greens, who have little influence because of majority suffrage, but with orientating at short-term maximization of profits as a result of the denationalization process which prevents at present the realization of financing large-scale projects in the field of nuclear energy on a long-term basis. With the Magnox reactors coming to the end of their working life and neither coal-fired power stations nor nuclear power plants being built, with the exception of Sizewell II, this situation will sooner or later lead to an out-of-date power plant pool, and considerations concerning power plant capacities (including nuclear reactors) will become necessary. As regards reprocessing, the abandonment of Wackersdorf has led to the Internal Market being already anticipated by long-term contracts concluded with BNF. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Probabilistic soil moisture projections to assess Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Oliver; Hallett, Stephen; Farewell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This research was presented at the Lloyds Science of Risk Prize 2015 as a shortlisted entry into the category 'Big Data Analytics and Machine Learning'. It is a research paper now published in Climatic Change: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-015-1486-z 

  15. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  16. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  17. Genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S C; Wall, B F [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1981-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the use of population and child expectancy data to estimate the annual genetically significant dose for diagnostic radiology (GSD). The current estimate of GSD is compared with that reported in a survey 20 years previously. Comparisons are made with estimates of GSD from other countries.

  18. The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

  19. The System of Teacher Education Management in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychuk, Antonina

    2015-01-01

    The system of teacher education management, namely, forms and principles of teacher education management according to the normative base (Education Reform Act (1988); Education Act (1992; 1993; 1996; 1997; 2002); School Standards and Framework Act (1998); Higher Education Act (2004), etc.), monitoring and participation of the public in its…

  20. Great Britain prepares permanent storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of the background and reasearch programme for the disposal of vitrified radioactive wastes in granite formations in the United Kingdom. This programme is coordinated with those of other member countries of EC, financed by EC, in which Germany, Italy Belgium and Holland study formations such as clay and salt, while the UK and France study hard crystalline rocks, such as granite. The UK studies are concentrated on Newton Stewart in Scotland where the granite at grent depths is thought to be free from cracks, in the North of England and in Cornwall. Heat transfer studies are to be done in Cornwall where the rock is so cracked as to be otherwise unuseable. A public meeting with representatives from local authorities and Parliament has been held in Newton Stewart to inform on the project. (JIW)

  1. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-two British hi-tech companies present their products at this new industrial exhibition at CERN which takes place from 22 to 25 November, 1994. The exhibition offers British companies the opportunity to display their products in fields that are of immediate importance to the scientists, engineers and technicians working at CERN, and also to scientists from non-Member States who take part in research projects at CERN.

  2. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    On 8 October, H.E. Mr David Beattie, British Ambassador to Switzerland, Mr John R. Nichols, H.M. Consul-General in Geneva and, Prof. Christopher Llewellyn Smith, CERN*'s Director General, formally opened the industrial exhibition of thirty-three British hi-tech companies at CERN, which takes place from 8 to 11 October, 1996. The exhibition offers British companies the opportunity to display their products in fields that are of immediate importance to the scientists, engineers and technicians working at CERN, and also to scientists from non-Member States who take part in research projects at CERN.

  3. Britain's nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Colin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In the mid 1980s the Labour Party's position and clear intention was to phase out nuclear generated power in the UK. BNFL's reprocessing business was singled out for particular criticism. Many argued that this sounded the death knell for an industry with a legacy of negative public opinion and no commercial future. How against this background then was the Rt. Hon Tony Blair able, on 9 June 1999, to state that 'If we were to question the continued operation of Thorp, I think that would not be right. Thorp is an operation with orders now valued at some 12 billion pounds, it provides 6000 skilled jobs, it indirectly supports many more... I do not support the case of those who would like us to abandon Thorp?' Furthermore, in June 1999 the Royal Society stated that, 'it is vital to keep the nuclear option open' and in October of the same year the House of Commons Trade Industry Select Committee went further and advised, 'a formal presumption be made now for the purposes of long-term planning that new nuclear plant may be required in the course of the next two decades'. On 13 July 1999, the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Rt. Hon Stephen Byers, announced a possible sale of up to 49% of BNFL by a Public Private Partnership. Dare we view this as the genesis of a nuclear renaissance for the United Kingdom? This clear change in political attitude towards the nuclear option has come about as a result of a concerted public and government relations effort over the past ten years. That said, many barriers remain if we are to meet the challenge of delivering new nuclear build in the UK. Public opinion may allow new build but only if the industry demonstrates a track record of safety and environmental stewardship. There will always be the 'not in my back yard' argument so we must be a good neighbour and, most importantly of all, a long-term solution must be found for the disposal of nuclear waste. If the stage is set for the nuclear renaissance, the industry

  4. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  5. Message Drafted by General Eisenhower in Case the D-Day Invasion Failed and Photographs Taken on D-Day. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, David

    Planning for "Operation Overlord" had been under way for about a year when General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of all the Allied forces in Europe, was ordered in February 1944 to invade the continent. Thousands of troops from the United States, Great Britain, France, Canada, and other nations were assembled in southern England and…

  6. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  7. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  8. Flammulated, boreal, and great gray owls in the United States: A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. D. Hayward; J. Verner

    1994-01-01

    Flammulated (Otus flammeolus), boreal (Aegolius funereus), and great gray (Strix nebulosa) owls occur over a broad portion of North America and each is designated as a "sensitive species" in four or more USDA Forest Service regions. The insectivorous flammulated owl is a neotropical migrant requiring...

  9. Apres le Deluge at State U: A Comprehensive Public University Responds to the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Richard A.; Miller, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe one institution--East Carolina University--that they think is representative of an important type and a large proportion of American universities, the comprehensive public university, and its responses to the lingering Great Recession. As a group, comprehensives handle almost 40 per cent of the total student…

  10. The effect of the United States Great Lakes on the maintenance of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Sparks, J.; Graham, R.

    2003-04-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the United States Great Lakes on the intensity of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). One of the greatest nowcast challenges during the warm season is anticipating the impact of the Great Lakes on severe convection, particularly MCSs capable of producing damaging widespread windstorms known as derechos. Since a major derecho activity corridor lies over the Great Lakes region, it is important to understand the effects of the Lakes on the intensity and propagation of severe wind producing MCSs. Specific objectives of the research include: 1) The development of a short-term climatology of MCS events that have impacted the Great Lakes region over the past seven years; 2) An analysis of radar, satellite, surface (including buoy and lighthouse observations), and lake surface temperature data to determine the environmental conditions impacting the evolution of MCSs passing over a Great Lake; 3) An examination of MCS initiation times and seasonal frequencies of occurrence to delineate temporal consistencies in MCS evolution due to changing lake surface temperatures; and 4) The development of conceptual and forecast models to help anticipate MCS intensity and morphology as these systems interact with the Great Lakes environment.

  11. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  12. 'Conservation Education' and the Foundations of National Prosperity: Comparative Perspectives from Early Twentieth-Century North America and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the development of conservation education in North America and Britain. Reports that the focus of British conservation education was on preserving the countryside, while the United States focused on protecting natural resources. Finds that a major difference was that the label of 'conservation education' did not appear in Britain. (CMK)

  13. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Gutiérrez Pastor, J.; Goldfinger, C.; Escutia, C.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8) for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1) radiometric dating (14C method), and (2) relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method). The H method provides (1) the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2) the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia) or very close (San Andreas) to the early window for another great earthquake. On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs) are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km) than on passive margins (~1000 km). The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins cause seismic strengthening of the sediment, which

  14. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  15. State Variation in Medical Imaging: Despite Great Variation, the Medicare Spending Decline Continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess state-level trends in per beneficiary Medicare spending on medical imaging. Medicare part B 5% research identifiable files from 2004 through 2012 were used to compute national and state-by-state annual average per beneficiary spending on imaging. State-to-state geographic variation and temporal trends were analyzed. National average per beneficiary Medicare part B spending on imaging increased 7.8% annually between 2004 ($350.54) and its peak in 2006 ($405.41) then decreased 4.4% annually between 2006 and 2012 ($298.63). In 2012, annual per beneficiary spending was highest in Florida ($367.25) and New York ($355.67) and lowest in Ohio ($67.08) and Vermont ($72.78). Maximum state-to-state geographic variation increased over time, with the ratio of highest-spending state to lowest-spending state increasing from 4.0 in 2004 to 5.5 in 2012. Spending in nearly all states decreased since peaks in 2005 (six states) or 2006 (43 states). The average annual decrease among states was 5.1% ± 1.8% (range, 1.2-12.2%) The largest decrease was in Ohio. In only two states did per beneficiary spending increase (Maryland, 12.5% average annual increase since 2005; Oregon, 4.8% average annual increase since 2008). Medicare part B average per beneficiary spending on medical imaging declined in nearly every state since 2005 and 2006 peaks, abruptly reversing previously reported trends. Spending continued to increase, however, in Maryland and Oregon. Identification of state-level variation may facilitate future investigation of the potential effect of specific and regional changes in spending on patient access and outcomes.

  16. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Barringer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  17. The Collapse of the United States Banking System During the Great Depression, 1929 to 1933. New Archival Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Great Depression, one third of all banks in the United States failed. Scholarsdispute reason for their demise. This essay analyzes new evidence on the sources of bankdistress. The data demonstrates that contagion via correspondent networks and bank runspropagated the initial banking panics in the fall of 1930. As the depression deepened and assetvalues declined, insolvency loomed as the principal threat to depository institutions. Thesepatterns corroborate some and question other conjectures concerning the causes andconsequences of the financial crisis during the Great Contraction.

  18. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F. III.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  19. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  20. Adolescent adaptation before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Staff, Jeremy; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the “Great Recession” as well as previous recessions in 1991 and 2001 on 8th and 10th graders in the U.S, using annual nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future study. Historical changes in youth adjustment (self-esteem, depressed mood, risk taking, aggression, and property crime), school achievement (grade point average, time spent on homework, and educational expectations), and structured and unstructured activities (volunteering, employment, sports, and evenings out for fun) were examined between 1991 and 2014. Overall, there were only slight changes in mean levels of adjustment, achievement, and most youth activities. However, the percentage of youth working during the school year did decline during the Great Recession. Several longer term trends were also evident, though not directly tied to recessions. These include an increase in GPA, a decrease in time spent on homework, rising educational expectations, and more time spent volunteering. Future work should assess how the shift to unpaid work activities (e.g., volunteering and internships) among youth is impacting the transition from school to work in the contemporary economy, and whether the Great Recession had deleterious impacts for younger children or among youth whose parents lost work or had their homes foreclosed. PMID:27709614

  1. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  2. Young People in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about young people from ethnic minorities in Britain. In spring 1997, 48% of the ethnic minority population of Britain was under 24 years of age, in comparison with 31% of the White population. Twenty-two percent of the ethnic minority population was of compulsory school age, compared with 14% of the White…

  3. Education and Training in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about education and training in Britain for people from nonWhite ethnic groups. In spring 1997, 545,000 men and women of working age from nonWhite ethnic groups in Britain were receiving education and training in schools, colleges, and universities and through other courses, compared with an average of 15% of…

  4. KING'S ENGLISH AND THE ARISTOCRATIC CODE OF COMMUNICATION IN MODERN BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Ivushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All inaccuracies and distortions of the language use in modern British media, revealed by Simon Heffer in his book «Strictly English», enable the author of the article to draw a distinct demarcation line between King's English, the English of the press, on the one hand, and the English of the upper classes of Great Britain, on the other. The errors in the press, such as confusion of words similar in a sound form or spelling, the use of foreign words in the wrong meanings, distortions of names, etc. testify to the deterioration of education at some universities of Great Britain. They also point to the lack of a classical education based on the study of foreign languages, Greek and Latin, in the first place, which facilitates learning foreign words and mastering complicated grammar structures and subtleties of modality in the English language. The language of the press is clearly opposed to the language of the upper classes by methods of communication. If the former is characterized by direct and straightforward ways of communication, the latter manifests indirect and hidden ways of interaction. Cultivated by the upper classes and the aristocracy, this code is based on the categories of words which originate ambiguity in speech or texts and raise the eternal question «What is meant by this or that? ». In journalism these categories of words are labeled as «killers» of meaning. They include foreign words which considerably obscure understanding, abstract nouns that serve to create distance and insincerity in communication, adjectives which very often veil the real state of things, serve as a means of linguistic manipulation, especially when used to describe emotions, opinions and feelings. Here, also, belong euphemism and metaphorical meanings of nouns and verbs. The author concludes that, despite stringent prohibition for journalists to use these categories of words in the media, journalists and professional writers would only benefit if

  5. King's English And The Aristocratic Code Of Communication In Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Ivushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All inaccuracies and distortions of the language use in modern British media, revealed by Simon Heffer in his book «Strictly English», enable the author of the article to draw a distinct demarcation line between King's English, the English of the press, on the one hand, and the English of the upper classes of Great Britain, on the other. The errors in the press, such as confusion of words similar in a sound form or spelling, the use of foreign words in the wrong meanings, distortions of names, etc. testify to the deterioration of education at some universities of Great Britain. They also point to the lack of a classical education based on the study of foreign languages, Greek and Latin, in the first place, which facilitates learning foreign words and mastering complicated grammar structures and subtleties of modality in the English language. The language of the press is clearly opposed to the language of the upper classes by methods of communication. If the former is characterized by direct and straightforward ways of communication, the latter manifests indirect and hidden ways of interaction. Cultivated by the upper classes and the aristocracy, this code is based on the categories of words which originate ambiguity in speech or texts and raise the eternal question «What is meant by this or that? ». In journalism these categories of words are labeled as «killers» of meaning. They include foreign words which considerably obscure understanding, abstract nouns that serve to create distance and insincerity in communication, adjectives which very often veil the real state of things, serve as a means of linguistic manipulation, especially when used to describe emotions, opinions and feelings. Here, also, belong euphemism and metaphorical meanings of nouns and verbs. The author concludes that, despite stringent prohibition for journalists to use these categories of words in the media, journalists and professional writers would only benefit if

  6. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion.

  7. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  8. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  9. Biological and ecological science for Michigan—The Great Lakes State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-04-04

    Michigan is rich in lakes, rivers, dune and rocky shorelines, forests, fish and wildlife, and has the longest freshwater coastline in the United States, 3,224 miles. Many enterprises critical to Michigan’s economy and cultural heritage are based on natural resources including commercial and sport fishing, hunting, and other outdoor recreation. Overall, outdoor recreation is enjoyed by more than 63 percent of Michigan residents, and has been estimated to generate $18.7 billion in consumer spending, create 194,000 jobs, and raise $1.4 billion in State and local tax revenue annually.

  10. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  11. Financing the Public Schools in the Great Lake States: Declining Revenues in the 1980s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes data on the economic prospects of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--including demographic and economic trends, trends in taxation systems, school revenue and expenditure trends, and future revenue prospects--and offers prognoses for individual states. Generally, short-range revenue prospects are bleak, and long-range…

  12. A New Type of Great Power Relationship Between the United States and China: The Military Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    multipolar world system and a pro- spective security and economic partner of the United States. This stands midway between the panda -hug- ging and dragon...spending, on the other hand, are more difficult to calculate and may prove significantly less easy to bear . 79. Eberhard Sandschneider, “Is China’s

  13. Records of millennial-scale climate change from the Great Basin of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry

    High-resolution (decadal) records of climate change from the Owens, Mono, and Pyramid Lake basins of California and Nevada indicate that millennialscale oscillations in climate of the Great Basin occurred between 52.6 and 9.2 14C ka. Climate records from the Owens and Pyramid Lake basins indicate that most, but not all, glacier advances (stades) between 52.6 and ˜15.0 14C ka occurred during relatively dry times. During the last alpine glacial period (˜60.0 to ˜14.0 14C ka), stadial/interstadial oscillations were recorded in Owens and Pyramid Lake sediments by the negative response of phytoplankton productivity to the influx of glacially derived silicates. During glacier advances, rock flour diluted the TOC fraction of lake sediments and introduction of glacially derived suspended sediment also increased the turbidity of lake water, decreasing light penetration and photosynthetic production of organic carbon. It is not possible to correlate objectively peaks in the Owens and Pyramid Lake TOC records (interstades) with Dansgaard-Oeschger interstades in the GISP2 ice-core δ18O record given uncertainties in age control and difference in the shapes of the OL90, PLC92 and GISP2 records. In the North Atlantic region, some climate records have clearly defined variability/cyclicity with periodicities of 102 to 103 yr; these records are correlatable over several thousand km. In the Great Basin, climate proxies also have clearly defined variability with similar time constants, but the distance over which this variability can be correlated remains unknown. Globally, there may be minimal spatial scales (domains) within which climate varies coherently on centennial and millennial scales, but it is likely that the sizes of these domains vary with geographic setting and time. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of climate forcing and the physical linkages between climate forcing and system response is needed in order to predict the spatial scale(s) over which

  14. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  15. Mapping marginal croplands suitable for cellulosic feedstock crops in the Great Plains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) for biofuel is more environmentally sustainable than corn-based ethanol. Specifically, this practice can reduce soil erosion and water quality impairment from pesticides and fertilizer, improve ecosystem services and sustainability (e.g., serve as carbon sinks), and minimize impacts on global food supplies. The main goal of this study was to identify high-risk marginal croplands that are potentially suitable for growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) in the US Great Plains (GP). Satellite-derived growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, a switchgrass biomass productivity map obtained from a previous study, US Geological Survey (USGS) irrigation and crop masks, and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) crop indemnity maps for the GP were used in this study. Our hypothesis was that croplands with relatively low crop yield but high productivity potential for switchgrass may be suitable for converting to switchgrass. Areas with relatively low crop indemnity (crop indemnity marginal croplands in the GP are potentially suitable for switchgrass development. The total estimated switchgrass biomass productivity gain from these suitable areas is about 5.9 million metric tons. Switchgrass can be cultivated in either lowland or upland regions in the GP depending on the local soil and environmental conditions. This study improves our understanding of ecosystem services and the sustainability of cropland systems in the GP. Results from this study provide useful information to land managers for making informed decisions regarding switchgrass development in the GP.

  16. On the precipice of great things: the current state of UK nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Irvine, Fiona; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; McKenna, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    The significant policy changes in UK health care over the past decade have led to a consequent shift in the delivery of nurse education to ensure the development and sustainability of a knowledgeable nursing workforce. One of the most recent, radical and important initiatives is Modernising Nursing Careers, which outlined four key priority areas for nursing, all of which have implications for nurse education. In light of this initiative, we explore the extent to which the modernisation of nursing careers is rhetoric or reality for UK nurse education - we are on the precipice of great change. To facilitate this, we move chronologically through the issues of recruitment and access; pre-registration preparation; and post-qualification education and careers. In discussing these issues, we demonstrate that more changes are needed to produce nurses who are flexible, visionary and prepared to take risks. We suggest that vision, leadership and strong realignment with health priorities are needed to bring nurse education to a point where nurses are truly prepared for the demands of a 21st century health service.

  17. Budget Deficit And Public Debt - The Great Challenges For The Eu Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu, Iulia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises had a strong impact on the public finance sectors from European countries. Even if in 2007 they started from relative good fiscal positions, the public debt and the budgetary deficits considerably deteriorated and registered historic values in European Union. With all measures taken to stimulate the economy, is a very favourable scenario to return at the taxes level from 2007. The aggregate numbers regarding the deficit and public debt incline to disguise the different evolutions of the European Union member states. The strong deterioration of fiscal indicators is caused by the automat effect of the economic productivity and also by measures taken by the governments of the member states. The past experiences can help to evaluate the fiscal measures that must be adopted in order to reduce the public debt and the deficit, without having an universal solution for all countries. Very important is the existing context for the implementation of adopted measures.

  18. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. © 2013.

  19. The changing face of britain -images and reality-

    OpenAIRE

    John,Herbert

    2012-01-01

    There are many famous images of Britain held by people in Japan. Those images can be wide-ranging, influenced by tourist trips to Britain, television programs or school textbooks. Some of the populer images include things such as Royal weddings and "kiri on London" (foggy London). However, are these images truly representative of modern Britain? Other cultures, inbluding Japan, are changing the face of Britain in many ways. This lecture shows how Britain is changing, and ezamines some of the ...

  20. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1984-06-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in Britain. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the co-evolution of the disease and its host.

  1. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-19

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 6 de junio de 2011, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2010.

  2. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-13

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 28 de julio de 2010, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 16 de marzo de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2009.

  3. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-30

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 26 de junio de 2009, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2008.

  4. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-25

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 23 de agosto de 2007, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante las Naciones Unidas y las Organizaciones Internacionales con sede en Viena, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 16 de marzo de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2006.

  5. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  6. The widespread influence of Great Lakes microseisms across the United States revealed by the 2014 polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    During the winter of 2014, a weak polar vortex brought record cold temperatures to the north‐central (“Midwest”) United States, and the Great Lakes reached the highest extent of ice coverage (92.5%) since 1979. This event shut down the generation of seismic signals caused by wind‐driven wave action within the lakes (termed “lake microseisms”), giving an unprecedented opportunity to isolate and characterize these novel signals through comparison with nonfrozen time periods. Using seismic records at 72 broadband stations, we observe Great Lakes microseism signals at distances >300 km from the lakes. In contrast to conventional oceanic microseisms, there is no clear relationship between the frequency content of the seismic signals (observed from ~0.5–5‐s period) and the dominant swell period or resonance periods of the lakes based on their bathymetric profiles. Thus, the exact generation mechanism is not readily explained by conventional microseism theory and warrants further investigation.

  7. Outcomes and strategies in the ‘New Great Game’: China and the Caspian states emerge as winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith Stegen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The decades-long struggle for control over oil and natural gas resources, infrastructure and influence in the Caspian region has been referred to as the ‘New Great Game’, with Europe, China, the US and Russia typically cited as the main combatants. We explore recent developments and aver that, if present trends continue, Europe will have access to Azerbaijan's resources, China to those of the East Caspian states, the US will stay commercially and strategically engaged, and Russia's influence will (continue to diminish. How did this unexpected turn of events arise? We examine China's dominance and argue that the foreign policies of the US and Russia – within the region and even further abroad – have inadvertently driven the East Caspian states and China towards each other. Wary of potential maritime chokepoints in the Pacific, China feels strongly compelled to shore up resources and influence in the Caspian region. In part because of Russia's intransigence regarding the Caspian Sea's status, the East Caspian states – faced with constrained access to the West – have turned to China as an alternative market and counterbalance to Russia.

  8. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Michelle; Butman, David; Hawbaker, Todd; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; McDonald, Cory; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and to improve understanding of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the Great Plains region in the central part of the United States. The assessment examined carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and other GHG fluxes (methane and nitrous oxide) in all major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and freshwater aquatic systems (rivers, streams, lakes, and impoundments) in two time periods: baseline (generally in the first half of the 2010s) and future (projections from baseline to 2050). The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  9. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  10. Personnel of human anatomy department of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky as the participants of the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshkina O.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides evidence on participation of assistants who worked at the Department of Human Anatomy of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky and took part in the Great Patriotic War.

  11. The fertility response to the Great Recession in Europe and the United States: Structural economic conditions and perceived economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ludovica Comolli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study further develops Goldstein et al.'s (2013 analysis of the fertility response to the Great Recession in western economies. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the fertility reaction to different indicators of the crisis. Beyond the structural labor market conditions, I investigate the dependence of fertility rates on economic policy uncertainty, government financial risk, and consumer confidence. Methods: Following Goldstein et al. (2013, I use log-log models to assess the elasticity of age-, parity-, and education-specific fertility rates to an array of indicators. Besides the inclusion of a wider set of explanatory variables, I include more recent data (2000−2013 and I enlarge the sample to 31 European countries plus the United States. Results: Fertility response to unemployment in some age- and parity-specific groups has been, in more recent years, larger than estimated by Goldstein et al. (2013. Female unemployment has also been significantly reducing fertility rates. Among uncertainty measures, the drop in consumer confidence is strongly related to fertility decline and in Southern European countries the fertility response to sovereign debt risk is comparable to that of unemployment. Economic policy uncertainty is negatively related to TFR even when controlling for unemployment. Conclusions: Theoretical and empirical investigation is needed to develop more tailored measures of economic and financial insecurity and their impact on birth rates. Contribution: The study shows the nonnegligible influence of economic and financial uncertainty on birth rates during the Great Recession in Western economies, over and above that of structural labor market conditions.

  12. How Britain underdeveloped Bechuanaland protectorate: a brief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Britain declared Bechuanaland a 'protectorate' in 1885 in a move largely driven by military strategic considerations rather than by the availability of economic resources. This can give the impression that in Botswana the process of economic underdevelopment that is often associated with colonialism never took place in this ...

  13. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  14. Cohousing in Britain - a Diggers & Dreamers Review

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Book provides a comprehensive review of what has been happening with cohousing projects in Britain to date, and particularly since 2004 publication of Thinking about Cohousing. M Field has been guest editor and devised main format and content of the book, writing various sections and engaging other contributors across the sector

  15. Welfare states, the Great Recession and health: Trends in educational inequalities in self-reported health in 26 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Teresa; Campos-Matos, Inês; Bambra, Clare; Russo, Giuliano; Perelman, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in health have long been observed in Europe, few studies have analysed their recent patterning. In this paper, we examined how educational inequalities in self-reported health have evolved in different European countries and welfare state regimes over the last decade, which was troubled by the Great Recession. We used cross-sectional data from the EU-SILC survey for adults from 26 European countries, from 2005 to 2014 (n = 3,030,595). We first calculated education-related absolute (SII) and relative (RII) inequalities in poor self-reported health by country-year, adjusting for age, sex, and EU-SILC survey weights. We then regressed the year- and country-specific RII and SII on a yearly time trend, globally and by welfare regime, adjusting for country fixed effects. We further adjusted the analysis for the economic cycle using GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality. Overall, absolute inequalities persisted and relative inequalities slightly widened (betaRII = 0.0313, pAnglo-Saxon countries experienced the largest increase in absolute inequalities (betaSII = 0.0032, pAnglo-Saxon countries. Educational inequalities in health have overall persisted across European countries over the last decade. However, there is considerable variation across welfare regimes, possibly related to underpinning social safety nets and to austerity measures implemented during this 10-year period.

  16. The WRF model forecast-derived low-level wind shear climatology over the United States great plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B. [Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basu, S. [Atmospheric Science Group, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    For wind resource assessment projects, it is common practice to use a power-law relationship (U(z) {proportional_to} z{sup {alpha}}) and a fixed shear exponent ({alpha} = 1/7) to extrapolate the observed wind speed from a low measurement level to high turbine hub-heights. However, recent studies using tall-tower observations have found that the annual average shear exponents at several locations over the United States Great Plains (USGP) are significantly higher than 1/7. These findings highlight the critical need for detailed spatio-temporal characterizations of wind shear climatology over the USGP, where numerous large wind farms will be constructed in the foreseeable future. In this paper, a new generation numerical weather prediction model - the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a fast and relatively inexpensive alternative to time-consuming and costly tall-tower projects, is utilized to determine whether it can reliably estimate the shear exponent and the magnitude of the directional shear at any arbitrary location over the USGP. Our results indicate that the WRF model qualitatively captures several low-level wind shear characteristics. However, there is definitely room for physics parameterization improvements for the WRF model to reliably represent the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  17. 9 June 2016 - British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Minister of State H. Swire MP signing the guest book with CERN Director-General F. Gianotti.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Rt Hon Hugo Swire MP Minister of State Foreign and Commonwealth Office United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Beams Department Head P. Collier and in ATLAS Visitor Centre with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton.

  18. Coal Development in the Northern Great Plains. The Impact on Revenues of State and Local Governments. Agricultural Economic Report No. 394.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Development of Northern Great Plains coal resources will create new demands for state and local government services. Development will also produce increased government revenues. Special taxes on coal production have been enacted in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming in order to ensure that state and local governments receive sufficient revenues to…

  19. Critical Race Theory, Policy Rhetoric and Outcomes: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…

  20. Attitudes towards Faith-Based Schooling amongst Roman Catholics in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Separate Catholic schooling in Britain has historically been a key mechanism for the religious socialisation of children within the denomination and for the transmission of communal identity and heritage. Catholic schools currently comprise around a tenth of all state schools in England and nearly all 'denominational' schools in Scotland. This…

  1. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  2. Evaluation of Weights of Evidence to Predict Epithermal-Gold Deposits in the Great Basin of the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    The weights-of-evidence method provides a simple approach to the integration of diverse geologic information. The application addressed is to construct a model that predicts the locations of epithermal-gold mineral deposits in the Great Basin of the western United States. Weights of evidence is a data-driven method requiring known deposits and occurrences that are used as training sites in the evaluated area. Four hundred and fifteen known hot spring gold-silver, Comstock vein, hot spring mercury, epithermal manganese, and volcanogenic uranium deposits and occurrences in Nevada were used to define an area of 327.4 km 2 as training sites to develop the model. The model consists of nine weighted-map patterns that are combined to produce a favorability map predicting the distribution of epithermal-gold deposits. Using a measure of the association of training sites with predictor features (or patterns), the patterns can be ranked from best to worst predictors. Based on proximity analysis, the strongest predictor is the area within 8 km of volcanic rocks younger than 43 Ma. Being close to volcanic rocks is not highly weighted, but being far from volcanic rocks causes a strong negative weight. These weights suggest that proximity to volcanic rocks define where deposits do not occur. The second best pattern is the area within 1 km of hydrothermally altered areas. The next best pattern is the area within 1 km of known placer-gold sites. The proximity analysis for gold placers weights this pattern as useful when close to known placer sites, but unimportant where placers do not exist. The remaining patterns are significantly weaker predictors. In order of decreasing correlation, they are: proximity to volcanic vents, proximity to east-west to northwest faults, elevated airborne radiometric uranium, proximity to northwest to west and north-northwest linear features, elevated aeromagnetics, and anomalous geochemistry. This ordering of the patterns is a function of the quality

  3. An evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation options for coal-fired power plants in the US Great Lakes States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froese, Robert E.; Shonnard, David R.; Miller, Chris A.; Koers, Ken P.; Johnson, Dana M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in the US Great Lakes States, a region heavily dependent on coal-fired power plants. A proposed 600 MW power plant in northern Lower Michigan, USA provided context for our evaluation. Options to offset fossil CO 2 emissions by 20% included biomass fuel substitution from (1) forest residuals, (2) short-rotation woody crops, or (3) switchgrass; (4) biologic sequestration in forest plantations; and (5) geologic sequestration using CO 2 capture. Review of timber product output data, land cover data, and expected energy crop productivity on idle agriculture land within 120 km of the plant revealed that biomass from forestry residuals has the potential to offset 6% and from energy crops 27% of the annual fossil fuel requirement. Furthermore, annual forest harvest in the region is only 26% of growth and the surplus represents a large opportunity for forest products and bioenergy applications. We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare mitigation options, using fossil energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions per unit electricity generation as criteria. LCA results revealed that co-firing with forestry residuals is the most attractive option and geologic sequestration is the least attractive option, based on the two criteria. Biologic sequestration is intermediate but likely infeasible because of very large land area requirements. Our study revealed that biomass feedstock potentials from land and forest resources are not limiting mitigation activities, but the most practical approach is likely a combination of options that optimize additional social, environmental and economic criteria.

  4. Welfare states, the Great Recession and health: Trends in educational inequalities in self-reported health in 26 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Leão

    Full Text Available Although socioeconomic inequalities in health have long been observed in Europe, few studies have analysed their recent patterning. In this paper, we examined how educational inequalities in self-reported health have evolved in different European countries and welfare state regimes over the last decade, which was troubled by the Great Recession.We used cross-sectional data from the EU-SILC survey for adults from 26 European countries, from 2005 to 2014 (n = 3,030,595. We first calculated education-related absolute (SII and relative (RII inequalities in poor self-reported health by country-year, adjusting for age, sex, and EU-SILC survey weights. We then regressed the year- and country-specific RII and SII on a yearly time trend, globally and by welfare regime, adjusting for country fixed effects. We further adjusted the analysis for the economic cycle using GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality.Overall, absolute inequalities persisted and relative inequalities slightly widened (betaRII = 0.0313, p<0.05. There were substantial differences by welfare regime: Anglo-Saxon countries experienced the largest increase in absolute inequalities (betaSII = 0.0032, p<0.05, followed by Bismarkian countries (betaSII = 0.0024, p<0.001, while they reduced in Post-Communist countries (betaSII = -0.0022, p<0.001. Post-Communist countries also experienced a widening in relative inequalities (betaRII = 0.1112, p<0.001, which were found to be stable elsewhere. Adjustment for income inequality only explained such trend in Anglo-Saxon countries.Educational inequalities in health have overall persisted across European countries over the last decade. However, there is considerable variation across welfare regimes, possibly related to underpinning social safety nets and to austerity measures implemented during this 10-year period.

  5. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  6. Characterization of a Novel Hepadnavirus in the White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Conway, Carla M; Winton, James R; Blazer, Vicki S

    2015-12-01

    The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Dideoxy sequencing confirmed that the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3,542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 nm were present in the plasma of infected fish. Compared to avi- and orthohepadnaviruses, sequence conservation of the core, polymerase, and surface proteins was low and ranged from 16 to 27% at the amino acid level. An X protein homologue common to the orthohepadnaviruses was not present. The WSHBV genome included an atypical, presumptively noncoding region absent in previously described hepadnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed WSHBV as distinct from previously documented hepadnaviruses. The level of divergence in protein sequences between WSHBV and other hepadnaviruses and the identification of an HBV-like sequence in an African cichlid provide evidence that a novel genus of the family Hepadnaviridae may need to be established that includes these hepatitis B-like viruses in fishes. Viral transcription was observed in 9.5% (16 of 169) of white suckers evaluated. The prevalence of hepatic tumors in these fish was 4.9%, and only 2.4% of fish were positive for both virus and hepatic tumors. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences regarding the association of WSHBV and carcinogenesis in white sucker. We report the first full-length genome of a hepadnavirus from fishes. Phylogenetic analysis of this genome indicates divergence from genomes of previously described hepadnaviruses from mammalian and avian hosts and supports the creation of a novel genus. The discovery of this novel virus may better our understanding of the evolutionary history of hepatitis B-like viruses of

  7. Climate change effects on wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and Great Lakes states predicted by a downscaled multi-model ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, Gaige Hunter; DeGaetano, Arthur T.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Ward, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This study is among the first to investigate wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and the Great Lakes states under a changing climate. We use a multi-model ensemble (MME) of regional climate models from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) together with the Canadian Forest

  8. Russia, China, and the United States in Central Asia: Prospects for Great Power Competition and Cooperation in the Shadow of the Georgian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    energy, public health, and food safety) shape Chinese foreign relations with neighboring states. Professor Wishnick also writes about great power...Dismisses Georgia’s Leader as ‘Political Corpse’,” The New York Times, September 3, 2008, p. A10; Ellen Barry, “Russians with Pumpkins Protest Many U.S

  9. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  10. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  11. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  13. Britain's first pressurised-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1982-01-01

    The recent announcement that the public inquiry into the CEGB's plans to build a PWR at Sizewell will begin in January 1983 and the statement which followed from the task force that was set up in July 1981 to consider the future of the PWR programme in the UK, are considered. The relevant time scales, costs and safety, in particular the cost incurred due to the added safety features for the British PWR, are discussed. The effect of political aspects on the future of the PWR in Britain is considered. (U.K.)

  14. Corporate ownership and control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  15. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  16. Future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications. Government Response (including Summary of Responses) to consultation on future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year the Government consulted on GB's future gas quality specifications. The background is that some streams of imported gases have an energy content that exceeds the upper limit specified in GB's current gas quality regulations. The policy issue was whether to stick with the current regulated specifications, but at the cost of having to process imported gas to bring it within those specifications; or, at some time after 2020, to adjust those specifications, but at the cost of having to check (and potentially change) approximately 45m domestic gas appliances in 22m households, to ensure that they are capable of burning the high energy gas safely (and with a residual safety risk that some appliances are missed). The Consultation Document sought views on the proposal (backed up by the Partial Regulatory Impact Assessment) to adopt the 'no change' option. In the light of the responses, this is what the Government now proposes. The associated Impact Assessment estimates the total net benefit of the 'no change' option at UK Pounds 1.5bn - 14bn, with a best estimate of UK Pounds 8bn (NPV, 2005). The risks for gas prices and security of supply (included in the Impact Assessment) are judged to be small. The Government proposes a 'forward plan', consisting of support for Ofgem's work on maximising the commercial flexibilities for the GB gas market to handle gases of different specifications, whilst continuing to engage in EU discussions on the gas quality issue. (Author)

  17. Culture and the environment in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Timothy

    1985-03-01

    The British pride themselves on their long tradition of landscape management rooted in the aristocratic and landowning classes of the 18th and 19th centuries. The British also emphasize that the rise of modern pollution control began in the Victorian industrial era with the emergence of the national Inspectorates and the local Commissioners of Sewers. All these traditions are rooted in British social history, which was heavily influenced by class, power, and the changing shape of industrial and agricultural development. In modern Britain, affected by industrial recession, where concern over jobs and growth appears to dominate public and political attention, as well as public spending cuts that sap the morale and effectiveness of the major regulatory agencies, attitudes toward, and the execution of, environmental protection are undergoing a subtle but profound revolution. It is slowly but agonizingly being recognized that economic growth and social well-being cannot be disconnected from environmental processes and the limits these impose on management and technological intervention. A 21st century Britain will have to integrate conservation with development in order to survive.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  19. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  20. Working Life Expectancy at Age 50 in the United States and the Impact of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-12-01

    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.

  1. Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs. Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. Concentrations of PAHs in diet were sufficiently elevated at some AOCs to elicit a measurable physiological response. Among AOCs, concentrations of the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctane sulfonate in plasma were the highest on the River Raisin (MI, USA; geometric mean 330 ng/mL) but well below an estimated toxicity reference value (1700 ng/mL). Both PAH and PCB concentrations in nestling stomach contents and PCBs in carcasses were significantly correlated with concentrations in sediment previously reported, thereby reinforcing the utility of tree swallows to assess bioavailability of sediment contamination.

  2. Water resources of the Hartford-New Britain area, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum; Tanski, D.; Thomas, M.P.

    1964-01-01

    Connecticut River in the vicinity of Hartford offers an almost unlimited source of water of good chemical quality to the Hartforcd, New Britain area. The Connecticut River and many of its tributaries, however, are polluted to some degree, and the cost of treatment for pollution and of delivery of water to the area presents an economic problem in the further development of these sources. The Hartford-New Britain area in the vicinity of Hartford has been plagued by floods since the time of its settlement. Most of the damage to property and loss of life in the Hartford area has been caused by tloodin: of the Connecticut and Park Rivers. Floods have occurred on the ConIJecticut River and its tributaries in every month of the year, but the most sever floods occur in the spring and fall. The mast devastating :flood on the Conr icut River occurred on March 21, 1986, when the stage at Hartford reached 37.0 feet above mean sea level. The maximum :flood on the Park River occurr on August 19, 1955, when the stage reached 43.5 feet above mean sea levE'1. Floods on the other tributaries have been frequent and some have been larg , but damage has not been as great because the streams :flow mostly through rural areas: Small to moderate supplies of water suitable for domestic use and for small municipalities and industries are available from wells in the Hartford-New Britain area. Moderate supplies are obtainable from five definable sand-and-gravel aquifers and from widespread consolidated sedimentary rocks. Yields to individual wells range from 15 to 400 gpm (gallons per minute) for wells penetrating sand and gravel and from 1 to 578 gpm for wells penetrating consolidated sedimentary rocks. Sand and gravel deposits bordering the Connecticut River downstream from Rocky Hill afford the greatest potential for the development of large supplies of ground water. Small supplies ranging from 1 to 40 gpm are obtainable from glacial till and from consolidated cr

  3. Pollution prevention, preparedness, and response coordination efforts between the US Coast Guard and Coastal, Great Lakes, and Inland River states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.

    1993-01-01

    Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations

  4. A history of radiotherapy to 1950: cancer and radiotherapy in Britain 1850-1950

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis explores the establishment of radiotherapy as a medical specialty in Britain; its development is explored within the context of hospital treatment and care for cancer patients. The themes examined in the thesis are: the role of hospital provision for cancer; the development of new medical therapies; the establishment of new medical specialities; the role of State support for medicine; public interest in cancer and its treatment. (author)

  5. Impact report on ‘A Vision of Britain through Time’ 2004-10: investigating the current use and impact of a popular digital resource for local history research

    OpenAIRE

    Aucott, Paula; Southall, Humphrey; Healey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The website A Vision of Britain through Time brings together geographical surveys of Britain, including every census from 1801 to 2001 and a large library of historic maps. It was built by the Great Britain Historical GIS Project based at the University of Portsmouth and originally launched with National Lottery funding in 2004. JISC funded major extensions to content and a re-design in 2007-9, but the site was still designed mainly to meet the needs of local historians. This report summarise...

  6. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  7. STATE FARMS AND MTS OF MOSCOW REGION BEFORE AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Androsov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of previously unknown archival materials for the first time in the national historiography a public way in Soviet agriculture of Moscow region in the period 1940-1942 yy. is considered. Particular attention is paid to the historiography of this problem, new methods of modern historians in the study of the rural economy of this period are marked. Different approaches in the analysis of the results of collectivization and the appearance in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics new sectors of agricultural production - the state and the collective are compared. Features of the state agricultural production plants and the legal status of their workers in the state farms and machine and tractor stations (MTS are pointed. Specific difficulties encountered in the process and as a result of the evacuation of the property of state farms and MTS, preparing for spring sowing in the implementation of the directive of All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of self-reliance are examined in details. The dedication of staff rear structures in the rescue of the property entrusted to them, the preparation of the spring sowing campaign, raising funds and manpower in extreme conditions is marked. Relationship of the status on the front and readiness of rear workers to work in the changed circumstances is traced. The difference between subjective difficulties associated with defects of command-administrative system, which prevailed in government and objective hardship arising from the outbreak of hostilities is taken into account. Much attention is paid to the description of the technical condition of the machine and tractor fleet of state farms and MTS as the main means of agricultural production. The conclusion about the causes and consequences of unavailability governance structures to conduct evacuation and preparation of the spring sowing are made.

  8. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  9. Severe Deprivation and System Inclusion Among Children of Incarcerated Parents in the United States After the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Sykes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last four decades and the corresponding rise of parental incarceration raises questions about whether the children of current and former inmates are at an increased risk of material hardship that necessitates social service intervention. Recent sociological scholarship finds that the greater surveillance experienced by former inmates and the criminally involved precludes them from seeking medical care and social services. Yet there is no scholarship that assesses health care and social service utilization among children exposed to parental incarceration. In this article, we investigate how race and educational inequality in parental incarceration were associated with markers of deprivation and social program enlistment after the Great Recession. Using data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, we not only find that children with an incarcerated parent experience greater levels of deprivation—material hardship, unmet health needs, and residential instability—but that these children are drawn into social service programs at a higher rate than the rate for children unexposed to parental incarceration. Nearly 2.1 million children (or 81 percent of minors with an incarcerated parent are enrolled in at least one social service program. Our findings are consistent with a “system inclusion” perspective, which aligns with David Garland’s and William Julius Wilson’s theoretical and historical explanations of social service participation among disadvantaged minors.

  10. Britain stays cool on district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G

    1982-04-08

    Britain's wealth of energy sources has kept interest in the energy conservation potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) at a low level. An active lobby for CHP/DH continues to argue against formidable odds. The Marshall group set up in the early days of the oil crisis reported on several strategies for CHP/DH and proposed technologies already proven in other European countries. The economics of abundant natural gas and coal, however, precludes commercial interest until energy prices reach higher levels. The lobbyists point out that this could occur within a short time, and local governments would do well to examine the lead-city concept for application on a national level. The present government's preference for the private sector pursuing development beyond the feasibility-study stage could make CHP/DH more of a political issue as unemployment increases. (DCK)

  11. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  12. The Carnegie Dietary Survey of Interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Samantha A

    2015-01-01

    This research note describes an under-used collection of papers which document interwar income, nutrition and health in Britain which were created in the administration of the Carnegie Dietary Survey by John Boyd-Orr in the Rowett Institute with funding from the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. The survey was conducted in 16 rural and urban places across England and Scotland between 1937-9, and are now held at the Specialist Collections Centre at the University of Aberdeen. While the importance of the survey in informing knowledge about nutrition and the development of rationing has been acknowledged in the field of social medicine, the survey data has primarily been used by epidemiological scientists and economic historians. After outlining the survey's past influences and uses, this item details the possible ways the data could be used by social, economic and local population historians.

  13. The Role of Leadership in Transitional States: The Cases of Lebanon, Israel-Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    docs/pal/pal3.htm. 20. Thus, for instance, Arafat explained the fact that he re- mained unmarried until his 60s by saying that he is married to a... VS . POSITIVE DISAGREEMENT Since no leader has the knowledge and power to lead effectively on his own, leadership is a collective affair. Thus...of Great Britain to withdraw from Palestine. 100 — The new world order became bipolar—the United States vs . the Union of Soviet Social- ist

  14. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  15. Evaluation of nocturnal roost and diurnal sites used by whooping cranes in the Great Plains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Harner, Mary J.; Baasch, David M.; Wright, Greg D.; Caven, Andrew J.; Metzger, Kristine L.

    2017-01-17

    Endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate through the Great Plains twice each year. Although there is much interest in conservation and management for this species, information regarding characteristics of nocturnal roost sites used during migration has been limited and based largely on incidental observations. Using high-quality location data collected concurrently, we directed a companion field study designed to characterize sites used as roost or day-use sites to augment knowledge and assist the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program in identifying migration habitat for restoration, conservation, and management actions along the Platte River in central Nebraska. We collected data at 504 roost sites and 83 day-use sites used by marked whooping cranes in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. Roost sites were located in emergent wetlands (50 percent), lacustrine wetlands (25 percent), rivers (20 percent), and dryland sites (5 percent). Most day-use sites were characterized as dryland sites (54 percent), with the balance in wetlands (45 percent) and rivers (1 percent). Habitat criteria thresholds initially derived by the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program to represent where 90 percent of whooping cranes used along the Platte River were different from those we measured over a larger section of the migration corridor. For most of the metrics, the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program’s initial habitat criteria thresholds would be considered more conservative than critical values estimated from our data; thus, whooping cranes were seemingly able to tolerate a wider range of these metrics than initially suspected. One exception was the metric distance to nearest disturbance feature, where our results sug­gest that whooping cranes may be less tolerant to nearby dis­turbances in a larger part of the migration corridor compared to the Platte River

  16. Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States. 2. Trace gas profiles and distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Winston T.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ryan, William F.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Nunnermacker, Linda J.

    1992-12-01

    Convective clouds and thunderstorms redistribute air pollutants vertically, and by altering the chemistry and radiative balance of the upper troposphere, these local actions can have global consequences. To study these effects, measurements of trace gases ozone, O3, carbon monoxide, CO, and odd nitrogen were made aboard the NCAR Sabreliner on 18 flights over the southern Great Plains during June 1985. To demonstrate chemical changes induced by vertical motions in the atmosphere and to facilitate comparison with computer model calculations, these data were categorized according to synoptic flow patterns. Part 1 of this two-part paper details the alternating pulses of polar and maritime air masses that dominate the vertical mixing in this region. In this paper, trace gas measurements are presented as altitude profiles (0-12 km) with statistical distributions of mixing ratios for each species in each flow pattern. The polar flow regime is characterized by northwesterly winds, subsiding air, and convective stability. Concentrations of CO and total odd nitrogen (NOy) are relatively high in the shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL) but decrease rapidly with altitude. Ozone, on the other hand, is uniformly distributed, suggesting limited photochemical production; in fact, nitric oxide, NO, mixing ratios fell below 10 ppt (parts per 1012 by volume) in the midtroposphere. The maritime regime is characterized by southerly surface winds, convective instability, and a deep PBL; uniformly high concentrations of trace gases were found up to 4 km on one flight. Severe storms occur in maritime flow, especially when capped by a dry layer, and they transport large amounts of CO, O3, and NOy into the upper troposphere. Median NO levels at high altitude exceeded 300 ppt. Lightning produces spikes of NO (but not CO) with mixing ratios sometimes exceeding 1000 ppt. This flow pattern tends to leave the midtroposphere relatively clean with concentrations of trace gases similar to those

  17. Conjectures and Contrivances: Economic Growth and the Standard of Living in Britain,During the Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Feinstein

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of nominal earnings, the cost of living earnings for manual workers in Great Britain over the period 1770 to 1870. The estimates are adjusted to allow for unemployment and for the inclusion of agricultural workers in Ireland. The series are then analyzed to establish their implications for the debates about the impact of the industrial revolution on the standard of living; and about the pace of economic growth during this period. The main findings are that th...

  18. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  19. The Victorian Amateur Astronomer: Independent Astronomical Research in Britain 1820-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to look in detail at amateur astronomy in Victorian Britain. It deals with the technical issues that were active in Victorian astronomy, and reviews the problems of finance, patronage and the dissemination of scientific ideas. It also examines the relationship between the amateur and professional in Britain. It contains a wealth of previously unpublished biographical and anecdotal material, and an extended bibliography with notes incorporating much new scholarship. In The Victorian Amateur Astronomer, Allan Chapman shows that while on the continent astronomical research was lavishly supported by the state, in Britain such research was paid for out of the pockets of highly educated, wealthy gentlemen the so-called Grand Amateurs . It was these powerful individuals who commissioned the telescopes, built the observatories, ran the learned societies, and often stole discoveries from their state-employed colleagues abroad. In addition to the Grand Amateurs , Victorian Britain also contained many self-taught amateurs. Although they belonged to no learned societies, these people provide a barometer of the popularity of astronomy in that age. In the late 19th century, the comfortable middle classes clergymen, lawyers, physicians and retired military officers took to astronomy as a serious hobby. They formed societies which focused on observation, lectures and discussions, and it was through this medium that women first came to play a significant role in British astronomy. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students studying the history of science or humanities, professional historians of science, engineering and technology, particularly those with an interest in astronomy, the development of astronomical ideas, scientific instrument makers, and amateur astronomers.

  20. Socioeconomic Variation in the Effect of Economic Conditions on Marriage and Nonmarital Fertility in the United States: Evidence From the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P

    2015-12-01

    The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession.

  1. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB.

  2. Treaty Series No. 60 (1985) - Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy with exchange of letters - London, 3 June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Agreement covers in particular co-operation in civil nuclear research, including reactor safety, radioactive waste management and radiation protection. Co-operation between the two Parties shall be for exclusively peaceful purposes and the transfer to third parties of any nuclear material, equipment or facilities supplied in the context of the present Agreement may not take place without prior consultation between the two Governments. In the event of such a transfer, the two Governments shall ensure that the third state pledges peaceful use only and accepts IAEA safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  3. Suicide and the Great Recession of 2007-2009: the role of economic factors in the 50 U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A; Nugent, Colleen N

    2014-09-01

    After several decades of decline, U.S. suicide rates have risen since 2005, a trend driven largely by increases among those aged 45-64 that began in 1999. A prominent explanation for this pattern relates to deteriorating economic conditions, especially the sharp rise in unemployment associated with the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We pool data from 1997 to 2010 on the 50 U.S. states to examine the role of economic factors in producing the recent rise in suicide rates. Unlike prior studies, we examine trends in the total suicide rate and in the rate disaggregated by sex, age group and time period and include a number of important confounding factors in a multivariate analysis. We find a strong positive association between unemployment rates and total suicide rates over time within states. The association appears stronger in states that had higher female labor force participation rates over the period, suggesting that the Great Recession may generate greater levels of anomie in this context. Once we consider contextual factors such as female labor force participation, we find that rising unemployment had a similar adverse effect on male and female suicide rates. A positive effect of unemployment on temporal variation in middle-aged suicide exists but not for other age groups. Other economic characteristics, such as percent of manufacturing jobs and per capita income, are not associated with temporal variation in suicide rates within states but are associated with variation between states in suicide rates. The findings suggest that the following may be important components of effective prevention strategies: 1) specifically targeting employers and workplaces as important stakeholders in the prevention of suicide, 2) disseminating information about health risks tied to un/employment, and 3) linking the unemployed to mental health resources. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of environmental indexes of great hydropower plants localized in various Brazilian states and geographical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The predominantly tropical climate and the predominance of plateaus in Brazil contributed to the development of a high hydroelectric potential, which determined the choice of hydropower plants as main technology of electricity generation. Though this is a renewable source, dams must being established to guarantee high amount of water all over the year generating high environmental and social impact. One of the ways to evaluate environmental impacts caused by large hydropower plants is adoption of environmental indexes which are formed by ratio of installed or firm power with dam area of a hydropower plant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. Statistical instruments were utilized to evaluate environmental indexes in the five Brazilian regions, twenty six states, and fifteen main rivers (where at least three large hydropower plants are encountered). The periods when each hydropower plant operation was initiated were also considered. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. More, the greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. (author)

  5. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  6. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  7. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society...

  8. Why does Britain price itself out of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns Britains' participation in CERN's contracts for high-technology equipment. British companies supplying CERN; research and development costs; and reasons why British companies fail at CERN; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Planning, housing and participation in Britain, 1968-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapely, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The history of planning and social housing in post-war Britain has been dominated by the role of the state, local government, professionals (planners, architects, civil servants) and developers. This is hardly surprising, given that the partnerships created around these groups dominated the slum clearance and building process. The tenants have been absent from the 'history' because they were missing from the process. However, in the 1960s and 1970s the concept of participation began to emerge. It grew from broader social and cultural changes brought about through the emergence of welfare, consumerism and an ever greater awareness of 'rights'. The idea of participation was to increase participatory democracy by involving people in the planning process, by recognizing their rights to be involved in decisions which impacted on their lives. The state promoted the idea through legislation, but in practice the concept proved difficult to implement. Local authorities saw participation, at best, as a means of smoothing the planning process through the dissemination of ideas, thus limiting any scope for meaningful participation schemes. This article will look at the tension between the ideal and practice. It will also consider the reaction of many tenants who, frustrated at the attitude and policies forced on them by local government, became galvanized into action, creating tenant groups that would give their communities a voice.

  10. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  11. URBAN AGRICULTURE DIVERSITY IN BRITAIN: BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrard , Ailbhe

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Diversity of urban agriculture (UA) in Britain could reduce food security impacts if a crisis occured in industrial food production systems. Industrial agriculture (IA) both causes and suffers from a lack of resilience: environmental, financial and structural. In Britain, the allotment system, previously an important form of UA, now grossly insufficient to replace the output of industrial agriculture, particularly in London. With these poin...

  12. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  13. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  14. Specialization and medical mycology in the US, Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2008-03-01

    This paper attempts to bring new insights to a long-standing historical debate over medical specialization by analyzing the formation of medical mycology, a somewhat marginal biomedical discipline that emerged in the mid-twentieth century around studies of fungal disease in humans. The study of fungi predates that of bacteria and viruses, but from the 1880s it became eclipsed by bacteriology. However, in the postwar period, there were moves to establish medical mycology as an independent speciality. I trace the processes that led to the launch of professional societies in the United States, Britain and Japan, three major players in medical mycology, and more broadly in biomedicine. The analysis of the three different national contexts illustrates how geographical, medico-technological, epidemiological, political and social conditions gave the specialty a distinctive character in each country; this was further complicated by the different and changing medical fields in which fungal diseases were studied and treated. The three case studies show medical specialization as a process that is not simply cumulative but responds to specific historical events and developments.

  15. Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R.; Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C.; Mickley, Randall M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. PMID:25266351

  16. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Induction to Characterize and Map Sodium-Affected Soils in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Heilig, J.; Kempenich, J.; Doolittle, J.; Ulmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sodium-affected soils (SAS) cover over 4 million hectares in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Improving the classification, interpretation, and mapping of SAS is a major goal of the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) as Northern Great Plains soil surveys are updated. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as measured with ground conductivity meters has shown promise for mapping SAS, however, this use of this geophysical tool needs additional evaluation. This study used an EM-38 MK2-2 meter (Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario), a Trimble AgGPS 114 L-band DGPS (Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA) and the RTmap38MK2 program (Geomar Software, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario) on an Allegro CX field computer (Juniper Systems, North Logan, UT) to collect, observe, and interpret ECa data in the field. The ECa map generated on-site was then used to guide collection of soil samples for soil characterization and to evaluate the influence of soil properties in SAS on ECa as measured with the EM-38MK2-2. Stochastic models contained in the ESAP software package were used to estimate the SAR and salinity levels from the measured ECa data in 30 cm depth intervals to a depth of 90 cm and for the bulk soil (0 to 90 cm). This technique showed promise, with meaningful spatial patterns apparent in the ECa data. However, many of the stochastic models used for salinity and SAR for individual depth intervals and for the bulk soil had low R-squared values. At both sites, significant variability in soil clay and water contents along with a small number of soil samples taken to calibrate the ECa values to soil properties likely contributed to these low R-squared values.

  18. Vocational training and career employment precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, T.; Graaf, de P.; Hendrickx, J.; Layte, R.

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals' life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  19. Vocational Training and Career Employment Precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, Tomas; Graaf, Paul de; Hendrickx, John; Layte, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals’ life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  20. CT Scans in Young People in Great Britain: Temporal and Descriptive Patterns, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Results. The number of CT examinations doubled over the study period. While increases in numbers of recorded examinations were seen across all age groups, the greatest increases were in the older patients, most notably those aged 15–19 years of age. Sixty percent of CT examinations were of the head, with the percentages varying with calendar year and patient age. Conclusions. In contrast to previous data from the North of England, the doubling of CT use was not accompanied by an increase in numbers of multiple examinations to the same individual.