WorldWideScience

Sample records for state residential building

  1. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2012 edition of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (2012 IECC or 2012 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication of this affirmative final determination, States are required to file certification statements to DOE that they have reviewed the provisions of their residential building code regarding energy efficiency and made a determination as to whether to update their code to meet or exceed the 2012 IECC. Additionally, this Notice provides guidance to States on how the codes have changed from previous versions, and the certification process.

  2. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has preliminarily determined that the 2012 edition of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (2012 IECC or 2012 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication of an affirmative final determination, States would be required to file certification statements to DOE that they have reviewed the provisions of their residential building code regarding energy efficiency and made a determination as to whether to update their code to meet or exceed the 2012 IECC. Additionally, this Notice provides guidance to States on how the codes have changed from previous versions, and the certification process should this preliminary determination be finalized.

  3. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2009 edition of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (2009 IECC or 2009 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2006 IECC, with site energy savings estimated at 14%. Also, DOE has determined that the 2006 edition of the ICC IECC (2006 IECC or 2006 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2003 edition of the ICC IECC (2003 IECC or 2003 edition), with site energy savings estimated at 1%. Finally, DOE has determined that the 2003 edition would not achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2000 IECC. Upon publication of this affirmative final determination, States are required to file certification statements to DOE that they have reviewed the provisions of their residential building code regarding energy efficiency and made a determination as to whether to update their code to meet or exceed the 2009 IECC. Additionally, this Notice provides guidance to States on how the codes have changed from previous versions, how to submit certifications, and how to request extensions of the deadline to submit certifications.

  4. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has preliminarily determined that the 2009 version of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2006 IECC. Also, DOE has preliminarily determined that the 2006 version of the IECC would achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2003 IECC. Finally, DOE has preliminarily determined that the 2003 version of the IECC would not achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2000 IECC. If these determinations are finalized, States would be required to file certification statements to DOE that they have reviewed the provisions of their residential building code regarding energy efficiency and made a determination as to whether to update their code to meet or exceed the most recent code with an affirmative determination, the 2009 IECC. Additionally, this Notice provides guidance to States on how the codes have changed from previous versions, how to submit certifications, and how to request extensions of the deadline to submit certifications, should the preliminary determinations be adopted as final.

  5. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  6. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  7. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  8. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...... comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock...

  9. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  10. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... building types: single-family houses, terraced houses and blocks of flats. Each main building type is presented for nine periods representing age, typical building tradition and insulation levels. Finally, an energy balance model of the residential building stock was devised to validate the average...

  11. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  12. Renovation of existing buildings to residential lofts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaskel, B.S.; Gerns, E.A.; DeMuth, K.

    1999-07-01

    Major cities throughout North America are recently undergoing a residential revitalization of buildings in their urban centers. Many of these buildings are used as masonry loft structures, converted from buildings originally built for industrial or commercial occupancy. The renovations of these buildings typically address structural concerns, such as corrosion of embedded metals, and serviceability concerns, such as water-tightness. Masonry repairs can range from being relatively minor to relatively major, often depending on the condition of the building. Frequently, disputes arise between those who directed the renovation project and those who ultimately reside in these buildings. There ar few guidelines in the current literature that identify the degree of masonry repairs that should be anticipated by all parties. Such guidelines would help resolve conflict in this type of work. This paper will present some of the authors' observations in this area and identify common concerns raised by these projects.

  13. Contemporary facades of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev: Videoecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the actual problems concerning the current state of the facades on apartment buildings in residential districts in Kiev - videoecology. The main purpose of the article is to determine the degree of visual aggressiveness of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev. It also investigates the problem of finding the optimal criteria for creating an ecologically healthy and friendly inhabited environment in the capital city of Ukraine. The modern visual environment in the capital is contaminated, not only because of the increasing numbers of promotional billboards, but also because of the contemporary architecture of high-rise buildings such as office buildings, apartment buildings. Their composition is usually based on a simple description of a rhythm. There are also repetitions of the end parts of buildings in “lowercase” buildings, which are high-rise buildings that alternate with nine or identical apartment groups. It creates a sense of oppressive monotony and leads to psychological and visual fatigue, especially when these repetitions are the only pattern the eye perceives. In the article a theoretical block of ecological-aesthetic criteria is defined, which must be met by the modern architecture facades of multistorey residential houses in Kiev.

  14. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and

  15. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  16. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential building code... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code... doors and windows; (5) Unit smoke detectors; (6) Flame spread. (b) Light and ventilation. (1) Habitable...

  17. Indoor Environment in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The contribution presents results of the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in residential prefabricated buildings. People spend about 90% of their life in the indoor environment of buildings. Hygrothermal parameters and indoor air quality are the essential component that define the quality of the indoor environment. The results of case study characterize the quality of the indoor environment of the ordinary occupants in housing unit of residential prefabricated building. A current problem of revitalized prefabricated buildings is inadequate air exchange and related thereto to poor indoor air quality. The experimental measurements were carried out just before and at the beginning of the heating season (from 1st October to 30th November 2016). Heating season was launched in the middle of experimental measurement. The wireless indoor sensor Elgato Eve Room was used for measurements. The obtained values of indoor air temperature [°C], relative humidity [%] and indoor air quality [ppm] are describe and analysis in this study. The results of the study indicate that the values of temperature and indoor air quality meet optimal levels during the experiment with nuances. The mean air temperature in the indoor environment is 22.43 °C. The temperature of the indoor environment is held at the optimum level (18-24 °C) for 94.50% time of the experimental measurements. In addition, the indoor air quality in the context of the content of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been excellent for almost 91% time of the total experiment. However, the values of relative humidity were less than the optimum value nearly 40% of the total observed time. The mean 10-minutes values of relative humidity during the heating season is about 10% lower than the mean 10-minutes relative humidity before the heating season.

  18. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  19. Indoor Noise Loading in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Quality on indoor environment is among others also defined by an acoustic comfort and noise emissions. The indoor noise loading in the residential prefabricated buildings is specific problem related to structural design of these buildings. Problems with noise level of sanitary systems are mostly associated with hydraulic shock such as water distribution and sewage drainage. Another very common cause of excessive noise is also flushing the toilet or water fall on enamelled steel (bath or shower). This paper aims to analyse the acoustic properties in the residential prefabricated buildings. Sanitary core of the assessed apartment is in original condition without any alterations. The sanitary core is based on a formica (high-pressure laminate). The study discusses the maximum sound levels in the three assessed rooms for the three different noise sources. The values of maximum noise level are measured for the corridor, bedroom and living room. Sources of noise are common activities relating to the operation of sanitary core - the toilet flush in the toilet, falling water from the shower in the bathroom and the water falling on the bottom of the kitchen sink in the kitchen. Other sources of noise are eliminated or minimized during the experiment. The digital sound level meter Testo 815 is used for measurements. The measured values of maximum sound level LA,max [dB] are adjusted by the correction coefficient. The obtained values are compared with the hygienic limits for day and night period. Night hygienic limit (30 dB) is exceeded in all the rooms for all noise sources. This limit is exceeded from 17 to 73%. The values in the bedroom and the living room meet the daily hygienic limit (40 dB). The daily limit is exceeded only in the corridor. The highest values of noise are identified for the toilet flushing.

  20. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  1. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  2. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  3. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)

  4. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residential or farm building, repair or maintenance is not a sale for resale, provided, the sale is otherwise... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND...

  5. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often cau...

  6. Application of Energy Performance Indicators for Residential Building Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Energy performance indicators of residential building stocks can either describe existing empirical data of a building stock or the input and outcome of building stock modelling. In EPISCOPE both types of quantities are clearly separated by distinguishing monitoring indicators and scenario...... indicators....

  7. Residential and commercial buildings data book: Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, G.R.; Howard, K.B.; Nicholls, A.K.; Guerra, T.D.

    1988-02-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in September, 1986 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; and Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. 12 refs., 59 figs., 118 tabs.

  8. Influence of building costs on rents of residential property in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completed building accommodation in Owerri the Capital of Imo State without considerations to the tenants' ability to the sustainable rent payment obligations. Field investigation indicated that high costs incurred by developers and expectations of early recoupment of capital and profits from residential building investments ...

  9. Energy performance certificate of two selected residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Intihar, Tadeja

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents calculated energy performance certificate of two selected residential buildings. The targets of European climate and energy policies for reduction of consumed energy include energy efficiency of buildings. Current buildings fund in Slovenia demands great need for energy. Great reduction of energy demands and its’ more efficient use can be achieved by use of renewable energy sources in buildings. In the thesis I have described European and Slovenian legislation ...

  10. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...... to a parametric study of the impact of changes in input parameters relating to the design and the use of the building.......This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...

  11. Building envelope innovation: smart facades for non residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the evolution of smart façade systems in the area of design and industrial production, in order to investigate the technological, functional and qualitative standards of dynamic façade and evaluate the energy performance of the building envelope as a dynamic system that interacts between indoor and outdoor environment. The study focused on dynamic envelopes for office building analyzing the evolution of façade systems in terms of: building construction, innovative systems, smart materials, dynamic system. Aiming to improve building energy performances. The research, developed during the PhD thesis “Smart Envelope - dynamic and innovative technologies for energy saving” and the research “Abitare Mediterraneo”, aims to identify and define the energy performances of smart envelopes trough the analysis of the state of art, related to dynamic building envelope of double skin façade, and the development of a new dynamic façade system.

  12. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  13. Solar ejector refrigerant system in China’s residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation program describing the performance of solar ejector refrigerant system for air conditioning of China’s residential buildings was established. Hourly performance of the system under different operate conditions, the collector efficiency, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity and cooling load were analyzed. It is found that the collector efficiency and the overall coefficient of performance increase first and then decline, and it can be concluded that the application of solar ejector refrigerant system will have a better developmental prospect in China’s residential buildings.

  14. Residential and commercial buildings data book. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crumb, L.W.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-09-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in October, 1984 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. This Data Book complements another Department of Energy document entitled ''Overview of Building Energy Use and Report of Analysis-1985'' October, 1985 (DOE/CE-0140). The Data Book provides supporting data and documentation to the report.

  15. Energy management in residential and small commercial buildings. Annual report, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J.; Gazerro, V.; Salzano, F.J.; Berlad, A.L.

    1976-07-01

    The goal of the present program is to develop the technical basis for efficient energy use in space heating of residential and small commercial buildings. Efficiency measurements performed on conventional residential oil-fired hot water heating equipment, including both steady state and cyclic (part load) efficiency determinations are described. A list of preliminary recommendations for retrofit actions to improve efficiency is provided. A summary of work carried out in the areas of thermal storage media, fenestration, and building thermal dynamics is also presented.

  16. The post-evaluation of green residential building in Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunna; Wang, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Green residential buildings are concerned by more and more people. However, the development of green residential buildings has been limited due to the single-standard requirements and lack of the multi-objective performance. At same time, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is not comprehensive enough. So first of all, using SPSS software, residents questionnaire surveys are figured and found that the judge of experts and residents about the green elements is inconsistent, so the owners’ satisfaction is included in the post-evaluation criterial systems of green residential building from five aspects-the preliminary work of construction, construction process, economic, social benefits and owners satisfaction in Ningxia area, combined with expert interviews. Secondly, in the post-evaluation, it is difficult for many experts judgment matrix to meet the requirement of consistency, in this paper using MATLAB program, judgment matrix consistency is adjusted. And the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria and experts weights using group AHP method are determined. Finally, the grey clustering method is used to establish the post-evaluation model and the real case of Sai-shang project is carried out. It shows that the result obtained by using the improved criteria system and method in this paper is in a high degree of agreement with the actual result.

  17. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    . In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  18. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  19. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  20. Improve isolation materials and recommendation of residential buildings in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuliya; Sun, Cheng; Nuguzhinov, Zhmagul

    2017-04-01

    The article shows the problem of high volumes of energy use in Kazakhstan and introduction of energy-efficient technologies, production and causes of the problem. To improve the thermal comfort, needed primarily to improve the thermal insulation properties of materials. This article examines the characteristics of thermal insulation materials and their application in the construction process in Kazakhstan. The material properties are calculated and shown as formulas, which can use in the future in the design of residential buildings. The construction studied of passive technology in the residential area. By the design process and the combination of design variables selected option.

  1. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  2. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  3. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  4. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  5. Modelling the heat dynamics of a residential building unit: Application to Norwegian buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the development of a continuous time mathematical heating model for a building unit based on the first principles. The model is described in terms of the state space variables, and a lumped parameter approach is used to represent the room air temperature and air density using mass and energy balances. The one-dimensional heat equation in cartesian coordinates and spherical coordinates is discretized in order to describe the thermic characteristics of the layers of the building framework and furniture respectively. The developed model is implemented in a MATLAB environment, and mainly a theoretical approach is used to validate it for a residential building unit. Model is also validated using experimental data for a limited period. Short term simulations are used to test the energy efficiency of the building unit with regard to factors such as the operation of heat sources, ventilation, occupancy patterns of people, weather conditions, features of the building structure and heat recovery. The results are consistent and are obtained considerably fast, implying that the model can be used further in modelling the heating dynamics of complex architectural designs and in control applications.

  6. METHOD FOR DECREASE OF STANDARD HEAT LOSSES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified method for calculation of standard coefficient for heat transfer in a residential building has been developed in the paper. Investigations have been carried out with the purpose to determine influence of building size, level of thermal insulation in external enclosures and share of heat regeneration in ventilation system on total heat losses. The paper considers buildings of a simple geometrical form (“matchbox” with number of floors 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and living area from 100 up to 25600 m2 at the level of thermal resistance of walls 1; 3 and 5 m2 ⋅°C/W and share of heat regeneration in ventilation air stream of 0; 0.5 and 0.66. The investigation results have shown that while increasing building size then there is a sudden transformation of dimensions and structure in external enclosures: share of overlapping area is reduced by 3-fold and share of wall area is increased by 2-fold. Surface area of building external envelope is reduced by 6-fold in comparison with its heated area. An average coefficient of building heat transfer assigned to heated area is decreased by 3-fold. It has been shown that the most efficient methods for further decrease of standard heat losses for residential buildings are the following: heat recovery in the ventilation system: it is deeper if heat protection rate is higher and climate of a building construction zone is colder; enlargement of building size through decrease of their number; limit-exceeding increase in heat protection of small apartment buildings and cottages; cubic form of 2–3-floor buildings for Far North.

  7. Effects of Building Design Elements on Residential Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential thermal environment affects the life of residents in terms of their physical and mental health. Many studies have shown that building design elements affect the urban thermal environment. In this study, Nanjing City was used as the study area. A three-dimensional microclimate model was used to simulate and analyze the effects of four main factors, namely, building height, density, layout and green ratio, on thermal environment in residential areas. Results showed that 25% building density obtained a low average air temperature (ATa and average predicted mean vote (APMV during 24 h. Thus, a higher building height indicates a lower ATa and APMV and better outdoor comfort level. In addition, peripheral layout had the lowest ATa and APMV, followed by the determinant and point group layouts. The green ratio increased from 0% to 50% with a 10% step and the ATa and APMV decreased gradually. However, when the green ratio increased from 30% to 40%, ATa and APMV decreased most. The effects of building height, density and green ratio on the thermal environment in residential areas were interactive. The effects of building density, green ratio and layout on hourly air temperature and hourly predicted mean vote in daytime varied from these indicators during night time. How the four building design elements interact with thermal environment were probed from two aspects of air temperature and thermal comfort based on the validated ENVI-met, which is the element of novelty in this study. However, thermal comfort has rarely been considered in the past studies about urban outdoor thermal environment.

  8. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  10. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  11. Statistical assessment of fire safety in multi-residential buildings in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a third of residential units in Slovenia are located in multi-residential buildings. The majority of such buildings were built after WW2, when the need for suitable accommodation buildings was at its peak. They were built using the construction possibilities and requirements of the time. Every year there are over 200 fires in these buildings, resulting in fatalities and vast material damage. Due to the great efforts over the past centuries, which were all mainly aimed at replacing combustible construction materials with non-combustible ones, and with advancements in fire service equipment and techniques, the number of fires and their scope has decreased significantly but they were not entirely put out. New and greater advances in the field of fire safety of multi-residential buildings became obvious within the last few years, when stricter regulations regarding the construction of such objects came into force. Developments in science and within the industry itself brought about several new solutions in improving the situation in this field, which has been confirmed by experiences from abroad. Unfortunately in Slovenia, the establishment of safety principles still depends mainly on an occupants’ perception, financial means, and at the same time, certain implementation procedures that are much more complicated due to new property ownership. With the aid of the statistical results from the 2002 Census and contemporary fire safety requirements, this article attempts to show the present-day situation of the problem at both the state and municipality level and will propose solutions to improve this situation. The authors established that not even one single older, multi-residential building meets complies with modern requirements. Fortunately, the situation is improved by the fact that most buildings in Slovenia are built from non-combustible materials (concrete, brick, which limit the spread of fire.

  12. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  13. Sustainability challenges of residential reinforced - concrete panel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku J. Riihimäki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quite similar large-panel prefabrication technologies were used for residential buildings in East-Europe and some countries in Northern-Europe, e.g. Finland. Even if technologically similar, the fate of the building stocks is different in the two regions, with buildings functioning sustainably in Finland. Hence, one could adapt the maintenance and renovation experiences to the building stock in other countries, creating opportunities for communities and business. The paper presents technological, economical, and institutional/policy aspects in the two environments, and discusses them in the larger framework of European sustainability targets. For major renovation, as targeted in the paper, methods of change management should be applied, entailing thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation and above all, consultation/involvement of the people affected. If the presented interventions would be used in a systematic and planned way, improvements can be achieved for social sustainability targets like e.g. adaptability and visual comfort, while maintaining the safety and security. Finally, the limitations of the approach in light of the institutional setting and ownership structure are discussed, highlighting how different ownership models are favoring or hindering major retrofit interventions. The paper offers ways on strengthening the role of key stakeholders to support major renovation interventions on the panel building stock.

  14. Research methods of the parameters of residential buildings construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor’ev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available The analysis of construction theory and practice shows that rational organizational and technological parameters of the construction of residential buildings should be based on the manifestation in time and space of the most important stages construction with their harmonization. Basing on the experience of normalizing the construction duration, it is advisable to express the complex of residential buildings’ construction processes by their basic stages - preparatory period, underground part, aboveground part, external engineering networks and land improvement. The main indicators of the development and implementation of optimization solutions are: the total duration of the construction, the duration of the preparation period, the duration of the construction of the underground part, the duration of the construction of the aboveground part, the duration of external engineering networks laying, the duration of land improvement. The indicators of the total duration of the construction of residential buildings, the construction the underground and aboveground parts are determined on the basis of the operation of one assembly crane on an object of up to four sections. In case of more sections two (three cranes are considered and the total construction duration is set depending on these conditions. The duration of the construction of multisectional buildings is determined basing on the simultaneous construction of the stages or their combination with a certain time shift. However, this approach requires a significant amount of optimization solutions due to its multivariance. Therefore, in order to reduce the volume of calculations in some cases, for example, when planning the development of districts and neighborhoods, statistical methods can be used for determining the duration of the construction basing on the compilation of optimization solutions. The total duration of the construction and the duration of the main stages are multiple

  15. Genetic-algorithm based approach to optimize building envelope design for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuhus-Dubrow, Daniel; Krarti, Moncef [Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A simulation-optimization tool is developed and applied to optimize building shape and building envelope features. The simulation-optimization tool couples a genetic algorithm to a building energy simulation engine to select optimal values of a comprehensive list of parameters associated with the envelope to minimize energy use for residential buildings. Different building shapes were investigated as part of the envelope optimization, including rectangle, L, T, cross, U, H, and trapezoid. Moreover, building envelope features were considered in the optimization analysis including wall and roof constructions, foundation types, insulation levels, and window types and areas. The results of the optimization indicate rectangular and trapezoidal shaped buildings consistently have the best performance (lowest life-cycle cost) across five different climates. It was also found that rectangle and trapezoid exhibit the least variability from best to worst within the shape. (author)

  16. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin; Nila Inangda; Ati Rosemary Mohd Ariffin; Hazreena Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years wit...

  17. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  18. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  19. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation.

  20. Contaminant deposition building shielding factors for US residential structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elijah; Hamby, David; Eckerman, Keith

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding ground as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement as well for single-wide manufactured housing-unit. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Active Cooling Systems for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling systems are an essential element in many facets of modern society including cars, computers and buildings. Cooling systems are usually divided into two types: passive and active. Passive cooling transfers heat without using any additional energy while active cooling is a type of heat transfer that uses powered devices such as fans or pumps. This paper will focus on one particular type of passive cooling: air-conditioning systems. An air-conditioning system is defined as controlled air movement, temperature, humidity and cleanliness of a building area. Air conditioning consists of cooling and heating. Therefore, the air-conditioning system should be able to add and remove heat from the area. An air-conditioning system is defined as a control or treatment of air in a confined space. The process that occurs is the air-conditioning system absorbs heat and dust while, at the same time, cleaning the air breathed into a closed space. The purpose of air-conditioning is to maintain a comfortable atmosphere for human life and to meet user requirements. In this paper, air-conditioning systems for non-residential buildings will be presented and discussed.

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  3. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  4. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  5. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  6. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  7. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review of the e......Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... concentrations. The authors additionally noted that the literature frequently reported the role of improper maintenance and use on deterioration of IAQ in residential dwellings. The summarized data and comments may provide useful information for future guidelines related to ventilation strategies designed...

  8. Hygrothermal Analysis of Indoor Environment of Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies show that the relative humidity and the indoor air temperature constitute an important determinant of the quality of indoor air. Hygrothermal microclimate has a significant impact on occupant’s health and their comfort. The study presents the results of experimental measurement of indoor air temperature and relative humidity in selected apartment in prefabricated panel house situated in Ostrava, Czechia. The contribution describes and analysis the relation between indoor air temperature [°C] and relative humidity [%] in this apartment. The experimental object is selected with respect to the housing stock in the Czech Republic. A third of the housing stock in the Czech Republic is composed of prefabricated panel houses. Regeneration and revitalization of these buildings were in the focus of interest during recent years. Building modifications, such as thermal insulation of building envelope or window replacement, lead to a significantly higher level of airtightness of these objects. Humidity and indoor air temperature are measured in 10-minute cycles for two periods. The values of temperature and humidity are measured for the non-heating and the heating season. The length of each experimental period is 30 days. The mean value of indoor air temperature is 22.21 °C and average relative humidity is 45.87% in the non-heating period. The values of 22.62 °C and 35.20% represent average values for the heating period. A slight increase of the average temperature of the indoor environment (+1.85%) is observed. The decrease of the relative humidity is evident at first glance. The relative humidity of the internal environment is approximately 10% lower in the heating period. Long-term decline of relative humidity below 30% brings many problems. It is necessary to take measures to increase of relative humidity in residential prefabricated building. The aquarium appears to be ineffective. The solution may be forced artificial ventilation or humidifiers.

  9. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  10. Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I, refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II, use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III, and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV. The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030.

  11. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Ancillary services entail controlled modulation of building equipment to maintain a stable balance of generation and load in the power system. Ancillary services include frequency regulation and contingency reserves, whose acting time ranges from several seconds to several minutes. Many pilot studies have been implemented to use industrial loads to provide ancillary services, and some have explored services from commercial building loads or electric vehicle charging loads. Residential loads, such as space conditioning and water heating, represent a largely untapped resource for providing ancillary services. The residential building sector accounts for a significant fraction of the total electricity use in the United States. Many loads in residential buildings are flexible and could potentially be curtailed or shifted at the request of the grid. However, there are many barriers that prevent residential loads being widely used for ancillary services. One of the major technical barriers is the lack of communication capabilities between end-use devices and the grid. End-use devices need to be able to receive the automatic generation control (AGC) signal from the grid operator and supply certain types of telemetry to verify response. With the advance of consumer electronics, communication-enabled, or 'connected,' residential equipment has emerged to overcome the communication barrier. However, these end-use devices have introduced a new interoperability challenge due to the existence of numerous standards and communication protocols among different end devices. In this paper, we present a VOLTTRON-based system that overcomes these technical challenges and provides ancillary services with residential loads. VOLTTRON is an open-source control and sensing platform for building energy management, facilitating interoperability solutions for end devices. We have developed drivers to communicate and control different types of end devices through standard

  12. Sustainable Buildings for the High North. Existing buildings – technologies and challenges for residential and commercial use

    OpenAIRE

    Illikainen, Kimmo; Sirviö, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the intended use lifecycle of buildings may vary remarkably. Short term constructions such as summer cottages may last only a few decades whereas age of historical buildings may extend over hundreds of years. In Europe, three quarters of building stock is comprised of residential buildings. Approximately 40 % of the stock is built before 1960s, at the time when energy legislations were rather scarce. Consequently the age of buildings that have not undergone renovation i...

  13. In search of a representative sample of residential building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Brenda; Woods, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Most research investigating injuries in construction work is limited by reliance on work samples unrepresentative of the multiple, variable-cycle tasks involved, resulting in incomplete characterisation of ergonomic exposures. In this case study, a participatory approach was used including hierarchical task analysis and site observations of a typical team of house builders in New Zealand, over several working days, to obtain a representative work sample. The builders' work consisted of 14 goal-defined jobs using varying subsets of 15 task types, each taking from less than 1 s to more than 1 h and performed in a variety of postures. Task type and duration varied within and between participants and days, although all participants spent at least 25% of the time moving from place to place, mostly carrying materials, and more than half the time either reaching up or bending down to work. This research has provided a description of residential building work based on a work sample more nearly representative than those previously published and has demonstrated a simple, low-cost but robust field observation method that can provide a valid basis for further study of hazard exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  15. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  16. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  17. Factors Influencing the Usage of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Existing Residential Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olugbemileke Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as a developing nation is facing increasing demand for electricity especially in the residential areas. The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs is one of the several measures towards reducing the demand. However, in Nigeria, the use of CFLs is low. The present study was designed to investigate some factors responsible for the low usage of CFLs in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered by hand on 984 households, selected through systematic random sampling techniques from 5 local government areas in Lagos State. The first building along the major street in each of the local government was selected randomly and every tenth building constituted the sample. A household head was surveyed in each of the building selected, and was asked to rate some factors that might have influenced the usage of CFLs. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using ranking method. The findings show that inability to measure the saving benefits of CFLs on electricity bills, lack of affordability and high initial cost of acquisition and installation were the most important factors which influence the use of the CFLs. The study concludes by providing some recommendations on how to achieve sustainable energy management in the Lagos and beyond through more efficient residential house lighting.

  18. 24 CFR 200.925b - Residential and institutional building code comparison items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...); (6) Individual unit smoke detectors; (7) Building alarm systems; (8) Highrise criteria; (b) Light and... building code comparison items. 200.925b Section 200.925b Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Minimum Property Standards § 200.925b Residential and institutional building code comparison items. HUD...

  19. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  20. Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Ashari; N.Hedayat; S. Shalbaf; E.Hajidavalloo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the num...

  1. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  2. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of the global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings built in the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide measures taken to improve the energy...... efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... ventilated multifamily residential buildings were examined. One building in each pair was newly renovated, the other was in its original condition. Temperature, relative humidity (RH) and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 94 apartments (57%) during one week in the winter...

  3. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  6. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  7. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. The project is divided into the five subtasks: 1. Defining the metrics. 2. Pollutant loads in residential buildings. 3. Modeling. 4. Strategies for design and control of buildings. 5. Field measurements and case...

  8. Evaluation of heat pumps usage and energy savings in residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Elsawaf, Tarek Abdel-Salam, Leslie Pagliari

    2012-01-01

    The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy in most countries around the world. In the United States the residential sector consumes about 21 % of the energy and about 35% of the electricity production. Of the total energy consumption per house hold about 33% is consumed for space heating. This study evaluates the energy consumption in residential houses during the heating season. The main objective of the study is to test the effectiveness of using heat pumps for space heati...

  9. Energy consumption in residential building: The effect of appliances and human behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. A.; Hariri, Azian; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Najib, M. N. M.

    2017-04-01

    Electricity is the predominant energy source used in these buildings. Therefore, energy management in residential buildings requires serious attention to ensure the energy consumption in residential building have been managed properly. Currently, the unstable of fuel price give the big impact to electricity price. Due to the issue, consumers require to use electricity more wisely. Using energy efficiently is one of the solution to reduce energy consumption. This paper aims to propose an initiative strategy for energy management system based on an analysis of energy consumption in residential building. The level of energy consumption among the occupants was found by obtaining electricity bills and distributing a questionnaire. A case study was carried out in selected areas in the Southern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study show that energy consumption was significant increased by month and the EEES as one of energy management system was suggested.

  10. BTS fact sheet: Ryan Homes and the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-07

    Through Building America's unique collaboration process, Ryan Homes, the US Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings worked together to identify ways to incorporate money-saving energy features throughout the Carborne house.

  11. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  12. Main spatial defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Alto da Cova da Moura districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vilhena, A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.; Cruz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main spatial defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main spatial defects of the dwellings? What are the main spatial defects in the relation between buildings? What is the impact of spatial defects to

  13. Main functional elements having defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Cova da Moura district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main functional elements with defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main functional elements with defects in buildings and in dwellings? What are the main defects found? In which way these defects

  14. Sick building syndrome in relation to building dampness in multi-family residential buildings in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvall, K; Norrby, C; Norbäck, D

    2001-05-01

    The aim was to study relationships between symptoms compatible with sick building syndrome (SBS) on one hand, and different indicators of building dampness in Swedish multi-family buildings on the other. In Stockholm, 609 multi-family buildings with 14,235 dwellings were identified, and selected by stratified random sampling. The response rate was 77%. Information on weekly symptoms, age, gender, population density in the apartment, water leakage during the past 5 years, mouldy odour, condensation on windows, and high air humidity in the bathroom was assessed by a postal questionnaire. In addition, independent information on building characteristics was gathered from the building owners, and the central building register in Stockholm. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated, adjusted for age and gender, population density, and selected building characteristics. Condensation on windows, high air humidity in the bathroom, mouldy odour, and water leakage was reported from 9.0%, 12.4%, 7.7% and 12.7% of the dwellings, respectively. In total 28.5% reported at least one sign of dampness. All indicators of dampness were related to an increase of all types of symptoms, significant even when adjusted for age, gender, population density, type of ventilation system, and ownership of the building. A combination of mouldy odour and signs of high air humidity was related to an increased occurrence of all types of symptoms (OR = 3.7-6.0). Similar findings were observed for a combination of mouldy odour and structural building dampness (water leakage) (OR = 2.9 5.2). In addition, a dose-response relationship between symptoms and number of signs of dampness was observed. In dwellings with all four dampness indicators, OR was 6.5, 7.1, 19.9, 5.8, 6.1, 9.4, 15.0 for ocular, nasal, throat, dermal symptoms, cough, headache and tiredness, respectively. Signs of high air humidity, as well as of structural building dampness, are

  15. Passive Design Features for Energy-Efficient Residential Buildings in Tropical Climates : The context of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Tahmina

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying passive design features through extensive literature study that can be incorporated in residential buildings to make them energy efficient. The study also aimed at identifying changes in the design process that can affect energy efficiency in residential buildings. It has analyzed the design features of typical residential buildings representative of upper middle income households in Dhaka through a case study conducted in Dhaka. It also analyzed the present el...

  16. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  17. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  18. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  19. The Effect of Building Aspect Ratio on Energy Efficiency: A Case Study for Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McKeen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the energy consumption of varying aspect ratio in multi-unit residential buildings in Canadian cities. The aspect ratio of a building is one of the most important determinants of energy efficiency. It defines the building surface area by which heat is transferred between the interior and exterior environment. It also defines the amount of building area that is subject to solar gain. The extent to which this can be beneficial or detrimental depends on the aspect ratio and climate. This paper evaluates the relationship between the geometry of buildings and location to identify a design vernacular for energy-efficient designs across Canada.

  20. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  1. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  2. Sustainable Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Landlord/Tenant Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2013-01-01

    The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual...... solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve...

  3. Colonization by Legionella spp. of water networks in residential buildings of the Province of Pisa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggiani, A; Casini, B; Totaro, M; Aquino, F; Valentini, P; Bruni, B; Porretta, A; Casalini, F; Miccoli, M; Privitera, G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increase of community acquired cases of legionellosis in Italy over the last years, the Italian guidelines do not give indications for prevention and control of Legionella in the hot water networks (or centralized conditioning systems) of residential buildings. We performed a survey on eight medium sized apartment buildings in the Pisa district to assess the prevalence of Legionella spp. in the water network and the respondance to drinking water requisites at the point of use, according to the Italian norms. For each building two hot water and three cold water samples (located at water entrance from the aqueduct network into the building pipework, at the exit from pressure autoclave, and at a remote tap) were collected. Legionella was detected in 20% of residential buildings, mostly in those with a central hot water production system. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible population subgroups and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.

  4. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  5. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  6. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    Building Regulations. The base of the two individual buildings was cast in one working operation and completed within two working days. Produced and shaped as one coherent element of expanded polystyrene, the element was designed to be handled on site by one man. Non-freezing ground was established...

  7. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  8. Energy flexibility of residential buildings using short term heat storage in the thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Two residential buildings (80's and passive house) with two emitters (radiator, UH). •Different modulations of the set-point (upward/downward, duration, starting time). •Large differences between the 80s and the passive house, influence of the emitter. •Evaluation of the flexibility p...

  9. Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected when found. The manual also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and…

  10. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased building energy efficiency is important in reducing national energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. An analysis of air change rates due to door and window openings in a research test house located in a residential environment are presented. These data inform developme...

  11. The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, N. P.; Niu, J. L.; Perino, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several case clusters occurred in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong in the 2003 SARS (the severe acute respiratory syndrome) epidemic, which motivated a series of engineering investigations into the possible airborne transport routes. It is suspected that, driven by buoyancy force...

  12. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xi; Altan, Hasim; Kang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which ar...

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Juferi Idris; Sumiani Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated...

  14. Expansion of the residential conservation service program to multi-family and small commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    Alternative regulatory provisions are considered which might permit achievement of the building energy conservation regulatory goals at a lower cost. Major issues, regulatory and legislative options, and cost-benefit analyses are discussed for multi-family and commercial buildings. The following are presented: related government programs, urban and community impact analysis, institutional impacts, energy cost, Residential Conservation Service coverage, methods of analysis, and regional studies. (MHR)

  15. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Upton; Reid Miner; Mike Spinney; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/...

  16. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  17. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  18. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  19. Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahat Arif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.

  20. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  1. Determination of the heat exchange coefficient of outer shells in residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhkal, Viktor; Evstratov, Viktor

    2017-10-01

    The article performs the analysis of normalized values of heat exchange coefficient for internal surfaces of outer shells in residential buildings of the Russian Federation. The author introduces the estimation technique and calculated dependences for the coefficient of heat transfer of the internal surface of external walls, claddings and floors of buildings. The author determined numerical values of the heat exchange coefficients of the inner surface of the enclosing structures and temperature differences between the temperature of the internal air and the temperature of the inner surface of the enclosing structure. It was concluded that there is a need to correct the values of the heat exchange coefficient of the inner surface of the enclosing structures of residential buildings in Russian construction regulations SP 50.13330.2012 “Thermal protection of buildings”.

  2. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  3. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  4. Residential segregation and lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayanga, Awori J; Zeliadt, Steve B; Backhus, Leah M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between race and lung cancer mortality and the effect of residential segregation in the United States. A retrospective, population-based study using data obtained from the 2009 Area Resource File and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Each county in the United States. Black and white populations per US county. A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and log link was used to examine the association between residential segregation and lung cancer mortality from 2003 to 2007 for black and white populations. Our primary independent variable was the racial index of dissimilarity. The index is a demographic measure that assesses the evenness with which whites and blacks are distributed across census tracts within each county. The score ranges from 0 to 100 in increasing degrees of residential segregation. RESULTS The overall lung cancer mortality rate was higher for blacks than whites (58.9% vs 52.4% per 100 000 population). Each additional level of segregation was associated with a 0.5% increase in lung cancer mortality for blacks (P segregation) and the highest levels of segregation (≥60% segregation), respectively. In contrast, the adjusted lung cancer mortality rates for whites decreased with increasing levels of segregation. Lung cancer mortality is higher in blacks and highest in blacks living in the most segregated counties, regardless of socioeconomic status.

  5. Simulation of thermal behavior of residential buildings using fuzzy active learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheri Shahraein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy modeling technique called Modified Active Learning Method (MALM was introduced and utilized for fuzzy simulation of indoor and inner surface temperatures in residential buildings using meteorological data and its capability for fuzzy simulation was compared with other studies. The case studies for simulations were two residential apartments in the Fakouri and Rezashahr neighborhoods of Mashhad, Iran. The hourly inner surface and indoor temperature data were accumulated during measurements taken in 2010 and 2011 in different rooms of the apartments under heating and natural ventilation conditions. Hourly meteorological data (dry bulb temperature, wind speed and direction and solar radiation were measured by a meteorological station and utilized with zero to three hours lags as input variables for the simulation of inner surface and indoor temperatures. The results of simulations demonstrated the capability of MALM to be used for nonlinear fuzzy simulation of inner surface and indoor temperatures in residential apartments.

  6. Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

  7. Exploration of Team Integration in Spanish Multifamily Residential Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Sanz Benlloch, María Amalia; Esmaeili, B; MOLENAAR, KEITH ROBERT

    2016-01-01

    Project delivery team integration generally involves early involvement of general contractors and key specialty contractors in the design process. Team integration has been found to improve an owner’s probability of success. However, during difficult economic times, owners can forego early team involvement and move toward low bid procurement to take advantage of competitive markets. This study explores the performance of integrated teams in the Spanish multifamily building constructi...

  8. Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.

  9. Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.

  10. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  11. Ways of modernization of large-panel residential buildings in Yerevan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Tigran Davidovich

    Full Text Available The present article discusses some problems of renovation and modernization of large-panel residential buildings built in the postwar period in Yerevan. The analysis of the current situation showed that today these buildings have many problems related to their functional and aesthetic aspects of quality and become obsolete. The floor plans don’t satisfy modern functional requirements of inhabitants: similar and repeatable types of buildings became the reason of large arrays of monotonously built up districts with low indicators of quality. Furthermore, there are many low quality extensions and add-ins to the buildings made by inhabitants without control, which destroy the architectural appearance of habitat. Yard places of large-panel residential buildings are occupied by car parks and road travel, buildings are cut off from courtyard areas, which as a consequence don’t meet tsocial and functional requirements of the people. The consideration of the international experience of large-panel old housing renovation in European countries has shown that the main activities include improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings with removing heat loss and using solar panels, contrast changes in architectural appearance with large terraces, loggias, using wide range of colors, add-in attics and enlarging the height and the use of space-planning decisions to increase the living space. Analyzing the current situation of the housing and the international experience of modernization the concept of complex modernization of large-panel buildings was offered, which suggested bringing it to life on three main levels of habitat: apartments, building shapes, residential environment and areas. The main goals of the concept are increasing the comfort of planning decisions as well as the total size of the apartment, improving architectural appearance of the building and introducing areas for public services to housing, increasing energy efficiency and

  12. Estimating energy impacts of residential and commercial building development. A manual for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-22

    This energy-impact manual presents information on energy implications of new building design and operation, providing a reasonably accurate means of assessing the total energy impact of new construction in the commercial and residential sectors. While developed specifically for the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, much of the data used are national averages; the procedures described are applicable to other regions of the nation, with appropriate adjustments for climatic differences. The manual is organized into three parts, each covering one aspect of the energy impacts of building development. Part I addresses the energy impact of erecting the building(s). This includes the energy cost of grading and excavating and other site preparation. It also takes into account the energy embodied in the fabrication of materials used in building construction, as well as the energy cost of transporting materials to the site and assembling them. Part II focuses on the end use of energy during normal building operation, i.e., the energy consumed for space heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, etc. A simplified calculation sequence is provided which allows the user to estimate the consumption of most combinations of building orientation, characteristics, and operating conditions. Part III examines the relationship of land use to energy consumption, principally the transportation energy impact of various land-development patterns, the embodied energy impacts of infrastructure requirements, and the impacts of various orientation and siting schemes. (MCW)

  13. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  14. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Will [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Jordan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  15. Symptom definitions for SBS (sick building syndrome) in residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Ling; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yamasaki, Yukie; Sakano, Noriko; Wang, Da-Hong; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-03-01

    The potential risk factors for sick building syndrome (SBS) in newly built dwellings were investigated. Two different definitions for SBS were used, a narrow definition (symptoms related to home environment and continuously occurring in the last 3 months were regarded as positive) and another relatively broad definition (symptoms related to home environment and either continuously or sporadically occurring in the last 3 months were regarded as positive). With both definitions indoor air chemicals, especially TVOC, and high stress during work were found to be significantly associated with SBS symptoms. Allergic history was more associated with narrow-sense symptoms and odor perception with broad-sense symptoms. The results indicate that the broad definition be preferred to find more potential risk factors.

  16. Identification of Parameters Affecting the Variability of Energy Use in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Energy use of buildings varies significantly. When aggregating the demand profiles of a group of buildings, the variations of energy demand are critical to determine the aggregated load profile. Especially when dimensioning district energy systems, it is important to know the variability of energy...... demand that can guarantee the efficient operation of the system. For this reason, it is useful to distinguish the parameters that affect building energy performance the most and to estimate the magnitude of these variations on each parameter. The aim of the present study is to identify the parameters...... that lead to the largest variations in energy performance of residential buildings in Denmark. A set of sensitivity analysis has been carried out using an extensive search algorithm. These sensitivity analyses were then applied for modelling a reference building representing Danish single-family houses...

  17. Comfort air temperature influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior air temperature. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. Daily heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.

  18. Energy Demand Reduction in the Residential Building Sector: A Case Study of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sook Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine ways of reducing energy demands in the residential building sector by measuring energy usage and associated factors in Bundang District. This District represents the first phase of new towns in the Seoul metropolitan region to implement current polices directed at climate change. The majority of residential buildings in this district were constructed between 1991 and 1995, prior to the announcement of the integrated building design criteria directed at saving energy and intensifying thermal transmittance. The proportion of small households was increased by almost 40% from 2000 to 2010. Further, a number of weather records have been broken in the last two decades. These changes are strongly related to energy consumption patterns and trends; however, current polices, acts, and regulations do not sufficiently address these issues. This study suggests building energy-saving strategies that: (i improve energy performance in existing buildings; (ii strengthen building design criteria to address climate change issues, especially in relation to design and construction; and (iii offer a framework to revitalize Korea’s energy-savings policies.

  19. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami; Mehdi Ali Ehyaei; Marc A. Rosen; Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid sy...

  20. Energy Consumption and Air-Conditioning Usage in Residential Buildings of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Tetsu; Jeong, Sangwoo; Toe, Doris Hooi Chyee; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz

    2011-01-01

    This study provides the detailed information on household energy consumption in residential buildings of Malaysia. A survey was conducted in Johor Bahru in 2009 to analyze electricity consumption due to airconditioning. The results showed that the air-conditioner ownership was 65% and its daily usage time was 6 hours on average. The yearly electricity consumption caused by air-conditioning recorded the largest amount among household appliances. Another survey was carried out in 2004 to reveal...

  1. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ning; Yadi Li; Shuangshuang Yang; Chuanjing Ju

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the int...

  2. Assessment of Natural Ventilation Potential for Residential Buildings across Different Climate Zones in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Zijing Tan; Xiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the natural ventilation potential of residential buildings was numerically investigated based on a typical single-story house in the three most populous climate zones in Australia. Simulations using the commercial simulation software TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool) were performed for all seasons in three representative cities, i.e., Darwin for the hot humid summer and warm winter zone, Sydney for the mild temperate zone, and Melbourne for the cool temperate zone. A na...

  3. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  4. Building Multicultural Residential Communities: A Model for Training Student Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, Taryn; Thompson, Monita C.; Boynton, Trelawny

    2013-01-01

    The growing diversity and changing demographics within the United States increases the importance of students developing skills to engage across identity difference. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a pre-employment course for student staff members is used as a multicultural intervention training to provide students with the…

  5. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  6. Evaluation of Daylight Intensity for Sustainbility in Residential Buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMRA YOUSUF

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Day lighting is a useful and effective source of energy savings and visual comforts in buildings. Occupants expect good daylight in their living spaces for better living environment. The quality and quantity of natural light entering in to a building depend on both internal and external factors. Daylight strategies basically depend on the accessibility of natural light that is determined by the latitude of the building site and the conditions surrounding the building. Daylight provides lighting energy and energy demand reduction during peak utility hours. Bringing daylight into a building that displaces electric lighting and provides sufficient illumination is the greenest way to light a building presently. This research, aims at analyzing the daylight intensity in residential buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan which is one of the hottest and progresse city of Pakistan. The intensity of daylight can be expressed in the terms of luminance and daylight factor. In this research, the 5 and 7 marla houses in Cantt Cottages in Multan were selected. The device lux meter was used for measuring intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. The readings were taken by placing Lux Meter at the center and near windows in each building component at 2-4 pm. Inorderto evaluate the daylight intensity, the measured luminance in each component of building is compared with the standard illuminance as per recommendation of CIBSE (Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers. After investigation, it has been found that daylight factor is much higher than the standard values

  7. Verification of Occupants’ Behaviour Models in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    ). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this talk three methods for evaluating the models’ performance (listed below) will be described, discussed and exemplified using a dataset of window openings from Denmark. 1) Validation of state - TPR/FPR method 2) Validation of state...... transitions - Residuals method 3) Validation by simulation The first two methods rely on a full dataset different to the one the models were derived from. In the TPR/FPR method, the probability of an event is calculated using the model under evaluation. The probability is then compared to random numbers...... to determine if the event takes place or not. Finally, the simulated window position is compared to the measured ones and the True Positive Rate and False Positive Rate along with other metrics can be calculated and compared. The method evaluates the models abilities to predict the position of the window...

  8. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    for policy priority setting and design, for inputs in energy models, and for building owners, developers and builders as decision support elements. Scope of the research was the sector of new and existing residential buildings in Switzerland. Based on price and technical data of additional insulation, improved window, ventilation and heating systems, and architectural concepts, it was found that the marginal and average costs of energy efficiency are to a large extent below or in the range of the marginal costs of energy (heat) generation, especially from a societal perspective. Many energy efficiency investments are economically viable also from a private perspective; particularly if best practice is applied and if long-term considerations are being made. The flat character of the curve of annualized capital and energy costs as a function of increasing energy efficiency levels implies that advanced energy efficiency levels are as cost-effective as low ones, having the advantage of a decreased energy price risk exposure. (...) The analysis of the total benefits of energy efficiency attributes from the building user perspective such as increased thermal comfort, constantly high indoor air quality, protection from external noise nuisance, property value and energy price risk hedging, revealed a considerable willingness-to-pay of a relevant proportion of home-purchasers and tenants for these benefits, making such investments also attractive for multi-family house owners due to potentially increased rental revenues. The willingness-to-pay, which was estimated by a choice experiment based on stated preferences, is generally higher than the costs of implementing these attributes. Particularly, this applies also to housing ventilation systems which makes them economically interesting although their costs cannot be covered by energy cost savings alone. The low-cost energy efficiency potentials and the considerable valuation of their benefits by a large proportion of the

  9. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Terry

    2002-04-22

    When initiated by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program (RBA), this project--Strengthening the Partnerships Between the State and Territory Energy Offices and the U.S. Department of Energy--was geared toward addressing some project development and communications barriers between the State Energy Offices and the RBA program. While successful in some states, RBA officials were having difficulty assisting states in forming partnerships with communities and taking advantage of the programs technical assistance and other resources. NASEO's efforts under the project were, in large part, aimed at educating state energy offices about RBA's resources and delivering timely information to help move the program forward by emphasizing the successes of key states and identifying concerns and problems in states beginning to implement RBA activities. This report defines these outreach needs and challenges, the tasks designed to address these issues, and results during the first year of the project. As contemplated in NASEO's workplan, the approach during the first year of the agreement focuses on working through NASEO's State Energy Committee structure. Support provided under the agreement for tasks one and two during year one was intended to address partnerships in the buildings area. Specifically, NASEO was to work with its buildings committee, various state energy office members, and the Rebuild America program to improve partnership efforts, communications, and effectiveness of these combined efforts. The approach of to the project included three elements during year one. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the

  10. Development of methods for assessing the vulnerability of Australian residential building stock to severe wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Ginger, John; Holmes, John; Sandland, Carl; Edwards, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of the degree of damage to residential structures expected from severe wind is used to study the benefits from adaptation strategies developed in response to expected changes in wind severity due to climate change. This study will inform government, the insurance industry and provide emergency services with estimates of expected damage. A series of heuristic wind vulnerability curves for Australian residential structures has been developed. In order to provide rigor to the heuristic curves and to enable quantitative assessment to be made of adaptation strategies, work has commenced to produce a simulation tool to quantitatively assess damage to buildings from severe wind. The simulation tool accounts for variability in wind profile, shielding, structural strength, pressure coefficients, building orientation, component self weights, debris damage and water ingress via a Monte Carlo approach. The software takes a component-based approach to modelling building vulnerability. It is based on the premise that overall building damage is strongly related to the failure of key components (i.e. connections). If these failures can be ascertained, and associated damage from debris and water penetration reliably estimated, scenarios of complete building damage can be assessed. This approach has been developed with varying degrees of rigor by researchers around the world and is best practice for the insurance industry.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  12. Buildings behaving badly: a behavioral experiment on how different motivational frames influence residential energy label adoption in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; van Beukering, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe's energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential buildings in the Netherlands and the role of different frames (egoistic, biospheric and social norms and neutral frames) in motivating adoption of energy labels for housing. We used a behavioral email experiment and an online survey to investigate these motivational factors. We find that biospheric frames are weaker than the other three motivational frames in terms of engaging interest in the energy label, but that the biospheric frame results in higher willingness to pay (WTP) for the energy label. We also find that age (rather than income) correlates with higher WTP for home energy labels.

  13. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  14. EnviroAtlas - Residential vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for residential addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if...

  15. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  16. Ambitions of Residential Houses in Dutch cities - The interface of the building as a research object : Discussing two highlights of Dutch residential houses and their changes through time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgenhake, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of residential buildings has always being related to social conditions and political tendencies, to new techniques, new materials and contemporary popular taste. Dwelling in the urban context makes it very necessary to deal with the aspect of privacy next to the public

  17. Suite Ventilation Characteristics of Current Canadian Mid-andHigh-Rise Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper characterizes ventilation in residential suiteslocated in ll buildings were between six and thirty-two stories tall andwere built between 1990 and 1995. The key findings from field performancetests of these buildings were: 1. Corridor supply airflows usually didnot meet design flows.2. Makeup air paths for suite exhaust were notproperly designed.3. Suite access door leakage was highly variable andusually did not meet smoke control requirements.4. Airflow from thecorridor through the suite access door leakage appeared to be the primaryventilation air supply for suites.5. Suites were usually well-ventilated,but some were marginally- or under-ventilated.6. Poor pressure controloften allowed transfer air from one suite to another. Inter-suitetransfer air fractions ranged from 0 to 45 percent, with an average of 19percent. In summary, this work showed suite ventilation can be highlyinfluenced by corridor supply flows, by the treatment of corridor accessdoors, and by transfer airflows. As a result, suite ventilation at anygiven time in current mid- and high-rise residential buildings is verydifficult to predict. To ensure suite ventilation performs as intendedunder all operating conditions, the building industry needs to addressthe identified problems through improved ventilation design, operation,and maintenance practices.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated, namely, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential (GWP, and ozone layer depletion (ODP. The building operation under use phase contributed the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.41 × 103 kg CO2 eq and 1.10 × 101 kg SO2 eq, respectively. In the pre-use phase, concrete in the substructure has the most significant overall impact with cement as the primary raw material. The results showed that the residential building in Malaysia has a fairly high impact in GWP but lower in acidification and ODP compared to other studies.

  19. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN CONSIDERING THE BRAZILIAN PERFORMANCE STANDARD: ANALYSES TO WALL PARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the design begins by the performance definition of the building parts. The data are then used as a reference to select the viable construction technologies. In Brazil, this practice is still uncommon, mostly in residential projects, because, first, it is defined the architectural characteristics, technological solutions and cost for after consider the technical performance requirements. However, this scenario tends to change due to the publication of the Brazilian performance standard ABNT NBR 15575 (2008 that establishes requirements and quantitative parameters to the five main residential building subsystems (structure, floors, wall partition, envelope and covering, and hydraulic installations, besides to the general requirements for all building. The current version contains requirements for structural performance, fire safety, watertightness, thermal and acoustic performances, functionality, accessibility, environmental impact, durability and maintenance. This standard also considers the concepts of Service Life, Design Life and guaranties periods. The aim of this paper is to present some considerations which must be included to the design process of wall partition for the accomplishment of the performance requirements of ABNT NBR 15575-4 (2008. The considerations are designed to wall partitions, but they can be used as an example to the others building subsystems. This paper was developed based on the bibliographical research and on four case studies, which illustrate how the design process of the wall partition needs to change and what needs to be worked on in order to attend the performance concept and requirements of NBR 15575 (2008.

  20. Smart Residential Buildings as Learning Agent Organizations in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatten Markus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smart buildings are one of the major application areas of technologies bound to embedded systems and the Internet of things. Such systems have to be adaptable and flexible in order to provide better services to its residents. Modelling such systems is an open research question. Herein, the question is approached using an organizational modelling methodology bound to the principles of the learning organization. Objectives: Providing a higher level of abstraction for understanding, developing and maintaining smart residential buildings in a more human understandable form. Methods/Approach: Organization theory provides us with the necessary concepts and methodology to approach complex organizational systems. Results: A set of principles for building learning agent organizations, a formalization of learning processes for agents, a framework for modelling knowledge transfer between agents and the environment, and a tailored organizational structure for smart residential buildings based on Nonaka’s hypertext organizational form. Conclusions: Organization theory is a promising field of research when dealing with complex engineering systems

  1. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  7. Thermal comfort and ventilation criteria for low energy residential buildings in building codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    of the indoor air quality in such buildings. Currently, there are no global guidelines for specifying the indoor thermal environment in such low-energy buildings. The objective of this paper is to analyse the classification of indoor thermal comfort levels and recommended ventilation rates for different low......Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration...... energy buildings, and propose a set of indices that would enable better quantification and comparison among low energy buildings. In this study, the building codes and voluntary guidelines have been reviewed on the basis of experience of Finland, UK, Denmark, USA and Germany. The analysis in this paper...

  8. Residential Building

    OpenAIRE

    Hakl, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Bytový dům je navržen jako zcela podsklepený objekt s jedním podzemním a dvěma nadzemními podlažími. Přístup do objektu je řešen pomocí ocelového schodiště nebo jako bezbariérový pomocí ocelové rampy. Vjezd aut do 1.PP je navržen pomocí jednosměrné rampy. Hlavní vstup do objektu se nachází v 1.NP do schodišťového prostoru, který slouží jako hlavní vertikální komunikace. V suterénu se nachází prostory pro parkování vozidel, zázemí pro obyvatele domu, sklepní prostory a kotelna. V 1.NP je umíst...

  9. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in smallscale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  10. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. A flagship outcome of the project is anticipated to be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with smallest possible energy consumption.......Both new and renovated existing buildings will in the future need to be optimized in such a way that can achieve to have nearly no energy use while still providing impeccable indoor climates. Since such buildings can already be assumed to be very well insulated, airtight, and to be equipped...

  11. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Energy performance of building fabric - Comparing two types of vernacular residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Vanya Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    Notwithstanding apparent differences, Japanese and Bulgarian traditional residential houses share a lot of common features - building materials, building techniques, even layout design. Despite the similarities, these two types of houses have not been compared so far. The study initiates such comparison. The focus is on houses in areas with similar climate in both countries. Current legislation requirements are compared, as well as the criteria for thermal comfort of people. Achieving high energy performance results from a dynamic system of 4 main key factors - thermal comfort range, heating/cooling source, building envelope and climatic conditions. A change in any single one of them can affect the final energy performance. However, it can be expected that a combination of changes in more than one factor usually occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the thermal performance of building envelope designed under current regulations and a traditional one, having in mind the different thermal comfort range in the two countries. A sample building model is calculated in Scenario 1 - Japanese traditional building fabric, Scenario 2 - Bulgarian traditional building fabric and Scenario 3 - meeting the requirements of the more demanding current regulations. The energy modelling is conducted using EnergyPlus through OpenStudio cross-platform of software tools. The 3D geometry for the simulation is created using OpenStudio SketchUp Plug-in. Equal number of inhabitants, electricity consumption and natural ventilation is assumed. The results show that overall low energy consumption can be achieved using traditional building fabric as well, when paired with a wider thermal comfort range. Under these conditions traditional building design is still viable today. This knowledge can reestablish the use of traditional building fabric in contemporary design, stimulate preservation of local culture, building traditions and community identity.

  13. PROSPECTS FOR CERTIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ON THE "GREEN" STANDARDS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOSHENKO E. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem formulation. We consider the main principles of urban ecology as a basis for the creation and development of "green" building. The purpose of article. The purpose of this article is to analyze the international certification scheme for buildings "green" standards, as well as the prospects of Ukraine in the formation of national "green" standards in residential construction. Analysis of publications. The main objectives of promotion of "green" building and certification in Ukraine is the union of experts from various fields, training of the relevant standards, the development of the regulatory framework, as well as the market development of ecological materials and services, the positioning "green" construction as a rational approach to the design stage of the building, in the future will help to optimize operating costs. The presentation material. One of the primary tasks of promoting "green" building in Ukraine is to develop a national standard for green building, as there is currently no data on the systems of certified projects LEED, BREEAM and other voluntary rating systems. Conclusions lie in the feasibility of certification of real estate investors, tenants and designers of public buildings.

  14. Simulation-Based Multiobjective Optimization of Timber-Glass Residential Buildings in Severe Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of increasing energy demand, timber-glass buildings will become a necessary trend in sustainable architecture in the future. Especially in severe cold zones of China, energy consumption and the visual comfort of residential buildings have attracted wide attention, and there are always trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper aims to propose a simulation-based multiobjective optimization method to improve the daylighting, energy efficiency, and economic performance of timber-glass buildings in severe cold regions. Timber-glass building form variables have been selected as the decision variables, including building width, roof height, south and north window-to-wall ratio (WWR, window height, and orientation. A simulation-based multiobjective optimization model has been developed to optimize these performance objectives simultaneously. The results show that Daylighting Autonomy (DA presents negative correlations with Energy Use Intensity (EUI and total cost. Additionally, with an increase in DA, Useful Daylighting Illuminance (UDI demonstrates a tendency of primary increase and then decrease. Using this optimization model, four building performances have been improved from the initial generation to the final generation, which proves that simulation-based multiobjective optimization is a promising approach to improve the daylighting, energy efficiency, and economic performances of timber-glass buildings in severe cold regions.

  15. Research on the Impact of Wind Angles on the Residential Building Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind angles affect building’s natural ventilation and also energy consumption of the building. In winter, the wind direction in the outdoor environment will affect heat loss of the building, while in summer the change of wind direction and speed in the outdoor environment will affect the building’s ventilation and indoor air circulation. So, making a good deal with the issue of the angle between local buildings and the dominant wind direction can effectively solve the winter and summer ventilation problems. Thereby, it can enhance the comfort of residential person, improve indoor air quality, solve heat gain and heat loss problems in winter and summer in the severely cold and cold regions, and reduce building energy consumption. The simulation software CFD and energy simulation software are used in the paper. South direction of the building is the prototype of the simulation. The angle between the direction of the building and the outdoor environment wind is changed sequentially. Energy consumption under different wind angle conditions is compared with each other. Combined with natural ventilation under various wind angles, the paper gives the best recommended solution of building direction in Shenyang.

  16. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  17. Energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings: A decision analysis study using relative value discounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C. (Houston Univ., TX (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. (Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-07-02

    This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)

  18. Calculated heat-and-technical indicators of brick external walls of the historical residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhkal, Viktor; Murgul, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The analysis of the external brick walls structures of the historical residential buildings (constructions of XIX century and the beginnings of the 20th century) in St. Petersburg is carried out. The heat-and-technical indicators (coefficient of heat conductivity of brick and coefficient of the heat transfer of external brick walls) are defined. That is established that the use of modern norms of design is possible. The obtained data allow to carry out some heat-and-technical and moist calculations during designing of heating systems as well during the development of measures for energy saving.

  19. Upgrading of the non-residential building stock towards nZEB standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavik, Trond; Helgesen, Paul Jacob; Rose, Jørgen

    the Net Zero Energy Building standards NZEB in a sustainable and cost efficient way; ways to identify important market and policy issues; and effective marketing strategies for such renovations. This report describes the work of Subtask B, which covers market and policy issues and marketing strategies......A few exemplary non-residential renovation projects have demonstrated that total primary energy consumption can be drastically reduced, together with improvements to indoor environment quality through renovation of a building’s passive and active systems. Because most property owners are not even...

  20. A DFuzzy-DAHP Decision-Making Model for Evaluating Energy-Saving Design Strategies for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lung Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a high-pollution and high-energy-consumption industry. Energy-saving designs for residential buildings not only reduce the energy consumed during construction, but also reduce long-term energy consumption in completed residential buildings. Because building design affects investment costs, designs are often influenced by investors’ decisions. A set of appropriate decision-support tools for residential buildings are required to examine how building design influences corporations externally and internally. From the perspective of energy savings and environmental protection, we combined three methods to develop a unique model for evaluating the energy-saving design of residential buildings. Among these methods, the Delphi group decision-making method provides a co-design feature, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP includes multi-criteria decision-making techniques, and fuzzy logic theory can simplify complex internal and external factors into easy-to-understand numbers or ratios that facilitate decisions. The results of this study show that incorporating solar building materials, double-skin facades, and green roof designs can effectively provide high energy-saving building designs.

  1. A Methodology to Support Decision-Making Towards an Energy-Efficiency Conscious Design of Residential Building Envelope Retrofitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade investment in building energy savings needs to increase, together with the rate and depth of renovations, to achieve the required reduction in buildingrelated CO2 emissions. Although the need to improve residential buildings has been identified, guidelines come as general

  2. Thermal comfort in residential buildings : Sensitivity to building parameters and occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic simulation is widely used for assessing thermal comfort in dwellings. Simulation tools, though, have shortcomings due to false assumptions made during the design phase of buildings, limited information on the building's envelope and installations and misunderstandings over the role of the

  3. Thermal Comfort and Ventilation Criteria for low Energy Residential Buildings in Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration of the ...

  4. Life Cycle Energy Assessment of a Multi-storey Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sourabh; Chandur, Arjun; Palaniappan, Sivakumar

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the findings of life cycle energy assessment of two multi-storey residential buildings. These buildings consist of a total of 60 homes. The usable floor area is 43.14 m2 (463.36 ft2) per home. A detailed estimation of embodied energy is carried out by considering the use of materials during building construction. Major contributors of embodied energy are found to be steel, cement and aluminum. Monthly building operation energy was assessed using a total of 2520 data samples corresponding to 3 years of building operation. Analysis of a base case scenario, with 50 years of service life and average monthly operation energy, indicates that the embodied energy and the operation energy account for 16 and 84% of the life cycle energy respectively. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the influence of service life and operation energy on the relative contribution of embodied energy and operation energy. It is found that the embodied energy represents as high as 31% of the life cycle energy depending upon the variation in the operation energy and the service life. Hence, strategies towards sustainable building construction should also focus on reducing the embodied energy in the design and construction phases in addition to operation energy.

  5. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which are compared with simulated results of various scenarios of “energy efficiency” strategy and “healthy housing” environmental control. First, the simulated results show that the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control is actually balanced in terms of occupancy, comfort, and energy efficiency. Second, adaptive thermal comfort control can save more energy for heating or cooling than other current healthy housing environmental controls in China׳s HSCW zone. Moreover, a large proportion of energy use is based on the subjective thermal comfort demand of occupants in any building type. Third, the building shape coefficient cannot dominate energy savings. The ratio of the superficial area of a building to the actual indoor floor area has a significant positive correlation with and affects the efficiency of building thermal performance.

  6. An attributional life cycle assessment for an Italian residential multifamily building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Pierluca; Arena, Umberto

    2017-09-06

    The study describes an attributional life cycle assessment carried out according to the ISO standards and focused on an Italian multifamily residential building. The aim was developing an exhaustive and reliable inventory of high-quality primary data, comparing the environmental impacts along the three stages of the building life cycle. The pre-use phase takes into account the production of all the construction materials, transportation, and on-site assembling. The use phase quantifies the resource consumptions for 50 years of the building utilization and ordinary maintenance. The end-of-life phase includes the building demolition and the management of generated wastes. The results quantify how the design criteria affect the environmental performances of the residential building along its life cycle. The role of the pre-use phase appears remarkable for global warming potential (GWP), due to the huge impacts of steel and concrete production processes. The use phase gives the largest contributions, which reach 77% and 84% of the total, for the categories of global warming and non-renewable energy. The end-of-life phase provides limited avoided impacts. A comparative analysis quantifies the improvements achievable with an alternative type of partitions and external walls. Acronyms: AC: air conditioning; C&DW: construction and demolition waste; CFL: compact fluorescent lamp; DHW: domestic hot water; EC: European Commission; EU: European Union; GDP: gross domestic product; GHG: greenhouse gases; GWP: global warming potential; LCA: life cycle assessment; LCI: life cycle inventory; LCIA: life cycle impact assessment; MFA: material flow analysis; NREP: non-renewable energy potential; RINP: respiratory inorganics potential; WFD: Waste Framework Directive.

  7. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  8. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  9. The Accelerated Window Work Method Using Vertical Formwork for Tall Residential Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In tall residential building construction, there is a process gap between the window work and the structural work. This process gap extends the total period of the project and increases its cost. In addition, as this process gap increases external exposure to noise and dust, it negatively affects the environment of a site and often causes civil complaints. This paper introduces a new window work process called the accelerated window work (AWW method, which minimizes the process gap and can reduce construction cost and duration and the number of civil complaints. We provide technical details and management elements of the AWW method with a case study that demonstrates the reductions in construction costs and duration compared with the conventional method. This work contributes to the body of knowledge in window work in tall buildings by introducing and validating a new window work method and process. The proposed method will be useful for practitioners who are under short-term constraints.

  10. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  11. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  12. Role of exposure in projected residential building cyclone risk for the Australian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Denis; Cechet, Bob; Arthur, Craig, E-mail: denis.waters@ga.gov.a [Risk and Impact Analysis Group, Geoscience Australia, Canberra (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    The paper presents a methodology to analyse the direct impact of tropical cyclone hazard on communities in northern Australia. The study focuses on the maximum potential intensity (MPI) of the cyclonic wind hazard, and location. Storm surge impacts were developed using a simple relationship between intensity and storm surge height and mid-point sea-level rise projections. The impact on residential building stock of severe wind and storm surge hazards associated with IPCC climate change scenarios is considered. Changes in residential building stock, for over 500 coastal statistical local areas (SLAs) from Southeast Queensland anticlockwise to Perth, were estimated using Australian Bureau of Statistics population projections through to 2100. A Probable Maximum Loss (PML) curve was derived, and the average annual cost across a 5000 year period (or 'annualised loss') was evaluated for each region. The projected population growth and the drift to coastal locations are significant elements in determining the damage associated with possible future cyclone threat.

  13. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  14. Generation of a Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wagner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, national green building certification indices have emerged around the globe as promising measurement tools for environmental-friendly housing. Since 2008, tools for countries in the Northern “colder” hemisphere have been adapted to tropical countries. In contrast, the Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate (TEPC, established in 2012, translates the United Nations’ triple bottom line principle into green building sustainability (planet, thermal comfort (people and affordability (profit. The tool has been especially developed and revamped for affordable green building assessment helping to reduce global warming. Hence, by the comparably simple and transparent energy audit it provides, the TEPC examines buildings for their: (1 contribution to reduce CO2; (2 transmission rate in shielding a building’s envelope against the effects of the tropical heat; (3 generation of thermal comfort and (4 referring total cost of ownership to green the building further. All four dimensions are measured in the rainbow colour scale in compliance with national energy regulations. Accordingly, this research examines the tool’s implementation in tropical countries. Exemplified tropical case studies in residential areas seek to demonstrate the practicability of the approach and to derive a holistic certification by an internationally accredited certification board.

  15. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  16. HSIP New Mexico State Government Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset includes buildings occupied by the headquarters of cabinet level state government executive departments, legislative offices buildings outside of the...

  17. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  18. Case study: Fixture water use and drinking water quality in a new residential green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Abouali, Mohammad; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Zhi; Nejadhashemi, Amir Pouyan; Mitchell, Jade; Caskey, Stephen; Whelton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Residential plumbing is critical for the health and safety of populations worldwide. A case study was conducted to understand fixture water use, drinking water quality and their possible link, in a newly plumbed residential green building. Water use and water quality were monitored at four in-building locations from September 2015 through December 2015. Once the home was fully inhabited average water stagnation periods were shortest at the 2nd floor hot fixture (90 percentile of 0.6-1.2 h). The maximum water stagnation time was 72.0 h. Bacteria and organic carbon levels increased inside the plumbing system compared to the municipal tap water entering the building. A greater amount of bacteria was detected in hot water samples (6-74,002 gene copy number/mL) compared to cold water (2-597 gene copy number/mL). This suggested that hot water plumbing promoted greater microbial growth. The basement fixture brass needle valve may have caused maximum Zn (5.9 mg/L), Fe (4.1 mg/L), and Pb (23 μg/L) levels compared to other fixture water samples (Zn ≤ 2.1 mg/L, Fe ≤ 0.5 mg/L and Pb ≤ 8 μg/L). At the basement fixture, where the least amount of water use events occurred (cold: 60-105, hot: 21-69 event/month) compared to the other fixtures in the building (cold: 145-856, hot: 326-2230 event/month), greater organic carbon, bacteria, and heavy metal levels were detected. Different fixture use patterns resulted in disparate water quality within a single-family home. The greatest drinking water quality changes were detected at the least frequently used fixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A multi-scale life-cycle energy and greenhouse-gas emissions analysis model for residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current assessments of residential building energy demand focus mainly on their operational aspect, notably in terms of space heating and cooling. The embodied energy of buildings and the transport energy consumption of their occupants are typically overlooked. Recent studies have shown that these two energy demands can represent more than half of the life-cycle energy of a building over 50 years. This study presents a holistic model and software tool which take into account energy requiremen...

  20. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS OBSERVED AT STATE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KAPLAN

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Although, state buildings are designed with higher building importance factors with respect to other buildings, they are damaged and collapsed in medium and large scale earthquakes occurred throughout the 14 year period starting from 1992 Erzincan Earthquake. Buildings, used for medical, educational, governmental and security purposes, have to be non-damaged and they should satisfy immediate occupancy after design earthquakes. In this study, structural deficiencies in 105 state buildings, of which seismic vulnerability assessment has been done in recent years, are investigated. Examples of different problems, which are not observed in other buildings mostly, are given.

  2. Aspects Regarding the Degradation of a Retaining Wall With the Destination to Reinforce the Stability of the Site Arrangement of Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin L. Tamaş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Performing the diggings nearby and/under the implantation quota of some existing buildings may trigger on the structural elements and/or over the arrangement site states of efforts or additional deformations, which may diminish the reinforcing capacity and/or loss of local/general stability given certain conditions of induced load. The paper herein presents situation generated by the execution of a section of domestic sewage, near and under the implantation foundation of a retaining wall having the role of maintaining stability of the arrangement site of residential buildings.

  3. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 2: Automated residential energy standard---user's guide--version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, V.B.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations were developed over a 25-month period by a multidisciplinary project team under the management of the DOE and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  4. Quantification of Improvement in Environmental Quality for Old Residential Buildings Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, 35% of buildings are older than 50 years but most newer buildings built before 1990 have greater energy consumption. Some other countries also have similar problems. The growing importance of energy saving in buildings can be, in the case of new and old residential buildings (RB, achieved by lowering thermal energy consumption most often by application of polystyrene insulation on the external walls and roof and the exchange of wood window frames for PVC (polyvinyl chloride windows. The novelty of the article for Slovakia and some other central European countries consists in using the life cycle assessment (LCA method for the objective assessment of the environmental benefits of the selected systems of wall insulation, as well as of energy savings in various time intervals of insulation functionality (up to 20 years. LCA software SimaPro (LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands was used with ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ assessment methods to quantify the total environmental impact at selected endpoints and midpoints (IMPACT 2002+ of basic structural materials of an RB and its energy demand—heat consumption (hot water heating, central heating before the application of insulation and thermal energy saving (TES after application of insulation to its external walls, roof, and the exchange of windows. The data we obtained confirmed that the environmental impact of the polystyrene insulation of external walls, roof, and exchange of windows of one residential building (RB in the first year after insulation is higher than the reduction caused by achieving a TES of 39%. When taking a lifespan of 20 years into consideration, the impact over the life cycle of the building materials is reduced by 25% (global warming: −4792 kg CO2 eq; production of carcinogens: −2479 kg C2H3Cl eq; acidification: −12,045 kg SO2 eq; and aquatic eutrophication: −257 kg PO4 P-lim. The verified LCA methodology will be used for comparative analysis of different variants

  5. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real

  6. Load Management in Residential Buildings Considering Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-12-01

    Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policy maker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn't express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might

  7. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement’eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  8. Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid climate of Saudi Arabia by considering a modern four bedroom residential building in the city of Dhahran as a case study. The base case and green roof modelling of the selected building has been developed with the help of DesignBuilder software. The base case model has been validated with the help of 3-month measured data about the energy consumption without a green roof installed. The result shows that the energy consumption for the base case is 169 kWh/m2 while the energy consumption due to the application of a green roof on the entire roof surface is 110 kWh/m2. For the three investigated green roof options, energy saving is found to be in the range of 24% to 35%. The economic evaluation based on the net present value (NPV approach for 40 years with consideration to other environmental advantages indicates that the benefits of the green roof technology are realized towards the end of the life cycle of the building.

  9. Simulation of Natural Gas Saving Through Foam Light Weight Concrete Utilization in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss through walls in houses is remarkable and it shares about 25% of total loss. Utilizing Foam Lightweight Concrete (FLC block in walls may lead to reduction in both gas consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to heat insulation property of the block and consequently less energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to investigate how FLC block can save natural gas usage within building envelop. A typical residential building was simulated for pressed brick, terra-cotta block, 3D panel, and FLC block by utilizing Behsazan software. Afterwards, building gas consumption and relevant carbon dioxide emissions were compared for abovementioned wall materials, while the building area was constant and its height was variable. Results showed that annual gas reduction attributed to utilizing FLC block walls with different heights varies from 25.7% to 30.6% and from 18.5% to 23.3% in comparison with pressed brick and terra-cotta block walls, respectively. This reduction for 3D panel walls was about 4.6%. Moreover, CO2 emission reduction depending on the number of floors for FLC block walls with pressed brick, terra-cotta block, and 3D panel walls were equal to 20.8 to 24, 15 to 18.3, and 3.4 to 3.8 kg CO2/m2, respectively.

  10. Perspectives on Near ZEB Renovation Projects for Residential Buildings: The Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available EU regulations are gradually moving towards policies that reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact. To reach this goal, improving energy efficiency in residential buildings is a key action line. The European Parliament adopted the Near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB as the energy efficiency paradigm through Directive 2010/31/EU, but a common technical and legislative framework for energy renovations is yet to be established. In this paper, the nZEB definition by COHERENO was adopted to evaluate several energy renovation packages in a given building, which is also representative of the Spanish building stock. Global costs are calculated for all of them following EPBD prescriptions. Two economic scenarios are analysed: with entirely private funding and with the current public financial incentives, respectively. The results show the divergence between optimum solutions in terms of costs and of minimum CO2 footprint and maximum energy saving. Moreover, in the absence of enough incentives, some inefficient renovations could achieve a global cost close to the optimal cost. The optimum solution both in terms of energy performance and global costs was carried out and described.

  11. Simplified algorithms for the Italian energy rating scheme for fenestration in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, A. [ENEA-TML, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Zinzi, M. [ENEA-SIRE-DINT, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is responsible of 40% of energy end uses in Italy. Most of the thermal and solar exchanges between the building and the external environment depend on fenestration. Rating schemes are useful instruments for classifying the energy efficiency of devices in many fields, for windows it is largely utilised in some extra-European countries and under studying or developing in many European ones. In Italy, single glazed units represent 80% of the total installed windows, on the other side, the percentage of high quality products can be considered negligible. The energy rating would enhance the Italian market of efficient products, and accelerate technical innovations in the glass and frame industries. The aim of introducing this instrument is a deep reduction of energy end uses and, as a consequence, of CO{sub 2} emissions. The methodology, implemented for the residential sector, is based on the assessment of thermal performances of 3 reference buildings, as a function of: window properties, climatic data, and architectural characteristics. More than 1000 simulations, run with TRNSYS, permitted to evaluate: specific and percent heating, cooling and total energy savings, reduction of CO2 emissions of the selected buildings. The analysis of previous results permitted to find out the simplified algorithms, which the energy-rating scheme, for both cold and hot seasons, is based on. Examples of cost-benefits analysis are presented to stress the economical and environmental advantages of the proper application of this instrument. (au)

  12. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  13. Assessment of Natural Ventilation Potential for Residential Buildings across Different Climate Zones in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural ventilation potential of residential buildings was numerically investigated based on a typical single-story house in the three most populous climate zones in Australia. Simulations using the commercial simulation software TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool were performed for all seasons in three representative cities, i.e., Darwin for the hot humid summer and warm winter zone, Sydney for the mild temperate zone, and Melbourne for the cool temperate zone. A natural ventilation control strategy was generated by the rule-based decision-tree method based on the local climates. Natural ventilation hour (NVH and satisfied natural ventilation hour (SNVH were employed to evaluate the potential of natural ventilation in each city considering local climate and local indoor thermal comfort requirements, respectively. The numerical results revealed that natural ventilation potential was related to the local climate. The greatest natural ventilation potential for the case study building was observed in Darwin with an annual 4141 SNVH out of 4728 NVH, while the least natural ventilation potential was found in the Melbourne case. Moreover, summer and transition seasons (spring and autumn were found to be the optimal periods to sustain indoor thermal comfort by utilising natural ventilation in Sydney and Melbourne. By contrast, natural ventilation was found applicable over the whole year in Darwin. In addition, the indoor operative temperature results demonstrated that indoor thermal comfort can be maintained only by utilising natural ventilation for all cases during the whole year, except for the non-natural ventilation periods in summer in Darwin and winter in Melbourne. These findings could improve the understanding of natural ventilation potential in different climates, and are beneficial for the climate-conscious design of residential buildings in Australia.

  14. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies in Residential Building Codes: June 15, 1998 to September 15, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortman, D.; Echo-Hawk, L.

    2005-02-01

    This report is an attempt to describe the building code requirements and impediments to the application of EE and RE technologies in residential buildings. Several modern model building codes were reviewed. These are representative of the codes that will be adopted by most locations in the coming years. The codes reviewed for this report include: International Residential Code, First Draft, April 1998; International Energy Conservation Code, 1998; International Mechanical Code, 1998; International Plumbing Code, 1997; International Fuel Gas Code, 1997; National Electrical Code, 1996. These codes were reviewed as to their application to (1) PV systems in buildings and building-integrated PV systems and (2) active solar domestic hot water and space-heating systems. A discussion of general code issues that impact these technologies is also included. Examples of this are solar access and sustainability.

  15. The influence of thermal insulation position in building exterior walls on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yu, W.; Zhao, X.; Dai, W.; Ruan, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper focused on the influence of using position of thermal insulation materials in exterior walls on the indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption of residential building in Chongqing. In this study, four (4) typical residential building models in Chongqing were established, which have different usage of thermal insulation layer position in exterior walls. Indoor thermal comfort hours, cooling and heating energy consumption of each model were obtained by using a simulation tool, Energyplus. Based on the simulation data, the influence of thermal insulation position on indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption in each season was analyzed. The results showed that building with internal insulation had the highest indoor thermal comfort hours and least cooling and heating energy consumption in summer and winter. In transitional season, the highest indoor thermal comfort hours are obtained when thermal insulation is located on the exterior side.

  16. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, W.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of

  17. Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Cutler, Dylan; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2018-03-01

    As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.

  18. Comparative Calculation of Heat Exchange with the Ground in Residential Building Including Periodes of Heat Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides verification of 3D transient ground-coupled model to calculation of heat exchange between ground and typical one-storey, passive residential building. The model was performed with computer software WUFI®plus and carried out to estimate the indoor air temperatures during extending hot weather periods. For verifying the results of calculations performed by the WUFI®plus software, the most recent version of EnergyPlus software version was used. Comparison analysis of calculation results obtained with the two above mentioned calculation method was made for two scenarios of slab on ground constructions: without thermal insulation and with thermal insulation under the whole slab area. Comprehensive statistical analysis was done including time series analysis and descriptive statistics parameters.

  19. Optimal and heuristic algorithms of planning of low-rise residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartak, V. M.; Marchenko, A. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Fabarisova, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of the optimal layout of low-rise residential building is considered. Each apartment must be no less than the corresponding apartment from the proposed list. Also all requests must be made and excess of the total square over of the total square of apartment from the list must be minimized. The difference in the squares formed due to with the discreteness of distances between bearing walls and a number of other technological limitations. It shown, that this problem is NP-hard. The authors built a linear-integer model and conducted her qualitative analysis. As well, authors developed a heuristic algorithm for the solution tasks of a high dimension. The computational experiment was conducted which confirming the efficiency of the proposed approach. Practical recommendations on the use the proposed algorithms are given.

  20. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  1. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  2. Phase Change Materials as a solution to improve energy efficiency in Portuguese residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C.; Pinheiro, A.; Castro, M. F.; Bragança, L.

    2017-10-01

    The buildings sector contributes to 30% of annual greenhouse gas emissions and consumes about 40% of energy. However, this consumption can be reduced by between 30% and 80% through commercially available technologies. The consumption of energy in the dwellings is mostly associated with the heating and cooling of the interior environment. One solution to reduce these consumptions is the implementation of technologies and Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Thermal Energy Storage (TES). So, the aim of this work is to analyse the advantages, in terms of decreasing energy consumption, associated with the application of PCMs in Portuguese residential buildings. For this, eight PCMs with different melting ranges were analysed. These materials were analysed through a dynamic simulation performed with EnergyPlus software. The results achieved, showed that the materials studied allow to reduce up to 13% of the heating needs and up to 92% of the cooling needs of a building located in the North of Portugal, at an altitude higher than 100m.

  3. Implementation of MCA Method for Identification of Factors for Conceptual Cost Estimation of Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Michał; Leśniak, Agnieszka; Zima, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Conceptual cost estimation is important for construction projects. Either underestimation or overestimation of building raising cost may lead to failure of a project. In the paper authors present application of a multicriteria comparative analysis (MCA) in order to select factors influencing residential building raising cost. The aim of the analysis is to indicate key factors useful in conceptual cost estimation in the early design stage. Key factors are being investigated on basis of the elementary information about the function, form and structure of the building, and primary assumptions of technological and organizational solutions applied in construction process. The mentioned factors are considered as variables of the model which aim is to make possible conceptual cost estimation fast and with satisfying accuracy. The whole analysis included three steps: preliminary research, choice of a set of potential variables and reduction of this set to select the final set of variables. Multicriteria comparative analysis is applied in problem solution. Performed analysis allowed to select group of factors, defined well enough at the conceptual stage of the design process, to be used as a describing variables of the model.

  4. Experimental Analysis of Cool Traditional Solar Shading Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development and thermal-energy analysis of passive solutions for reducing building cooling needs and thus improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. In this view, several studies were carried out about cool roofs and cool coatings, producing acknowledged mitigation effects on urban heat island phenomenon. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal-energy performance of cool louvers of shutters, usually installed in residential buildings, compared to dark color traditional shading systems. To this aim, two full-scale prototype buildings were continuously monitored under summer conditions and the role of the cool shutter in reducing the overheating of the shading system and the energy requirements for cooling was analyzed. After an in-lab optical analysis of the cool coating, showing a huge solar reflectance increase with respect to the traditional configuration, i.e., by about 75%, field monitoring results showed that the cool shutter is able to decrease the indoor air temperature up to 2 °C under free floating conditions. The corresponding energy saving was about 25%, with even much higher peaks during very hot summer conditions.

  5. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  6. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogurcu, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column-stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.

  7. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  8. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  9. Evaluating the consequences of retrofitting residential multi-family buildings on indoor environmental quality, comfort, health and user satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Jong, P. de; Cornelissen, H.J.M.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Within the European project RETROKIT a systemic approach is being developed for retrofitting existing multi-family residential buildings. Modular combination of (semi-) prefabricated technological solutions will be demonstrated in three case studies. The part of the study described here aims to

  10. Nation-wide development of sustainable production patterns. The case of 16 years of sustainability in Dutch residential house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper integrates the interorganisational innovation process and national innovation system-approach into a new model. A case study research project that covers a 16-year period of sustainable innovations in the Dutch residential building industry applies the model. The research outcomes

  11. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Date Summaries. Vol. I: Commercial and Residential Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Three volumes present brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings through July 1976. The overall federal program includes demonstrations of heating and/or combined cooling for residential and commercial buildings…

  12. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...

  13. Maintenance and Expansion: Modeling Material Stocks and Flows for Residential Buildings and Transportation Networks in the EU25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Steinberger, Julia K; Eisenmenger, Nina; Haas, Willi

    2015-08-01

    Material stocks are an important part of the social metabolism. Owing to long service lifetimes of stocks, they not only shape resource flows during construction, but also during use, maintenance, and at the end of their useful lifetime. This makes them an important topic for sustainable development. In this work, a model of stocks and flows for nonmetallic minerals in residential buildings, roads, and railways in the EU25, from 2004 to 2009 is presented. The changing material composition of the stock is modeled using a typology of 72 residential buildings, four road and two railway types, throughout the EU25. This allows for estimating the amounts of materials in in-use stocks of residential buildings and transportation networks, as well as input and output flows. We compare the magnitude of material demands for expansion versus those for maintenance of existing stock. Then, recycling potentials are quantitatively explored by comparing the magnitude of estimated input, waste, and recycling flows from 2004 to 2009 and in a business-as-usual scenario for 2020. Thereby, we assess the potential impacts of the European Waste Framework Directive, which strives for a significant increase in recycling. We find that in the EU25, consisting of highly industrialized countries, a large share of material inputs are directed at maintaining existing stocks. Proper management of existing transportation networks and residential buildings is therefore crucial for the future size of flows of nonmetallic minerals.

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovations profile describes Building America research and support in developing and gaining adoption of ASHRAE 62.2, a residential ventilation standard that is critical to transforming the U.S. housing industry to high-performance homes.

  15. Energy security of residential buildings as an aspect of managerial activity in the modern concept of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the management aspects of ensuring the safety of residential buildings. The article presents an analytical review of the state of the existing heat supply systems in the Russian Federation, assesses their energy security, highlights the results of research into the causes of accidents in engineering systems in water-bearing communications, and provides methods and comparative calculations of failures of these systems. It is indicated that according to the results of the All-Russian Census of 2010, the total population of the Russian Federation at the time of the survey was 142 million 857 thousand people living in more than 1100 settlements that have the status of the city (subject to their identification by population, administrative and national economic significance and the nature of the building), as well as in almost 160,000 rural settlements. It should be noted that in accordance with the classification of settlements in the Russian Federation, there are five main categories, namely: The above classification of settlements has formed the basis for the analysis of the existing processes of functioning of the heat supply systems of the Russian Federation at the objects of housing, social and industrial development from the point of view of energy security. Thus, for example, it turned out that in large cities with multi-storey buildings the centralized heat supply system is dominated by a system consisting of one or several sources of heat, heat networks having different diameter of pipelines, their number and length, and also serving various types of heat consumers) from cogeneration plants (CHP) of public use, or industrial enterprises. As for the welterweight and small towns, including urban-type settlements with a multi-storey building of the post-war period, they, as a rule, have the majority of IGFs, fed from the city or district boiler houses.

  16. Drift Reliability Assessment of a Four Storey Frame Residential Building Under Seismic Loading Considering Multiple Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Arjun; Longmailai, Thaihamdau

    2017-09-01

    The lateral displacement of Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame building during an earthquake has an important impact on the structural stability and integrity. However, seismic analysis and design of RC building needs more concern due to its complex behavior as the performance of the structure links to the features of the system having many influencing parameters and other inherent uncertainties. The reliability approach takes into account the factors and uncertainty in design influencing the performance or response of the structure in which the safety level or the probability of failure could be ascertained. This present study, aims to assess the reliability of seismic performance of a four storey residential RC building seismically located in Zone-V as per the code provisions given in the Indian Standards IS: 1893-2002. The reliability assessment performed by deriving an explicit expression for maximum roof-lateral displacement as a failure function by regression method. A total of 319, four storey RC buildings were analyzed by linear static method using SAP2000. However, the change in the lateral-roof displacement with the variation of the parameters (column dimension, beam dimension, grade of concrete, floor height and total weight of the structure) was observed. A generalized relation established by regression method which could be used to estimate the expected lateral displacement owing to those selected parameters. A comparison made between the displacements obtained from analysis with that of the equation so formed. However, it shows that the proposed relation could be used directly to determine the expected maximum lateral displacement. The data obtained from the statistical computations was then used to obtain the probability of failure and the reliability.

  17. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  18. A state-space model for residential real estate valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.

    2010-01-01

    All property in the Netherlands has to be appraised yearly. Yearly valuation has only been made possible with the help of models. The number of real estate appraisers is simply too small to value the more than 7 million residential properties. This paper describes the statistical model that is used

  19. Building Footprints, Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard Mitigation planning., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Building Footprints dataset current as of 2010. Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard...

  20. Structural Risk Assessment and Mitigation for Low- to Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim A. Korkmaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.

  1. The Impact of Subsidies on the Prevalence of Climate-Sensitive Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on air-conditioning (AC for residential cooling and ventilation is a health and sustainability challenge. In hot temperatures, climate-sensitive buildings (CSB can complement and/or substitute for AC usage in achieving thermal comfort. Many countries facing such conditions—particularly in tropical climates—are developing quickly, with rising populations and income creating demand for new housing and AC. This presents a window for adoption of CSB but could also result in long term lock-in of AC-dependent buildings. Here, a simple system dynamics model is used to explore the potential and limitations of subsidies to affect futures of housing stock and night-time AC usage in Malaysia. The effectiveness of subsidies in achieving high uptake of CSB and resulting health benefits is highly dependent on homebuyer willingness to pay (WTP. A detailed understanding of WTP in the Malaysian context and factors that can shift WTP is necessary to determine if CSB subsidies can be a good policy mechanism for achieving CSB uptake.

  2. Experimental and numerical modelling of thermal performance of a residential building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate simulation of thermal performance of a residential 4 floors high building placed in the suburb of Belgrade (ground and 3 upper floors with it's total surface area of 1410 m2. It's supplied with liquid petroleum gas storage tank as a fuel reservoir since there is automatic gas boiler in each apartment. Measurements have been carried out in first floor apartment (68 m2 heating area in heating season period. Measured parameters are: inside and outside air temperature and U-value of apartment envelope. Weather data is obtained by using METEONORM, the software package for climatic data calculation based on last 10 years measurements. TRNSYS 16 has been used as the simulation tool. The behavior of the building in terms of heating loads for climate on a daily and monthly basis in heating season is investigated. The calculations show possibility for saving energy by optimization inside temperature during different gas boiler working regimes.

  3. Natural air conditioning and design of building openings in residential building construction in Mexico. Natuerliche Klimatisierung und Gebaeudeoeffnungen im Wohnungsbau Mexikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alpuche, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, recognition about constructional measures are gained, representing a contribution to natural air conditioning in tropical areas, by means of selected examples of traditional residential building in Mexico. With this, it is important to ensure a thermal well-being that fulfills present comfort requirements. Three different climatic zones are investigated. The constructional measures are classified according to the following groups considering the conception of the building opening suitable for the climate: Environment and building openings, position and dimension of the building opening, protecting devices on building offices. Furthermore, it is proven by means of an example of modern single-family houses in Mexico, that the recognition gained in a side range can be also usefully applied in present building construction. This results in recommendations for conceptions of building openings in the sense of a construction that is suitable for the climate and energy saving. (orig./KW).

  4. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  5. An Update of a Simulation Study of Passively Heated Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Koon Beng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “A simulation study of passively heated residential buildings” published in Procedia Engineering 2015 showed how circulating 15-17°C water from a 50-m deep U-tube to a floor radiator and solar-heated water from a 30 evacuated tube solar collector and a 2-m3 indoor tank to a wall radiator could keep a 30-m2 Melbourne, Australia house thermally comfortable. This paper presents a summary of the ongoing review of publications together with three updates: - (1 Report on that water heated by a 100-metre deep U-tube is 22-24°C, i.e., 2-4 °C warmer than thermal comfort temperature. (2 May 2016 experimental validations of the simulated results which show that when the outdoors is below 10°C, the temperature of the floor radiator is 2-4°C less than the 15-17°C water heated by a 50-m deep U-tube and 25 W fish tank pumps could circulate the waters. (3 Simulations with the addition of phase change materials (PCM to inside faces show that though a PCM halves the diurnal indoor temperature variations, it confirms that such PCM does not significantly increase the 20°C temperature in a 2-m3 storage tank at the end of winter. Therefore, the size of intersessional thermal storage would be a problem for family-sized houses. German Guidelines indicate that 1-2 boreholes could provide enough heat for family-sized houses. The heat extracted in winter can be replenished in summer. Thus the geothermal heat from about 100-m deep boreholes with 22-24°C bottom temperature could sustainably keep residential buildings in cool climates similar to Melbourne's cool temperate thermally comfortable.

  6. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  7. Life cycle assessment of the end-of-life phase of a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Pierluca; Arena, Noemi; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio; Arena, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste. It quantifies the connections between these on-site and off-site processes as well as the main streams of materials sent to recycling, energy recovery, and final disposal. A sensitivity analysis has been eventually carried out by comparing the overall environmental performances of some alternative scenarios, characterised by different criteria for the demolition of the reference building, management of demolition waste and assessment of avoided burdens of the main recycled materials. The results quantify the advantage of an appropriate technique of selective demolition, which could increase the quality and quantity of residues sent to the treatment of resource recovery and safe disposal. They also highlight the contributions to the positive or negative environmental impact of each stage of the investigated waste management system. The recycling of reinforcing steel appears to play a paramount role, accounting for 65% of the total avoided impacts related to respiratory inorganics, 89% of those for global warming and 73% of those for mineral extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBGHA SIDDIQUE SIDDIQUE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  9. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Taleb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software – namely IES – was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

  10. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  11. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  12. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  13. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  14. The Value of Energy Efficiency Programs for U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings in a Warmer World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2007-06-15

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). U.S. government buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs are expected to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This has value both in reducing carbon emissions that result in global warming and adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to 1990 by 0.4ºC to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in space cooling. Buildings-related energy efficiency programs should reduce energy consumption in buildings by more than 2 quads in 2020, which would more than offset the growth in space cooling due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  15. Application of Absorption Systems Powered by Solar Ponds in Warm Climates for the Air Conditioning in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of a significant reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere asks the scientific community to find other solutions than fossil fuels with respect to the air conditioning of indoor environments. Nowadays, a priority is represented by the energy expenses reduction, in which residential buildings report one of the highest energy consumption levels among developed countries. The application of alternative energies in residential buildings is an issue debated in the European Commission for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with the objective to obtain 20% of the demand from renewable sources. This paper suggests the application of the solar energy stored in solar ponds to air-condition small residential buildings, through the use of absorption machines. A feasibility analysis was carried out in some places characterized by climates that are suitable to make the solution here suggested sustainable from an energetic point of view. Buildings characterized by different boundary surface/volume ratios were examined and the energy saving, the amount of CO2 that was not emitted in the environment and the return of investments with respect to a more traditional solution were evaluated.

  16. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Simon

    2013-08-13

    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state-space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models of residential buildings. Quantitative measures are provided of the standard deviation of concentration and exposure within a range of residential multizone buildings. Ratios of the maximum short term concentrations and exposures to single zone building estimates are also provided for the same buildings. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Predictors of residential placement following a psychiatric crisis episode among children and youth in state custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Min; Jordan, Neil; Epstein, Richard; Mandell, David S; Lyons, John S

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the extent and correlates of entry into residential care among 603 children and youth in state custody who were referred to psychiatric crisis services. Overall, 27% of the sample was placed in residential care within 12 months after their 1st psychiatric crisis screening. Among the children and youth placed in residential care, 51% were so placed within 3 months of their 1st crisis screening, with an additional 22% placed between 3 and 6 months after screening. Risk behavior and functioning, psychiatric hospitalization following screening, older age, placement type, and caregiver's capacity for supervision were associated with increased residential placement. The findings highlight the importance of early identification and treatment of behavior and functioning problems following a crisis episode among children and youth in state custody to reduce the need for subsequent residential placement. Having an inpatient psychiatric episode following a crisis episode places children at greater risk for residential placement, suggesting that the hospital is an important point for diversion programs. Children and youth in psychiatric crisis may also benefit from efforts to include their families in the treatment process. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  19. Ventilation systems for multi-unit residential buildings : performance requirements and alternative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.

    2003-09-01

    A growing proportion of housing in Canada consists of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs). Ventilation strategies have not changed much over the past three decades. Research conducted by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and others has shown that conventional ventilation strategies consume significant amounts of energy, are noisy, consume internal floor area, and can become conduits for pests and smoke. As a result, a research project was initiated to develop performance requirements and alternative approaches for ventilation systems in MURBs. The issues to be addressed by alternative ventilation systems were identified through literature review. The various codes and standards applicable to ventilation capacities for apartments in MURBs in Canada were evaluated. It was revealed that the ventilation system airflow rates required for any given apartment and the amount of ventilation that should be provided by infiltration varies greatly depending on the codes or standards selected. The performance parameters that were identified in this paper were: ventilation performance, capital and operating costs, maintenance, fire and smoke control, noise issues, comfort, system issues, and owner and designer construction issues. The following four different alternative ventilation systems were discussed: (1) passive vents with suite-based mechanical exhaust, (2) balanced individual suites with heat recovery (HRV) units, (3) balanced floor-by-floor systems with heat recovery, and (4) balanced central systems with heat recovery. Further testing and assessment is needed before these proposed systems can enter the marketable phase. More research is also needed into the characterization of stack and wind pressures in MURBs. 5 tabs.

  20. Control of Disturbing Loads in Residential and Commercial Buildings via Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-V. Castilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many definitions have been formulated to represent nonactive power for distorted voltages and currents in electronic and electrical systems. Unfortunately, no single universally suitable representation has been accepted as a prototype for this power component. This paper defines a nonactive power multivector from the most advanced multivectorial power theory based on the geometric algebra (GA. The new concept can have more importance on harmonic loads compensation, identification, and metering, between other applications. Likewise, this paper is concerned with a pioneering method for the compensation of disturbing loads. In this way, we propose a multivectorial relative quality index   associated with the power multivector. It can be assumed as a new index for power quality evaluation, harmonic sources detection, and power factor improvement in residential and commercial buildings. The proposed method consists of a single-point strategy based of a comparison among different relative quality index multivectors, which may be measured at the different loads on the same metering point. The comparison can give pieces of information with magnitude, direction, and sense on the presence of disturbing loads. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested approach.

  1. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  2. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  3. Control of disturbing loads in residential and commercial buildings via geometric algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Manuel-V

    2013-01-01

    Many definitions have been formulated to represent nonactive power for distorted voltages and currents in electronic and electrical systems. Unfortunately, no single universally suitable representation has been accepted as a prototype for this power component. This paper defines a nonactive power multivector from the most advanced multivectorial power theory based on the geometric algebra (GA). The new concept can have more importance on harmonic loads compensation, identification, and metering, between other applications. Likewise, this paper is concerned with a pioneering method for the compensation of disturbing loads. In this way, we propose a multivectorial relative quality index δ(~) associated with the power multivector. It can be assumed as a new index for power quality evaluation, harmonic sources detection, and power factor improvement in residential and commercial buildings. The proposed method consists of a single-point strategy based of a comparison among different relative quality index multivectors, which may be measured at the different loads on the same metering point. The comparison can give pieces of information with magnitude, direction, and sense on the presence of disturbing loads. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested approach.

  4. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  5. Controlling indoor climate. Passive cooling of residential buildings in hot-humid climates in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiwu

    1996-10-01

    Overheating is a paramount problem in residential buildings in hot and humid climates in China during summer. This study aims to deal with the overheating problem and the problem of poor air quality in dwellings. The main objective is to improve indoor thermal conditions by passive cooling approaches, climatisation techniques in buildings without auxiliary cooling from air conditioning equipment. This thesis focuses on the study of cross-ventilation in apartments, which is one of the most effective ways of natural cooling in a hot humid climate, but is also one of the least understood parts in controlling indoor climate. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used, which is a new approach, since cross-ventilation studies have been conventionally made by wind tunnel tests. The validations of the CFD technique are examined by a comparison between wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. The factors influencing indoor air movement are investigated for a single room. Cross-ventilation in two apartments is studied, and the air change efficiency in a Chinese kitchen is calculated with CFD techniques. The thermal performance of ventilated roofs, a simple and widely used type of roof in the region, is specially addressed by means of a full-scale measurement, wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. An integrated study of passive cooling approaches and factors affecting indoor thermal comfort is carried out through a case study in a southern Chinese city, Guangzhou. This thesis demonstrates that passive cooling measure have a high potential in significantly improving indoor thermal conditions during summer. This study also gives discussions and conclusions on the evaluation of indoor thermal environment; effects influencing cross-ventilation in apartments; design guidelines for ventilated roofs and an integrated study of passive cooling. 111 refs, 83 figs, 65 tabs

  6. Microclimatic Performance of Courtyards in Residential Buildings in Kafanchan-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Bulus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the courtyard microclimate to the building and the need for a comparative study on their typology in other to ascertain the best alternative. Also emphasizing that the architect choice of the courtyard typology to be adopted in his architectural design schemes should be based on performance rather than his mere intuitive choice. Therefore, an investigational study of two different courtyard forms with the same perimeter, and material finished -the fully enclosed internal central courtyard and the semi-enclosed courtyard has been carried out in two existing residential buildings, in the city of Kafanchan-Nigeria. The main purpose of the study is to compare their climatic performances in other to ascertain the best option. The study employed the experimental methodology. Three Hobo Weather Data Loggers (HWDL were used to collect data in the courtyards, and the third one was positioned in the outdoor area as a benchmark. Only two climatic variables, namely air temperature, and relative humidity were examined as these variables have not been investigated in a single research on the courtyard in Nigeria. The results showed a definite difference in the microclimatic conditions of the two courtyards. The fully enclosed internal courtyard is seen to have a better air temperature difference of 1oc to 3oc at the time intervals, and the relative humidity difference of 1% to 6%. In conclusion, the fully enclosed internal courtyard has demonstrated a more favorable microclimatic performance than the semi-enclosed, and future simulation studies towards its optimization are recommended.

  7. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  8. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  10. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  11. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  12. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  13. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-04

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  14. Impacts of Climate Change on US Commercial and Residential Building Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    Energy consumption in buildings, accounting for 41% of 2010 primary energy consumption in the United States (US), is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and temperature. Past studies have assessed the impact of climate change on long-term mean and/or peak energy demands. However, these studies usually neglected spatial variations in the "balance point" temperature, population distribution effects, air-conditioner (AC) saturation, and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here I develop empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the impact of climate change on long-term mean and extremes of energy demand, and test the sensitivity of these impacts to various factors. I find increases in summertime electricity demand exceeding 50% and decreases in wintertime non-electric energy demand of more than 40% in some states by the end of the century. The occurrence of the most extreme (appearing once-per-56-years) electricity demand increases more than 2600 fold, while the occurrence of the once per year extreme events increases more than 70 fold by the end of this century. If the changes in population and AC saturation are also accounted for, the impact of climate change on building energy demand will be exacerbated. Using the individual building energy simulation approach, I also estimate the impact of climate change to different building types at over 900 US locations. Large increases in building energy consumption are found in the summer, especially during the daytime (e.g., >100% increase for warehouses, 5-6 pm). Large variation of impact is also found within climate zones, suggesting a potential bias when estimating climate-zone scale changes with a small number of representative locations. As a result of climate change, the building energy expenditures increase in some states (as much as

  15. Algorithm and Computer Program for the Dynamic Analysis of Hygrothermal Behaviour in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Rotberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A program for the non-steady state calculus of the thermal condition of buildings is proposed. A harmonical model has been used to creating this program. The detailed presentation of the algorithm is followed by a case study drawn up for an enclosure with load-bearing masonry structure situated at intermediate and terminal layers, at different moments: in winter, when the heating is cut-off, and in summer.

  16. The role of hydrogen as a future solution to energetic and environmental problems for residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Aşchilean, I.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Şoimoşan, T.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. In achieving the desideratum "low-carbon energy system", in the domain of energy production, the use of innovative low-carbon technologies providing maximum efficiency and minimum pollution is required. Such technology is the fuel cell; as these will be developed, it will become a reality to obtain the energy based on hydrogen. Thus, hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using different forms of renewable resources becomes a secure and sustainable energy alternative. In this context, in the present paper, a comparative study of two different hybrid power generation systems for residential building placed in Cluj-Napoca was made. In these energy systems have been integrated renewable energies (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine), backup and storage system based on hydrogen (fuel cell, electrolyser and hydrogen storage tank), and, respectively, backup and storage system based on traditional technologies (diesel generator and battery). The software iHOGA was used to simulate the operating performance of the two hybrid systems. The aim of this study was to compare energy, environmental and economic performances of these two systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between traditional and new innovative technologies. After analyzing and comparing the results of simulations, it can be concluded that the fuel cells technology along with hydrogen, integrated in a hybrid system, may be the key to energy production systems with high energy efficiency, making possible an increased capitalization of renewable energy which have a low environmental impact.

  17. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  18. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  19. Methodology Applied to the Evaluation of Natural Ventilation in Residential Building Retrofits: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto Meiss; Miguel A Padilla-Marcos; Jesús Feijó-Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to present the use of a steady model that is able to qualify and quantify available natural ventilation flows applied to the energy retrofitting of urban residential districts...

  20. Steady State Shift Damage Localization in a Residential-Sized Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Morten Kusk; Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental damage localization study, in which the recently proposed steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method is tested in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade. The S3DL method constitutes a model-based damage localization scheme, whose method...

  1. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  2. Mercury vapor in residential building common areas in communities where mercury is used for cultural purposes versus a reference community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetano, Gary; Stern, Alan H; Robson, Mark; Gochfeld, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg0) in residential buildings can occur from accidental spills, broken objects (thermometers, fluorescent fixtures, thermostats), and deliberate introduction, one mode of which involves cultural practices by individuals who believe dispersal of mercury in a residence will bring luck, enhance health or ward off harm. To determine whether mercury vapor levels in common areas of residential buildings is higher in a community where cultural uses are likely (study areas S1, S2) than in a reference community (C1) where cultural use is unlikely, and whether levels can serve as a signal of significant cultural mercury use. We monitored Hg0 vapor with a portable spectrophotometer in the three communities. We randomly selected sites in S1 and C1 community, and also include sites in S2 specified by local health officials who suspected cultural mercury use. We evaluated 122 multifamily buildings and 116 outdoor locations. We found >25 ng/m3 Hg0 in 14% of buildings in study areas compared to only one reference building. In the latter we identified an accidental mercury spill from a bottle that had been brought into the building. Both the mean and maximum indoor mercury vapor levels were greater in the study communities than in the reference community. In all communities, we observed mean indoor Hg0 vapor concentration greater than outdoors, although in two-thirds of buildings, indoor levels did not exceed the area-specific outdoor upper-limit concentration. After controlling for factors that might influence Hg0 vapor levels, the most plausible explanation for greater Hg0 levels in the study area is a relationship to cultural use of mercury. None of the measured levels exceeded the ATSDR minimum risk level for residences of 200 ng/m3 Hg0 although levels in living quarters might be greater than those in the common areas.

  3. Identity Politics, Democratisation and State Building Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peace and successful state building without the appropriate mechanisms for consolidation of national citizenship. Several African countries, which were able to end ...... In this regard also, the arrangement has not been successful. The violence in the after- math of the May 2005 election and the imprisonment of the leaders.

  4. Verification of stochastic behavioural models of occupants' interactions with windows in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Realistic characterisation of occupants' window opening behaviour is crucial for reliable prediction of building performance by means of building energy performance simulations. Window opening behaviour has been investigated by several researchers, leading to a variety of logistic regression models...... expressing the probability with which actions will be performed. But only very few attempts have been made to investigate the reliability of the models. In this paper, data from a measurement campaign in 15 apartments was used to estimate the predictive accuracy of four sets of models of window opening....... Initially three models from literature were investigated by comparison of predicted probabilities and the actual measured state of the windows. Data from one of the papers was reanalysed to create new models, based on measurements from single dwellings. These models were used to predict window transition...

  5. On methods of sustainable architectural design of bio-positive buildings in the low-rise residential development structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhogoleva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the author’s research is to determine the actual content of sustainable architectural design for suburban residential development. In accordance with the methodology of area sustainable development the traditional architectural design according to the rules and regulations is completed with additional approaches and methods. As a result, methods of bio-positive design of buildings have been studied and defined, including: the principle of planning transformations, the use of environmentally friendly, local building materials and design concepts, energy-efficient architectural design, the use of alternative energy in building operation, the design of the energy intake and accumulationsystems, the architectural and landscape design that ensures stable functioning of autonomous, sustainable biosystems on the site, non-waste functioning of architectural objects, introduction of waste disposal systems in the project.

  6. Research on modeling cogeneration-based residential energy systems in rowhouse and high-rise buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodberg, L.; Jacobstein, N.; McNamara, M.; Shapiro, K.; Commoner, B.

    1984-09-01

    A Residential Cogeneration Analysis program has been developed to describe the behavior of cogeneration-based energy systems in urban high-rise buildings and rowhouses. The Program identifies three cogeneration systems which might be installed in the user's building, operating in stand-alone, segregated-load, and utility back-up modes. Information is provided on energy consumption before and after the installation of these cogeneration systems, and a series of economic analyses is performed. Using the program, an analysis was performed of the effect of installing a cogeneration system in a 12-story, 48-unit apartment building in New York City. The most cost-effective mode of operation is the utility back-up mode, in which the cogenerator meets the base electrical and domestic hot water load of the building, with the utility grid providing additional electricity and the existing boiler meeting additional heating loads. In this mode of operation, the simple payback period is approximately two years. A conventional power plant converts only about one-third of the energy available from its fuel into electricity; the remaining two-thirds is not used, but is simply ejected into the atmosphere or nearby rivers. A cogenerator captures this heat for useful purposes, such as providing space heat or domestic hot water. As a result, a cogenerator can operate at an overall efficiency of 60% or better, compared with less than 33% for conventionally generated power. In recent years small cogeneration units suitable for use in residential buildings have become available. Such units can substantially reduce energy costs for the residents of high-rise apartment buildings or a set of adjoining rowhouses. CBNS has assembled data on all currently available cogeneration systems of capacity below 200 kilowatts, along with the heat recovery and electrical control equipment that would be used with these systems. 14 refs.

  7. ON REASONABLE ESTIMATE OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS SUSTENANCE WITH CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As consisted with Directive No 3 of President of the Republic of Belarus of June, 14th 2007 ‘Economy and Husbandry – the Major Factors of Economic Security of the Republic of Belarus’, saving fuel-and-energy resources over the republic in 2010–2015 should amount to 7,1–8,9 MIO tons of fuel equivalent including 1,00–1,25 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of heat-supply optimization and 0,25–0,40 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of increasing enclosing structures heat resistance of the buildings, facilities and housing stock. It means, where it is expected to obtain around 18 % of general thermal resources economy in the process of heat-supply optimization, then by means of enhancing the cladding structure heat resistance of the buildings and constructions of various applications – only about 3–5 % and even a bit less so of the housing stock. Till 1994, in residential sector of the Republic of Belarus, the annual heat consumption of the heating and ventilation averaged more than 130 kW×h/(m2×year (~56 %, of the hot-water supply – around 100 kW×h/(m2×year (~44 %. In residential houses, built from 1994 to 2009, heat consumption of the heating and ventilation is already 90 kW×h/(m2×year, of the hot-water supply – around 70 kW×h/(m2×year. In buildings of modern mainstream construction, they expend 60 kW×h/(m2×year (~46 % on heating and ventilation and 70 kW×h/(m2×year (~54 % on hot-water supply. In some modern residential buildings with the exhausted warm air secondary energy resource utilization, the heating and ventilation takes around 30–40 kW×h/(m2×year of heat. Raising energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat expenses on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy performance process are producing heat and transporting it over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In

  8. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  9. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  10. USING MULTICRITERIAL RANKING MODELS IN CASE OF SOLUTIONS REGARDING THE SUPPLY OF THERMAL ENERGY FOR RESIDENTIAL GROUPS OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIURCA IOAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the way of choosing the technical solutions concerning the supply of thermal energyfor residential groups of buildings, using the Multicriterial Ordinal Ranking Model, the Relative Distance Comparisonmodel in relation with the maximum performance and the Relative Distance Comparison model in relation with theaverage performance. The paper ends with the presentation of the numerical results and a few conclusions. Themodels proposed may be used in practice in case of feasibility studies, for master degree theses as well as for Ph.D.theses.

  11. Renovation of NZCB in a poor solar irradiation zone: An investigative case study of residential buildings in Chongqing urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Md Sahadat Hossain, Baizhan Li

    2016-01-01

    The energy requirements of Chongqing, a major economic hub of Southwest China, have increased annually with at an average of 10.49% per annum since 1997. The predominant primary source of energy is coal. China’s long range goal is for a green economy and solar energy is considered a prime renewable energy source. This investigation assessed the feasibility of solar energy utilization in existing residential buildings in Chongqing Urban Areas. The main objectives of the research were to see “a...

  12. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zobin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  13. Towards the definition of indicators for assessment of indoor air quality and energy performance in low-energy residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cony Renaud Salis, Louis; Abadie, Marc; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    A major obstacle for integrating energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) strategies in the design and optimization of buildings is the non-existence of an agreed measure, which can quantitatively describes the IAQ and will allow the assessment of measures to improve energy performance. A complication...... such an index as well as on how they should be integrated into one index. IEA EBC Annex 68 was formed with the objective to discuss Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings. The objective of Subtask 1 of this Annex described in this paper was to review, discuss and propose...... was proposed as the IAQ index for the short term effects so that the existing exposure limits could be referred to and to avoid problems associated with the aggregation of many air quality indices. The same approach was proposed for the IAQ index for the long-term effects together with the calculation...

  14. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  15. Disposal practices for unwanted residential medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan T; Hinchey, Elizabeth K; Boehme, Susan E; Daughton, Christian G; Ruhoy, Ilene S; Conerly, Octavia; Daniels, Rebecca L; Lauer, Lisa; McCarthy, Meg; Nettesheim, Todd G; Sykes, Kathy; Thompson, Virginia G

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of trace levels of prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals in the environment began to receive concerted attention nearly two decades ago. The public's growing awareness and concern over the presence of these chemicals, especially in drinking water, has served to catalyze considerable discussion and debate regarding the best practices for disposal of unused or unwanted medications. In the United States, the first federal guidance for consumers was issued in 2007. It recommends discarding unused pharmaceuticals to household trash, after taking precautions to mix the pharmaceuticals with an inert substance and conceal the contents from view. Providing the consumer with additional options for conscientious disposal are various community, city, and state collection events, ongoing programs, and government-funded pilot projects. These strategies include the opportunity to mail or bring unused medications to various collection points, such as pharmacies, for eventual destruction. All of these approaches to medication disposal play roles in reducing the introduction of pharmaceuticals to the environment.

  16. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  17. Marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures in residential buildings; Grenzkosten bei forcierten Energie-Effizienzmassnahmen in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Kristen, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Architektur und Baurealisation, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This detailed report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the large potential for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Switzerland. The aims of the research project are described including investigation of costs and marginal costs for thermal insulation and efficiency measures, the updating of technical parameters for cost - efficiency characteristics on an empirical basis, a transparent presentation of cost/benefit ratios for different concepts. Another aim is to obtain a more detailed overview of costs and benefits that could be of use for planners, building owners and technology companies. The methodology used for the collection of data for the study is described. The report also takes a look at the indirect advantages of improving the thermal insulation of buildings and examines the initial economic and technical situation. A detailed review of the costs and benefits is given for the various elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows and a reference development scenario for the period 2000 -2030 is presented. Marginal cost curves for various categories of buildings are presented for thermal insulation and ventilation measures.

  18. Modelling of Shaded and Unshaded Shallow-Ground Heat Pump System for a Residential Building Block in a Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottarelli, M.; Yousif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat pumps may be coupled to shallow-ground geothermal fields and used for the purpose of space heating and cooling of buildings. However, quite often it is not possible to locate the geothermal field in cleared grounds, especially in cities where building density is high and land has a high premium. This leads to the possibility of burying the geothermal field under the basement of new building blocks, before construction of the building. In the present work, the shaded-unshaded arrangement is numerically studied by coupling the software DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus to assess the building’s energy requirement with the software FEFLOW to solve the heat transfer equation in porous media. Assuming a standard residential building block, the coupling between the two software is performed by assigning the thermal energy requirement for air conditioning, as calculated by EnergyPlus, to a flat-panel typology of ground heat exchanger simplified in a 2D FEFLOW’s domain. The results show that it is necessary to opt for a dual-source heat pump (air/geothermal) system to ensure that the ground is not frozen or over-heated at peak times and to improve the overall performance of the system.

  19. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  20. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  1. Harmful Materials and Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain harmful or problematic materials present in residential buildings may need to be handled differently from general demolition debris. Here is a list of several specific types of materials that may be present in residential buildings.

  2. Classroom management programs for deaf children in state residential and large public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkus, M; Rittenhouse, B; Dancer, J

    1999-12-01

    Personnel in 4 randomly selected state residential schools for the deaf and 3 randomly selected large public schools with programs for the deaf were surveyed to assess the types of management or disciplinary programs and strategies currently in use with deaf students and the rated effectiveness of such programs. Several behavioral management programs were identified by respondents, with Assertive Discipline most often listed. Ratings of program effectiveness were generally above average on a number of qualitative criteria.

  3. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  4. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  5. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  6. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  7. Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    contact. Damage processes are modelled at a building component level, utilising engineering models where possible. The modelling approach is presented in general terms, which should be applicable to a large variety of building types. The paper illustrates the implementation of the approach for a 2-storey...... masonry building. Results are presented in terms of a parameter study for several building parameters and hazard characteristics, as well as, in terms of a comparison with damage data and literature vulnerability models. The parameter study indicates that hazard characteristics and building...

  8. Rational use of energy by thermal insulation of residential buildings. Rationelle Energienutzung durch Waermeschutz von Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, W. (Inst. Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Processes in buildings need to be studied in detail to determine the technical potential of energy savings. Simulation models for thermal behaviour and simulation calculations prove that the technologies available today and the building input justifiable for the central-European climate will allow so-called passive-systems buildings to be built. Such a passive-systems building was built in Darmstadt Kranichstein. The heart of these passive-systems buildings is an excellent thermal insulation, its meticulous execution and the reduction of heat losses by ventilation. (BWI)

  9. Assessment of trends in the development of residential buildings from the standpoint of the fuel and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrczakowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction from the viewpoint of energy and fuel consumption requirements was presented. The introduction provides an analysis of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction based on data reported in the literature on this topic. Primary attention is focused on technological issues and trends in construction that have a direct effect on fuel and energy use. The problem of calculating energy use in construction of residential housing units is presented. It is demonstrated that there exists significant differences between different technologies for housing construction. Monolithic technology utilizes the greatest energy (buildings for housing a large number of families), while the least energy is used by brick structures employing prefabricated elements (single family homes). Aspects of energy use for domestic housing heating applications as a function of their architectural design, height, shape, etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that the decisive factor in energy use is not principally the building construction techniques (in the sense of the classification based on the support structure) but rather is the so-called exterior sealing methods that may or may not be related to the construction technique for the building overall. The height and shape of the building also play an important role. Supplementary aspects relating to the development of construction that the author believes are timely developments in the development of domestic housing construction in Poland were presented on the basis of the model calculations.

  10. Assessment of trends in the development of residential buildings from the standpoint of the fuel and energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyrczakowski, Stanislaw

    An assessment of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction from the viewpoint of energy and fuel consumption requirements was presented. The introduction provides an analysis of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction based on data reported in the literature on this topic. Primary attention is focused on technological issues and trends in construction that have a direct effect on fuel and energy use. The problem of calculating energy use in construction of residential housing units is presented. It is demonstrated that there exists significant differences between different technologies for housing construction. Monolithic technology utilizes the greatest energy (buildings for housing a large number of families), while the least energy is used by brick structures employing prefabricated elements (single family homes). Aspects of energy use for domestic housing heating applications as a function of their architectural design, height, shape, etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that the decisive factor in energy use is not principally the building construction techniques (in the sense of the classification based on the support structure) but rather is the so-called exterior sealing methods that may or may not be related to the construction technique for the building overall. The height and shape of the building also play an important role. Supplementary aspects relating to the development of construction that the author believes are timely developments in the development of domestic housing construction in Poland were presented on the basis of the model calculations.

  11. Impact of Urban Heat Island under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Hai Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the influence of urban heat island (UHI under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on the energy consumption for space cooling in residential buildings. The weather conditions under the current and future status (master plan condition simulated in the previous study (Trihamdani et al., 2014 were used and cooling loads in all the residential buildings in Hanoi over the hottest month were estimated under the simulated current and future conditions by using the building simulation program, TRNSYS (v17. Three most typical housing types in the city were selected for the simulation. The cooling loads of respective housing types were obtained in each of the districts in Hanoi. The results show that the total cooling loads over June 2010 is approximately 683 Terajoule (TJ under the current status, but it is predicted to increase to 903 TJ under the master plan condition. The increment is largely due to the increase in number of households (203 TJ or 92%, but partially due to the increase in urban temperature, i.e. UHI effect (17 TJ or 8%. The increments in new built-up areas were found to be larger than those in existing built-up areas. The cooling load in apartment is approximately half of that in detached house, which is approximately half of that in row house. Moreover, it was seen that although sensible cooling loads increased with the increase in outdoor temperature, the latent cooling loads decreased due to the decrease in absolute humidity and the increase in air temperature.

  12. Comparative study on the ventilation mode of the residential building in Beijing area in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. J.; Li, Q. P.; Guo, Y.; Hu, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    With the development of residential energy conservation technology, the air tightness requirement of the window is higher and higher. So in winter the cold penetration wind cannot satisfy the requirement of indoor personnel to fresh air. The common ventilation mode includes natural ventilation, natural inlet and mechanical exhaust, wall type ventilator with heat exchange, ventilation unit with heat exchange. Looking for energy saving, comfortable way of ventilation, the application effect of the way of ventilation is evaluated in air distribution and comfort performance and the initial investment by FLUENT software. The conclusion is that the mode of ventilation unit with heat exchange has higher superiority compared with the others.

  13. Research on the Impact of Wind Angles on the Residential Building Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Huifen; Yang Fuhua; Zhang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Wind angles affect building’s natural ventilation and also energy consumption of the building. In winter, the wind direction in the outdoor environment will affect heat loss of the building, while in summer the change of wind direction and speed in the outdoor environment will affect the building’s ventilation and indoor air circulation. So, making a good deal with the issue of the angle between local buildings and the dominant wind direction can effectively solve the winter and summer ventil...

  14. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  15. The Impacts of Elevated Carbondioxide (CO2 on Users’ Comfort in Residential Building at BawakSabo, Auchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Oluwole Folorunso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work establishes the effects of CO2 on users’ comfort in residential building with specific residential neighborhood in Bawak Sabo as the study area. There is an existing complaint of sneezing, tiredness, sweating and headache at dawn from resident of this neighborhood documented in a medical report of a medical hospital within the community. The research is set to investigate the cause of these problems. The methodology adopted was the combination of experimental-field survey and review of existing literature. Measurement of CO2 concentration was conducted in a given 10% sample population (cases. Measurement was taken in tenement and bungalow accommodation of varied room sizes (9.0m 2 and 12.6 m 2 floor area, population (one to two occupants per room and window opening adjustment. Measurements were taken 8 hours day time and twilight with varied user activity and ventilation rate respectively. The results show that CO2 concentration was higher in rooms with larger numbers of persons. CO2 concentration was closely related to room size and density and increased rapidly when doors and windows were locked. Elevated carbondixoide was low in bungalow accommodation with more numbers of window openings in comparison with tenement accommodation. Differential levels of CO2 concentration have negative impacts on the users’ in ways such as shortness of breath, sneezing sweating and increased breath rate among others. It was concluded that CO2 concentration was responsible for the reported discomfort experienced by BawakSabo residents.

  16. AWARENESS ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: A CASE STUDY IN KAJANG AND PUTRAJAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYTHAM S. AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on a survey and measurement being carried out for the purpose of determining residential electric power consumption and awareness toward smart energy management system in the areas of Putrajaya and Kajang, Malaysia. Questionnaires were developed with 37 questions grouped in 5 different sections related to home appliance information. Data was collected from a sample size of 384 respondents with confidence level of 95%. The accuracy of the percentage energy usage data were analysed by applying the SPSS software. Actual residential electric power consumption was measured by using a power quality analyser to determine the total power consumption at weekday and weekend and power consumption of each electrical appliance. The measurement results showed that the average energy consumption is 25.8 kWh/day during weekend and 21.9 kWh/day during weekdays with 11.5 kWh/day for the air conditioner only. The survey results revealed that 89.06% of the respondents expressed awareness toward household power consumption and that they are willing to install home automation system to reducing their electricity bill.

  17. Development of Hybrid Model for Estimating Construction Waste for Multifamily Residential Buildings Using Artificial Neural Networks and Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongoun Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing costs of construction waste disposal, an accurate estimation of the amount of construction waste is a key factor in a project’s success. Korea has been burdened by increasing construction waste as a consequence of the growing number of construction projects and a lack of construction waste management (CWM strategies. One of the problems associated with predicting the amount of waste is that there are no suitable estimation strategies currently available. Therefore, we developed a hybrid estimation model to predict the quantity and cost of waste in the early stage of construction. The proposed approach can be used to address cost overruns and improve CWM in the subsequent stages of construction. The proposed hybrid model uses artificial neural networks (ANNs and ant colony optimization (ACO. It is expected to provide an accurate waste estimate by applying historical data from multifamily residential buildings.

  18. Evaluation of financial aspects and energy performance indicators of residential building stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Brouwers, Jos; Kenneweg, H.; Tröger, U.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of sustainable building in the construction industry has led to different measures to reduce the environmental impact of building objects in the past decades. Because the built environment accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption in Europe (EC,

  19. Refurbishment of Residential Buildings : A Design Approach to Energy-Efficiency Upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    Refurbishing the existing building stock is an acknowledged issue in the building industry. Even though awareness has been raised, the design phase of refurbishment projects is often problematic. The decisions taken in the early stages of the design determine the final result; however, the

  20. Life-cycle based dynamic assessment of mineral wool insulation in a Danish residential building application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua L.; Kalbar, Pradip; Banta, Gary T.

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant change in the way buildings are constructed and the way building energy performance is evaluated. Focus on solely the use phase of a building is beginning to be replaced by a life-cycle based performance assessment. This study assesses the environmental impact trade......-offs between the heat produced to meet a building's space heating load and insulation produced to reduce its space heating load throughout the whole life-cycle of a building. To obtain a more realistic valuation of this tradeoff, a dynamic heat production model, which accounts for political projections...... grid, which is potentially promoted at present in Danish regulation. It is further concluded that improvement of the mineral wool insulation production process could allow for greater levels of environmentally beneficial insulation and would also help in reducing the overall environmental burden from...

  1. A Room to Grow: The Residential Density-dependence of Childbearing in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Lauster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that cultural processes linked to the demographic transition produce new density-dependent fertility dynamics. In particular, childbearing becomes dependent upon residential roominess. This relationship is culturally specific, and I argue that the cultural nature of this relationship means that professional and managerial classes are likely to be particularly influenced by residential roominess, while immigrants are less likely to be influenced. I test hypotheses linking residential roominess to the presence of an “own infant” in the household using census data from the Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Roominess predicts fertility in all countries, but to differing degrees.

  2. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development – Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  3. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  4. The ditches of México City and implications on residential buildings of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jimenez Vaca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Known for its canals or by its designation in the New Spain as ditches, the image of aquatic city of Mexico City was widespread in the world. It would seem that those romantic references of the city had been left alone in the lines written by the chroniclers, but when analyzing architectural plans and current cadastral can glimpse vestiges of this lakeside past. This research is done by analyzing eigh-teenth century plans, through identification of ex-isting ditches in Mexico City during this period, and its current trajectory in a plane, performing both an analysis of their influence on residential architecture, determining the characteristics of the houses in the path of the canals, by classifying canal houses, depending on the level of relationship between these two constructive general.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  8. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  9. Design, Implementation and Demonstration of Embedded Agents for Energy Management in Non-Residential Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Constantin; Artur Löwen; Ferdinanda Ponci; Dirk Müller; Antonello Monti

    2017-01-01

    With the building sector being responsible for 30% of the total final energy consumption, great interest lies in implementing adequate policies and deploying efficient technologies that would decrease this number...

  10. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Molina, Yamile; Wu-Georges, Samantha; Idris, Ayah; Thompson, Beti

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Latino residential segregation and self-rated health (SRH) is unclear, but might be partially affected by social capital. We investigated the association between Latino residential segregation and SRH while also examining the roles of various social capital measures. Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012–2014) and U.S. Census data were linked by zip code and zip code tabulation area. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of good or better SRH by Latino residential segregation, measured by the Gini coefficient, and controlling for sociodemographic, acculturation and social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control. The Latino residential segregation – SRH relationship was convex, or ‘U’-shaped, such that increases in segregation among Latinos residing in lower segregation areas was associated with lower SRH while increases in segregation among Latinos residing in higher segregation areas was associated with higher SRH. The social capital measures were independently associated with SRH but had little effect on the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. A convex relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH could explain mixed findings of previous studies. Although important for SRH, social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control might not account for the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. PMID:27173739

  11. The Effects of Light and Height of Building in AttractingPaederus fuscipesCurtis to Disperse towards Human Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Sufian; Fadzly, Nik; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2016-11-01

    Paederus fuscipes Curtis is a nocturnal insect. The attractiveness of artificial light sources from residential premises eventually causes the risk of severe dermatitis effect, once Paederus is in contact with human skin. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the light and height factors of residential buildings and its' association to rice cultivation phases are primary reasons for P. fuscipes 's mass dispersal into human residential areas. The study site was located in residential premises that were built adjacent to rice field areas (≈ 32-60 m and 164 m) north of the rice field located in Teluk Air Tawar, mainland of Pulau Pinang. Overall, both light sources and rice cultivation phases caused a significant effect for P. fuscipes beetles dispersal flight to invade human settlements. More P. fuscipes were captured near the bright light source with the highest number of beetles found during harvesting stage. Whereas, significantly higher number of P. fuscipes were captured at level 2 and 3 compared to ground and level 1 of the apartment building and P. fuscipes was also found significantly affected by the rice cultivation phases at different elevation levels. This indicates that bright light sources and higher elevation levels are the main factors in attracting P. fuscipes beetles to disperse and causes infestations in residential areas. This finding could create awareness among the public on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  13. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  14. Identity Politics, Democratisation and State Building in Ethiopia's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    building, the organisation of political parties, and the structure of electoral systems. Developing a general theory on the relations between identity politics, democratisation, and state building is beyond the scope of this paper. Instead, the paper ...

  15. Improving Thermal Performance of a Residential Building, Related to Its Orientations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshaya, S.; Harish, S.; Arthy, R.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    Urban planners and stakeholders require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures in order to develop climate resilient cities and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies. This study examines the impact of modifications in orientation of buildings with respect to heat load. Heat load calculation is a mathematical process to determine the best capacity, application and style of HVAC system. The purpose is to ensure energy efficiency while also maximizing comfort inside the building. This study of load calculation is essential for a building because it helps to pick the best orientation and focuses to find an orientation that will reduce energy due to direct solar radiation. One of the factors affecting this assessment is the latitude of the location. The heat gain is effective through walls and fenestration. Improper management through ineffective orientation of the building’s natural heat gain leads to excessive consumption of energy in the form of CL. The total heat gain for the above factors is calculated with the equations and assumptions as per ASHRAE code. After the calculation of heat load for different orientations, the best suited orientation of the building is found. By altering the building to suitable orientation, the dependence on electrical equipment can be minimized and thereby helps in energy conservation.

  16. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  17. Pseudo-dynamic tests on masonry residential buildings seismically retrofitted by precast steel reinforced concrete walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Xi; Zhong, Xiang; Pan, Peng

    2017-07-01

    A retrofitting technology using precast steel reinforced concrete (PSRC) panels is developed to improve the seismic performance of old masonry buildings. The PSRC panels are built up as an external PSRC wall system surrounding the existing masonry building. The PSRC walls are well connected to the existing masonry building, which provides enough confinement to effectively improve the ductility, strength, and stiffenss of old masonry structures. The PSRC panels are prefabricated in a factory, significantly reducing the situ work and associated construction time. To demonstrate the feasibility and mechanical effectivenss of the proposed retrofitting system, a full-scale five-story specimen was constructed. The retrofitting process was completed within five weeks with very limited indoor operation. The specimen was then tested in the lateral direction, which could potentially suffer sigifnicant damage in a large earthquake. The technical feasibility, construction workability, and seismic performance were thoroughly demonstrated by a full-scale specimen construction and pseudo-dynamic tests.

  18. Cost and Benefit Tradeoffs in Using a Shade Tree for Residential Building Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sappinandana Akamphon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and urban heat islands result in increased cooling energy consumption in buildings. Previous literature shows that planting trees to shade a building can reduce its cooling load. This work proposes a model to determine the cost effectiveness and profitability of planting a shade tree by considering both its potential to reduce cooling energy and its purchase and maintenance cost. A comparison between six selected tree species is used for illustration. Using growth rates, crown sizes, and shading coefficients, cooling energy savings from the tree shades are computed using an industrial-standard building energy simulation program, offset by costs of purchase, planting, and maintenance of these trees. The result shows that most worthwhile tree to plant should have high shading coefficient and moderate crown size to maximize shading while keeping the maintenance costs manageable.

  19. Dynamic Heat Production Modeling for Life Cycle Assessment of Insulation in Danish Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua L.; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    for space heating without insulation over the lifespan of a building. When the energy sources for insulation production are similar to the energy mix that supplies heat, this logic is valid to very high level of insulation. However, in Denmark, as well as many other countries this assumption is becoming...... increasingly incorrect. Given the generally long service life of buildings, the significance of future energy mixes, which are expected/intended to have a smaller environmental impact, can be great. In this paper, a reference house is used to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of mineral wool...... insulation in a Danish single-family detached home. This single family house, is based on averages of current Danish construction practices with building heat losses estimated using Be10. To simulate a changing district heating grid mix, heat supply fuel sources are modeled according to Danish energy mix...

  20. Assessing residential buildings value in Spain for risk analyses. Application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of buildings throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. If hazard maps and risk assessment methods - the other variables - are available, the risk value can easily be obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analyzed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  1. Assessing residential building values in Spain for risk analyses - application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of building throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. Then, with the application over a hazard map, the risk value can be easily obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analysed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  2. Energy Retrofit Strategies for Residential Building Envelopes: An Italian Case Study of an Early-50s Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Evangelisti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the issues of energy efficiency and energy saving have dominated the buildings research field. New constructions are based on efficient design and, because of this, the real challenge is to retrofit existing buildings. Italian standards impose thermal transmittance limits for opaque and transparent surfaces, according to the climatic area. In order to understand buildings’ energy behavior, an accurate analysis, carried out by employing advanced calculation codes and instrumental diagnosis—provided by the use of heat flow meter, surface temperature probes and thermal imaging camera—is needed. In this paper, a structure built in the 50 s has been analyzed, by means of a measurement campaign, to investigate the building’s characteristics and its vulnerability. Finally, some retrofit hypotheses have been evaluated by means of a well-known dynamic code. All investments have to be analyzed under a financial point of view, considering materials and installation costs. For this reason, the payback time has been calculated in order to understand how quickly the energy upgrading can be repaid.

  3. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  4. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed.

  5. Data-Driven Baseline Estimation of Residential Buildings for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehong Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI generates a large volume of data related with energy service. This paper exploits data mining approach for customer baseline load (CBL estimation in demand response (DR management. CBL plays a significant role in measurement and verification process, which quantifies the amount of demand reduction and authenticates the performance. The proposed data-driven baseline modeling is based on the unsupervised learning technique. Specifically we leverage both the self organizing map (SOM and K-means clustering for accurate estimation. This two-level approach efficiently reduces the large data set into representative weight vectors in SOM, and then these weight vectors are clustered by K-means clustering to find the load pattern that would be similar to the potential load pattern of the DR event day. To verify the proposed method, we conduct nationwide scale experiments where three major cities’ residential consumption is monitored by smart meters. Our evaluation compares the proposed solution with the various types of day matching techniques, showing that our approach outperforms the existing methods by up to a 68.5% lower error rate.

  6. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is participating in IEA EBC Annex 56 “Cost Effective Energy and Carbon Emissions Optimization in Building Renovation”. This paper presents results from the housing complex Traneparken that was chosen as a Danish case for the project. It has undergone a comprehensive energy retrofit...

  7. Assesment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systems for nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB. These systems en...

  8. Solar architecture in residential buildings; Indirizzi per la progettazione bioclimatica degli edifici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The contents of this report found a collection of organized information for bioclimatic building planning. [Italian] I contenuti di questo elaborato costituiscono semplicemente una raccolta organizzata di informazioni e conoscenze sul tema che si e' ritenuto utile diffondere per presentare la complessa problematica della progettazione bioclimatica.

  9. Ethnic Residential Segregation by Nativity in Great Britain and the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John; Mateos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This study examines patterns of ethnic residential integration in Great Britain and the United States. Using data from 2000/2001 censuses from these two countries, we compute segregation indexes for comparably-defined ethnic groups by nativity and for specific foreign-born groups. We find that blacks are much less segregated in Great Britain than in the U.S, and black segregation patterns by nativity tend to be consistent with spatial assimilation in the former country (the foreign born are more segregated than the native born) but not in the latter. Among Asian groups, however, segregation tends to be lower in the United States, and segregation patterns by nativity are more consistent with spatial assimilation in the U.S. but not in Great Britain. These findings suggest that intergenerational minority disadvantage persists among blacks in the U.S. and among Asians in Great Britain. We caution, however, that there are important differences in levels of segregation among specific foreign-born Asian groups, suggesting that assimilation trajectories likely differ by country of origin. Finally, the fact that segregation levels are considerably higher in the U.S. for a majority of groups, including white foreign-born groups, suggests that factors not solely related to race or physical appearance drive higher levels of ethnic residential segregation in the U.S. PMID:25392601

  10. Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United ... Facilities Seventeen percent of residential care communities had dementia special care units. Figure 1. Number and percent ...

  11. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  12. Life Cycle Energy and CO2 Analysis of a Student Residential Building in Ningbo, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Medel Jimenez, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Buildings with installed photovoltaic power systems tend to consume less energy and create less environmental damage. However, these photovoltaic power systems also can generate a significant amount of energy and environmental impacts during their manufacturing and installation processes. There are numerous life cycle assessment studies evaluating the amount of energy and carbon emissions that photovoltaic systems generate, but normally the system boundaries of these assessments are limited t...

  13. Hybrid ventilation in residential buildings – the proposal of research for the Polish climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostka Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographic location and the influence of the polar maritime and polar continental air masses we observe a large variety and variability of external air parameters in Poland. Both during the whole year and also in shorter, even several-day periods. The parameters of outside air indicate that combination of mechanical and natural ventilation in detached buildings can be cost-effective and allows keeping the thermal comfort and good indoor air quality.

  14. An online interactive tool to assess energy consumption in residential buildings and for daily mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; de Meester, Tatiana; De Herde, André; Reiter, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in the building and transportation sectors is a viable approach to mitigate the effects of climate change and has become an important policy target. As a result, in addition to scientific research and public policies addressing energy efficiency, raising public awareness of the impact of the behaviour of citizens to energy efficiency is crucial and could quickly lead to significant reductions in the total energy consumption of a territory. In this context, this pap...

  15. Smart Residential Buildings as Learning Agent Organizations in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Schatten Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smart buildings are one of the major application areas of technologies bound to embedded systems and the Internet of things. Such systems have to be adaptable and flexible in order to provide better services to its residents. Modelling such systems is an open research question. Herein, the question is approached using an organizational modelling methodology bound to the principles of the learning organization. Objectives: Providing a higher level of abstraction for understanding, ...

  16. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinando Salata; Chiara Alippi; Anna Tarsitano; Iacopo Golasi; Massimo Coppi

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a he...

  17. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  18. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing.

  19. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  20. Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Residential Buildings: Sensitivity Analysis and Guidance on Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Moisture buffering of building materials has a significant impact on the building's indoor humidity, and building energy simulations need to model this buffering to accurately predict the humidity. Researchers requiring a simple moisture-buffering approach typically rely on the effective-capacitance model, which has been shown to be a poor predictor of actual indoor humidity. This paper describes an alternative two-layer effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model and its inputs. While this model has been used previously, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of this model to uncertain inputs. In this paper, we use the moisture-adsorbent materials exposed to the interior air: drywall, wood, and carpet. We use a global sensitivity analysis to determine which inputs are most influential and how the model's prediction capability degrades due to uncertainty in these inputs. We then compare the model's humidity prediction with measured data from five houses, which shows that this model, and a set of simple inputs, can give reasonable prediction of the indoor humidity.

  1. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  2. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  3. Integral energy concepts for office and residential buildings; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Buero- und Wohngebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, W.

    1998-06-01

    It has been confirmed by practical project experience that integral energy concepts are an excellent basis for the construction of energy-efficient buildings. In the extreme case buildings can even be self-sufficient in their energy supply. Uniting the responsibility for the overall energy and technology concept in the hands of a single contractor can help reduce frictional losses between those involved in the planning as well costs. A good example of this is the use of a simulation calculation for the prescribed demonstration of proper heat insulation. The presented projects show that it is possible to construct ecologically answerable buildings at attractively low costs. The presented concepts appear particularly convincing from the viewpoint of long-term maintenance of value and user-specific advantages such as agreeable working conditions. [Deutsch] Die konkreten Projekterfahrungen bestaetigen, dass durch integrale Energiekonzepte sowohl im Verwaltungs- als auch im Wohnungsbau hervorragende Voraussetzungen fuer energiesparende Gebaeude geschaffen werden koennen. Im Extremfall kann sogar eine autarke Energieversorgung erreicht werden. Durch Zusammenfassung der Gesamtverantwortung fuer das Energie- und Technikkonzept in einer Hand koennen Reibungsverluste zwischen den Planungsbeteiligten reduziert und Kosten gesenkt werden. Ein Beispiel hierfuer ist die Verbindung des vorgeschriebenen Waermeschutznachweises mit einer fuer alle Beteiligten wesentlich aussagekraeftigeren Simulationsrechnung. Die vorgestellten Projekte zeigen, dass oekologisch sinnvolle Gebaeude auch zu oekonomisch attraktiven Kosten erstellt werden koennen, wobei insbesondere der Aspekt des langfristigen Werterhalts und die nutzerspezifischen Vorteile, z.B. durch angenehmere Arbeitsbedingungen, fuer die vorgestellten Konzepte spricht. (orig.)

  4. Correlation between the morphology of unheated staircase and energy performance of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajčić Aleksandar N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a side effect of the need for greater energy efficiency of buildings, there is a problem of decrease of the available interior space affected by the reduction in U-value of parts of thermal building envelope, i.e. an increase in thickness of insulating layer, which is especially present in unheated staircase. Having in mind that present methods of calculation of transmission heat losses through elements of thermal envelope include the adjustment factor which regulates designed temperature conditions if the temperature at the colder side of the element of the thermal envelope differs from that of the external environment, this paper strives to demonstrate that in the case of unheated staircases, this fixed value should be reconsidered and treated as a variable depending on the morphology, i.e. form, size and position of the staircase within the building. This problem has been analyzed on the example of Serbian housing stock and relevant national thermal regulations. Three morphological types of unheated staircases have been distinguished within which three models have been defined and examined with respect to variations in number of floors and percentage of glazing. Average temperatures of staircase volume and temperature correction factors were calculated in following temperature modes: stationary that excluded solar gains and ventilation heat losses and gains, and dynamic with variations in air exchange rates and insolation conditions, expressing in all of the cases variations in calculated values of temperature correction factors in comparison to the prescribed fixed value.

  5. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  6. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  7. Current State of Off-Site Manufacturing in Australian and Chinese Residential Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik M. A. Khalfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many techniques have been implemented to make construction industry more productive. The key focus is on reduction of total duration, reduction in construction cost, improvements in the quality, achieving more sustainable development, and safer construction sites. One of the techniques, which is emerging in the last two decades, is the use of off-site manufacturing (OSM within the construction industry. Several research projects and industry initiatives have reported the benefits and challenges of implementation of OSM. The focus of this paper is Australian and Chinese residential construction industry and the uptake of the OSM concepts. The paper presents a brief review of the current state of OSM in the last five to seven years with the context of the above-mentioned two countries. The paper concludes that the construction industry, both in Australia and China, needs to start walking the talk with regard to OSM adoption. The paper also highlights some of the research gaps in the OSM area, especially within the housing and residential sector.

  8. Airtightness and ventilation system performance of apartments in new multi-unit residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, G. [Air Solutions Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Kokko, J.; Greene, T. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There are growing concerns that conventional air handling systems in apartment buildings cannot ventilate individual apartments, are expensive in terms of initial cost and maintenance, have little impact on indoor air quality, and negatively impact the integrity of fire and smoke control separations. This paper discusses the strategy of compartmentalizing individual apartments to eliminate uncontrolled air movement as well as providing efficient and effective ventilation in each suite. The findings of recent air leakage testing and ventilation system performance testing in several recently constructed high-rise buildings were documented in this paper. Results indicated that compartmentalization was a viable strategy. However, ventilation strategies for both common corridors and apartments required adjustments. Air leakage testing showed that individual apartments were relatively airtight. However, concerns were raised that continuous negative pressure could induce water leakage through the building envelope. Testing also discovered that airflow capacities of in-suite exhaust equipment was less than manufacturer's specifications. Duct lengths, diameters, fittings, elbows and termination details had an impact on airflow performance. Testing also confirmed that the corridor ventilation systems were not energy efficient as a significant amount of outdoor air was required to pressurize leaks in the corridors and to ensure sufficient air was available to make-up air requirements in each apartment in response to intermittent exhaust fan operation. It was also determined that a very small positive pressure was required to accomplish the task of pressurizing corridors to minimize odour transmission. The provision of weather-stripping on corridor to apartment doors would reduce the quantity of airflow required for pressurization, helping to prevent shifts in pressure due to opening doors, elevators and wind and stack pressures acting in varying ways. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2

  9. Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-12-15

    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...... station close by. The stochastic models of window opening and heating set-point adjustments were implemented in the BEPS tool IDA ICE. Two apartments from the monitoring campaign were simulated using the implemented models and the measured weather data. The results were compared to measurements from...

  11. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Multi-Storey Residential Net Zero Energy Building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy technologies? This analysis adopts the LCC methodology and uses a multi-family Net ZEB to find the answer to this question. Moreover, it looks at the issue from the building owner’s perspective, hence it should be seen as a private economy analysis. The study includes three levels of energy......It is well recognized that in the long run, the implementation of energy efficiency measures is a more cost-optimal solution in contrast to taking no action. However, the Net ZEB concept raises a new issue: how far should we go with energy efficiency measures and when should we start to apply...

  12. Augmenting natural ventilation using solar heat and free cool energy for residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many urban buildings ventilation is not sufficient that will increase the temperature and also create unhealthy atmosphere inside the room. In such buildings artificially induced ventilation through freely available energy promote comfort conditions by reducing the temperature by 2 to 3°C and also creating good circulation of fresh air inside the room. In the present work the concept of improving the ventilation by excess hot energy available during summer days from the solar flat plate collector and by storing cool energy available during the early morning hour in the Phase Change Material (PCM based storage system is attempted. An experimental setup is made to study the effect of improvement in natural ventilation and the results are reported. A visible reduction in temperature is observed through circulation of air from the bottom side of the room to the roof of the house using the stored hot and cool energy. A CFD analysis is also carried out using ANSYS-CFX software to simulate and evaluate the mass flow of air at the inlet and at the selected RTD location by matching the transient temperature profile of the simulated result with the experimental results at the selected RTD location.

  13. Buildings behaving badly: a behavioral experiment on how different motivational frames influence residential energy label adoption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Student (Jillian); E. Papyrakis (Elissaios); P. van Beukering (Pieter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHeating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for

  14. Buildings behaving badly: a behavioral experiment on how different motivational frames influence residential energy label adoption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J. (Jillian); E. Papyrakis (Elissaios); van Beukering, P. (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHeating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for

  15. An Efficient Approach for Energy Consumption Optimization and Management in Residential Building Using Artificial Bee Colony and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management in residential buildings according to occupant’s requirement and comfort is of vital importance. There are many proposals in the literature addressing the issue of user’s comfort and energy consumption (management with keeping different parameters in consideration. In this paper, we have utilized artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm for maximizing user comfort and minimizing energy consumption simultaneously. We propose a complete user friendly and energy efficient model with different components. The user set parameters and the environmental parameters are inputs of the ABC, and the optimized parameters are the output of the ABC. The error differences between the environmental parameters and the ABC optimized parameters are inputs of fuzzy controllers, which give the required energy as the outputs. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to maximize the comfort index and minimize the error difference between the user set parameters and the environmental parameters, which ultimately decreases the power consumption. The experimental results show that the proposed model is efficient in achieving high comfort index along with minimized energy consumption.

  16. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  17. Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Making to Renovation of Multi-Residential Historic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Flourentzou, Flourentzos; Thalmann, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    project, which fulfills simultaneously and optimally all three pillars of sustainability. Multiple criteria decision making methodologies can help to improve the decision environment and handle the whole space of constraints. It therefore leads the stakeholders to find consensual solutions. In this paper...... countries, incentives have so far not had sufficient impact on the rate and depth of the renovations. A very common obstacle in the decision process for building renovation is the conflict between multiple goals. In an early stage of the decision process, stakeholders have the possibility to block...... the indoor environment quality and the comfort of use, questionnaires were distributed to the tenants. Finally, so as to provide the stakeholders with a comprehensive comparison between different possible scenarios, a synthesis of the evaluation of all criteria was made with HERMIONE multiple criteria...

  18. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  19. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham

    2018-01-01

    The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...... heat pump can deliver 2600 W of heating power with an appreciable average seasonal system COP of 3.93. On variable part-load operation with a simple fluid flow controller, it can heat up an entire house with an average seasonal system COP of 1.84....

  20. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  1. Integrating Life Cycle Energy into the Design of Façade Refurbishment for a Post-War Residential Building in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paressa Loussos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock has been in the focus of European Union policies for energy savings. Nevertheless, energy certification schemes refer mostly to operational energy and usually do not consider aspects related to the life cycle of the building. To look at the overall energy cost during the lifespan of a building, the energy used to produce and assemble the building materials also needs to be included. This paper develops a design methodology for existing residential buildings that aims at decreasing the life cycle energy use as much as possible. This approach was applied on a case study of an existing post-war residential building in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The main focus of this study is to find a design solution for façade retrofitting that considers both embodied and operational energy. The design approach is based on comparing different strategies for the use of façade materials. This design methodology can be replicated in other projects, as the conclusions and recommendations can also be used for future refurbishment projects for which a low operational energy and materials with a low embodied energy are desired.

  2. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  3. Building a Successful Care Path in Residential Care: Findings from Qualitative Research with Young People and Professionals in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbati, Sara; Gioga, Gianmaria

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods (i.e. semi-structured interviews) were used in this micro-research to explore the different ways in which young people and social and residential workers perceive the outcomes of the residential care experience. By comparing the participants' points of view, it was possible to investigate different ways of thinking about…

  4. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  5. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  6. Energy neutral window for retrofitting residential building; Energineutralt vindue for opgradering af bolig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Per

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this project has been to develop and demonstrate a window solution with a ventilation system with energy efficient heat recovery to satisfy the inhabitants' wish for optimal indoor climate at a minimum energy usage. The focus in the different developing phases has been the following products and technologies: 1) Fans - focus on sound level, vibration level, duty point and energy efficiency; 2) Heat recovery - focus on low pressure loss and high heat recovery; 3) System build-up - focus on low pressure loss, physical exploitation and condense water handling; 4) Condense water - focus on handling the condensed water so that it leaves the system by gravity; 5) Materials - focus on water resistance and production costs; 6) Filters - focus on pressure loss, filtration and possibility to change it from the inside; 7) Inlet air profile - focus on minimum short circuit between inlet and exhaust; 8) Internal leakage - focus on assembling and the production phase. During the project the the geometry had to be changed from an inside unit to and outside unit due to problems with the sound levels from the unit. The final result is a ventilation unit fitted to a window solution which provides optimal indoor comfort at a very low energy usage. (author)

  7. The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, N.P.; Niu, J. L.; Perino, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households....... High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control....... of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed......Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households...

  8. Effects of Floor Level and Building Type on Residential Levels of Outdoor and Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of the relationship between residential floor level and concentration of traffic-related airborne pollutants may predict individual residential exposure among inner city dwellers more accurately. Our objective was to characterize the vertical gradient of residential levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; dichotomized into Σ8PAHsemivolatile (MW 178–206, and Σ8PAHnonvolatile (MW 228–278, black carbon (BC, PM2.5 (particulate matter by floor level (FL, season and building type. We hypothesize that PAH, BC and PM2.5 concentrations may decrease with higher FL and the vertical gradients of these compounds would be affected by heating season and building type. PAH, BC and PM2.5 were measured over a two-week period outdoor and indoor of the residences of a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 339 living in New York City’s Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. Airborne-pollutant levels were analyzed by three categorized FL groups (0–2nd, 3rd–5th, and 6th–32nd FL and two building types (low-rise versus high-rise apartment building. Indoor Σ8PAHnonvolatile and BC levels declined with increasing FL. During the nonheating season, the median outdoor Σ8PAHnonvolatile, but not Σ8PAHsemivolatile, level at 6th–2nd FL was 1.5–2 times lower than levels measured at lower FL. Similarly, outdoor and indoor BC concentrations at 6th–32nd FL were significantly lower than those at lower FL only during the nonheating season (p < 0.05. In addition, living in a low-rise building was associated significantly with higher levels of Σ8PAHnonvolatile and BC. These results suggest that young inner city children may be exposed to varying levels of air pollutants depending on their FL, season, and building type.

  9. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  10. Reframing State-building and Peacebuilding Narratives in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To date, more than 40 countries have signed the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, which places peacebuilding and state-building as two central and mutually reinforcing goals to promote development in fragile and conflict-affected states. Both concepts aim to strengthen state-society relations and promote ...

  11. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  12. Application of Digital Logic Based on the Concept of Green Building--Taking Xuzhou Fenghua Garden Residential Planning as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J. H.; Zhu, D. D.

    Because the low carbon and sustainable development becomes more and more important in Chinese even in all over the world, author sorted out the logic of green building technology with the logic of digital technology by generalizing the development and type of modern green building technology. As the specific experiment object, Xuzhou Fenghua garden residential district was planned and designed though green digital design means. The reasonable general plan was designed scientifically and efficiently though the immediate colorful chill sunshine time map and repeated adjusted design. The above is to prove the efficiency and possibility of green digital design and bring inspiration to a deeper level of advanced algorithm.

  13. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  14. Naval Coalition Building with the GCC States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher de Castro, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    ... of the United States by the Arab public. In the post September 11 environment, the United States should seek to decrease its presence in the region while maintaining the ability to support national goals...

  15. Assessing Post Conflict State Building Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Develop a global partnership for development Target: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and finance system...Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation ), 2007, xvii. 15 Samuel Berger, Brent Scowcroft, and William L. Nash, “In...The Beginner’s Guide, xxi. 25 Richard A. Berk and Peter H. Rossi, Thinking About Program Evaluation 2, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1999

  16. Democratization in Nigeria: nation – building versus statebuilding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratization in Nigeria: nation – building versus statebuilding. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... In favour of the indispensability of history, the paper argues that the previous democratization efforts failed due mainly to ethnicity, bad leadership, corruption, poverty, unwholesome ...

  17. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  18. South Sudan's December 2013 conflict: Bolting state-building fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan's December 2013 conflict: Bolting state-building fault lines with social capital. ... African Journal on Conflict Resolution. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  20. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  1. COMBINED EFFECT OF THE AIRBORNE AND IMPACT NOISE PRODUCED ONTO THE SOUND INSULATION OF INSERTED FLOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltykov Ivan Petrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The indoor environment of residential buildings is a complex system. It consists of diverse though related elements. An optimal correlation of parameters of the indoor space converts into the appropriate equilibrium and harmonious human living free from any stimulating or irritating factors that interfere with any working and/or relaxation processes. The author has selected the following three principal factors of the indoor environment. They include heat, daylight and sound. The research has revealed a strong linkn between these factors. Noise pollution of residential houses is taken into account through the introduction of the airborne insulation index and the impact sound index underneath the inserted floor. The findings of theoretical researches and experiments have proven a strong functional relationship between airborne and impact sound values.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE SUPPORT FORMS PROJECTS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Meilanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The topicality of the research is stipulated by the objective necessity of the organizational and economic mechanism improvement of the state support projects of the industrial building. The aim of the research is the development of conceptual provisions and methodological foundations of financial projects creating conditions for economic growth of Russia based on the construction and putting into effect industrial objects.Methods. In the course of the research the system, subject-functional and structural approaches were implemented to solve the problems set widening the scope of the complex approach to assessment of the current operating mechanism of the state financial support of the projects and financial volume; to criteria stipulation of the most effective projects contest selection: to the search of the investment resources accumulation instrument into industrial building.Results. It is stipulated that state investment policy in industrial building mechanism oriented to define rational investment volumes and their branch, reproductive, technological and territorial structure; option of the building branch development priority; increase of the investment projects efficiency realization. The dynamics of the state support in the form of subsidies and budget investments into creation of the industrial building objects is analytically summarized. It is determined that the peculiarity of the modern state support projects of industrial building is transition from budget allocations distribution between branches and regions to selective and partial financing of specific investment projects on competitive basis. Some tactics of state and private partnership attracting private capital without losing strategic state control under systems and objects are defined. As an effective form of the industrial building support projects it is proposed to use a concession model form: projecting - building- financing- ownership - exploitation

  3. Residential building with very low energy consumption - Advanced housing renovation; Wohnbausanierung auf tiefstem Energieverbrauch. IEA-SHC 37: advanced housing renovation by solar and conservation - Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, R.

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the year 2008 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in an IEA project concerning the use of solar energy. The four main aims of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Project SHC 37 are noted. The work done in one of these work areas that concerns exemplary projects that prove the feasibility of solar heating and cooling is reviewed. 20 projects are noted. Work done by various universities, engineering offices and architects in the areas of facade construction, refurbishment of historical buildings, energy-relevant refurbishment of large and small apartment buildings and the analysis of the potential for the use of solar facades in the refurbishment of residential buildings is reviewed.

  4. Naval coalition building with the GCC states

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Samuel Fletcher

    2002-01-01

    "The resources of the Persian Gulf are vital to United States national interests. Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has gradually increased its military presence in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict coupled with the increase in military presence that has characterized the American security posture in the Persian Gulf region has contributed to the a negative view of the U.S. by the Arab public. In the post September 11, environment the U.S. should seek to decreas...

  5. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  6. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.

  7. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  8. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  9. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.fraile@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: javier.ferreiro@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.martinezc@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.jimenez@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  10. Assisted Living Facilities - CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN: Residential Care Facilities, Nursing Homes, and Hospices in Indiana in 2007 (Indiana State Department of Health, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 86 residential care facilities, 525 long-term care facilities (nursing homes), and 81...

  11. Emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA of multi-unit and single-family residential buildings in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Reza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction and building process depends on substantial consumption of natural resources with far-reaching impacts beyond their development area. In general, a significant portion of annual resource consumption by the building and construction industry is a result of applying traditional building strategies and practices such as designing and selecting types of development (e.g. multi-unit condo and single-family house, etc., building materials and structure, heating/cooling systems, and planning renovation and maintenance practices. On the other hand, apart from structural suitability, building developers mostly consider the basic requirements of public owners or private occupants of the buildings, where the main criteria for selecting building strategies are costs, and long-term environmental and socio-economic impacts are generally ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an improved building sustainability assessment framework to measure and integrate different sustainability factors, i.e. long-term environmental upstream and downstream impacts and associated socio-economic costs, in a unified and quantitative basis. The application of the proposed framework has been explained through a case study of single-family houses and multi-unit residential buildings in Canada. A comprehensive framework based on the integration of emergy synthesis and life cycle assessment (LCA has been developed and applied. The results of this research prove that the proposed emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA framework offers a practical sustainability assessment tool by providing quantitative and transparent results for informed decision-making.

  12. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  13. Building Bridges between the School and the Home: Understanding the Literacy Practices of Children Living in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer Poh Sim

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that children in residential care fall behind at school. This proves a great challenge for educators who have to cater to the students' needs to ensure no one is left behind. Studies investigating family literacy practices of different social classes show a positive implication if the home literacy practices are…

  14. Spectacle coverage and spectacles use among elderly population in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, L V Chandra Sekhar; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. All 524 residents in the 26 "homes for aged" institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA) assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2-42.8; n = 190) and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9-42.8), respectively. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis.

  15. Spectacle Coverage and Spectacles Use among Elderly Population in Residential Care in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods. All 524 residents in the 26 “homes for aged” institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. Results. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2–42.8; n=190 and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9–42.8, respectively. Conclusions. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis.

  16. Unsightly urban menaces and the rescaling of residential segregation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, James

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a slum clearance project in Lexington, Kentucky, as a lens through which to examine the spatial dynamics of racial residential segregation during the first half of the twentieth century. At the time, urban migration and upward socioeconomic mobility on the part of African Americans destabilized extant residential segregation patterns. Amid this instability, various spatial practices were employed in the interest of maintaining white social and economic supremacy. The author argues that such practices were indicative of a thoroughgoing reinvention of urban socio-spatial order that in turn precipitated the vastly expanded scale of residential segregation still found in U.S. cities today. Evidence of this reinvented ordering of urban space lies in the rendering of some long-standing African American neighborhoods as “out of place” within it and the use of slum clearance to remove the “menace” such neighborhoods posed to it.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  18. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  19. NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBY, ALMA M.; STAR, SHIRLEY A.

    A BYPRODUCT OF THE PROJECT ON PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR GROUP CARE OF CHILDREN, THE REPORT LISTS THE NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS. TEN TABLES PROVIDE DATA AS OF SEPTEMBER 1965 ON THE TYPES AND AUSPICES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (BOTH VOLUNTARY AND PROPRIETARY) INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING MATERNITY HOMES FOR UNMARRIED GIRLS, AND…

  20. Identity Politics, Democratisation and State Building in Ethiopia's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relations between identity politics, democratisation, and state building are complex, especially in the cases of relatively young post-colonial countries, such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity emanates, in part, from the multiplicity of the intervening variables. This paper proposes that the factors that impinge on ...

  1. Technical support documentation for the Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) program is designed to identify levels of thermal integrity (e.g., insulation levels, glazing layers, equipment efficiencies, etc.) that are cost effective for typical residential structures and to create a residential energy standard based on these levels. This document contains technical background the explains the data and the algorithms used by the program.

  2. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  3. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  4. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  5. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  6. Formulation of models for determination of the fuel gas demand and consumption in residential buildings; Formulacao de modelos para determinacao da demanda e consumo de gas combustivel em edificios residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilha, Marina Sangoi de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento; Goncalves, Orestes Marracini [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Construcao Civil

    1996-07-01

    This work presents models for design flow rate and gas volume determination in residential buildings. First, an experimental investigation, applied on a sample of residential buildings at Sao Paulo, Brazil, is described, which essentially consisted in the filling of a form and measurement of gas volume at one minute interval during 10 days (mean). From this data, it was performed a regression analysis in order to explain design flow rate (demand) and gas volume values (consumption), based on different variables. Models proposed on this work are different from the current applied methodology due to their 'open' approach, that is, involved variables can be explicitly found in formulas. (author)

  7. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM2.5 and O3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM2.5. More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM2.5- and O3-related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ Health

  8. Energy savings for residential heating in two pairs of buildings achieved by implementation of actually consumed energy measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of heating energy consumption measurements in two pairs of buildings in community New Belgrade for two heating seasons. Influence of these measurements on energy savings is also presented. The measurements were carried out during heating seasons 2002/03 and 2003/04 in buildings in Block 34 and 63, connected to the district heating system "Beogradske elektrane". The buildings in each pair have similar architectural and thermal characteristics. One of the buildings in a pair was "test" building and the other "control" one. In the "test" building the energy consumption for heating of each apartment was measured, as well as total energy consumption for the whole building in the substation. Occupants were able to regulate the heating system. In the "control" building the energy consumption was measured only for the whole building, and occupants had almost no impact on heating energy consumption. The comparison of energy consumption for heating in the "test" and "control" buildings is given in the paper, as well as analysis of the influence of energy consumption measurements on the achieved energy savings. .

  9. Solar exposure and residential geographic history in relation to exfoliation syndrome in the United States and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Jiwani, Aliya Z; Zehavi-Dorin, Tzukit; Majd, Arow; Rhee, Douglas J; Chen, Teresa; Turalba, Angela; Shen, Lucy; Brauner, Stacey; Grosskreutz, Cynthia; Gardiner, Matthew; Chen, Sherleen; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Greenstein, Scott H; Chang, Kenneth; Ritch, Robert; Loomis, Stephanie; Kang, Jae H; Wiggs, Janey L; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani

    2014-12-01

    Residential (geographic) history and extent of solar exposure may be important risk factors for exfoliation syndrome (XFS) but, to our knowledge, detailed lifetime solar exposure has not been previously evaluated in XFS. To assess the relation between residential history, solar exposure, and XFS. This clinic-based case-control study was conducted in the United States and Israel. It involved XFS cases and control individuals (all ≥ 60-year-old white individuals) enrolled from 2010 to 2012 (United States: 118 cases and 106 control participants; Israel: 67 cases and 72 control participants). Weighted lifetime average latitude of residence and average number of hours per week spent outdoors as determined by validated questionnaires. In multivariable analyses, each degree of weighted lifetime average residential latitude away from the equator was associated with 11% increased odds of XFS (pooled odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17; P Israel (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = .92; P for heterogeneity = .005). In the United States, after controlling for important environmental covariates, history of work over water or snow was associated with increased odds of XFS (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.36-10.9); in Israel, there were too few people with such history for analysis. We did not identify an association between brimmed hat wear and XFS (P > .57). Lifetime outdoor activities may contribute to XFS. The association with work over snow or water and the lack of association with brimmed hat wear suggests that ocular exposure to light from reflective surfaces may be an important type of exposure in XFS etiology.

  10. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential

  11. Residential fuelwood assessment, state of Minnesota, 2007-2008 heating season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi Barzen; Ronald Piva; Chun Yi Wy; Rich. Dahlman

    2009-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2008, the cooperating partners conducted a survey to determine the volume of residential fuelwood burned during the 2007-2008 heating season. Similar surveys were conducted for the 1960, 1969-1970, 1979-1980, 1984-1985, 1988-1989, 1995-1996, and 2002-2003 heating seasons. These surveys are part of a long-term effort to monitor trends in...

  12. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  13. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  14. Technical and economical assessment of the utilization of photovoltaic systems in residential buildings: The case of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdelkader, M.R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Al-Hamamre, Z. [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Sharaf, F. [Architecture Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper studies the feasibility of utilizing photovoltaic systems in a standard residential apartment in Amman city in Jordan. Data on solar radiation, sunshine duration and the ambient temperature has been recorded in Amman city. An apartment in Amman was chosen as a case study to conduct energy and economic calculations. The electrical power needs and cost were calculated for the apartment. The component design and cost of PV system required to supply required energy was calculated and the payback period for the suggested stand-alone PV system in this paper was estimated in a constant inflation rate in electricity price similar to that of interest rate. The calculated payback period was high in a stand-alone system, to decrease payback period a grid-connected PV system is suggested. Considering an annual increase of 3% in electricity price, 15% of payback period was decreased in a stand-alone PV system and 21% in a grid-connected PV system. The output results of this study show that installation of PV system in a residential flat in Jordan may not be economically rewarding owing to the high cost of PV system compared to the cost of grid electricity. A feed-in tariff law of solar electricity may help to reduce PV system cost like the case of Germany. Additional conclusions are PV systems may be economically rewarding in Jordan if applied in locations far from electrical grid or in remote large scale PV power installations to overcome economical limitations of PV technology. (author)

  15. Influence of input data on airflow network accuracy in residential buildings with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Krzaczek, Marek; Tejchman, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The airflow network (AFN) modeling approach provides an attractive balance between the accuracy and computational demand for naturally ventilated buildings. Its accuracy depends on input parameters such as wind pressure and opening discharge coefficients. In most cases, these parameters...... is still poor. In this paper, the influence of wind pressure data on the accuracy of a coupled AFN-BES model for a real building with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation was analyzed. The results of 8 computation cases with different wind pressure data from secondary sources were compared...... are obtained from secondary sources which are solely representative for very simplified buildings, i.e. for buildings without facade details. Although studies comparing wind pressure coefficients or discharge coefficients from different sources exist, the knowledge regarding the effect of input data on AFN...

  16. Multiple logistic regression modelling substantiates multifactor contributions associated with sick building syndrome in residential interiors in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowaheer, V; Subratty, A H

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model that depicts the relationship between the possibility of occurrence of common health problems and factors leading to Sick Building Syndrome symptoms in domestic interiors in Mauritius. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms (dry eyes, runny nose), central nervous system symptoms (headache, nervousness), and musculoskeletal symptoms (pain/stiffness in shoulders/neck) were found to be elevated when responses were statistically regressed to type of building and age of respondents. The model presented here will be useful in helping to identify and quantify the relative role of factors that contribute to Sick Building Syndrome. Thus it may be possible to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices and to prioritise allocations of resources for reduction of risk associated with Indoor Environmental Air Quality.

  17. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  18. Le prospettive demografiche, l’edilizia residenziale e i fattori finanziari:la proposta di un nuovo strumento finanziario, il “MIpAIo” (Demographic Perspectives, Financial Factors and the Residential Building Sector: A New Financial Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Niccoli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with financial and demographic factors influencing the Italian residential building sector during the next decades. In particular, it is shown that, due to the reduction of public pensions coverage, many elderly people will enjoy inadequate incomes. Housing partnership and reverse mortgages, i.e. the sale of an equity stake in the ownership of their house, on the one hand, and mortgages to be paid back with the proceedings of the sale of the house at the end of their life, on the other, are a possible solution to the problem. Equity stakes in the limited partnership property of residential buildings are shown to have been a part of efficient portfolios for risk-averse investors in Italian financial markets, during the last ten years. The use of the new financial instrument to cover expenses for residential buildings maintenance and/or public investment in the urban and art sectors is also proposed.   JEL Codes: R31, H55, L74, J14, G21, J26Keywords: Demographics, Elderly, Housing, Mortgage, Pension, Public Pension, Residential

  19. STATE-BUILDING IN BOOM TIMES: COMMODITIES AND COALITIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Rogerio; Universidade de Brasília

    2014-01-01

    Resenha do Livro "State-building in Boom Times: commodities and coalitions in Latin America and Africa" Bookreview "State-building in Boom Times: commodities and coalitions in Latin America and Africa"

  20. Grid Parity for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Clark, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that electricity price rather than technical parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  1. Ambient Air Quality Assessment of Al-Mansoriah Residential Area in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Al-Salem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3 , non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, methane (CH4 , nitrogen oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 , carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S and sulfur dioxide (SO2 of a Kuwaiti residential area, Al-Mansoriah, were analyzed to evaluate and determine: (a the exceedances of air quality from permissible limits set by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA, (b the diurnal patterns of air pollutants, (c the predominant sources of airborne pollutants in the surrounding area, and (d the ''weekend effect'' on ozone levels. The dataset covered the period of five consecutive years, from January 2000 to December 2004. High levels of ozone were witnessed; recording a number of exceedances. Inhabitants of Al-Mansoriah were exposed, during the period of study, to acute and chronic levels of SO2 . Concerning NMHC, the permissible limit (0.24 ppm- rolling average between 6-9 am, was violated in each of the monitoring years. NO diurnal pattern showed two distinct strong peaks during the months from October to March, in which the low solar radiation does not cause intense photochemical reactions, which lead to NO destruction. A clear H2 S source (considered as a primary one was witnessed from Kuwait city (Sharq district. The backed up sewage lines and maintenance work coinciding with study period clearly affected Al- Mansoriah. A clear "weekend effect", in terms of difference in levels occurring during midweek and weekends, was ascertained. The analysis suggests that Al-Mansoriah residential area should be considered a NOx sensitive region of Kuwait.

  2. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    An energy simulation of a building is a mathematical representation of its physical behaviour considering all the thermal, lighting, acoustics aspects. However, a simulation cannot precisely replicate a real construction because all the simulations are based on a number of key assumptions that af....... Simulation results were given as probability distributions of energy consumption and indoor environmental quality depending on user behaviour....

  3. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  4. Presence of Legionella spp. in Hot Water Networks of Different Italian Residential Buildings: A Three-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Totaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB; 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB; and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB. From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analysed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remote tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2–16, and non-pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations between the presence of Legionella and the total chlorine concentration decrease and/or the increase of the temperature. Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, with the exception of Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated at the exit from two different autoclaves. We observed an increase in total microbial counts at 22 °C and 37 °C between the samples collected at the most remote taps compared to the ones collected at the inlet from the aqueduct. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible categories of population and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.

  5. Green rooms - schemes, feasible ways and aims concerning the improvement of the quality of life in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrbein, R.

    1986-06-01

    Both an improvement of environs and an improvement of the quality of buildings contribute to checking the economic, social and psychological motives of the migration from urban to rural areas. An introductory survey describes the constructional schemes (e.g. Le Corbusier) the relevant efforts are based on. The author stresses the trend towards more roominess and freedom of movement. A brief description of the development since 1945 is followed by a detailed discussion exemplifying the rehabilitation of urban areas. Along with cost calculations and regulatory aspects (planning, building ordinance, attached greenhouses) the author presents a four-room maisonnette model with one of its rooms designed as a 'green room'. The zone verte of the latter (5x5 m) proved to be ideally suited for various most attractive uses. (HWJ).

  6. Benefits of the use of thermal insulation in a naturally ventilated residential building in Brazilian temperate climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Linczuk; Fernando Simon Westphal

    2016-01-01

    The use of thermal insulation is not a common practice in civil construction in Brazil. The national standard for thermal performance and the energy efficiency labeling program do not require the use of thermal insulation in the building envelope, even for the hottest and for the coldest regions of the country. Brazil has a temperate climate region that covers 7.2% of its territory and contains important and populous cities. This paper explores the benefits of the use of thermal i...

  7. Energy in the residential building. Electricity, heat, e-mobility. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Energie im Wohngebaeude. Strom, Waerme, E-Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics, heat pumps and fuel cells offer enormous potential for sustainable energy supply in residential buildings. Solar thermal energy and wood-fired boilers also play an important role in refurbishment. Due to the wide range of possible combinations, the wishes of building owners and homeowners for an ecologically and economically individually adapted energy concept can be fulfilled accurately. This book provides you with a holistic approach to the residential building and its supply of electricity, heat and water. All processes that play a role in the house's energy consumption are examined in their entirety for their potentials and potential savings. The author analyses and describes in detail the resources of buildings and their surroundings - and how they can be used for a truly independent supply. The focus is on reducing energy consumption and costs, the generation and supply of energy from renewable sources and energy storage - considered in new construction and modernisation. The supply of water is also dealt with if it touches on energy issues. The author draws attention to standards and regulations and gives practical advice for planning and installation. The focus is on the so-called sector coupling: electricity from the sun, wind and hydrogen is used to supply electrical consumers in the home, charging technology for electric vehicles, hot water and heating. The time of the boilers and combustion engines has elapsed. Clean electricity and digital controls - power and intelligence - determine the regenerative building technology. [German] Photovoltaik, Waermepumpen und Brennstoffzellen bieten enormes Potenzial, die Energieversorgung im Wohngebaeude nachhaltig zu gestalten. In der Sanierung spielen auch Solarthermie und Holzfeuerungen eine wichtige Rolle. Aufgrund der vielfaeltigen Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten lassen sich die Wuensche der Bauherren und Hausbesitzer nach einem oekologisch und oekonomisch individuell angepassten Energiekonzept

  8. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  9. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  10. Energy-efficiency impacts of an air-quality feedback device in residential buildings : an agent-based modeling assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thorben; Holtz, Georg; Baedeker, Carolin; Chappin, Emile

    2016-01-01

    A key factor to energy-efficiency of heating in buildings is the behavior of households, in particular how they ventilate rooms. Energy demand can be reduced by behavioral change; devices can support this by giving feedback to consumers on their behavior. One such feedback device, called the "CO2 meter", shows indoor air-quality in the colors of a traffic light to motivate so called "shock ventilation", which is energy-efficient ventilation behavior. The following effects of the "CO2 meter" a...

  11. Building crystalline topological phases from lower-dimensional states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Jie; Song, Hao; Huang, Yi-Ping; Hermele, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We study the classification of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases with crystalline symmetry (cSPT phases). Focusing on bosonic cSPT phases in two and three dimensions, we introduce a simple family of cSPT states, where the system is comprised of decoupled lower-dimensional building blocks that are themselves SPT states. We introduce a procedure to classify these block states, which surprisingly reproduces a classification of cSPT phases recently obtained by Thorngren and Else (arXiv:1612.00846) using very different methods, for all wallpaper and space groups. The explicit constructions underlying our results clarify the physical properties of the phases classified by Thorngren and Else, and expose additional structure in the classification. Moreover, the states we classify can be completely characterized by point-group SPT (pgSPT) invariants and related weak pgSPT invariants that we introduce. In many cases, the weak invariants can be visualized in terms of translation-symmetric stacking of lower-dimensional pgSPT states. We apply our classification to propose a Lieb-Shultz-Mattis-type constraint for two-dimensional spin systems with only crystalline symmetry, and establish this constraint by a dimensional reduction argument. Finally, the surprising matching with the Thorngren-Else classification leads us to conjecture that all SPT phases protected only by crystalline symmetry can be built from lower-dimensional blocks of invertible topological states. We argue that this conjecture holds if we make a certain physically reasonable but unproven assumption.

  12. Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2000 Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-02-24

    A quarterly update published by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs on new policies and procedures; upcoming events, highlighted research and success stories, and new partnership projects within the buildings programs at DOE/EERE and its contracting laboratories.

  13. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and CO2 Emissions for Residential Buildings in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Surahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze life cycle energy and CO2 emission profiles by employing an input–output analysis method for urban houses in major cities of Indonesia. Two surveys investigating building material inventory and household energy consumption within individual houses were conducted in Bandung in 2011 and 2012. The results show that, if reused and recycled materials were assumed to be zero, the averaged embodied energy for simple, medium and luxurious houses in Bandung was larger than that for their respective houses in Jakarta. Overall, the average annual energy consumption of all samples in Jakarta was approximately 20.6 GJ, which is 5.0 GJ larger than that in Bandung. In terms of life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for 79%–86% and 69%–81% of the total for respective houses in Jakarta and Bandung. The profiles of life cycle CO2 emissions are similar to those of energy. The results of the scenario analysis prove that the promotion of reusing/recycling is important to reduce building material inputs/waste and their corresponding embodied energy. It is also important to reduce the use of air-conditioning for operational energy in the future by adopting passive cooling techniques wherever possible.

  15. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  16. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  17. VOCs in shallow groundwater in new residential/commercial areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, P.J.; Moran, M.J.; Price, C.V.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of shallow groundwater in urban areas was investigated by sampling 518 monitoring wells between 1996 and 2002 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Well networks were installed primarily in new residential/commercial areas less than about 30 years old (17 studies) and in small towns (2 studies) by randomly locating as many as 30 monitoring wells in each study area. The median well depth was 10 m. Based on samples with age-date information, almost all groundwater was recharged after 1950. Samples were analyzed for 53 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Concentrations ranged from about 0.001 to 1000 ??g/L (median 0.04), with less than 1% of the samples exceeding a Maximum Contamination Level or Drinking Water Advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Using uncensored concentration data, at least one VOC was detected in 88% of the samples, and at least two VOCs were detected in 69% of the samples. Chloroform, toluene, and perchloroethene were the three most frequently detected VOCs. Dissolved oxygen concentration, estimated recharge index, and land-use were significant variables in logistic regression models that explained the presence of the commonly detected VOCs. Dissolved oxygen concentration was the most important explanatory variable in logistic regression models for 6 of the 14 most frequently detected VOCs. Bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane had a positive correlation with dissolved oxygen; in contrast, dichloroethane, benzene, and toluene had a negative correlation with dissolved oxygen.

  18. Building Confidence, A Story of Consensus in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    DOE's State Energy Program published this case study in conjunction with the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) about KCC's experience with establishing the IECC 2003 energy code in the state. The case study deals with building energy codes, home energy rating systems, and energy efficiency in residential buildings.

  19. Roles of income, price and household size on residential electricity consumption: Comparison of Hawaii with similar climate zone states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Yalcintas

    2017-11-01

    Linear regression analysis indicates that household size is an important variable in determining the residential electricity consumption in Oahu, however is not a determining factor in other islands. It was also observed that unlike Oahu, income and price alone are not good indicators of residential electricity consumption for the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai.

  20. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  1. Methods of modeling TCO residential real estate in the life cycles of buildings as a promising energy efficiency management tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and developing an affordable housing market is a huge challenge for Russia’s national economy. Today, the housing construction industry finds itself in a situation torn by a conflict caused by the simultaneous needs to minimize the housing construction costs in order to make housing more affordable for Russians and to increase the energy efficiency of the housing projects, which is associated with additional costs for developers. To find solutions to this contradictory situation, one needs new theoretical and practical approaches and economic tools. The global economic trend of managing goods and services on the basis of the value of goods and services over the life cycle is also manifested in the construction industry in Russia. The problem of forming a new economic thinking in the housing sector predetermines the perception of the value of housing not only as the price of purchased real estate, but as the equivalent of the total cost of ownership of real estate throughout its life cycle. This approach allows to compensate the initial rise in the cost of construction resulting from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies by savings in the operational phase of the life cycle of the property. In this regard, management of the total cost of real estate ownership based on energy modeling is of high research and practical relevance.

  2. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  3. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. In this project, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, the team tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in NREL’s Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  4. A Survey of State and Local PV Program Response to Financial Innovation and Disparate Federal Tax Treatment in the Residential PV Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt & Associates, Inc., Harpswell, ME (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High up-front costs and a lack of financing options have historically been the primary barriers to the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in the residential sector. State clean energy funds, which emerged in a number of states from the restructuring of the electricity industry in the mid-to-late 1990s, have for many years attempted to overcome these barriers through PV rebate and, in some cases, loan programs. While these programs (rebate programs in particular) have been popular, the residential PV market in the United States only started to achieve significant scale in the last five years – driven in large part by an initial wave of financial innovation that led to the rise of third-party ownership.

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  6. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  7. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  8. Louisiana State Lands and Buildings, Geographic NAD83, LA State Land Office (2007) [slabs_slo_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents land and/or building areas for the state of Louisiana. This dataset was compiled by the State Land Office from Historical Records (SLABS)...

  9. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  12. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  13. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever; Chris Gaston; Margaret. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  14. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011 Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  15. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  16. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  17. Pool chemical--associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Swimming is the second most popular exercise in the United States, with approximately 339 million swimming visits to recreational water venues, including disinfected ones (e.g., pools, water parks, and interactive fountains), each year. Pool chemicals are added to the water in these venues to prevent transmission of infectious pathogens. These chemicals can cause injury when handled inappropriately or when operators fail to use appropriate personal protective equipment. This report summarizes 36 pool chemical--associated health events reported to the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) for public aquatic venues during 1983--2006 and includes analyses of 1998-2007 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and 2007 data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS). NYSDOH reported primarily summertime health events resulting in acute respiratory illness. NEISS and NPDS data revealed that pool chemical--associated injuries or exposures led to thousands of estimated annual emergency department (ED) visits or actual poison center consultations, respectively. These pool chemical--associated health events can be prevented through 1) improved design and engineering and 2) education and training that stresses safe pool-chemical handling and storage practices and safe and preventive maintenance of equipment.

  18. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of residential outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Olivo Perlin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness results in high costs to public health and the food chain production worldwide. The majority of the population is unaware of food safety requirements and consequently, domestic kitchens are sources of contamination and spread of disease. Eating habits and the profile of food handlers in these sites guide the planning of surveillance and public education. This study describes the epidemiological and microbiological aspects of household outbreaks of foodborne illness in the State of Parana, using the Notifiable Diseases Information System database. There were 357 outbreaks between 2008 and 2012 in the State of Parana, and households were the main place of occurrence (43.70%, followed by restaurants and bakeries (21.00%, and kindergartens and schools (11.20 %. Household outbreak records derived from the municipalities for regional health coverage, based in Curitiba, Cascavel, Pato Branco, Foz do Iguaçu and Londrina. These indicated an increased number of reported cases between 2011 and 2012. The increase in reporting reflects a greater awareness among professionals because of training. The results highlight the consumption of contaminated food (36.15%, by strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus (36.23%. They also reflect an intensification and wholeness of public policies on the education of the population regarding hygiene principles in the acquisition, handling, preparation, storage, and consumption of food in the household.

  19. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  20. Urban BIPV in the new residential construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the new residential construction industry. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The report states that different types of building require different approaches to BIPV due to their associated varying dimensions and geometry. Several solutions are proposed to encourage the adoption and diffusion of BIPV by the new home residential building industry. These are divided into PV industry-based approaches and policy-based solutions. The former include end-customer focused policies, the identification of early adopters, the creation of product solutions that meet the needs of the building industry and standards and that the construction industry must be engaged in the design and planning stage of residential developments. Policy questions discussed include the provision of incentives, a planned approach to the demonstration of BIPV and the development of BIPV-specific policy.

  1. INCAS residential building energy savings design code: User's guide. INCAS: guida all'uso del codice di calcolo di diagnosi energetica nell'abitazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carderi, A.

    1991-01-01

    The INCAS residential building energy savings design code comes complete with data banks giving designers all the necessary technical and economic information and energy savings options for the code's efficacious application to obtain the optimum energy efficient/cost beneficial solution. This user's manual contains descriptions of the types of data to be input, the code's methodology, the data banks, and complete instructions for the code's implementation. The energy savings alternatives include: choice of heating plant and fuel; choice, application location and thickness of thermal insulation. For the case of building heating system retrofits, the code takes into account the existing condition of building components.

  2. The History of the Austin College Building and Old Main at Sam Houston State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Erin; Shields, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Austin Hall and Old Main serve as the heart of what is now Sam Houston State University. The buildings' rich histories help one to understand how Sam Houston State University and its proud teacher education heritage came to be. To begin with Austin Hall's story, the University's original building has a unique and interesting tale that journeys…

  3. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.