WorldWideScience

Sample records for state income taxes

  1. The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Gary; Edmiston, Kelly D.; Sjoquist, David L.; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines alternative explanations for the decline over the past two decades in state corporate income taxes relative to the state economy. We employ a survey of state tax administrators, individual tax returns from Georgia and Utah, and panel data to explore the importance of tax policy, tax planning, and economic factors on the trend in state corporate taxes. We find that corporate tax planning and economic factors account for much of the relative decline, and that state tax polic...

  2. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  3. State Transfers, Taxes and Income Inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient, we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary income flows to and from the Brazilian State. The income flows from the State include public sector workers' earnings, Social Security pensions, unemployment benefits, and Social Assistance transfers. The income flows to the State comprise direct taxes and employees' social security contributions. Data come from the Brazilian POF 2008–09. We do not measure indirect contributions to inequality of subsidies granted to and taxation of companies, nor the in-kind provision of goods and services. The results indicate that the State contributes to a large share of family per capita income inequality. Incomes associated with work in the public sector—wages and pensions—are concentrated and regressive. Components related to the private sector are also concentrated, but progressive. Contrary to what has been found in European countries, public spending associated with work and social policies is concentrated in an elite group of workers and, taken as a whole, tends to increase income inequality. Redistributive mechanisms that could reverse this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small. Consequently, their effect is completely offset by the regressive income flows from the State.

  4. Does Disconformity in State Corporate Income Tax Systems Affect Compliance Cost Burdens?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjay; Mills, Lillian F.

    2003-01-01

    Prior multistate tax research on differences in state tax rules, while investigating the effects on revenue, investment, and tax burden, is silent regarding the effect on compliance costs. We investigate factors that explain state income tax compliance costs for large firms. We find that state compliance costs increase in the number of filing states and entities (or in the number of state tax returns), firm size, and variables proxying for state tax complexity. Our evidence that multistate di...

  5. State income tax policy and geographic labour force mobility in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, I S

    1998-10-01

    "This study empirically investigates the impact of state income tax policy on U.S. interstate migration [of the labor force] for the period 1985-89. It finds that people vote with their feet and prefer to move so as to minimize their state income tax liabilities." excerpt

  6. THE ROLE OF THE CORPORATE INCOME TAX IN THE STATE BUDGET REVENUES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Zamaslo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the trends of the functioning of the corporate income tax in the system of state revenue, assess its tax transformations, and determine the tax efficiency. On that basis, determining prospects of income tax in the national system of business entities taxation and developing proposals for improving the mechanism of taxation in Ukraine. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological base of scientific research of national and foreign scholars on the analysis of corporate income tax, official statistical data of the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine and State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. To ensure the authenticity and validity of the research results to the goal, the following methods are used: induction and deduction – during theoretical generalizations and conclusions; analogy method – when comparing the foreign experience of administration of corporate income tax; economics and statistics as methods of the macroeconomic situation of Ukraine analysing. Results. In the article, the corporate income tax is investigated. The macroeconomic situation in Ukraine is analysed. Reasonable steps for the further use of the European countries experience for Ukraine are founded. Practical implications. The results of this study can be used by state authorities in developing tax policy directions in Ukraine. Value/originality of the results is a complex theoretical and practical analysis of the corporate income tax in Ukraine. Further research should relate to the improvement of its own system of income taxation. In the process of its implementation, it is necessary to use the experience of European countries.

  7. ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX IN ROMANIA AND THE OTHER MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The high tax burden on labor in the European Union is a subject of analysis often encountered in thespeciality literature. This is probably due the fact that are more convenient to implement from the political point ofview - there is the responsibility of an anonymous administration and not the responsibility of Prime Minister orPresident.In recent years the personal taxation had a substantial increase in most European Union member states, aphenomenon that has generated some repercussions: it affects employment in the labor market, encouraging thesubstitution of labor with capital, increase unemployment, increase tax burden on labor and tax evasion amplificationgenerates employment orientation towards the ground. Growing importance given to personal income tax is largelydue to the fact that direct taxes within the EU this is a more stable basis of taxation. In Romania reduction in taxrevenue from income tax was offset by increased tax revenues from value added tax. The evolution of tax revenues fromdirect taxes is normal if we consider that the remaining incomes to the taxpayers were available for consumption,which led to higher levels of indirect taxes collected to the budget.The influence of employment on the labor market due to the size of the labor tax is explained by the fact thatthe option for such taxes is due to the ease of implement for policy makers but also by the fact that employees are notalways aware of these taxes.

  8. A Model for a State Income Tax in Australia: Historical Considerations, Key Design Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Peter Warren

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question, would the reintroduction of income taxation at the State level in Australia be feasible at the present time? The States levied income taxes from the late nineteenth century until 1942, when the Commonwealth unilaterally enacted legislation for its ‘uniform tax’ scheme for centralised income taxation which made it effectively impossible for State income taxation to continue. As the States also face a significant constitutional restrictions ...

  9. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  10. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  11. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of local, State and Federal taxes on income properly accruable during the period covered by the...

  12. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  13. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  14. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...

  15. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax

  16. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of

  17. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border

  18. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption method.

  19. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of currency exchange results.

  20. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of intra-firm transactions.

  1. Tax Administration Systems and Tax Consciousness of Income Tax and Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 直子

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance costs of consumption tax are relatively high. Tax compliance costs for self-assessment taxpayers are high, and for withholding income taxpayers, the compliance costs are small. That is to say, characteristics of tax compliance costs for income tax and consumption tax are various. And also characteristics of tax consciousness for income tax and consumption tax are many and various. The features of this paper are to clarify characteristics of tax compliance costs and tax consciou...

  2. 26 CFR 1.959-1 - Exclusion from gross income of United States persons of previously taxed earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interest. The exclusion also applies to amounts taxed to United States shareholders as income of one... shareholders or their successors in interest as subpart F income of the controlled foreign corporation to which... shareholder's successor in interest. If a United States person (as defined in § 1.957-4) acquires from any...

  3. 31 CFR 285.8 - Offset of tax refund payments to collect state income tax obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... state taxation by reason of being an enrolled member of an Indian tribe who lives on a reservation and... the minimum debt amount. (3)(i) Advance notification to the debtor of the State's intent to collect by... enforceable. In those cases where a debtor claims that he or she is immune from State taxation by reason of...

  4. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  5. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  6. TEXAS TAXES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is part of an educational series on Texas taxes. State and local taxes in Texas are compared with those of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Taxes are compared per capita and per $1,000 of personal income. The taxes include: all state and local taxes, property taxes, sales and gross receipts taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and corporate franchise taxes. For each tax the national average, median, maximum and minimum are given along with the corre...

  7. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  8. Income tax considerations for forest landowners in the South: a case study on tax planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip D. Bailey; Harry L. Jr. Haney; Debra S. Callihan; John L. Greene

    1999-01-01

    Federal and state income taxes are calculated for hypothetical owners of nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) across 14 southern states to illustrate the effects of differential state tax treatment. The income tax liability is calculated in a year in which the timber owners harvest $200,000 worth of timber. After-tax land expectation values for a forest landowner are...

  9. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  10. Regional features of the individual income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions. Since the tax on personal income has expressed toms-social orientation, in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation provided for the regions eligible for the establishment of a number of benefits for certain categories of taxpayers. This article describes the possible impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions by establishing incentives. The issues of granting tariff preferences income owners of private farms on the example of the Moscow region. An important social task of the state related to the support of family and birth rate increase, which is be implemented in the Russian Federation in the framework of the tax on personal income, is exemption from personal income tax funds regional maternal (family capital. The regional legislation can be traced virtually the same position on the determination of the number of children in the case of birth (adoption of which the inhabitants of the region there is a right to additional measures of state support and tax benefits. The data on the size of the analysis of the results of the regional maternity capital and the terms of its provision. We describe the benefits that the regions were able to provide 2016 individuals - payers of personal income tax on income from the sale of real estate. We consider the benefits that are currently install or may be establish by laws of subjects of federation in the

  11. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  12. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  13. EFFECT OF TAX BENEFITS ON THE INCOME TAX COLLECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Ulloa, Milca Naara

    2017-01-01

    In Ecuador, fiscal policy is directly linked to economic policy, allowing the State to have a collection of taxes to cover public expenditure, this income should be redistributed in the less favored sectors. Given the need to identify the impact of the application of tax benefits used by companies, whether new or already operating, and natural persons who are or not required to keep accounting. There is a need to know the behavior of these Economic sectors, given the various changes that have...

  14. Tax Evasion in the Presence of Negative Income Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Joulfaian, David; Rider, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the impact of marginal tax rates, which incorporate the earned income tax credit as it existed in 1988, on the reporting of income by low-level taxpayers. Concludes that the amount of income underreported does not appear to be affected by the relatively high marginal tax rates which occur in the phase out range, except for proprietors.

  15. Differentiation of Municipalities in São Paulo State based on Constitutional Transferences and Income Tributary Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a large study that combines several groups of municipalities in São Paulo State that are analyzed through multivariate statistical techniques. This study is intended to indicate whether the variables per capita transfer amounts from the Municipalities Participation Fund [MPF], Product and Service Circulation Tax Quota [ICMS] and collected tributary income have different average values among the municipalities of São Paulo State that present different economic and social situations according to the social responsibility index. The evaluation was carried out by multivariate analysis of variance. The results show that the tributary income has the greater difference of average among the groups. It was also found that MPF distribution criteria are applied differently and contribute to the available income fairness, giving support to local governments in the development of public policy.

  16. 18 CFR 367.4081 - Account 408.1, Taxes other than income taxes, operating income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4081 Account 408.1, Taxes other than income taxes, operating income. This account must include... other than income taxes, operating income. 367.4081 Section 367.4081 Conservation of Power and Water...

  17. Impact of income-detection technology and other factors on aggregate income tax evasion:the case of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the impact of improving income-detectiontechnology, as well as a variety of other factors, on aggregate income taxevasion. The study focuses on the U.S., using available data for the 1975-97 period. The empirical findings indicate that improving income-detection technology appears to have significantly reduced the degree of aggregate income-tax evasion in theU.S. over time. In addition, the estimates indicate that federal income tax evasionappears to be an increasing function not only of the federal personal income tax rate but also of the public's dissatisfaction with government. Furthermore, income taxevasion appears to be a decreasing function both of penalties imposed by the IRS on unpaid taxes and IRS audit rates.

  18. Corrigendum - Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No.18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  19. CORRIGENDUM - INCOME TAX IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No. 18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  20. Do Individuals Perceive Income Tax Rates Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gideon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article uses data from survey questions fielded on the 2011 wave of the Cognitive Economics Study to uncover systematic errors in perceptions of income tax rates. First, when asked about the marginal tax rates (MTRs) for households in the top tax bracket, respondents underestimate the top MTR on wages and salary income, overestimate the MTR on dividend income, and therefore significantly underestimate the currently tax-advantaged status of dividend income. Second, when analyzing the relationship between respondents' self-reported average tax rates (ATRs) and MTRs, many people do not understand the progressive nature of the federal income tax system. Third, when comparing self-reported tax rates with those computed from self-reported income, respondents systematically overestimate their ATR while reported MTR are accurate at the mean, the responses are consistent with underestimation of tax schedule progressivity.

  1. SMEs’ corporate income tax compliance in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mahangila, Deogratius Ng'winula

    2014-01-01

    Many governments are struggling with inadequate tax revenue and increasing tax gaps. Consequently, changing behaviour of non-compliant taxpayers as small and medium enterprises (SMEs) because of their tax revenue potential and non-compliance behaviour is essential. This thesis examined the impact of corporate income tax penalty incidence, retributive justice, procedural justice, the interaction between retributive and procedural justice on corporate income tax compliance behaviour. Also, the ...

  2. Optimization of tax on corporate income

    OpenAIRE

    OBERTÍKOVÁ, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    My diploma thesis is focused on the optimization of corporate income tax. The thesis is divided into the theoretical and practical part. In the theoretical part are described terms such as taxpayers, subject of tax, tax base, tax calculation or when the tax is payable. The practical part begins with the characteristic of the company, followed by the calculation of the tax liability and the optimization of the corporate income tax. The aim of the thesis was to find the optimal variant of the c...

  3. 20 CFR 638.529 - Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 638.529 Section 638.529... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.529 Income taxes. The Act... of student income and provide this to center operators and to the finance center. ...

  4. THE EFFECTIVE LEVEL OF CORPORATE INCOME TAX IN THEEUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Adamczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the factthat European Union economy is the subject to integrationprocess, there has been no harmonization of corporate income taxation. Nocompulsion to adapt to common tax law requirements makes that many,especially new member states of EU, tends to use corporate income tax to attractcapital flows. The tax competition often takes a form of so called “race to thebottom” and consists in reducing tax rates. At the same time fiscal authoritiesusually broaden their tax bases in favor to increase the neutrality of the corporateincome tax.The main goal of this article is to measure the combined effect ofreducing statutory tax rates and broadening of tax bases in selected MemberStates.

  5. Collecting the tax on Income from Investments and Income Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Andreea MIHALACHE

    2015-01-01

    Taxpayers who carried out individually or in a form of association income from self-employment, income from the lease of property, income from agricultural activities determined in real system are required to file a statement of income received from the competent tax authority for each fiscal year no later than 15 May of the year following that of income. The statement of income (tax declaration) must be completed for each source and category of income. For the income obtained in a form of As...

  6. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  7. Dual income tax: An option for the reform of personal income tax in Serbia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tax theory and practice provides two fundamental concepts for taxation of personal income: scheduler and global. Several systems have been derived from these basic models, including combined, flat, dual and negative income tax. Dual income tax, the subject of this paper, requires progressive taxation of income from employment and proportional taxation of income from capital. However, strict application of this system significantly violates the principle of equitability of taxation, both horizontally and vertically.

  8. The International Crisis of Income Taxation: Combating Tax Havens, Capital Flight and Corruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Picciotto, Salomone

    2007-01-01

    For over a century, the income tax has been the mainstay of the modern fiscal state, and has underpinned a massive growth in collective spending, especially after it became a mass tax in developed capitalist countries, although in poorer countries tax capacity has been restricted which has weakened their governance. However, the income tax has been damaged by the loss of social solidarity with the growth of income inequalities, and the increasing difficulty of taxing income from capital. The ...

  9. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  10. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  11. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  12. Revenue stream: How state taxes fund public services, amenities

    OpenAIRE

    Brye Steeves

    2009-01-01

    Each state has a portfolio with a varying assortment of revenue sources, such as income tax and sales tax, which are affected by the health of the economy. In down times, services get cut or taxes are raised.

  13. Progressivity of Taxes, Skeweness of Income Distribution and Violations of the Progressive Principle in Income Tax Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mazurek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kakwani and Lambert state the three axioms, which should be respected by an equitable tax system. They also proposed a measurement system to evaluate the violations of the axioms. One of the axioms, axiom 2, formulates the progression principle in income tax systems. Vernizzi and Pellegrino improved the alternative index to evaluate violations concerning the progressive command in a tax system. The main aim of this paper is to compare the two indexes in order to evaluate violations of progressive principle in income tax systém using the real data. We also check how the progressivity of taxes and skewness of income distribution affect the measurement of the progressive principle violation.

  14. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  15. 17 CFR 256.408 - Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC.... (a) This account shall include the amount of state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes, federal...

  16. 18 CFR 367.4082 - Account 408.2, Taxes other than income taxes, other income and deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4082 Account 408.2, Taxes other than income taxes, other income and deductions. This... other than income taxes, other income and deductions. 367.4082 Section 367.4082 Conservation of Power...

  17. THE INTRODUCTION OF GLOBAL INCOME TAX SHOULD BRING ADDITIONAL REVENUE TO THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Valentin LAZEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exclusive interview with Mr. Valentin Lazea, state secretary – Department for Economic Analysis and Financial System Informatisation. The paper is a translation of the interview that was published in issue nr. 9 (1997 of Financial Bulletin (previous name of Financial Studies.

  18. 26 CFR 1.903-1 - Taxes in lieu of income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes. (a) In general. Section 903 provides that the term “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes” shall include a tax paid in lieu of a tax on income, war profits, or excess profits (“income tax... X currency) but is allowed a credit for 30u of excise tax that it has paid. Pursuant to paragraph (e...

  19. Forest landowners’ guide to the Federal income tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Greene; William C. Siegel; William L. Hoover; Mark Koontz

    2013-01-01

    This guide updates and supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 718, Forest Landowners’ Guide to the Federal Income Tax, incorporating new tax legislation that was passed and administrative changes promulgated through September 30, 2012. It introduces tax planning and basic tax considerations and explains the Federal income tax as it pertains to timber and forest land,...

  20. 48 CFR 52.229-4 - Federal, State, and Local Taxes (State and Local Adjustments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  1. Increasing the Capital Income Tax Leads to Faster Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Yanagawa, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper shows that under rather mild conditions, higher capital income taxes lead to faster growth in an overlapping generations economy with endogenous growth. Government expenditures are financed with labor income taxes as well as capital income taxes. Since capital income accrues to the old,

  2. 14 CFR Section 15 - Objective Classification-Income Taxes for Current Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 15 Objective Classification—Income Taxes for..., State, local, and foreign taxes based upon net income, computed at the normal tax and surtax rates in... carryback of losses in the year in which the loss occurs, credits for the carry-forward of losses in the...

  3. Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Programs and Taxpayer Actions to Improve Personal Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Erica; Bowen, Cathy F.; Kuleck, Robin L.; Taverno, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The income tax-filing process creates teachable moments for learning about taxes and other financial matters. Educators and volunteers from Penn State Cooperative Extension helped taxpayers file 2008 returns under Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program (VITA). Nearly 600 filers (588) completed and simultaneously received educational information…

  4. Canadian Income Tax Reporting Requirement PROTECTED

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    Pursuant to paragraph 221(1)(d) of the Income Tax Act, payments made by federal Crown corporations (IDRC) under applicable service contracts (including contracts involving a mix of goods and services and services provided abroad) must be reported on a T1204 Government Service Contract Payment slip. To enable ...

  5. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  6. Nigeria Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act 2011: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amendment) Act 2011 as they affect personal income tax administration in the hands of tax authorities as well as employers, employees and individuals as it relates to compliance issues of payment, collection, and remittance of personal income ...

  7. Corporate income tax and its impact on financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Krajčová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Thesis called "Corporate income tax and its impact on financial reporting" focuses on the problem of calculating the tax on corporate income of legal entity established for business purposes. The thesis deals with the issue of adjustment of profit in order to create the tax base and displays impact of this adjustment on due tax.

  8. The 1986 Act: Tax Reform's Finest Hour or Death Throes of the Income Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, Charles E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates why income tax is inevitably complicated and discusses why the 1986 Act is both more and less complicated than an income tax with a definition of taxable income even closer to the ideal of real economic income. Describes an alternative consumption-based direct tax.

  9. Attention to state, local taxes can save producers money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    A constant challenge for independent oil and gas producers in the US is taxes. While the federal income tax code undergoes periodic revision, with much sound and fury attached to congressional and presidential action, state and local taxes are constantly being revised with little fanfare and little publicity. As an independent producer, one should pay close attention to these taxes because, in the aggregate, businesses pay considerably more to state and local jurisdictions in income, sales and use, and property taxes than they pay to the federal government in income tax. More than 85,000 taxing jurisdictions in the US impose a variety of taxes in a variety of ways, and your company's operations may span a number of them. The goal is to lower one's overall effective rate--the percentage of income one is paying to state and local governments. This article will explore some of the issues raised by the major taxes for which one is responsible

  10. Effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Lenhart, Otto; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Using multi-state, multi-year difference-in-differences analyses, we estimated effects of state EITC generosity on maternal health behaviors, birth weight and gestation weeks. We find little difference in maternal health behaviors associated with state-level EITC. In contrast, results for key infant health outcomes of birth weight and gestation weeks show small improvements in states with EITCs, with larger effects seen among states with more generous EITCs. Our results provide evidence for important health benefits of state-level EITC policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Free Tax Assistance and the Earned Income Tax Credit: Vital Resources for Social Workers and Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V.; Murray, Drew

    2012-01-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1401-1 - Tax on self-employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on self-employment income. 1.1401-1 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1401-1 Tax on self-employment income. (a) There is imposed, in addition to other taxes, a tax upon the self-employment income of every...

  13. FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING IMPLICATIONS OF INCOME TAX IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some fiscal and accounting aspects of income tax like payers, applicability. It describe fiscal and accounting treatments of income tax and also IAS 12 treatment of tax income. Income taxes are an expense incurred in operating most businesses, and as such are to be reflected in the entity’s operating results. However, accounting for income taxes is complicated by the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the amounts of revenues and expenses recognized in a given period for taxation purposes will not fully correspond to what is reported in the financial statements.

  14. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media... Register on Wednesday, March 30, 2011 (76 FR 17521) providing guidance to specified tax return preparers who prepare and file individual income tax returns using magnetic media pursuant to section 6011(e)(3...

  15. 18 CFR 367.4101 - Account 410.1, Provision for deferred income taxes, operating income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4101 Account 410.1, Provision for deferred income taxes, operating income. This account must..., Provision for deferred income taxes, operating income. 367.4101 Section 367.4101 Conservation of Power and...

  16. 75 FR 9101 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue... estimated income tax payments for qualified individuals with small business income for any taxable year... with small business income to certify that they satisfy the statutory gross income requirement for...

  17. The Optimal Progressive Income Tax -- The Existence and the Limit Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoru Kaneko

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of optimal income taxation in the domain of progressive (convex) income tax function. This paper proves the existence of an optimal tax function and that the optimal marginal and average tax rates tend asymptotically to 100 percent as income level becomes arbitrarily high.

  18. Forest Landowners' Guide to the Federal Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry L. Haney; William L. Hoover; William C. Siegel; John L. Greene

    2001-01-01

    This publication is the latest in a series of income tax handbooks for nonindustrial private forest owners that extends back over 45 years. It represents a major revision of Agriculture Handbook No. 708, Forest Owners' Guide to the Federal Income Tax. It updates that publication to include tax legislation passed after 1994 and administrative changes promulgated...

  19. Unrelated business income tax: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, A J

    1984-02-01

    To meet spiraling costs, tax-exempt hospitals increasingly are operating businesses unrelated to direct patient care. Knowing which activities may be open to challenge by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is essential to avoid the unrelated business income (UBI) tax. Three criteria must be met for an activity to be taxable as UBI: It must constitute a trade or business; It must be regularly carried on; and It must be unrelated to the organization's exempt purpose. The Internal Revenue Code and IRS rulings clearly exclude the following areas from UBI taxation: Activities performed by unpaid volunteers (e.g., hospital auxiliaries' fund-raising dinners and bazaars and the operation of thrift stores); Operations conducted for the convenience of the organization's members, students, patients, or employees (e.g., gift shops, cafeterias, coffee shops, parking lots, lounges, vending machines, pharmaceutical sales to inpatients and emergency room outpatients, and research activities for students' benefit; The sale of merchandise that has been received by gift (e.g., flea markets, baked goods sales, book sales, and rummage sales); Investment income such as dividends, interest, annuities, royalties, certain rents, and capital gains from the sale of investment assets; Gifts or contributions made directly to the facility; and Bingo games that are conducted commercially. Areas which may be subject to UBI taxation, or in which there have been controversial or contradictory court rulings, include: Pharmaceutical sales to the public or private physicians' patients; and Laboratory services provided to private physicians for treating their patients. IRS private letter rulings, though not precedential, have excluded from UBI taxation the x-ray income from a hospital's branch facility and rental income from property leased for use as a clinic or medical office building that is substantially related to the hospital's exempt functions. Private letter rulings have subjected to UBI

  20. Taxation of Income from Selling Property: Changes of New Income Tax Law Draft

    OpenAIRE

    Canatay HACIKÖYLÜ

    2016-01-01

    There are provisions in Income Tax Law No. 193 and Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 on the nature and taxation of income that real and legal persons acquire from real estate sales. There have been many changes in these provisions over time, but the changes made didnt meet the needs, and they distorted the systematic structure of the Laws. For these and similar reasons, the income tax law draft has been prepared based on Income Tax Law and Corporate Tax Law. With the draft, the Income Tax Law No. 19...

  1. The Dominance of Indirect Taxes in Estonian State Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  2. 78 FR 13221 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue... reduced estimated income tax payments for qualified individuals with small business income for any taxable... of 2009. The final regulations provide guidance for qualified individuals with small business income...

  3. 22 CFR 92.75 - Services in connection with income tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with income tax returns. 92.75 Section 92.75 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.75 Services in connection with income tax returns...

  4. 18 CFR 367.4093 - Account 409.3, Income taxes, extraordinary items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4093 Account 409.3, Income taxes, extraordinary items. This account must include the amount of those local, state and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 409.3, Income...

  5. Free tax assistance and the earned income tax credit: vital resources for social workers and low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V; Murray, Drew

    2012-04-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)--a free income tax preparation program, which is a vital resource available to low-income families. Unfortunately, VITA is largely underused and often unknown to economically strained families and to the social workers and other professionals to whom these families turn for assistance. This article concludes with policy and practice implications for social workers and other professionals engaged in providing services to financially vulnerable families.

  6. Can Capital Income Taxes Survive? And Should They?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation, and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility...... of capital income tax bases...

  7. Tax Planning Implementation on Income Tax, Article 23 as A Legal Effort To Minimize Tax Expense Payable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An effort to minimize tax burden can be done in various ways start from inside the scope of taxation regulation to violate the taxation regulation. This research focuses on related Laws with the efforts to minimize Income tax. In general tax planning referred to engineered the business process and tax payer transaction. The aim is tax payable in minimal number but under taxation regulation scope. The outline of this study focus on planning effort of Tax Income Article 23 to minimize tax expense payable run in PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH Surabaya. Tax planning that done in this company refer to provision  in accordance with  Directorate General of Tax Decision Number : Kep-305/PJ/2001 on the estimates of nett income. Tax planning had done by this company in addition to refer the regulation also based on the condition of this company which experiencing poor performance. Then the aim that will be reached from that tax planning to reach minimal expense over the Income Tax Article 23 it can be done with gross up method. From the analysis result on the alternative it can draw a conclusion that PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH  Surabaya  has made adjustments on the regulation above, calculation of Income Tax Article 23 with gross up method in fact be able to saving the tax then suitable with the tax planning aim that is effort to minimize tax expense payable.

  8. Estimating Taxable Income Responses using Danish Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Schultz, Esben Anton

    : (i ) Labor income elasticities are modest overall, around 0.05 for wage earners and 0.10 for self-employed individuals. (ii ) Capital income elasticities are about 2-3 times larger than labor income elasticities. (iii) Behavioral elasticities are much larger when estimated from large tax reform......This paper presents evidence on taxable income responses using administrative data that link tax return information to detailed socioeconomic information for the entire Danish population over 25 years. The identifying variation is provided by a series of tax reforms that create large tax variation...... across individuals, income forms, and over time. It is argued that the unique tax variation and data in Denmark makes it possible to control for the biases from non-tax changes in the income distribution and mean reversion that plague much of the existing literature. Our main findings are the following...

  9. Optimal income taxation with a risky asset : the triple income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    We show in a two-period world with endogenous savings and two assets, one of them exhibiting a stochastic return, that an interest-adjusted income tax is optimal. This tax leaves a riskless component of interest income tax free and taxes the excess return with a special tax rate. There is no trade-off between risk allocation and efficiency in intertemporal consumption. Both goals are reached. As the resulting tax system divides income into three parts, the tax can also be called a Triple Inco...

  10. Income responses to tax changes : evidence from the Norwegian tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Thor Olav; Aarbu, Karl Ove

    1999-01-01

    Several studies, conducted on U.S. data, have found rather strong income responses to changes in marginal tax rates, when treating tax reforms as "natural experiments" and applying the differences-of-differences estimator on individual income data. The Norwegian tax reform of 1992 implied substantial increases in the net-of-tax rate (1 minus the change in the marginal tax rate) for high-income earners, and this paper provides measures of the elasticity of taxable income with respect to these ...

  11. The Tax Compliance Demand Curve: A Diagrammatical Approach to Income Tax Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    One of the most interesting results in the tax evasion literature is that an increase in the income tax rate would increase tax compliance. Despite its peculiarity, this result has gained acceptance as a cornerstone for further developments of the rational tax evasion model. However, because of the mathematical format by which it is conveyed, this…

  12. Entrepreneur's Choice of Tax Base: Earned or Capital Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the entrepreneur’s tax burden in the dual income tax system is studied. The dual system taxes income from capital at a flat rate, but earned income at progressive rates. The media view claims the entrepreneur to be able to take his pay as favourably taxed income from capital. It is shown not to be supported by the recent data nor by deductive analysis in case of start-ups when (i) proper opportunity costs of the outside employment option and (ii) the financial capital tie...

  13. 78 FR 16277 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief... codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each state agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to furnish HUD, not...

  14. 75 FR 9609 - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Tenant Data Collection: Responses To Advance Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... comment on methodology for the collection of data on low-income housing tax credit housing, as required by... 36 (to be codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each State agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to...

  15. 18 CFR 367.4112 - Account 411.2, Provision for deferred income taxes-Credit, other income and deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Provision for deferred income taxes-Credit, other income and deductions. 367.4112 Section 367.4112... deferred taxes and deferrals of taxes, credit, that relate to other income and deductions. ... Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4112 Account 411.2, Provision for deferred income taxes...

  16. The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Slemrod; Nikki Sorum

    1984-01-01

    This paper uses evidence from a survey of Minnesota taxpayers to estimate the magnitude and demographic patterns of the compliance cost of filing federal and state income tax returns. It concludes that in 1982 this cost was between $17 and $27 billion, or from five to seven percent of the revenue raised by the federal and state income tax systems combined. About two billion hours of taxpayer time were spent on filing tax returns, and about $3 billion was spent on professional tax assistance.

  17. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-11] Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb...

  18. UBIT Issues: Guidance on Interpreting Unrelated Business Income Tax Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Stephen J.; Danley, Lisa M.

    1991-01-01

    The central issue in determining taxability of colleges' unrelated business income is the tax's purpose: to eliminate unfair advantage of exempt organizations over tax-paying businesses. If the business is not competing with outside vendors and can be related to the organization's exempt purposes, income is not taxable. (MSE)

  19. What is progressive about Nigerian personal income tax? | Egbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper conceptually critiques the progressivity of the current personal income tax in Nigeria by drawing on the equity concept of taxation vis-à-visincome redistributionandtaxpayers' ability to pay tax. Whilst the study acknowledges the presumed progressivity and income redistribution notions embedded within the ...

  20. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2013-01-01

    was neglected in this case, we would estimate a taxable income elasticity in the range of 0.43-0.53 and conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the bunching in taxable income is driven by intertemporal income shifting...

  1. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PERSONAL AND CORPORATE INCOME TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Skica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to discuss the mutual economic relations between personal and corporate income taxes. The article consists of three parts. The first is an introduction to these taxes and taxation. The second is the analysis in which the objective of the taxation is discussed. This part represents the trends in research on taxation and clarifies the aspects of taxes that should be considered in an optimal tax system construction. These include solutions which stimulate taxpayer behavior, the economically and socially oriented objectives of taxation, and guides needed for tax equalization. The conclusions are focused on the tax rates in personal and corporate income tax and their influence on economic behavior of firms and individuals. The authors show different points of view on tax rate equalization and discuss its consequences.

  2. Method of accounting and approaches to tax optimization of income tax of entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Sokolovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the organization and methodology of income tax accounting. It describes the documented operations related to the calculation and payment of income tax and it suggests the standard form of the original document to reduce the time for calculation of tax and facilitation in filling in the tax return. The author describes the accounts system designed for income tax cost accounting, and gives their analytical sections. The article discloses the need of management reports for this tax and suggests to implement the standard form of report for an enterprise for the efficiency of management of revenues, costs, and as a result, income tax. The author singles out the methods of tax optimization of income tax calculation base in the following four areas: the methods related to the fixed assets of the enterprise, inventory, accounts receivable, and the employee's salary. The algorithm of the tax optimization in enterprises is developed. This algorithm, due to the simplicity of its shape, will help management personnel and an accountant of an enterprise to identify possible ways of reducing the amounts payable for income tax under the current legislation.

  3. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.902-3 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes” means income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, and taxes included in the term “income, war... a foreign corporation for any taxable year shall be determined after reduction by any income, war... amounts so determined into United States dollars or other foreign currency shall be made at the proper...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arrangement does not have as its principal purpose the avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax solely as a... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6851-2 - Certificates of compliance with income tax laws by departing aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... complied with all of the obligations imposed upon him by the income tax laws. In order to procure such a... to his income tax liability upon presentation to the district director for the internal revenue...

  7. 75 FR 76940 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 [REG-100194-10] RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic... for ``specified tax return prepares,''. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Keith L. Brau at (202) 622...

  8. Progressivity of personal income tax in Croatia: decomposition of tax base and rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents progressivity breakdowns for Croatian personal income tax (henceforth PIT in 1997 and 2004. The decompositions reveal how the elements of the system – tax schedule, allowances, deductions and credits – contribute to the achievement of progressivity, over the quantiles of pre-tax income distribution. Through the use of ‘single parameter’ Gini indices, the social decision maker’s (henceforth SDM relatively more or less favorable inclination toward taxpayers in the lower tails of pre-tax income distribution is accounted for. Simulations are undertaken to show how the introduction of a flat-rate system would affect progressivity.

  9. (Inefficiency of corporate income tax expenditures on underdeveloped areas of special tax treatment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of various tax expenditures by the tax authorities, mostly in corporate income taxation (CIT, in order to kick start development in areas affected by the war as well as in economically underdeveloped areas has been characteristic of the Croatian tax system since 2000. Although the purpose of such forms of state aid was to foster economic development and equalize the level over the entire country, at the same time they caused forgone tax revenues and it is therefore necessary to analyze their advantages and disadvantages and evaluate their possible positive or negative effects. This paper deals with the analysis of tax expenditures in the system of CIT in Croatia and it investigates their effect on the budget and the possible advantages brought by their introduction. The main purpose of the paper is to answer the questions as to whether the expenditures that have been introduced in CIT justify their purpose and the goal of their introduction and what can be done to improve the existing CIT expenditures system.

  10. Measurement of Effectiveness of Personal Income Tax in the Tax System of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of effectiveness of personal income tax in the Czech Republic. The personal income tax in the Czech Republic, referred to as the tax on income of natural persons, represents a significant part of the public budget revenue (23.35% of all tax revenues in 2012. One of the principles of a good tax system is the principle of its effectiveness. The effectiveness of a particular tax is measured by various methods. The theory distinguishes between two types of costs expended on the collection of taxes, i. e. administrative costs (direct or indirect and excessive tax burden. In the case of direct administrative costs the measurement compares the total volume of a particular tax revenue with the costs of its collection. The amount of the tax levied is thus not a net income of the public budget, due to the fact that it must be reduced by the costs of the public sector which are necessary for obtaining such amount.In this contribution we shall focus on the measurement of direct administrative costs. The measurement of effectiveness of income tax on natural persons is performed with the use of the full-time equivalent (FTE method, which is based on the classification of revenue authorities’ staff according to their jobs and on the determination of conversion coefficients in order to identify costs related to the collection of a particular tax.A separate part of the article deals with measurements of tax system effectiveness in the international scope. We cite an important international study, “"Paying Taxes 2013: The Global Picture”", annually prepared by the World Bank and PricewaterhouseCoopers, which analyses demands of tax systems in different countries of the world.

  11. The history of the emergence of corporate income tax in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. С. Шорохова

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the scientific literature on issues relating to the historical aspects of the origin and formation of the corporate income tax. It is proved that the foundations of the modern mechanism of this tax were laid in ancient times, and therefore aim was already filling the state budget.

  12. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    shifting was neglected in this case, we would conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the observed bunching in taxable income for the self-employed is driven by intertemporal income shifting, implying a structural...

  13. Implications of new accounting rules for income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Carmichael, B J; Spaulding, A D

    1994-02-01

    The provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes, require all organizations that issue financial statements to shift the focus of their accounting for income taxes from the income statement to the balance sheet. This change can alter significantly a healthcare organization's financial position. The change also may affect the way in which investors, lenders, regulators, and other users of financial statements evaluate corporations in the healthcare industry. Hospitals and other healthcare organizations, particularly for-profit organizations, therefore, should review carefully their methods of accounting for such items as deferred tax assets and loss and expense reserves.

  14. Corporation Income Tax and Administrative Costs of the Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution examines the issues of measurement of corporate income tax effectiveness in the circumstances of the Czech Republic, referred to as the tax on income of legal persons. The tax on income of legal persons represents a significant part of the public budget revenue, with the volume of collection of CZK 128,002 million in 2012. The theoretical basis for this contribution is the principle of tax system effectiveness, which is one of the principles characterizing a good tax system and is related to costs inherent in a tax system. The contribution defines two existing types of costs expended on the collection of taxes, i. e. administrative costs (direct or indirect and in theory describes excessive tax burden. In this contribution we shall focus on the measurement of direct administrative costs. The measurement of effectiveness of corporation income tax is performed with the use of the full-time equivalent (FTE method, which is based on the classification of revenue authorities’ staff according to their jobs and on the determination of conversion coefficients in order to identify costs related to the collection of a particular tax.A separate part of the article deals with measurement of administrative costs performed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on the timeline ranging from year 2009 to 2011. The author of this article performed his own measurements concerning the direct administrative costs related to the collection of tax on income of legal persons in the Czech Republic. Results achieved in the respective monitored years are lower by the average (in the Czech Republic 2 percentage of ca 1.66 percentage points in relation to the average value of direct administrative costs of the Czech tax system.

  15. The Analysis of Corporate Tax and Personal Income Tax in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telnova Hanna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the relationship between the rates of corporate tax and personal income tax and the pace of economic development. The existence of the open financial market under conditions of globalization leaves its imprint on forming the vectors of development of the tax systems in the countries. Thus, the optimal corporate taxation creates a competitive and investment-attractive climate, facilitates encouraging foreign investments and locating economic activities. The study made it possible to establish the absence of a direct link between the tax rates and economic growth. At the same time, a linear relationship between the tax rates and the tax burden is revealed. On the basis of the presented mathematical expression, it can be concluded that an increase in the personal income tax causes an increase in the tax burden, and an increase in the corporate tax — its reduction. The cluster analysis of the corporate tax and the personal income tax in European countries allowed to justify the determinants of successful economic development presenting the formation of the vector of the tax policy in the aspect of moderate taxation of individuals and the need for low taxation of corporate profits.

  16. Inequality reducing properties of progressive income tax schedules: The case of endogenous income

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell-Nicolau, Oriol; Llavador, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The case for progressive income taxation is often based on the classic result of Jakobsson (1976) and Fellman (1976), according to which progressive and only progressive income taxes - in the sense of increasing average tax rates on income - ensure a reduction in income inequality. This result has been criticized on the ground that it ignores the possible disincentive effect of taxation on work effort, and the resolution of this critique has been a long-standing problem in public finance. Thi...

  17. The effects of tax policy and labour market institutions on income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate how labor market institutions and regulations and tax policies effect income inequality across the European member countries. The sample contains the fifteen core European Union (EU members as well as thirteen Central and Eastern European (CEE economies which have recently joined. Using fixed and random effect panel models over the sample period 2000–2011 we test the influence of three major tax forms (labor, capital and consumption, social security contributions, and labor market institutions. We demonstrate that the overall social contributions and labor taxes lead to statistically significant improvements in income inequality among EU member states. We conclude that tax policy, specifically the choice of taxes implemented, and labor market institutions, union membership in particular, reduce income inequality in the EU-28 in the observed period.

  18. 17 CFR 256.190 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... proprietary capital ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.190 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a...

  19. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  20. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Corporate income tax and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkvord Benn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although globalization has contributed immensely to growth and prosperity around the world, it is a growing challenge for tax policy makers. Globalization and greater mobility of tax bases increase the relative importance of taxes in corporations’ investment decisions. The combination of highly mobile capital, inadequacies in existing tax laws and a total change of international business environment have led to the fundamental problem in international tax law labeled by the OECD as the problem of BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, along with severe competition among countries to attract investments and business activities. These challenges are the topic for the 2014 seminar of the Nordic Tax Research Council. Based on the Nordic national reports we discuss these challenges

  2. Tax evasion and income source: A comparative experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    We compare tax evasive behavior in a country in transition from communism to that in a developed economy by running an experiment across distinct social groups in Albania and the Netherlands. Aside from the tax compliance decision, subjects choose a source of income, where one type enables

  3. Labour Supply and the Incidence of Income Tax on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Lanot, Gauthier

    1999-01-01

    worker to employer. Higher marginal tax rates are associated with increases in gross wages and earnings. A traditional estimate of the elasticity of labour supply with respect to the net wage, which assumes no shifting of the burden of income tax, is found to overstate incentive effects by a factor...

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.537 - Are income taxes to be withheld from the ITRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 Agency Responsibilities § 301-11.537 Are income taxes to be withheld from the ITRA? Yes, as determined by your internal tax... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are income taxes to be...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6851-1 - Termination assessments of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1... designs to do an act which would tend to prejudice proceedings to collect the income tax for such year or... compliance or to present any other evidence of compliance with income tax obligations. However, for the rules...

  6. 41 CFR 301-11.637 - Are income taxes to be withheld from the ITRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter Agency Responsibilities § 301-11.637 Are income taxes to be withheld from the ITRA? Yes, as determined by your internal tax... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are income taxes to be...

  7. 18 CFR 367.4092 - Account 409.2, Income taxes, other income and deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 409.2, Income taxes, other income and deductions. 367.4092 Section 367.4092 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  8. 18 CFR 367.4091 - Account 409.1, Income taxes, operating income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4091 Account 409... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 409.1, Income taxes, operating income. 367.4091 Section 367.4091 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  9. 75 FR 9141 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance as to qualified individuals with small business income who certify that they satisfy the gross income requirement for purposes of claiming a reduction in...

  10. Income tax consequences of individuals for income citizens in modern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiran Suvdaa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mongolia has a policy to improve the standard of living and employment, as well as to increase employment at the macroeconomic level. In today's world, the personal income tax is an instrument of regulation of family and personal consumption, savings, employment, marriage, and population growth, as well as the redistribution of income. Over the last 20 years, the country's membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD for creation of a safe environment increase investments and carry out tax reform in order to maintain employment and financial competition. The author considers the practice of income tax in different countries and examines the practice of the personal income tax in Mongolia, identifies problem areas and suggests solutions. Also, there are assessed the objectives of the Government of Mongolia to the changes in the tax on personal income

  11. Figuring the Tax on Timberland Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel

    1999-01-01

    Forest landowners whose timber related activities are considered to be a business may be liable for the self-employment tax. This tax applies to sole proprietors, independent contractors, members of a partnership, and owners of limited liability companies. Its purpose is to provide Social Security and Medicare coverage to self-employed taxpayers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6011-5 - Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns. 1.6011-5 Section 1.6011-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6011-5 Required use of magnetic media for corporate incom...

  13. As Certain as Debt and Taxes: Estimating the Tax Sensitivity of Leverage from Exogenous State Tax Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heider; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2012-01-01

    We use a natural experiment in the form of 121 staggered changes in corporate income tax rates across U.S. states to show that tax considerations are a first-order determinant of firms' capital structure choices. Over the period 1990-2011, firms increase long-term leverage by 104 basis points on average (or $32.5 million in extra debt) in response to an average tax increase of 131 basis points. Contrary to static trade-off theory, the tax sensitivity of leverage is asymmetric: firms do not re...

  14. Taxation of Income from Selling Property: Changes of New Income Tax Law Draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canatay HACIKÖYLÜ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are provisions in Income Tax Law No. 193 and Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 on the nature and taxation of income that real and legal persons acquire from real estate sales. There have been many changes in these provisions over time, but the changes made didnt meet the needs, and they distorted the systematic structure of the Laws. For these and similar reasons, the income tax law draft has been prepared based on Income Tax Law and Corporate Tax Law. With the draft, the Income Tax Law No. 193 and the Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 will be abolished. Draft is aimed to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the income tax on the income of real persons and institutions. In this study, the current situation and the regulations of the draft will be discussed. Moreover, It will be evaluate whether the regulations in the draft law are sufficient. Suggestions will be put forth to determine and declare the real value of the property in order to achieve the intended objectives in draft.

  15. 18 CFR 367.4102 - Account 410.2, Provision for deferred income taxes, other income and deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4102 Account 410.2, Provision for deferred income taxes, other income and..., Provision for deferred income taxes, other income and deductions. 367.4102 Section 367.4102 Conservation of...

  16. Mathematical Literacy teachers’ engagement with contextualised income tax calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teachers’ engagement with tasks based on the income tax tables issued by the South African tax authorities. The participants in the study are a group of 37 teachers who were enrolled in an in-service programme for Mathematical Literacy teachers. The purpose of the study is to explore the teachers’ interpretation and use of the rule used to calculate income tax. Data were generated from written responses of the teachers to three tasks, as well as follow-up interviews with eight of the participants. The findings indicate that some teachers (8% did not recognise any of the demands inherent in the income tax rule that they teach to their learners. Most teachers (54% were in the novice category, showing that they met some of the demands but need some help in carrying out the rule fluently. A further 32% were able to use the rule to work out the tax given various input incomes, but could not use the rule to find the input income when given the tax output, because they did not have the necessary algebraic skill.

  17. Can capital income taxes survive? And should they?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility of...

  18. Income Tax Returns: Reducing Compliance Costs for Personal Income Taxpayers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Simplifying procedures and improving legislation generally lead to a reduction in the compliance costs. The introduction of pre-filled tax returns clearly simplifies the tax compliance procedure. Before the introduction of pre-filled tax returns for personal income taxpayers in Slovenia, tax legislation was also modified. This paper presents the results of research into the compliance costs for personal income taxpayers before and after the simplification of the compliance procedure in Slovenia, irrespective of tax legislation itself not being simplified. The results indicate that pre-filled tax returns reduce compliance costs for personal income taxpayers by around 73%. Nevertheless, this is only a tentative estimate, since several assumptions are taken into account.

  19. Financial strategies for minimizing corporate income taxes under Brazil's new global tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Limberg, Stephen T.; Robison, John R.; Schadewald, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Brazil adopted a worldwide income tax system for corporations. This system represents a fundamental change in how the Brazílian government treats multinational transactions and the tax minimizing strategies relevant to businesses. In this article, we describe the conceptual basis for worldwide tax systems and the problem of double taxation that they create. Responses to double taxation by both the governments and the priva te sector are considered. Namely, the imperfect mechanisms de...

  20. 75 FR 15610 - Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 31 Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 30 to 39, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 262, in Sec. 31.3402(o)-3, replace the fifth sentence in paragraph (c...

  1. 78 FR 19100 - Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 31 Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 30 to 39, revised as of April 1, 2012, on page 301, in Sec. 31.3406(b)(3)-2, in paragraph (b)(5), the language ``Sec...

  2. 39 CFR 3060.40 - Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal income tax. (a) The assumed Federal income tax on competitive products income shall be based on the Postal Service theoretical competitive products enterprise income statement for the relevant year... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax...

  3. Income and Child Maltreatment in Unmarried Families: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M; Font, Sarah A; Slack, Kristen S; Waldfogel, Jane

    2017-12-01

    This study estimates the associations of income with both (self-reported) child protective services (CPS) involvement and parenting behaviors that proxy for child abuse and neglect risk among unmarried families. Our primary strategy follows the instrumental variables (IV) approach employed by Dahl and Lochner (2012), which leverages variation between states and over time in the generosity of the total state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit for which a family is eligible to identify exogenous variation in family income. As a robustness check, we also estimate standard OLS regressions (linear probability models), reduced form OLS regressions, and OLS regressions with the inclusion of a control function (each with and without family-specific fixed effects). Our micro-level data are drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth-cohort of relatively disadvantaged urban children who have been followed from birth to age nine. Results suggest that an exogenous increase in income is associated with reductions in behaviorally-approximated child neglect and CPS involvement, particularly among low-income single-mother families.

  4. The Dual Benefits of Tax Credits: Taxpayer Income Generation and Economy Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Two important provisions of the Internal Revenue Code were the creation of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit. Each of these credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax owed, thereby offsetting some of the increases in living expenses and federal income tax. For many this results in a smaller a tax liability. For others with…

  5. 18 CFR 367.4111 - Account 411.1, Provision for deferred income taxes-Credit, operating income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Provision for deferred income taxes-Credit, operating income. 367.4111 Section 367.4111 Conservation of... Company Operating Income § 367.4111 Account 411.1, Provision for deferred income taxes—Credit, operating... taxes, credit, that relate to service company operating income. ...

  6. 18 CFR 367.102 - Accounts 408.1 and 408.2, Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... taxes, state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes, Federal excise taxes, social security taxes, and...

  7. International Migration, Income Taxes and Transfers: A Welfare Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    An important issue in public policy debates is the effect of international migration on welfare in source and host countries. We address this issue by constructing a general equilibrium model of a two-class source or host country. Each country produces many traded and non-traded goods, uses income taxes and distributes the tax receipts equally to all individuals. The analysis examines the effects of permanent migration on class, and national welfare. We show, among other things, that marginal...

  8. Taxation and distribution of income in Brazil: new evidence from personal income tax data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO WULFF GOBETTI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT able This paper presents a critical analysis of income and profit taxes in Brazil, arguing that measures adopted in the 1980s and 1990s, as a result of mainstream recommendations, hindered the redistributive role of taxes. An examination of tax data reveals a high degree of top income concentration, low tax progressivity and violations of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity. The main reason for these distortions is the complete tax exemption of dividends, a benefit that is very rarely seen in developed countries. We propose a return to a progressivity-focused tax reform plan, a theme that has returned as a focus of debates with (Piketty, 2014.

  9. Tax Arbitrage in the Netherlands : evaluation of the capital income tax reform of January 1, 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Brys

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis evaluates the Dutch reform of capital income taxation of January 1, 2001. The Dutch capital-income-tax system before the reform distorted the choice between the investment’s sources of finance and uses of earnings, the businesses’ legal form, and the households’ (either

  10. Dynamic income taxation without commitment: Comparing alternative tax systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J-T; Krause, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether it is optimal to use separating or pooling nonlinear income taxation, or to use linear income taxation, when the government cannot commit to its future tax policy. We consider both two- period and inÖnite-horizon settings. Under empirically plausible parameter values, separating income taxation is optimal in the two-period model, whereas linear income taxation is optimal when the time horizon is inÖnite. The welfare e§ects of varying the di...

  11. Taxing Consumption or Income: Du Pareil Au Même?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijbren Cnossen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Income and consumption comprise the two main tax bases in most countries, leaving many governments with the perennial dilemma of deciding which ought to be the focus of fiscal policy. However, in Canada the situation is much less ambiguous; the existing Canadian tax regime disproportionately favours direct, income-based taxation, deriving over two-thirds [this includes property tax revenue] of tax revenues from this stream. This paper argues that Canada’s narrow focus on direct taxation leads governments to miss out on the revenuestabilizing effects that a greater emphasis on consumption taxes would bring. Tilting the balance toward indirect consumption taxes like the GST would benefit public revenues because: i demand fluctuates less than income; ii consumption is largely local, reducing tax avoidance; and iii the GST is less amenable to being co-opted for market-distorting political purposes. As income and consumption taxes are broadly similar in their effects, a shift from the former to the latter would have few consequences for Canadian employment, investment and saving. The author provides a summary of income and consumption tax structures in several Western countries with consumption-oriented tax structures to contend that it’s time Canadian governments embraced meaningful tax reform. L’impôt sur le revenu et les taxes à la consommation constituent les deux principales assiettes fiscales dans la plupart des pays, si bien que de nombreux gouvernements sont confrontés en permanence au dilemme de déterminer sur laquelle de ces deux solutions concentrer leurs politiques fiscales. Toutefois, au Canada, la situation est beaucoup moins floue; le régime fiscal canadien favorise de façon disproportionnée l’impôt direct sur le revenu et tire de cette source plus des deux tiers de ses recettes fiscales (cela comprend les impôts fonciers. On soutient ici que le Canada fonde une trop grande part de ces recettes sur l’impôt direct et

  12. Income Tax Preparation Assistance Service Learning Program: A Multidimensional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Richard; Callahan, Richard A.; Chen, Yining; Wade, Stacy R.

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a multidimensional assessment of the outcomes and benefits of an income tax preparation assistance (ITPA) service learning program. They measure the perceived proximate benefits at the delivery of the service program, the actual learning outcome benefits prior to graduation, and the perceived long-term benefits from a…

  13. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  14. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... avoid double taxation of net investment income and the taxation of amounts distributed to charities. The.... The proposed regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts. This document also contains a notice... calculated correctly. The likely respondents are individuals, estates, and trusts. Estimated total annual...

  15. Green tax reform, marginal revenue of wage income taxes, and the wage curve. A brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesemer, T.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown elsewhere (Schneider, 1997) that the success of a green tax reform depends crucially on a small slope of the wage curve of an efficiency wage model in which production occurs using a second factor E, energy or emissions. Also elsewhere (Scholz, 1998) it was revealed that there is a second necessary condition that the marginal revenue of the wage income tax is negative. In this note we show that (1) these two conditions are not independent, but rather depend both on the slope of the wage curve; and (2) if Schneider's condition of a sufficiently flat wage curve is fulfilled, marginal revenue of wage income taxes must be negative. By implication, both the green tax reform and the sign of the marginal revenue of wage income taxes depend on the slope of the wage curve which allows to distinguish three cases of a tax reform: (a) a double dividend for a very small slope of the wage curve (Schneider's case); (b) failure of unemployment reduction (Scholz' case) for a very steep wage curve; (c) failure of emission reduction for an intermediate case of a wage curve slope

  16. Taxes, Estonian state budget and economic crises. Maksud, riigi eelarve ja majanduskriis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  17. Simulating the impact of inflation on the progressivity of personal income tax in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Levy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Income tax reform in Brazil has mainly stressed changes in rates, aiming at increasing its progressivity. One aspect frequently overlooked is that, in the absence of adjustments of the tax rules to inflation, the level and distribution of the income tax burden can be substantially affected. We use a microsimulation model to simulate the potential revenue and distributive effects of inflation on the income tax in Brazil. Our findings suggest that if the income tax is not adjusted for inflation, progressivity would decrease but redistribution would increase due to a larger tax burden, but income inequality would not substantially change.

  18. Volunteer Income Tax Assistance: A Community Coalition for Financial Education and Asset Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Joan; Scarrow, Andrea; Palmer, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Free tax programs, such as Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA), allow recipients of the earned income tax credit (EITC) to have their returns filed for free. VITA and other free tax programs are nationwide. However, each program is distinct, and the services provided by these programs differ. This article discusses a successful and unique…

  19. The Effect of Recent Tax Changes on Taxable Income: Evidence from a New Panel of Tax Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the elasticity of taxable income to the net-of-tax share using a panel of tax returns that follows a random sample of taxpayers from 1999 to 2005, spanning the EGTRRA 2001 and JGTRRA 2003 tax changes. Results suggest that the elasticity of taxable income to the current year's net-of-tax share lies between 0.3 and 0.4 overall,…

  20. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on the... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who...

  1. Implications about the causality principle in the business income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Durán Rojo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the implications about the practice of the causality principle for the determination of the income set with intention to apply the business income tax.We start considering the fact that this tax can be imposed to acquire goods known as a deductible expense of the practice, but not from those that are going to be part of the compatible cost to expropriate. Then, we make an extensive analysis about the way the Peruvian income tax law has configured the approaches of this principle and the understanding emerged from important jurisprudence cases from the members that solve problems, specially the Tax Court, when adopting a fast principle of expenses without causes.At the same time, this article describes the achievements of the rational and normality cost principles, so important for the evaluation of the performance of the principle of causality.Finally, we present some ideas about the accreditation of the cost facing and its relation to the causality principle.

  2. 26 CFR 1.511-3 - Provisions generally applicable to the tax on unrelated business income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions, including penalties, as are applicable to fiduciaries in the case of the income tax of other... taxable income by organizations subject to the tax on such income, see section 6012, paragraph (e) of § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Provisions generally applicable to the tax on...

  3. 75 FR 25314 - Community Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Matching Grant Program-Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... correction to a notice of the Community Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Matching Grant Program, which... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Community Volunteer Income Tax Assistance... notice of the availability of application packages for the 2011 Community Volunteer Income Tax Assistance...

  4. 26 CFR 1.533-1 - Evidence of purpose to avoid income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-1 Evidence of purpose to avoid income tax. (a) In general. (1) The Commissioner's determination that a corporation was formed or availed of for the purpose of avoiding income tax with respect to... shall be determinative of the purpose to avoid the income tax with respect to shareholders unless the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6091-3 - Filing certain international income tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations which claim the benefits of section 941 (relating to the special deduction for China Trade Act... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing certain international income tax returns... certain international income tax returns. The following income tax returns shall be filed as directed in...

  6. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  7. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  8. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  9. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  10. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  11. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  12. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  13. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  14. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  15. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  16. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  17. 75 FR 62632 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, November 24, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  18. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, August 25, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  19. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  20. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  1. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, August 22, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  2. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, October 27, 2010, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  3. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  4. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  5. 17 CFR 256.411 - Provision for deferred income taxes-credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes-credit. 256.411 Section 256.411 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... deferred income taxes—credit. This account shall be credited and Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes debited with an amount equal to the portion of taxes on income payable for the year which is attributable to a...

  6. Classification of EU Countries in the Context of Corporate Income Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejovská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxes are an integral part of human society, regardless of the economic, cultural and political disparities between the countries. Income taxes of legal entities represent significant part of the budget, what is the reason for their timeliness and public discussion. The aim of the paper is a classification of the EU countries into economic groups and an assessment of the grouping these EU member states based on common characteristics in the area of corporate income taxes. Common features are determined by the structure of selected macroeconomic indicators: public debt, government budget balance, the overall tax burden, economic performance, nominal and effective tax rate. The analysis compares a range of methodological approaches of hierarchical (Ward linkage and median linkage, and non‑hierarchical clustering (k-means clustering and fuzzy cluster analysis. The results of cluster analysis grouped the monitored countries into five clusters based on common characteristics as the corporate income tax rate, economics performance and the level of public debt. The result of the analysis shows that despite of ongoing there are still differences present, which are present in the ratios of countries’ development as well as in the economic policies of the particular countries.

  7. Higher cigarette taxes--healthier people, wealthier state: the Hungarian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tibor

    2007-09-01

    To prove that higher cigarette taxes eventually decrease smoking and do also increase state incomes from tobacco taxes by using Hungarian figures. Collection and analysis of available data on tobacco use, levels of excise and value added taxes on tobacco products and state incomes originating from the tobacco sector. In Hungary, regular tobacco tax increases resulted in decreased cigarette consumption and its lower prevalence figures in some population groups. State incomes have increased in spite of regular cigarette tax raises. Therefore, there is on conflict of interest between the health and finance portfolios in supporting further tobacco tax increases. Hungary should use regular, above the inflation tobacco tax raises as means for improving population health. Tobacco control advocates should prevent tobacco companies' attempts aimed at deterring decision makers from supporting such tax policies.

  8. Tax on Incomes Obtained from Romania by Non-resident Taxpayers – Computation Methodology and the Fiscal Impact upon the Corporate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina IOVU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Withholding tax for non-resident taxpayers is a tax due to the Romanian state budget by taxpayers, the expense for the amount related to this tax playing a fiscal impact upon the fiscal result and, therefore, upon the corporate tax due within a fiscal period of time. Most of the times, in practice, a series of questions arise, such as: which is the entity having the obligation to compute and pay the tax, respectively the income payer or the one collecting it; is the transaction taxable from the point of view of the tax on non-resident taxpayers’ income, function of the nature and object of the transaction; which is the tax rate owed, in case the operation has a taxable feature; which is the fiscal treatment applicable in case of expenses incurred in the accounting records, with the amount of the tax owed on non-resident taxpayers income. Due to this reason, in practice there are several approaches which could generate fiscal risks, related to the fiscal treatment applicable in case of different types pf transactions concluded with non-resident tax payers, depending on the nature and scope of the respective transaction.

  9. A Stochastic Growth Model with Income Tax Evasion: Implications for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev; Emin Gahramanov

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a stochastic endogenous growth model augmented with income tax evasion. Our model avoids some existing discrepancies between empirical evidence and theoretical predictions of traditional tax evasion models. Further, we show that: i) productive government expenditures play an important role in affecting economy's tax evasion rate; ii) the average marginal income tax rate in Australia come close to the optimal; and iii) the phenomenon of tax evasion is not an excuse for...

  10. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  11. Income Inequality and U.S. Tax Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Marri, Anand R.; Wylie, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Many social scientists have recently commented on the high levels of income inequality in the United States. Indeed, the last time income inequality was as great as it is today was 1928, the year before the stock market crash ushered in the Great Depression. In this article, the authors offer a historical look at income inequality and taxation in…

  12. Income Tax Law: U.S. Armed Forces Training: Course Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The course book contains eight lessons designed for military Personnel learning how to properly prepare their U.S. Income Tax returns. The lessons cover the following subjects: requirments for filing returns of income and declaration of estimated tax; exemptions; gross income; exclusions and deductions to arrive at adjusted gross income;…

  13. Tax Law Asymmetries and Income Shifting : Evidence From Japanese Capital Keiretsu

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuki Onji; David Vera

    2008-01-01

    When positive and negative income are treated asymmetrically under a corporate income tax (CIT) without allowance for group taxation, a group of affi liated corporations may engage in tax avoidance by shifting income from profi table to unprofi table subsidiaries for the sole purpose of minimising the sum of tax liabilities of the group members. The aim of this paper is to offer systematic evidence on the behavioural response to a tax penalty that arises from doing business in multiple entiti...

  14. Participation of Public Benefit Organizations in Income Tax – Financial and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musiałkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents the scale of the issues against the background of the practical functioning of the public finances. The article summarizes the reflection on the rationality and the essence of the transfer of public funds to public benefit organizations.

  15. ESTIMATION OF TAX BASE IN PERSONAL INCOME TAX AS A FORM OF SUPPORT FOR AGRICULTURE IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata BUDLEWSKA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxes in most EU countries are designed to financially support farms through lower tax rates. The preferential tax allowances and exemptions motivate farmers to undertake specific activities, in accordance with the main objectives of the agricultural policy. As a result of such activities, the agricultural sector receives additional support, which officially is not subject to public control, at the same time contributing to a considerable burden of EU budgets. The aim of the article is to evaluate the selected tax expenditures addressed to farmers, contained in the German personal income tax. The paper is an attempt to answer the question, whether the method for estimating income from agricultural production used in the German personal income tax law has an impact on reducing tax burdens of farm owners and what the consequences are for the agricultural sector, especially in the area of changes in the area structure of farms.

  16. Bringing health and social policy together: the case of the earned income tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Peter S; Sohler, Nancy; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde

    2009-07-01

    The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public's health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health.

  17. PROFIT TAX OR INCOME TAX? OPTIONS FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION OF ROMANIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs usually seek for solutions to reduce their tax burden. We can speak about tax optimization as long as these solutions are in accordance with the law; if they are not, they obviously fall into the area of fiscal fraud. This paper addresses the issue of taxation applicable to the Romanian micro-enterprises. These are small entities that fulfil certain conditions regarding total turnover, equity and domain of activity. Although the provisions applying to micro-enterprise taxation were elaborated, among others, with the intention to reduce tax evasion, they also allow the micro-enterprises with losses to avoid tax payment. In a country with low purchasing power and a great number of taxes and fees like Romania, the entrepreneurs are tempted to use any kind of method to reduce the payments due to the state budget. The micro-enterprise owners make no exception in this matter.

  18. Assessment of IT solutions used in the Hungarian income tax microsimulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I.; Hardhienata, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of information technology (IT) in diverse microsimulation studies and presents state-of-the-art solutions in the traditional application field of personal income tax simulation. The aim of the paper is to promote solutions, which can improve the efficiency and quality of microsimulation model implementation, assess their applicability and help to shift attention from microsimulation model implementation and data analysis towards experiment design and model use. First, the authors shortly discuss the relevant characteristics of the microsimulation application field and the managerial decision-making problem. After examination of the salient problems, advanced IT solutions, such as meta-database and service-oriented architecture are presented. The authors show how selected technologies can be applied to support both data- and behavior-driven and even agent-based personal income tax microsimulation model development. Finally, examples are presented and references made to the Hungarian Income Tax Simulator (HITS) models and their results. The paper concludes with a summary of the IT assessment and application-related author remarks dedicated to an Indonesian Income Tax Microsimulation Model.

  19. 76 FR 30539 - Historic Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... historic structures'' or ``certified rehabilitations'' for Federal income tax incentives. (3) This rule... changes proposed in the rule are purely technical. Moreover, the tax incentives program involves purely...

  20. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  1. The Impact of Corporate Income Tax on Wages and Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etleva Bajrami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available t This paper is focused on impact of corporate tax on wages and the number of employees. Since the main goal of businesses is profit and because wages are part of the costs it’s important to understand if businesses try to cut costs by reducing wages or through reducing the number of employees. In this paper, through the analysis is intend to understand whether there is a relation between changes in corporate tax rates, the growth rate of state revenues from corporate tax with the growth rate of wages. To achieve the purpose of this paper it will also be analyzed the relation between growth rates of corporate tax with the growth rate of employment. To reach the conclusion is analyzed the progress of wages, the progress rates of corporate tax and is presented a brief overview of the economy in general because the rate of its growth will affect businesses operating there and will affect all public because a part of them is employed in the private sector. By data analysis in this paper does not seem to pass the burden of corporate tax on employees through salary or number of employees.

  2. EFFECTIVE CORPORATE INCOME TAX RATE IN ROMANIA: A MICRO-BACKWARD LOOKING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lazar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of micro-backward looking methodology, the paper computes the effective corporate income tax rate for Bucharest Stock Exchange non-financial companies for 2000 - 2009 period, using data from companies financial reports. We find that effective tax rate computed as profit tax/pre-tax income ratio was below the statutory tax rate, throughout the period, except for the year 2009 (when an alternative minimum tax was introduced and the differences have diminished since the flat tax was adopted (2005. When applying a correlation analysis, we find that the difference between this effective tax rate and the statutory tax rate presents a strong negative correlation with the return on assets ratio (ROA. Also, we have find that commerce is enjoying the most favourable tax regime, while energy is the most heavily taxed.

  3. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  5. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  6. Income Tax Law: U.S. Armed Forces Training: Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The instructor's guide provides eight detailed lesson plans for instructing military personnel in the preparation of their U.S. Income Tax Returns. The plans cover the following subjects: requirements for filing returns of income and declaration of estimated tax; exemptions; gross income; exclusions and deductions to arrive at adjusted gross…

  7. Estimates of Federal Tax Liabilities for Individuals and Families by Income Category and Family Type for 1995 and 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    For several years, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced estimates of average pretax incomes, effective tax rates, and shares of taxes paid by income-related population groups at different income levels...

  8. What social workers need to know about the earned income tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Sondra G

    2002-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal earned income tax credit (EITC) has become the largest antipoverty program in the United States. For the 2002 tax year, working families with children can receive as much as $4,140 in EITC benefits. Although families may arrange to receive benefits throughout the year (through their paychecks), most receive a lump sum after filing federal income taxes. Research suggests that many families use the credit to purchase big-ticket items, to move, to pay for educational expenses, or to set aside savings. Thus, the credit may promote long-term household development as well as help families with basic expenses. Research also suggests that EITC encourages work among single-parent families, an outcome that is consistent with one goal of welfare reform. Social workers can be involved in outreach efforts that help low-income workers claim EITC benefits and inform them about advance-payment options. Social workers can also support efforts to increase EITC benefits for larger families and link tax refunds to saving programs.

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  11. State ownership, agency conflict and effective tax rates: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jianfu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agency conflict between minority and controlling shareholders in state owned firms has to be considered in order to examine the variability on effective tax rates. In China, state ownership helps the government to achieve its social objectives by optimizing corporate income tax. We provide a significant result to prove that state owned firms paid higher corporate income taxes than private firms. Our results also indicate that corporate effective tax rates are positively associated with firm sized and inventory intensity. However, we have no strong evidence to support the association with leverage, return on assets and capital intensity.

  12. Income Tax Revenue as an Indicator of Regional Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ijaz Hussain; Sumbal Rana

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the use of income tax revenue as an indicator of regional development in Pakistan. Initially, we identify a dramatic shift in income tax revenue trends at the provincial level for the period 1992/93 to 2005/06. We develop a simple model of income tax revenue and estimate the relationship between growth of income tax revenue and gross regional product (GRP). Based on the estimated relationship, Punjab appears to have been the fastest growing province...

  13. 78 FR 76889 - Proposed Addendum to the Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    .... Please use the title ``Proposed Addendum to the Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in... to the Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding Company Structure'' to... for the Institution. Any tax refund attributable to income earned, taxes paid, and losses incurred by...

  14. State energy severance taxes, 1985-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report analyzes changes in aggregate and State-level energy severance taxes for 1985 through 1993. Data are presented for crude oil, natural gas, and coal. The report highlights trends in severance tax receipts relative to energy prices and production, using severance tax data published by the Bureau of the Census of the US Department of Commerce and production data published by the Energy Information Administration

  15. Do healthcare tax credits help poor-health individuals on low incomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Novi, Cinzia; Marenzi, Anna; Rizzi, Dino

    2018-03-01

    In several countries, personal income tax permits tax credits for out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. Tax credits benefit taxpayers at all income levels by reducing their net tax liability and modify the price of out-of-pocket expenditure. To the extent that consumer demand is price elastic, they may influence the amount of eligible healthcare expenditure for which taxpayers may claim a credit. These effects influence, in turn, income distributions and taxpayers' health status and therefore income-related inequality in health. Redistributive consequences of tax credits have been widely investigated. However, little is known about the ability of tax credits to alleviate health inequality. In this paper, we study the potential effects that tax credits for health expenses may have on income-related inequality in health status with reference to the Italian institutional setting. The analysis is performed using a tax-benefit microsimulation model that reproduces the personal income tax and incorporates taxpayers' behavioral responses to changes in tax credit rate. Our results suggest that the current healthcare tax credit design tends to favor the richest part of the population.

  16. Taxation of Wage Incomes in Terms of Tax Justice in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan BAY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While wage income is taxed in the Turkish tax system, it is observed that some taxpayer groups have been taxed in different procedures and thus a number of practices have been observed that have damaged the tax justice. Since the wage income is generally taxed by withholding, this situation causes some problems in terms of tax justice. The fact that the application of the annual declaration is limited in the taxation of the wage income makes the wage earners disadvantageous to those who earn income and revenues from the other income elements in terms of the deductions that can be utilized in reaching the net income. In addition, as a requirement of the separation principle, the wage incomes have to be taxed at a lower rate than capital gains. In this study, the regulations regarding the taxation of the wage incomes in the Turkish tax system will be examined and applications contrary to the tax justice will be presented and the necessary suggestions will be made.

  17. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... regulations reflect changes made to the law by the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009... definition of a ``specified tax return preparer'' must electronically file Federal income tax returns that... of the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-92 (123 Stat. 2984...

  18. Legal solutions to the conflict between equity of income redistribution and economic efficiency of taxation in relation to personal income tax law in Thailand and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Rodjun, Jirasak

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and compare Thai and UK income tax laws to establish how they cause conflict between equity of income redistribution and efficiency of taxation. This thesis also aims to validate theories that optimal tax structures and efficient tax legislation and administration can resolve the conflict. There are six chapters: Chapter One reviews concepts of equity and efficiency. Research in the components of income tax Jaw to establish optimal tax structures (...

  19. Do increases in subsidized housing reduce the incidence of homelessness? Vidence from the low-income housing tax credit

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Osborne; Kawano, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of subsidized housing on homelessness using the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest place-based housing program in the United States. To generate quasi-experimental variation in housing placements, we exploit a discontinuous increase in the amount of tax credits available to projects placed in certain high-poverty neighborhoods. Using data from the U.S. Census and HUD, we find that LIHTC project installation has no significant impact on neighborhood homele...

  20. 75 FR 63428 - Historic Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... corporations must obtain these certifications to be eligible for tax credits from the Internal Revenue Service... containing the requirements for obtaining a tax credit; replaces references to NPS's regional offices with...

  1. Communication from the Legal Service and the HR Department: 2005 INCOME TAX DECLARATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    1) Avis d'impôt sent by the French Centre des Impôts Members of the personnel residing in France have received (or are about to receive) a document issued by their local Centre des Impôts (CDI) entitled «Avis d'impôt - Impôt sur les revenus de 2005». The document states in particular that: 'The declaration form you have filed indicates no income for 2005. Please note that this avis d'impôt does not constitute substantiation of the absence of any income. You have been in receipt of income from international organisations or diplomatic or consular missions that is exempt from taxation in France. Indicate this income at the bottom of this avis d'impôt.'1) This document must not be returned to your CDI. It is intended for French administrative bodies and agencies wishing to obtain information on your tax position in France. If a French body or agency (e.g. the Family Allowances Fund) requests you to provide it with information on the income you have declared to the tax authorities, you must indicate i...

  2. Problems and prospects of the development of the personal income tax in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its distinguishing features, advantages and disadvantages. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in USA. The comparison is made by the parameters like the type of scale (progressive and proportional taxes, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of deductions. As a result the conclusion is that the personal income tax in Russia needs the reformation. In a consequence of that formation, improvement of both social and demographic spheres can be achieved.

  3. 45 CFR 260.33 - When are expenditures on State or local tax credits allowable expenditures for TANF-related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State or local tax credits allowable expenditures for TANF-related purposes? (a) To be an allowable expenditure for TANF-related purposes, any tax credit program must be reasonably calculated to accomplish one... credit to be an allowable expenditure. (2) Under a State Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program, the...

  4. Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Hospital Admissions for Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma, 1995-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Schmidt, Brian; Luo, Feijun; Xu, Likang; Ports, Katie A; Lee, Rosalyn D

    Policies that increase household income, such as the earned income tax credit (EITC), have shown reductions on risk factors for child maltreatment (ie, poverty, maternal stress, depression), but evidence is lacking on whether the EITC actually reduces child maltreatment. We examined whether states' EITCs are associated with state rates of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma among children aged tax filer gets money even if taxes are not owed) from nonrefundable EITCs (ie, tax filer gets credit only for any tax owed), controlling for state rates of child poverty, unemployment, high school graduation, and percentage of non-Latino white people. A refundable EITC was associated with a decrease of 3.1 abusive head trauma admissions per 100 000 population in children aged Tax refunds ranged from $108 to $1014 and $165 to $1648 for a single parent working full-time at minimum wage with 1 child or 2 children, respectively. Our findings with others suggest that policies such as the EITC that increase household income may prevent serious abusive head trauma.

  5. Effects of the provisions of the corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmak, M. R.

    The effects of the provisions of the existing corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions are analyzed. It is shown that the provisions of a tax code do not discriminate against investment in solar technologies if the present value of depreciation and interest expense tax deductions over the relevant decision period is equal to the present value of actual capital expenses. However, on the basis of a quantitative analyses, it is concluded that the existing corporate income tax code does discriminate against solar investments for the majority of corporations, although the 25 percent tax credit available to businesses for solar investments is sufficient to alleviate the distortion in most cases. In contrast, the provisions of the existing personal income tax code favor solar investments over investments in less capital intensive energy generating units, as the interest paid on loads used to finance solar investments made by individuals is tax deductible, while conventional fuel expenses are not deductible.

  6. The Distribution of Payroll and Income Tax Burdens, 1979-99

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrusi, Andrew; Poterba, James M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the level and distribution of income and payroll tax burdens for U.S. families over the 1979-99 period. During this period, payroll taxes have become an increasingly important component of the tax burden for many low- and middle-income families. This paper uses a new and expanded version of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) TAXSIM program to analyze the impact of legislative changes in income and payroll taxes. Averaged over all families, the ...

  7. Distributing the Corporate Income Tax: Revised U.S. Treasury Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Julie Anne; Lin, Emily Y.; Power, Laura; Cooper, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to improve the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s distributional model and methodology by defining new model parameters. We compute the percentage of capital income attributable to normal versus supernormal return, the percentage of normal return attributable to the "cash flow tax" portion of the tax that does not impose a tax burden, and the portion of the burdensome tax on the normal return to capital borne by capital income versus labor income. In summary, 82...

  8. Development of an Award Winning Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William F.; Thalacker, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program, sponsored by the IRS, offers free tax services for individuals with low-to-moderate incomes, the elderly, disabled and/or those who lack English language proficiency. Although established by the IRS in 1969, it is administered by partnering community based volunteer organizations throughout U.S.,…

  9. 75 FR 4139 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  10. 76 FR 45004 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax...

  11. 75 FR 62631 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  12. 75 FR 33895 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  13. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  14. 75 FR 39332 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  15. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  16. 75 FR 25317 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  17. Income Tax Act, 1989 (No. 1 of 1989), 6 April 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Saint Lucia Act revises and consolidates the law relating to income tax. It contains the following provisions, among others: 1) income accrued to a married woman is to be taxed in her own name; 2) the spousal deduction is set at $1500; and 3) the child deduction is set at $1000.

  18. Memorandum from the HR Department and the Legal Service concerning income tax declarations for 2006 in SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    As the Swiss authorities have yet to make known their instructions on how to complete the income tax declaration forms for 2006, members of the CERN personnel who have received or may receive an income tax declaration form must request an extension of the deadline for returning the form to their tax office. Canton of Geneva Declaration forms must be returned by 31 March. An extension to 30 June can be obtained by telephone (stating your tax number) by calling 022 327 49 00 before 31 March. Canton of Vaud Declaration forms must be returned by 15 March. An extension to 15 June can be obtained by telephone (stating your tax number) by calling 021 316 00 00 before 15 March. Canton of Valais Declaration forms must be returned by 31 March. An extension to 31 July can be obtained from the relevant tax office. Please contact the HR Department for further information. Canton of Fribourg Declaration forms must be returned by 31 March. Requests for extensions should be submitted in writing (stating your tax num...

  19. Reforming Individual Income Tax Is the Crucial Factor in Stabilizing the Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povarova Anna Ivanovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for writing this article was a statement of the First Deputy Finance Minister Tatyana Nesterenko who claimed that in 2017 the government would run out of money to pay salaries to budgetary sphere employees [3]. Indeed, the reserves accumulated in the fat years are running out. The Government of the Russian Federation finds the following sources to cover the growing budget deficit: first, privatization of the remnants of state property, which will create a momentary effect and will not become a stable channel for filling the treasury; and second, major cuts on spending that on the eve of the electoral cycle can aggravate protest moods of Russians caused by a sharp deterioration of the standard of living. The majority of representatives of the expert and scientific community, including ISEDT RAS employees, consider the urgent need to reform the system for taxation of individual income tax by introducing a progressive tax scale as one of the main solutions to the growing imbalance of the budgetary system. This scale is applied successfully in all the countries of the OECD, G20 and BRICS. The goal of the present paper is to substantiate the need for reformation of individual income tax as a driving force of sustainable mobilization of budget funds. As a hypothesis, an assumption is made concerning the existence of a direct link between the redistribution of income through progressive taxation and an increase in the resource potential of the budgetary system. Research findings presented in the paper confirm that the current mechanisms for taxation of people’s incomes do not correspond to the constitutional principles of equality, social orientation and economic viability. As a result, judging by the most important indicators of socioeconomic development, Russia lags behind developed countries and some comparable developing countries. Excessive income polarization brings to the fore the issue concerning individual income tax modification

  20. MECHANISM TRANSFER PRICING AND THE NEED INTRODUCTION COMMON CONSOLIDATED CORPORATE INCOME TAX TRANSNATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigorescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base in countries with high tax countries with lower taxation. In the European Union the financial operations generate tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit manipulation by corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced transfer pricing rules, but these rules has shown limited efficacy, however, contribute to the increasing complexity of tax laws and the emergence of additional costs for companies. This paper deals with the concrete examples, the solution to solving the problem of transfer pricing in the European Union by the introduction of common consolidated corporate income tax.

  1. Corporate taxes in the world economy: reforming the taxation of cross-border income

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Harry; Altshuler, Rosanne

    2006-01-01

    Proposals for the reform of the taxation of cross-border income are evaluated within the general context of the corporate tax in an open economy. We focus on the various behavioral decisions that can be affected such as the location of income and its repatriation. The two income tax proposals considered are: (1) dividend exemption and (2) burden neutral worldwide taxation in which all foreign subsidiary income is included currently in the U.S. worldwide tax base, and at the same time the corp...

  2. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State (including franchise taxes). (4) Income tax component means that part of the cost-of-service that... deferred taxes becomes deficient in, or in excess of, amounts necessary to meet future tax liabilities. (2...

  3. Macroeconomic effects of zero corporate income tax on retained earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Jaanika Meriküll

    2011-01-01

    International tax competition had led to a lowering of corporate tax rates worldwide. Estonia was the first country to reduce the tax rate on retained earnings to zero, while distributed profits remained taxed at the pre-reform level. This paper seeks to analyse the effects of this unique tax reform implemented in year 2000. We apply a neoclassical exogenous growth general equilibrium model with an extension for endogenous corporate finance. Our findings indicate that the reform had a strong ...

  4. Information for members of the personnel residing in the Canton of Vaud and who are required to complete the 2005 income tax declaration

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed that the Swiss Federal tax authorities have still not authorised the Canton of Vaud to modify the taxation rules for members of the personnel residing in the Canton, in particular those of Swiss nationality, following the introduction of the internal taxation system at CERN. Pending a statement from the Federal tax authorities, the members of the personnel concerned are requested to complete the 2005 income tax declaration in compliance with the following instructions: Members of the personnel of Swiss nationality residing in the Canton of Vaud must complete the 2005 income tax declaration, declaring all their sources of income and assets, including the income they received from CERN (state the taxable amount as it appears in the annual certificate of internal taxation that you received in April). They must return their declaration forthwith to the relevant tax office. N.B.: they should write the following statement in the Comments section of the form, namely 'Membre du pers...

  5. 26 CFR 1.934-1 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.934-1 Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands. (a) General... Islands will be computed as follows: (A) Add to the income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands... income from such sources. (ii) Limitation. Tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands attributable to...

  6. 41 CFR 302-12.9 - What are the income tax consequences if I use a relocation services company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the income tax consequences if I use a relocation services company? You may incur income taxes on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the income tax consequences if I use a relocation services company? 302-12.9 Section 302-12.9 Public Contracts and Property...

  7. Compensating Differentials and Income Taxes: Are the Wages of Dangerous Jobs More Responsive to Tax Changes than the Wages of Safe Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David

    2012-01-01

    Income taxes distort the relationship between wages and nontaxable amenities. When the marginal tax rate increases, amenities become more valuable as the compensating differential for low-amenity jobs is taxed away. While there is evidence that the provision of amenities responds to taxes, the literature has ignored the consequences for job…

  8. Interval and global progressivity of the income tax from wages in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubátová Květa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of progressivity of personal income tax in the Czech Republic and Slovakia imposed on wages. It works with both the methods known from the literature: the local method (interval and global progressivity. The data source is the wage statistics of the Statistical Offices and taxes are calculated fictitiously on the basis of law with adoption of assumptions. Results for interval progressivity in both countries show that while progressivity of the lowest income taxpayers is higher, it decreases with increasing gross income. Personal income tax in the Czech and Slovak Republics is observed as progressive in the entire range, even though the statutory tax rate is linear. The Lorenz curve shows that the distributions of gross wages in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are of a similar nature. The values of the coefficient of interval progressivity and the coefficient according to Musgrave and Thin (CR has a coefficient of 1.024 and SR of 1.037 show that personal income tax is more progressive in Slovakia. Although Slovak personal income tax imposed on wages is more progressive, post-tax incomes of employees are more equitably distributed in the Czech Republic.

  9. Do the Rich Flee from High State Taxes? Evidence from Federal Estate Tax Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Bakija; Joel Slemrod

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines how changes in state tax policy affect the number of federal estate tax returns filed in each state, utilizing data on federal estate tax return filings by state and wealth class for 18 years between 1965 and 1998. Controlling for state- and wealth-class specific fixed effects, we find that high state inheritance and estate taxes and sales taxes have statistically significant, but modest, negative impacts on the number of federal estate tax returns filed in a state. High p...

  10. THE PERSPECTIVE OF IMPLEMENTATION THE INCOME TAX IN AGRICULTURE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kubot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reference point of the study was the prospect of introduction the income tax in agriculture. The aim of the article was evaluation of the changes in the tax system and the factors affecting these opinions. The consequences of the formal tasks associated with the introduction of income tax were evaluated. There was also an attempt to answer the question: what advantages and disadvantages will bring together change of the tax system in agriculture and what kind of solutions will be expected by Polish farmers from the Ministry of Finance.

  11. Empirical Analysis Concerning the Correlation Fiscality Rate – Tax Incomes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Drãcea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the specialized literature it is reviewed the taxation from all points of view and the question raised by the last decade analysts is: what is the optimum level of taxation? The difficulty in answering to this question stands in the opposite interests: State wants a high level of taxation due to the increasing trend of public expenses while the tax payers wants a low level in order to benefit of greater financial funds.Starting from Leffer theory, the objective of this paper is the empirical analysis of the correlation between fiscality rate and the tax incomes in Romania, using Matlab programand SPSS software. The paper is structured in three parts: first part it is review the specialized literature, in the second part is described the research methodology while the third part compound results and discussions. The paper is finished by conclusions.

  12. Income Tax and the FAFSA for Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This two-page brief answers various questions about the relationship between the filing of tax returns and a youth's completion of the FAFSA. Questions answered include: How does a youth's decision to file a tax return affect the FAFSA?; Are youth required to file tax returns?; and What should an unaccompanied youth do if his/her parents claim…

  13. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264...

  14. Corporate income tax competition, double taxation treaties, and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Janeba, Eckhard

    1992-01-01

    In the presence of international-capital mobility foreign direct investment is influenced by corporate income taxation and the rules how taxes paid in the host country are treated at home. In this paper the exemption, credit and deduction method are considered as tax rules. First, it is shown that under the exemption method there exist tax rate combinations that lead to a reversal of capital flows compared to a free-trade situation. Second, the decision on the tax rule and the corporate tax r...

  15. The Distribution of Income and Taxes/Transfers In Canada: A Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Crisan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Who pays and how much? These are crucial questions for any tax system and, given the complexity of the economy, they are also among the most difficult to answer. This paper undertakes an analysis of the distribution of taxes and transfers in Canada using a static approach based on annual income combined with the novel approach of breaking down taxpayers by age cohort. The paper examines how tax rates net of transfers differ by age and income group, and how those rates change over taxpayers’ lifetimes. It clearly reveals the progressive nature of Canada’s tax system. In our base case scenario, when all age cohorts are considered together and transfers are treated as negative taxes, the first two quintiles of the income distribution are net recipients of government transfers with negative net tax rates equal to about -48 percent for the first quintile and -33 percent for the second quintile. For middle to high-income individuals net tax rates are positive and increase with income, from 10 percent for the median group, to 24 percent for the fourth quintile and 34 percent for the fifth quintile. Looking at net tax rates by age cohort, we find that overall the bottom 20 percent of the income distribution is a net recipient of fiscal transfers at all ages. However, on average for individuals 65 and over all but the top 20 percent of the income distribution are net recipients of fiscal transfers, with negative net tax rates. The age related redistributive nature of Canada’s tax system is further emphasized by an examination of the Gini coefficients for each age cohort, calculated here for the first time. Starting at age 30, before taxes and transfers income inequality is found to rise monotonically with age, leveling off at 65. Taxes and transfers reduce the degree of income inequality significantly for all ages, but substantially more so for the elderly due to age related features of the tax and transfer system. If redistribution can be thought

  16. Cost Effectiveness of the Earned Income Tax Credit as a Health Policy Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter A; Mohit, Babak; Wu, Jinjing; Jia, Haomiao; Rosen, Zohn

    2016-12-01

    Lower-income Americans are suffering from declines in income, health, and longevity over time. Income and employment policies have been proposed as a potential non-medical solution to this problem. An interrupted time series analysis of state-level incremental supplements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program was performed using data from 1993 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and state-level life expectancy. The cost effectiveness of state EITC supplements was estimated using a microsimulation model, which was run in 2015. Supplemental EITC programs increased health-related quality of life and longevity among the poor. The program costs about $7,786/quality-adjusted life-year gained (95% CI=$4,100, $13,400) for the average recipient. This ratio increases with larger family sizes, costing roughly $14,261 (95% CI=$8,735, $19,716) for a family of three. State supplements to EITC appear to be highly cost effective, but randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The state tax regulation in the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cherkasova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian tax laws in petrochemical complex generally has a fiscal orientation now. The current system of taxation in the oil industry has the biggest tax burden in the world, amount of oil and gas revenues was more then 43-51% of all budget revenues over past decades, remaining its main source. Generally, there were changes in the ratios of incomes in the forms of export customs duty and tax on the extraction of minerals. State policy in the field of resource payments affects the entire industry, influencing the structure of oil and oil supplies on internal and external markets and realization of the programs for modernization and development in priority areas. Changes of structure of national production, increasing the contribution of agriculture, IT sphere and other branches to aggregate national product should be reflected in the revision of the tax burden on the industries, associated with the extraction and processing of minerals. It is necessary to reduce the fiscal direction of tax regulation in petrochemical sector with a simultaneous increasing the role of tools that stimulate modernization and updating of equipment, implementation of new processes and technologies, the maximum use of process-deepening processes as well as the development of deposits with severe production conditions. In the near future, it is planned to introduce new changes in taxation in field of oil production and refining - introduction of benefits for oil production in new fields or fields with difficult production conditions or poor quality of oil and introduction of a tax on additional income..

  18. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  19. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo; de Souza, Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira; de Castro, Fábio Ávila

    2015-04-01

    the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012. to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups. We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census. We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  20. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012.Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups.Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census.Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  1. The Economic Effects of the Corporate Income Tax: Changing Revenues and Changing Views

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews recent empirical research studying the impact of the U.S. corporate income tax on the behavior of firms. Four areas are discussed:(1) The extent to which dividend taxation imposes a "double tax" on corporate source earnings;(2) The historical impact of tax incentives on the incentives to investand the value of corporate equity;(3) The effects of limited loss offset provisions on the incentives to invest in risky assets; and(4) The determinants of corporate leverage.

  2. Foreign investment, international mergers and the 1993 capital income tax reform in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    Foreign direct investment in Finland and the 1993 Finnish Capital Income Tax Reform are examined in this article. Under territorial taxation, the most common form of international double taxation relief; the tax reform will encourage new capital investment. New capital investment from the US, which applies worldwide taxation, would be mildly discouraged, and FDI in the form of mergers and acquisitions largely discouraged. In the UK and Japan, the worldwide principle only covers tax rates. Thu...

  3. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance...

  4. ANTI-CRISIS REGULATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX AS A MEAN TO INCREASE GOVERNMENT DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Игоревна Ометова

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The article contains analysis of the procedure of income tax assessment using flat and progressive tax rate that is directed to accomplish stable economic growth. Periodical press and statistical data of salary in the Ulyanovsk region have been used as the information source. It is shown that modern income tax assessment in Russia fails to deal with the pressing problem of national economics – excess income inequality. The main ways to regulate the process of individual income tax collection are offered in order to find means to maintain economic growth and improve the welfare of Russian citizens.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-10

  5. ANALYSISTHE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS OF ANTI-INCOME TAX AVOIDANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN TAIWAN ANDCHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study found that the main reasons, which lead to a more stringent Anti-Income Tax Avoidance in China than in Taiwan, are as follows by analysis thedifferences of Cross-Strait (Taiwan and China Anti-Income Tax Avoidancepolicies and the process of law regulation. First, the executive department inChina has higher autonomy to regulate Anti-Income Tax Avoidance; whereasTaiwan’s regulations need to reflect citizens’ demand. Second, foreign-fundedenterprises have less impact on Anti-IncomeTax Avoidance in China; however,multinational enterprises in Taiwan have strong influence on it. Third, China hasthe large scale of domestic market, but Taiwan is a typical export-orientedeconomic system. Forth, most multinational enterprises in China are belonged tocentral government. Nevertheless, they are private-owned in Taiwan.

  6. The Effects of Company Income Tax on Dividend Policy of Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukunola Uwuigbe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of company income tax on the dividend policy of firms inNigeria. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 40 listed firms in the Nigerian stockexchange market were selected for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, theCentral Bank of NigeriaStatistical Bulletin and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010were used for the study. This paper basically modeled the effects of company income tax on thedividend policy of firms in Nigeria using the regression analysis method. The study as part of itsfindings observed thatthere is a significant positive relationship between the company income tax andthe dividend payout of the sampled firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludesthat a changein corporate income tax rate will significantly affect the dividend policies of the sampled firmsoperating in Nigeria.

  7. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-7 - Coordination with income tax treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coordination with income tax treaties. (a) Consistency requirement—(1) Application. The application of this... nonresidents the deduction for personal residence mortgage interest expense and generally limits them to only...

  8. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tract (QCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — It allows to generate tables for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tracts (QCT) and for Difficult Development Areas (DDA). LIHTC Qualified...

  9. The short-term impacts of Earned Income Tax Credit disbursement on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Strully, Kate W; Dow, William H

    2014-12-01

    There are conflicting findings regarding long- and short-term effects of income on health. Whereas higher average income is associated with better health, there is evidence that health behaviours worsen in the short-term following income receipt.Prior studies revealing such negative short-term effects of income receipt focus on specific subpopulations and examine a limited set of health outcomes. The United States Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is an income supplement tied to work, and is the largest poverty reduction programme in the USA. We utilize the fact that EITC recipients typically receive large cash transfers in the months of February,March and April, in order to examine associated changes in health outcomes that can fluctuate on a monthly basis. We examine associations with 30 outcomes in the categories of diet, food security, health behaviours, cardiovascular biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and infection and immunity among 6925 individuals from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey. Our research design approximates a natural experiment,since whether individuals were sampled during treatment or non-treatment months is independent of social, demographic and health characteristics that do not vary with time. There are both beneficial and detrimental short-term impacts of income receipt.Although there are detrimental impacts on metabolic factors among women, most other impacts are beneficial, including those for food security, smoking and trying to lose weight. The short-term impacts of EITC income receipt are not universally health promoting, but on balance there are more health benefits than detriments.

  10. The Corporate Income Tax in Canada: Does its Past Foretell its Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bird

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate tax reform has long been a contentious issue in Canada. Official commissions, academics and others have often proposed changes in the way we tax corporations. During the last 30 years, perhaps largely owing to concerns about international competitiveness, the corporate tax rate has been substantially reduced. Since revenues did not decline as a result, those concerned by increased inequality who believe that corporate taxes are paid mainly by the rich have suggested that corporate rates should be increased. Others, more persuaded by the increasing evidence that much of the burden of the corporate tax ultimately falls on workers and wages and that even to the extent it falls on capital the economic price paid in terms of reduced output and productivity for each corporate tax dollar collected is high have taken the opposite tack and argued that, if anything, corporate tax reform should be aimed at reducing even further the effective tax rate on corporate capital. Both the technical and the political aspects of corporate taxation are thus at play in the current discussion of possible corporate tax reform. After a brief review of the history, we consider what is now known about the relation between corporate rates and revenue, the surprisingly complex question of who ultimately pays the tax, and the largely undesirable economic effects of corporate income taxes. If all voters were economists and familiar with the evidence, it is unlikely any would favour big increases in corporate taxes. However, even economists who have read all the studies mentioned here (and more do not agree about the best way to reform the corporate income tax. We sketch three recent major reform proposals Canadian experts have recently put forward (1 replace the existing corporate tax by a tax on ‘rents’ (above-normal returns on capital, (2 replace both it and the current personal income tax by a ‘dual income tax’ with a flat rate on all capital income

  11. Improving population health by reducing poverty: New York's Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks-Lim, Jeannette; Arno, Peter S

    2017-12-01

    Despite the established relationship between adverse health outcomes and low socioeconomic status, researchers rarely test the link between health improvements and poverty-alleviating economic policies. New research, however, links individual-level health improvements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), a broad-based income support policy. We build on these findings by examining whether the EITC has ecological, neighborhood-level health effects. We use a difference-in-difference analysis to measure child health outcomes in 90 low- and middle- income neighborhoods before and after the expansion of New York State and New York City's EITC policy between 1997-2010. Our study takes advantage of the relatively exogenous source of income variation supplied by the EITC-legislative changes to EITC policy parameters. This feature minimizes the endogeneity problem in studying the relationship between income and health. Our estimates link a 15-percentage-point increase in EITC benefit rates to a 0.45 percentage-point reduction in the low birthweight rate. We do not observe any measurable link between EITC benefits and prenatal health or asthma-related pediatric hospitalization. The magnitude of the EITC's impact on low birthweight rates suggests ecological effects, and an additional channel through which anti-poverty measures can serve as public health interventions.

  12. Tax evasion and the source of income: An experimental study in Albania and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of experiments among different social groups in both Albania and the Netherlands give the opportunity to compare behavioral patterns related to tax evasion. Aside from the decision whether or not to evade taxes, subjects have to choose a source of income, where one type enables subsequent

  13. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... Tax Issue Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment, ideas...

  14. The pioneer income tax relief as an investment incentive in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxation is one of the major fiscal policy instruments used by government in regulating the economy, boosting investments and regulating inflation. Many developing nations formulate tax policies aimed at stimulating rapid economic growth. One of such policies in Nigeria is the Pioneer Income Tax Relief with the main goal ...

  15. Slovak Income Tax Legislation in Terms of EU Secondary Law Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the integration process of implementation of European Union secondary law into the Slovak tax legislation. In particular, the article analyses whether provisions of (i EU Parent Subsidiary Directive, (ii EU Interest and Royalty Directive and (iii EU Merger Directive are implemented into the Slovak Income Tax Act. Following our research, it should be noted that in general, the Slovak tax legislation has adopted the EU secondary law, in particular, the Parent Subsidiary and Interest and Royalty Directives have been implemented. It should be noted that the profit distributions are not subject to tax in Slovakia. It follows that interest and royalty are not subject to tax and is applicable to EU associated companies. Following the Slovak implementation of EU Merger Directive, merger transactions are generally treated as not giving rise to a capital gain. As a result, according to the Slovak Income Tax Act the income received by shareholders from acquiring new shares and income from exchange of the shares on merger transaction is not subject to income tax.

  16. Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2018-07-01

    I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain than income. The paper's finding shows that a program that is not designed for health purposes, such as earned income tax credit, can have unintended effects on health outcomes. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Deductible expenses for effects of the income tax. A business approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiváñez Guarniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal charges of the income tax state that if we want to consider an expense as deductible it must fulfill the causality principle, apart from that, they state rules that expenses are necessary to generate income and fulfill the criterion of reasonable expenses, majority among others.Showing that an expense is a necessity is a complicated task that in many cases will force — the person to determine that necessity — to examine internal aspects of the company, as business strategies, internal policies, etc. Apart from the analytical complexity of these topics, there will be the subjective aspect from the point of view of the outside observer.This article pretends to show the difficulty to decide if an expense is necessary or not, through the analysis of a real case where the tax system denies expenses of a taxpayer because they were not considered necessary for that kind of business.

  18. State and local taxes minor factors for E and P locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In the main oil and gas producing states of the U.S., contrary to common perception, differences are small in the state and local tax bills on exploration and production (E and P) operations. Therefore it is unlikely that competition for exploration and investment, such as between Louisiana and Texas, depends on these taxes. It is likey that price and geological considerations dominate the selection of E and P locations. The common perception that some states could be at a disadvantage is based on two factors: First, there is a considerable variation among states in severance tax rates levied on oil and gas ranging from California's negligible rate of 2 1/2 cents/bbl to Alaska's 15% of the value of a barrel at the well. Second, state and local tax structures differ in the degree to which they rely on business taxes relative to consumer taxes. The objective of this article is to test this hypothesis by estimating the tax bill of the production industry in the leading oil and gas producing states in the U.S. The tax bills of the states are compared. This figure depicts, expressed as the per barrel of oil or gas equivalent produced in each state, the total amount paid in sales, property, corporate income or franchise, and severance taxes

  19. 41 CFR 301-11.621 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.621 Section 301-11.621 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter Employee Responsibilities § 301-11.621 Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional...

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 Employee Responsibilities § 301-11.521 Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional...

  1. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  2. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax with...

  3. Double income tax between UK and US, 1914-1945 – Impact on UK multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Tax rates on business income in many countries increased enormously during World War I and stayed at a much higher level than before the war. Particularly, the UK multinationals with subsidiaries based elsewhere other than the Empire suffered from the situation because the UK did not provide a foreign tax relief until 1945, when a tax treaty with US was signed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the historical premises of establishment of the tax treaty in 1945. The major premise of this pap...

  4. Tax and statement matters of the income tax for the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busuioceanu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous legislative changes that occur from one financial year to another are not always able to clarify points of divergence existent between establishing the tax profit and the accounting one. Thus, accountants are sometimes put in difficulty, regarding the obligation to present the accounts respecting the principle of a true and fair view and the desire to optimize the tax cost of their business. The fact is that in the absence of specific accounting rules, the tax normative is set as a practical normative. In the fiscal side, there are clear law provisions governing each type of tax which must be respected. The tax base is the tax result and taxation,, by imposing strict rules, is trying to balance the general tendency of the taxpayers to minimize the tax due.

  5. Demographic change and income tax revenue in Germany: a microsimulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beznoska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high net migration, both Germany’s overall population and its workforce potential are currently growing. However, within a few years this demographic trend will be reversed, leading to a decline in population as a whole and especially in the number of those gainfully employed. In this paper, we use a population projection to apply a static ageing approach to German micro data. Then, we simulate income tax revenue with a microsimulation model for the future population. In 20 years’ time the annual price-adjusted income tax loss is estimated to be equal to € 18 billion or almost 7 per cent. This fall in income tax revenue resulting from a shrinking and ageing society will place a huge strain on public finances in Germany, an effect further enhanced by the shift of the tax burden from pension contributions to pension benefits.

  6. The impact of financing schemes and income taxes on electricity generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Plante, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electricity generation cost estimates reported in many national and international studies provide a wealth of data to support economic assessments, and eventually to guide choices on generation sources and technologies. However, although the electricity generating cost is the criterion generally selected to present results, it is calculated by various means in different studies because the chosen approach must be relevant to the context of the specific project (private vs. stated-owned investor, regional differences...). The traditional constant-money levelized generation cost methodology is widely used by utilities, government agencies and international organisations to provide economic assessments of alternative generation options. It gives transparent and robust results, especially suitable for screening studies and international comparisons. However, the method, which is strictly economic, does not take into account all the factors influencing the choice of investors in liberalized electricity markets. In particular, it does not take into account financing schemes and income taxes which may hate a significant impact on the capital cost to be supported by the investor. The approach described below is based on the overall framework of average levelized lifetime cost evaluation, but it takes into account the financing scheme adopted by the investor and the income taxes supported by the plant operator/utility. It is similar to models which are used to analyse the economics of competing electricity generation sources in liberalized electricity markets, such as the merchant plant cash flow model adopted in the MIT study. (authors)

  7. An analysis of Malaysia's corporate income tax expenditures and negative income tax expenditures using accounting standards as the benchmark tax base

    OpenAIRE

    Yussof, Salwa Hana

    2017-01-01

    Tax expenditures are government indirect spending, hidden in the tax system, often used to support government’s social and economic objectives. Instead of directly allocating money for a particular objective, the government forgoes tax revenues from those who undertake activities that could achieve the objective. Therefore, tax expenditures should be analysed as government spending programs. Tax expenditure reporting and analysis has been a regular practice among many countries in the worl...

  8. 18 CFR 35.24 - Tax normalization for public utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provision for deferred taxes becomes deficient in or in excess of amounts necessary to meet future tax... subdivision of a State (including franchise taxes). (5) Income tax component means that part of the cost of...

  9. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  10. E-Government and Citizen Adoption of Innovations: Factors Underlying Citizen Use of the Internet for State Tax Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic government has been embraced by many organizations seeking to dramatically improve service delivery, but results to date have often fallen short of expectations. This dissertation is focused on state revenue agencies and their electronic tax filing mechanisms for state individual income taxes. It asks: What factors best explain whether…

  11. The taxation of the Corporate Income Tax of disposal of goods from deposit incorrect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Halasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the taxation of the Corporate Income Tax of disposal of goods from deposit incorrect. The author indicates the moment of recognition of revenue from the operations of disposal of goods, which should be deferred until the completion of the possibilities of disposal of goods from deposit incorrect, when they are fixed costs of that income. Only at this point it will be possible to determine income.

  12. Cash social transfers, direct taxes, and income distribution in late socialism

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Branko

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes the impact of direct taxes and cash social transfers on income distribution in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia in the years before the collapse of communism. He contrasts the results for socialist and market economies. Cash social transfers accounted for about a fifth of gross income, a proportion comparable with that in developed welfare economies. Generally, cash transfers were unrelated to income in socialist countries, in marked contrast with m...

  13. Are lower income smokers more price sensitive?: the evidence from Korean cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seng Eun

    2016-03-01

    The cigarette excise taxes and the price of a typical pack of cigarettes in Korea have not increased since 2005, and effective tax rate as a fraction of price and real price of cigarettes have both been falling. As smoking prevalence is higher among lower income people than among higher income people in Korea, the regressivity of cigarette excise taxes is often cited as a barrier to tobacco tax and price policy. While studies in several other high-income countries have shown that higher income individuals are less price sensitive, few studies have examined the differential impact of cigarette tax increases by income group in Korea. Most of the Korean literature has estimated the demand for cigarettes using time-series aggregate sales data or household level survey data, which record household cigarette expenditures rather than individual cigarette consumption. Studies using survey data often lack time-series variation and estimate cigarette demand using household expenditure data, while studies using time-series aggregate sales data lack cross-sectional variation. I examine differences in the effects of cigarette price on the cigarette consumption of various income groups using individual-level cigarette consumption records from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KHNNES). I also analyse the implications of cigarette taxes and price increases on the relative tax burdens of different income groups. I use pooled data from the KNHNES for the 1998-2011 period to estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption of four income groups. Treating cigarette consumption as a latent variable, I employ an econometric procedure that corrects for non-random sample selection, or the fact that some non-smokers might have smoked at a low enough price, and estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption by income group. The estimated price elasticities include the responsiveness of potential smokers as well as current smokers. Lower income Korean

  14. Effective Tax Rate of Corporate Income Tax in the Post-Crisis Period: The Case of Non-Financial Companies Listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorescu Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the main causes for the divergence between the statutory and effective rate of the corporate income tax, based on the provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code. The differences between the gross income and the taxable profit, which form the basis for calculating the income tax, are highlighted. The second part is devoted to the methodology for calculating the effective income tax rate and its analysis, based on data from the financial statements published in the post-crisis period by Romanian companies listed on BVB.

  15. 26 CFR 1.857-4 - Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet certain source-of-income requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-4 Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet certain source-of-income requirements. Section 857... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet...

  16. 浅谈新个人所得税的影响和建议%On the impact and proposal of the new personal income tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华

    2012-01-01

      在国家税收体系中,个人所得税作为调节收入分配、缩小收入差距的重要手段,取之于民,而用之于民。个人所得税在国民经济中具有非常重要的地位和作用。从4个方面对新个人所得税进行了论述:①论述了个人所得税的定义、历史由来以及它的社会意义;②对其实施的影响进行论述;③阐述了新个人所得税的现状难题及改革方向;④得出结论说明新个人所得税存在的局限性。%  In the states tax system, personal income tax as an important means of regulating income distribution to narrow the income gap from the people, and the benefit of the people. The personal income tax has a very important position and role in the national economy. Are discussed from four aspects of the new personal income tax the:①discusses the definition of personal income tax to the historical origin as well as its social signifi-cance;②its implementation are discussed;and③described the problem of the status of the new personal income tax and the direction of reform;the④concluded the limitations of the new personal income tax.

  17. Inflation and the Indexation of Personal Income Taxes in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of inflation on taxpayers’ liabilities can be measured in at least two different and often contrasting ways. On the one hand, it can be measured by the percentage increases in the average tax rates. On the other hand, it can be measured by the percentage points, that is the absolute increases in those rates. Although the former has attracted more attention, it is the latter that is more significant in regards to the effects on disposable incomes and after-tax income distribution. Much of the controversy regarding indexation has revolved around the issue of stabilization. Some have argued that indexation poses real dangers to stability while others have pointed to its positive potential. The author looks at analytical adjustment schemes and analyses practical applications of indexation, arguing that the case for or against indexation of the personal income tax cannot be made in abstract as the consequences of indexing differ among countries.

  18. Extending Marketplace Tax Credits Would Make Coverage More Affordable for Middle-Income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jodi; Eiber, Christine

    2017-07-01

    ISSUE: Affordability of health coverage is a growing challenge for Americans facing rising premiums, deductibles, and copayments. The Affordable Care Act's tax credits make marketplace insurance more affordable for eligible lower-income individuals. However, individuals lose tax credits when their income exceeds 400 percent of the federal poverty level, creating a steep cliff. GOALS: To analyze the effects of extending eligibility for tax credits to individuals with incomes above 400 percent of the federal poverty level. METHODS: We used RAND's COMPARE microsimulation model to examine changes in insurance coverage and health care spending. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Extending tax-credit eligibility increases insurance enrollment by 1.2 million, at a total federal cost of $6.0 billion. Those who would benefit from the tax-credit extension are mostly middle-income adults ages 50 to 64. These new enrollees would be healthier than current enrollees their age, which would improve the risk pool and lower premiums. Eliminating the cliff at 400 percent of the federal poverty level is one policy option that may be considered to increase affordability of insurance.

  19. Projected impacts of federal tax policy proposals on mortality burden in the United States: A microsimulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The public health consequences of federal income tax policies that influence income inequality are not well understood. I aimed to project the impacts on mortality of modifying federal income tax structures based on proposals by two recent United States (U.S.) Presidential candidates: Donald Trump and Senator Bernie Sanders. I performed a microsimulation analysis using the latest U.S. Internal Revenue Service public-use tax file with state identifiers (2008 tax year), containing nationally-representative data from 139,651 tax returns. I considered five tax plan scenarios: 1) actual 2008 tax structures; proposals in 2016 by then-candidates 2) Trump and 3) Sanders; 4) a modified Sanders plan with higher top tax rates (75%); and 5) a modified Sanders plan with higher top rates plus revenue redistribution to lower-income households (Trump and Sanders plans, respectively. Under the modified Sanders plan including higher top rates, 68,919 (95% CI: 25,221-113,561) fewer deaths/year are projected. Under the modified Sanders plan with redistribution, 333,504 (95% CI: 192,897-473,787) fewer deaths/year are expected. Policies that both raise federal income tax rates and redistribute tax revenue could confer large reductions in the total number of annual deaths among Americans. In this era of high income inequality and growing public support to address the rich-poor gap, policymakers should consider joint federal tax and redistributive policies as levers to reduce the burden of mortality in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Why the Effect of Tax Is Insufficient in Narrowing Income Gap in China? A Theoretical Analysis Framework and A Practical Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-xuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the problem of income gap in China is rather severe.However,the effect of tax policy on narrowing income gap is not satisfactory,which reveals inadequate ability of the tax system in narrowing income gap.In accordance with the present situation of current tax system and tax collection administration,this paper constructs a theoretical framework consisting of the three integrated elements,namely,design of tax categories,tax system structure and tax administration,to make a theoretical analysis and practical study on the reasons of inadequate ability of the current tax system in narrowing income gap.The results of the study show that there exist some defects in the design of tax categories,such as consumption tax,personal income tax,property tax,and so on,which result in the weakening of the micro ability of tax in narrowing income gap.The dual imbalance in the structures of tax system and tax categories results in the weakening of the structural ability of taxes in narrowing income gap.The incompleteness in tax administration,especially the frail of the direct tax collection system,results in the weakening of the tax collection ability of taxes in narrowing income gap.Therefore,in order that tax policy can give full play to its role in narrowing income gap,efforts ought to be made to improve the micro ability,structural ability and collection ability of taxes in narrowing income gap through the improvement of the design of tax categories,the adjustment of the tax system structure and the enhancement of the tax collection administration.

  1. Tax Incentives to Businesses in the Areas of Special State Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Marković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal and strategic framework for regional development in the Republic of Croatia, which includes the development of entrepreneurship, was established almost twenty years after Croatia had gained independence. Until then, less developed areas, i.e., areas with a special status in terms of certain reliefs and exemptions granted to citizens and economic entities had been supported through individual laws. Today, government authorities stimulate entrepreneurial activity through individual regulations in force, by corporate income tax exemptions. The state gives back corporate income tax (tax liability not subject to exemptions that taxpayers engaged in entrepreneurial activities had paid up to the state budget, to local self-government units as assistance from the state budget. By doing so, the government aims to reduce the gap between the developed and underdeveloped parts of the Republic of Croatia and encourage entrepreneurial activity in the smaller and less developed regions. The indicators of entrepreneurial activity in the area supported by the state: the number of enterprises, number of employees in an enterprise, the total revenue generated by entrepreneurial activities, profit and loss after tax and net operating profit/loss, provide insight into the performance of enterprises. In view of the above, the authors have analyzed the performance of enterprises entitled to tax relief in the areas of special state concern and provided an overview of financial resources (tax revenue which state authorities have waived to facilitate a more competitive business performance.

  2. 85 THE PIONEER INCOME TAX RELIEF AS AN INVESTMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regulating the economy, boosting investments and regulating inflation. ... Investors are encouraged to take advantage of the incentives to boost their .... in convertible securities derived from tourists, provided the income is put in a reserved.

  3. Expanding wallets and waistlines: the impact of family income on the BMI of women and men eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2009-11-01

    The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 26 CFR 1.6695-2 - Tax return preparer due diligence requirements for determining earned income credit eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer due diligence requirements... the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6695-2 Tax return preparer due diligence requirements for determining earned income credit eligibility. (a) Penalty for failure to meet due diligence...

  5. The effects of Earned Income Tax Credit payment expansion on maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. PHENOMENON OF TAX LOSSES OF STATE BUDGETARY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Sidelnykova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is structuring categorical-conceptual apparatus of the of the tax losses phenomenon in the state budgetary resources, namely clarification of the concepts of “tax gap”, “tax expenditures”, “tax losses”, as well as the quantification of tax losses of the Consolidated budget of Ukraine. Methodology. Most modern scholars interpret the tax gaps as the amount of taxes that were not received with the budget as a result of shadow economy, tax evasion and the existence of tax debt. However, considerable asymmetry of the tax component of the state budgetary resources also arises due to budget losses of all levels as a result of providing tax exemptions. In modern economic literature such losses are considered as tax expenditures. We consider tax losses a generalizing concept including potential amounts of tax revenues that the state and local budgets have not received as a result of the existence of the phenomenon of “tax gaps” and “tax expenditures”, and the amount of losses of the state budgetary resources in terms of their tax component is equal to the sum total of tax exemptions provided, unsettled tax debt of economic agents and the loss of tax revenue due to the operation of shadow economy. The study is based on the analysis of tax losses of budgetary resources of Ukraine during the period of time from 2004 to 2014. The results of the study showed enormous losses of budgetary resources in Ukraine due to the imperfection of the tax system, spread of undisclosed operations, tax evasion, and inefficient fiscal policy implementation. The Consolidated budget loses the amounts of monetary funds, equal to an average of 53.30% of actual revenue over the period studied. Total tax losses of the state budgetary resources in 2014 are equivalent to the total actual expenditures of the Consolidated budget of Ukraine on social protection and social security, defense, public order, security and judicial authorities. Even

  7. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  8. The dominance of indirect taxes in Estonian state budget. Summary:Kaudsete maksude dominant Eesti riigieelarve tuludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. The purpose of Estonian government’s economic policy during the highest peak of crisis was to keep the budget in balance. Instead of recovering economy the taxes were arisen and costs were reduced. The results of such a policy aren’t still clear. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article

  9. Listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management: Based on China’s capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanwei Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Ministry of Finance issued the new China accounting standards on February 15, 2006(CAS2006, which require the listed companies to use the balance sheet liability method for the income tax accounting. Thus, it give us an opportunity to investigate the earnings management of listed companies from the perspective of income tax. Under the balance sheet liability method, because conforming earnings management strategies and nonconforming earnings management strategies have different income tax cost and the current income payable will also vary, the listed companies need to choose conforming earnings management and nonconforming earnings management. Our research just try to investigate the relationship between the listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management on the background of this new system.Design/methodology/approach: Our research approach combines theoretical analysis and empirical analysis. This paper first make a deep theoretical analysis on the listed companies’ choice between pretax earnings management activities that have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘conforming earnings management’ and earnings management activities that do not have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘nonconforming earnings management’,and then we exemplify our theory. Next, we come up with two hypotheses based on the theoretical analysis, build up a restatement model and conduct the empirical examination. The empirical analysis employs the method of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Findings: When engaging in earnings management, listed companies will trade off conforming and nonconforming earnings management from the perspective of income tax cost. We find that managers’ motivations and purposes will influence the choice. On the one hand, when companies are facing the punishment of the suspension or termination of the listing for three consecutive losses, they will have a great incentive to

  10. America’s Underground Economy: Measuring the Size, Growth and Determinants of Income Tax Evasion in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Feige, Edgar L.; Cebula, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study empirically investigates the extent of non compliance with the tax code and the determinants of federal income tax evasion in the U.S. Employing the most recent data we find that 18-19% of total reportable income is not properly reported to the IRS, giving rise to a “tax gap” approaching $500 billion dollars. Three time periods are studied, 1960-2008, 1970-2008, and 1980-2008. It is found across study periods that income tax evasion is an increasing function of the av...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.421 - What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for property management services? 302-3.421 Section 302-3.421 Public Contracts... § 302-3.421 What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for property management services...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-7 - Overpayment of income tax on account of work incentive program credit carryback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or refund related to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a work incentive program (WIN... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of work incentive program credit carryback. 301.6511(d)-7 Section 301.6511(d)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...

  13. 41 CFR 302-12.108 - What are the income tax consequences that we must consider when offering relocation services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contact the: Assistant Chief Counsel (Income Tax & Accounting), Internal Revenue Service, 1111... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the income tax consequences that we must consider when offering relocation services? 302-12.108 Section 302-12.108 Public...

  14. Peculiarities of the Application of Income Tax Standards by the Subsidiary Company in the Russian Accounting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Natalya A.; Gudshatullaeva, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the application practice of accounting regulation provision of subsidiary company "Accounting of settlements on income tax" (AR 18/02) and correlation of methodology of formed indicators with standards of International Accounting Standards (IAS) 12 "Income taxes" at formation of the…

  15. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653

  16. Taxing Pennsylvania: A Family-Focused Overview of Pennsylvania Taxes. State Fiscal Analysis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    Noting that a state's tax policies have direct impact on a family's ability to feed, clothe, house, educate, and care for its children, this report presents an overview of taxes in the state of Pennsylvania. The report is presented in five sections. Section 1 presents the argument that it is necessary to understand the rule driving the revenue…

  17. The Life Cycle of the Firm with Debt and Capital Income Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brys, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of capital income taxes on financial and investment decisions of corporations.Extending Sinn's (1991) nucleus theory of the firm with debt finance, the model determines the optimal sources of finance (debt, newly issued equity or retained earnings), the optimal use of

  18. 14 CFR 399.44 - Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.44 Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. For rate-making purposes other than the determination of subsidy under section 406(b), it is the policy of the Board that...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6011-5 - Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns. 301.6011-5 Section 301.6011-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6011-5...

  20. Income taxes and benefits among Czech employees: Changes since 1989 and cross-national comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 1-2 (2006), s. 2-17 ISSN 0015-1920 Grant - others:Global Development Network(IN) GDN RRC V-37 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : income tax * Czech Republic * social benefits Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006

  1. Pension Accounting and Reporting with Other Comprehensive Income and Deferred Taxes: A Worksheet Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert E.; Sneathen, L. Dwight, Jr.; Veal, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    This instructional tool presents pension accounting using a worksheet approach where debits equal credits for both the employer and for the plan. Transactions associated with the initiation of the plan through the end of the second year of the plan are presented, including their impact on accumulated other comprehensive income and deferred taxes.…

  2. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [GSA Bulletin FTR 10-04] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy... (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA tables found in 41 CFR Part 301-17...

  3. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  4. An investigation into the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa: An income tax perspective: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia M. Brink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trusts have long been used as an estate planning mechanism, including the avoidance of estate duty and donations tax. In the 2016 National Budget the Minister of Finance indicated that Government was proposing several legislative measures during 2016/2017 to prevent individuals from using a trust to avoid estate duty (and donations tax to a certain extent. Unexpectedly, the 2016 draft Taxation Laws Amendment Bill and the final Amendment Bill did not give effect to any of these proposals, but introduced other less drastic measures to control the abuse of trusts for tax purposes, albeit with the same stated purpose. Aim: The main aim of the study was to clarify the reform proposals (albeit unclear and consequently based on certain assumptions and to compare the reform proposals with the final amendments. This comparison will shed some light on the fairness and appropriateness of the final amendments and, more importantly, on the possibility that the reform proposals published by National Treasury in February 2016 not included in the final amendments will be enacted in the future. This investigation will assist tax practitioners and taxpayers in effective tax and estate planning, given that the reform proposals and final amendments have a possible impact on the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa. Setting: This article examines existing literature in a South African income tax environment. Methods: In order to meet this objective a qualitative approach based on a literature study of pure theoretical aspects was used. Results and conclusion: It was found that should the reform proposals become law, many trusts would become ineffective from a tax-planning perspective and these changes might erode other benefits trusts offer, jeopardising the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa.

  5. Student-Athletes as Employees: Income Tax Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Courts have employed contract principles and workman's compensation theory in certain cases finding a student-athlete an employee of the institution. Should this impression be expanded and gain widespread judicial acceptance, the Internal Revenue Service could require the inclusion of scholarship amounts in the recipient's gross income.…

  6. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  7. Taxation in Nigeria: an evaluation of the impact of the Companies Income Tax Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Enya Nwocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Paper is written against the background of the need to strengthen Nigeria’s tax laws for optimum contribution to public revenue and economic development in an era of widespread tax evasion and economic recession. The Paper has found among other things that defects and loopholes that exist in the Companies Income Tax Act (CITA is the occasion for widespread tax evasion, the arbitrary and discriminatory application of the Act, and the political manipulation of the process. The result is that the Act is completely encumbered in achieving its objectives. To eliminate these encumbrances, the paper has recommended, among other things, the amendment of the law to place the wide discretionary powers of the president to impose on or exempt companies from taxation under the supervision and authority of the National Assembly and to place the powers of the Federal Board of Inland Revenue to distrain properties of defaulters under the jurisdiction of the courts.

  8. 76 FR 13932 - Disclosure of Information to State Officials Regarding Tax-Exempt Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... approval of these safeguards by the IRS, as well as satisfaction of any other statutory requirements (such... Employment taxes, Estate taxes, Excise taxes, Gift taxes, Income taxes, Penalties, Reporting and... under section 6104(c) on the ASO's behalf by specifying in writing each person's name and job title, and...

  9. A comparison of the poverty impact of transfers, taxes and market income across five OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sami; Duclos, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the poverty reduction impact of income sources, taxes and transfers across five OECD countries. Since the estimation of that impact can depend on the order in which the various income sources are introduced into the analysis, it is done by using the Shapley value. Estimates of the poverty reduction impact are presented in a normalized and unnormalized fashion, in order to take into account the total as well as the per dollar impacts. The methodology is applied to data from the Luxembourg Income Study database.

  10. Gasoline taxes : an examination of news media discourse related to gas tax funding in six states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Why is it that some state legislatures approved gasoline tax increases while others did not? : In this analysis we examine gasoline tax issue frames in the print news media to see if these : frames provide clues to the eventual policy outcomes. : We ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). In General... parent's taxable income. Thus, the allocable parental tax is not computed with reference to unearned... same ratio to the total allocable parental tax as the child's net unearned income bears to the total...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.638 - May we offer a lump sum payment to cover the income tax liability on the covered ITRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment to cover the income tax liability on the covered ITRA? 301-11.638 Section 301-11.638 Public... Thereafter Agency Responsibilities § 301-11.638 May we offer a lump sum payment to cover the income tax... understands that he/she is responsible for any income taxes without further reimbursement. See the...

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.538 - May we offer a lump sum payment to cover the income tax liability on the covered ITRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment to cover the income tax liability on the covered ITRA? 301-11.538 Section 301-11.538 Public... 1994 Agency Responsibilities § 301-11.538 May we offer a lump sum payment to cover the income tax... understands that he/she is responsible for any income taxes without further reimbursement. (See the...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7654-1 - Coordination of U.S. and Guam individual income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination of the source of income shall be based on the principles contained in sections 861 through 863... collections attributable to income from sources within the United States shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States. (ii) Net collections attributable to income from sources within Guam shall be...

  15. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The STATE...

  16. The Economic and Philosophical Aspects of the Socialization of Tax Redistribution of the Population’s Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubkovskyi Serhii A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at a theoretical substantiation of possibilities and prospects of socialization of the tax redistribution of incomes of population as a direction of harmonization of its fiscal and regulatory functions, on the one hand, as well as private and public interests, on the other. The interrelation of social and tax policy in the mentioned sphere was explored for possibilities and potential of expansion of functional purpose of the tax redistribution of incomes of individuals in the direction of its socialization. The author has proposed and substantiated the introduction to the scientific apparatus of the terms of «socialization of the tax redistribution of incomes of individuals», «socialization of tax policy» in general, as well as «socialization of tax policy in the sphere of income taxation of individuals». In addition, the need to allocate the function of socialization together with the principle of socialization of the income taxation of individuals have been proved. It has been proposed to move from the proportional to the progressive income taxation of individuals with emphasis on the need to take into account the socio-economic situation of the payer, its inclination and sustainability to both socio-economic and fiscal risks, as well as the mandatory targeting of the tax redistribution of population incomes in order to solve the key problems of social development.

  17. Relief for marginal wells is better than energy tax. [United States: policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swords, J.; Wilson, D. (Coopers and Lybrand (United States))

    1993-04-01

    By increasing production costs and reducing petroleum prices, President Bill Clinton's proposed energy tax would increase marginal well abandonments and hasten the decline of the US oil and gas industry. Instead, the US needs tax law changes to help counteract the increasing number of oil and gas well abandonments in the lower 48 states. The proposed tax would create potential difficulties, while three incentives could be introduced to reduce abandonments and at the same time preserve US government tax revenues that otherwise would be lost. Eliminating the net income limitation on percentage depletion allowances on wells that would otherwise be abandoned would be a great help for marginal well operators. Extended enhanced oil recovery (EOR) credits and broader investment tax credits could also serve the dual purpose of keeping marginal wells operating longer and generating more federal tax revenues. A marginal well investment tax credit should be provided that is not just a credit for incremented investments that exceed investment in prior years. An investment tax credit based on out-of-pocket costs of production, targeted for marginal wells, would be an important incentive to invest in, and continue to maintain, these properties. (author)

  18. Poverty, Pregnancy, and Birth Outcomes: A Study of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2015-09-01

    Economic interventions are increasingly recognised as a mechanism to address perinatal health outcomes among disadvantaged groups. In the US, the earned income tax credit (EITC) is the largest poverty alleviation programme. Little is known about its effects on perinatal health among recipients and their children. We exploit quasi-random variation in the size of EITC payments to examine the effects of income on perinatal health. The study sample includes women surveyed in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 2985) and their children born during 1986-2000 (n = 4683). Outcome variables include utilisation of prenatal and postnatal care, use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy, term birth, birthweight, and breast-feeding status. We first examine the health effects of both household income and EITC payment size using multivariable linear regressions. We then employ instrumental variables analysis to estimate the causal effect of income on perinatal health, using EITC payment size as an instrument for household income. We find that EITC payment size is associated with better levels of several indicators of perinatal health. Instrumental variables analysis, however, does not reveal a causal association between household income and these health measures. Our findings suggest that associations between income and perinatal health may be confounded by unobserved characteristics, but that EITC income improves perinatal health. Future studies should continue to explore the impacts of economic interventions on perinatal health outcomes, and investigate how different forms of income transfers may have different impacts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. University Research and Development Activities: The Federal Income Tax Consequences of Research Contracts, Research Subsidiaries and Joint Ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Consuelo Lauda; Hasson, James K., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Features of the federal income tax law applying to income received from commercially funded university-based scientific research and development activities are discussed, including: industry-sponsored research contracts, separately incorporated entities, partnerships and joint ventures, subsidiaries and unrelated income consequences of…

  20. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax

  1. Financing universal health coverage--effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-07-18

    How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995-2011. Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9.86 (95% CI 3.92-15.8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16.7, 9.16 to 24.3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (-$4.37, -12.9 to 4.11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6.74 percentage points (95% CI 0.87-12.6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11.4 percentage points (5.51-17.2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax policies within a pro-poor framework might accelerate progress toward achieving major

  2. Changing demographics and state fiscal outlook: the case of sales taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D R; Wallace, S

    1996-04-01

    "Broad-scale demographic changes have implications for state and local finance in terms of the composition of the base of revenue sources and their yields. This article examines the effect of such changes on the potential future yield of consumption-based taxes. The effect of household characteristics and composition on the consumption of selected groups of goods subject to ad valorem retail sales taxes is estimated, generating demographic elasticities of consumption. These elasticities are applied to projected demographic changes in eight states through the year 2000. The results show rather wide variation in expected consumption shifts and potential tax bases across the states, with income growth having the greatest effect...." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt

  3. INCOME TAX TREATIES, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD FOR THE CONVENTION BETWEEN U.S. AND ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    De Girolamo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Double taxation has a detrimental effect on the movement of capital, technology and persons and on the exchange of goods and services. Tax conventions, when properly applied, remove the obstacles of double taxation, thereby promoting the development and flow of international trade and investment. Hence, one of the most important roles of double income treaties is to remove the double taxation and to beat these obstacles for cross-border economic transactions. The globalization of fina...

  4. The progressivity of personal income tax in South Africa since 1994 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review Volume 16 Number 1 2012 ..... Australia. 1.2. 2.8. 44.5. 31.5. 26.1. 22.0. 20.7. 15.6. 34.5. 28.3. 60.0. 55.1. Hungary. 0.9. 0.8. 56.0 .... Statistics South Africa (2008: 10–11), however, cautions that the income tax.

  5. 48 CFR 29.305 - State and local tax exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... invoices, or similar documents that identify an agency or instrumentality of the United States as the buyer. (3) A U.S. Tax Exemption Form (SF 1094). (4) A State or local form indicating that the supplies or...

  6. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  7. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  8. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  9. 26 CFR 55.4982-1 - Imposition of excise tax on undistributed income of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of excise tax on undistributed income of regulated investment companies. 55.4982-1 Section 55.4982-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Regulated Investment Companies...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6072-3 - Income tax due dates postponed in case of China Trade Act corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trade Act corporations. 1.6072-3 Section 1.6072-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Documents § 1.6072-3 Income tax due dates postponed in case of China Trade Act corporations. (a) With... tax return of any corporation organized under the China Trade Act of 1922 (15 U.S.C. ch. 4), as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax paid. (3) Direct investment. The U.S. party's proportionate share of the foreign payment or... the interest is owned by a U.S. or foreign entity. (5) Passive investment income—(i) In general. The... recognize their distributive shares of the $10 million premium income and claim a direct foreign tax credit...

  12. Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle.

  13. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  14. Income and Consumption Smoothing among US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Yosha, Oved

    within regions but not between regions. This suggests that capital markets transcend regional barriers while credit markets are regional in their nature. Smoothing within the club of rich states is accomplished mainly via capital markets whereas consumption smoothing is dominant within the club of poor...... states. The fraction of a shock to gross state products smoothed by the federal tax-transfer system is the same for various regions and other clubs of states. We calculate the scope for consumption smoothing within various regions and clubs, finding that most gains from risk sharing can be achieved...

  15. 48 CFR 52.229-6 - Taxes-Foreign Fixed-Price Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  16. The underground economy in the U.S.A.: preliminary new evidence on the impact of income tax rates (and other factors on aggregate tax evasion 1975-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study seeks to identify determinants of the underground economy in the U.S. in the form of aggregate federal personal income tax evasion over the period 1975-2008, with a specific focus upon the impact of higher federal income tax rates on tax evasion. In this study, we use the most recent data available on aggregate personal income tax evasion, data that are derived from the General Currency Ratio Model and measured in the form of the ratio of unreported AGI to reported AGI. Most other studies of federal income tax evasion for the U.S. do not use data this current. It is found that the impact of increases in the federal income tax rate on aggregate personal income tax evasion may, on balance, be ambiguous, possibly suggesting that the income effect is negative and outweighs the positive substitution effect for the representative taxpayer. It is also found that the degree of aggregate personal income tax evasion may be an increasing function of the percentage of federal personal income tax returns characterized by itemized deductions and a decreasing function of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (during the first two years of implementation, the ratio of the tax free interest rate yield on high grade municipals to the interest rate yield on ten year Treasury notes, and higher audit rates of filed federal income tax returns (as a measure of risk from tax evasion by IRS personnel. Finally, unpopular wars may provide a secondary benefit for and therefore act as an inducement for greater tax evasion.

  17. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S

    2011-03-16

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online.

  18. ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF TAXES ON INCOME: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarso Rocha Lula Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corporate accounting has as one of its sub area the tax area. The Brazilian Securities Commission issued the Deliberation 273/1998 and 599/2009, and the Federal Accounting Council, adopted Resolution 998/2004 and 1189/2009. Moreover, the Accounting Pronouncements Committee approved the statement 32/2009, all those dealing with income taxes, however, only the CPC 32, the Resolution 1189/2009 and the Resolution 599/2009 have been edited based on the International Accounting Standards 12 of the International Accounting Standards Board. All of these standards rule on the same subject, share substantial differences, but do not have the same structure. Thus, the aim of this work is to verify whether the update of accounting rules are consistent with IAS 12. The work is important to confirm how the Brazilian rules can contribute to the objective of the accounting science. It is a qualitative study and descriptive analysis.

  19. The Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax on Wages: Evidence from Canadian Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate income tax (CIT incidence is an important and contentious issue in tax policy discussions. Much of the focus in the recent literature and in policy discussions concerns the allocation of the burden of the CIT between owners of capital and labour. Since income from capital tends to be concentrated with wealthier individuals, if the burden of the CIT falls largely on capital it increases the tax system’s progressivity. On the other hand, if the tax is borne mostly by labour through lower wages, the CIT is less progressive. Despite the importance of this issue in policy discussions, empirical evidence is quite limited and the results are mixed; there is a particular dearth of empirical research on the incidence of corporate taxes in a Canadian setting. According to theoretical open economy general equilibrium models, the burden of the CIT may partly, and possibly largely, fall on labour. In these models, an increase in the CIT reduces the return to capital, causing capital to leave the jurisdiction, which lowers the marginal product of labour and ultimately wages. Thus, the CIT can have a negative indirect effect on wages through its impact on labour productivity by way of its impact on capital. However, the magnitude of this effect depends critically on several modelling assumptions and parameter values related to the size of the country, the degree of capital mobility, the nature of competition in the output market, etc. An emerging empirical literature investigates the effects of CIT on wages by way of this indirect transmission mechanism. Empirical studies in this vein include Hassett and Mathur (2006, 2015 for a cross-section of countries; Desai, Foley and Hines (2007 and Felix (2007, 2009 for the U.S. They all find evidence in support of the relevance of the indirect channel using national aggregate data. Other studies, such as Carroll (2009 and Felix (2009 for the U.S., examine corporate tax incidence at the subnational level

  20. The Spanish income tax reform of 2015: analysis of the effects on poverty and redistribution using microsimulation tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Badenes-Plá

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the effects of the 2015 reform of the Spanish personal income tax (PIT on tax revenue, liquidity, redistribution, progressivity, and poverty, using microdata. Tax reform has increased the redistributive effect. The applicable legislation in 2016 is almost 6.3% more redistributive than that in 2011, as measured by the Reynolds-Smolensky index. This is a remarkable achievement since greater redistribution has been attained through significantly lower tax revenue. The 2016 legislation has produced 4.4% lower tax revenue, but progressivity, as measured by Kakwani index, has increased by 12.2% from the 2011 legislation. The redistributive and progressivity analysis has been conducted with the use of microsimulation tools developed in the Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (IEF, in Spain. The poverty analysis is made using EUROMOD, a tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union.

  1. INCOME TAX IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2009 income declaration form. For any other specific questions, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I\t- Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2010 (see Bulletin No. 10-11/2010). It is intended exclusively for the French tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual ...

  2. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986–2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  3. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, L.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is twelve western states which have existing and potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The four enterprises are a commercial greenhouse (low temperature process heat), apartment complex (low temperature space heat), food processor (moderate temperature process heat), and small scale energy system (electrical and direct thermal energy for a small industrial park). The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined. The magnitudes of total state and local tax collections vary considerably from state to state, which implies that geothermal producers and energy-using businesses may be selective in expanding or locating their geothermal operations.

  4. Transition from US GAAP to IFRS: Analysis of Impact on Income Tax Administration in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Jana

    2014-01-01

    When SEC and FASB started considering replacing US GAAP with IFRS, the impact of this change had to be considered by the various stakeholders in the financial reporting process in the U.S., including the various preparers and users of financial statements, including the Tax Administration, IRS. Since 2009, taxpayers in the U.S. are allowed to use IFRS as a starting point for reconciliation of book results to taxable income or loss, an option utilized by approximately 200 companies in that yea...

  5. Corporation taxes in the European Union: Slowly moving toward comprehensive business income taxation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys and evaluates the corporation tax systems of the Member States of the European Union on the basis of a comprehensive taxonomy of actual and potential regimes, which have as their base either profits; profits, interest and royalties; or economic rents. The current

  6. On Estimating Marginal Tax Rates for U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, W. Robert; Rogers, Cynthia L; Skidmore, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for generating state-specific time-varying estimates of marginal tax rates (MTRs). Most estimates of MTRs follow a procedure developed by Koester and Kormendi (1989) (K&K). Unfortunately, the time-invariant nature of the K&K estimates precludes their use as explanatory variables in panel data studies with fixed effects. Furthermore, the associated MTR estimates are not explicitly linked to statutory tax parameters. Our approach addresses both shortcomings. Usin...

  7. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  8. Fiscal Policy under Indeterminacy and Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper shows under indeterminacy and tax evasion, an increase in corporate,labor or income tax rates pushes the economy into an expansionary pattern.These effects are reversed when the steady state is saddle-path stable.......This paper shows under indeterminacy and tax evasion, an increase in corporate,labor or income tax rates pushes the economy into an expansionary pattern.These effects are reversed when the steady state is saddle-path stable....

  9. 26 CFR 20.2053-9 - Deduction for certain State death taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for certain State death taxes. 20... § 20.2053-9 Deduction for certain State death taxes. (a) General rule. A deduction is allowed a... death taxes. However, see section 2058 to determine the deductibility of state death taxes by estates to...

  10. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    approach accounts for the observed heterogeneity in the microdata, but is simple to implement because we do not need to specify utility functions and estimate utility parameters. We find that each of the four tax acts created substantial welfare gains, and that the gains were concentrated almost......An emerging consensus is that labor force participation is more responsive to taxes and transfers than hours worked. To understand the implications of participation responses for the welfare analysis of tax reform, this paper embeds this margin of labor supply in an explicit welfare theoretic...... framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  11. Alcohol taxes' contribution to prices in high and middle-income countries: Data from the International Alcohol Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Martin; Casswell, Sally; Callinan, Sarah; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Viet Cuong, Pham; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Parry, Charles

    2017-11-22

    Taxation is increasingly being used as an effective means of influencing behaviour in relation to harmful products. In this paper we use data from six participating countries of the International Alcohol Control Study to examine and evaluate their comparative prices and tax regimes. We calculate taxes and prices for three high-income and three middle-income countries. The data are drawn from the International Alcohol Control survey and from the Alcohol Environment Protocol. Tax systems are described and then the rates of tax on key products presented. Comparisons are made using the Purchasing Power Parity rates. The price and purchase data from each country's International Alcohol Control survey is then used to calculate the mean percentage of retail price paid in tax weighted by actual consumption. Both ad valorem and specific per unit of alcohol taxation systems are represented among the six countries. The prices differ widely between countries even though presented in terms of Purchasing Power Parity. The percentage of tax in the final price also varies widely but is much lower than the 75% set by the World Health Organization as a goal for tobacco tax. There is considerable variation in tax systems and prices across countries. There is scope to increase taxation and this analysis provides comparable data, including the percentage of tax in final price, from some middle and high-income countries for consideration in policy discussion. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Memorandum from the Legal Service and the HR Department concerning the 2005 income tax declaration forms sent by the Geneva Tax Administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel as of 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin N°48-49/2005 - 28.11.2005-05.12.2005), the Geneva Tax Administration has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 income tax declaration form, to be returned by 31 March 2006 at the latest. I - Members of the personnel of Swiss nationality residing in the canton of Geneva a) The 2005 income tax declaration form must be returned to the cantonal tax administration, duly completed, dated and signed. No details of remuneration, payments or any other financial benefits paid by CERN should be given in the 'revenus' section. The following note should be made in the final section under 'Observations': 'membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l'impôt interne du CERN'. b) Members of the personnel of Swiss nationality residing in the canton of Geneva shall remain registered as tax-payers in the canton of Geneva. II - Members...

  13. Memorandum from the Legal Service and the HR Department concerning the 2005 income tax declaration forms sent by the Geneva Tax Administration

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005 - 28.11.2005-05.12.2005), the Geneva Tax Administration has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 income tax declaration form, to be returned by 31st March 2006 at the latest. I - Members of the personnel of Swiss nationality residing in the Canton of Geneva a) The 2005 income tax declaration form must be returned to the Cantonal tax administration, duly completed, dated and signed. No details of remuneration, payments or any other financial benefits paid by CERN should be given in the 'revenus' section. The following note should be made in the final section under 'Observations ': ' membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l'impôt interne du CERN '. b) Members of the personnel of Swiss nationality residing in the Canton of Geneva shall remain registered as tax-payers in the Canton of Geneva. II - Mem...

  14. Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Marcel; Hage, Jaap; Waltermann, Antonia; Akkermans, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Taxes are compulsory, unrequited payments to government. This chapter discusses the goals of taxation and provides an introduction to the most important taxes: taxes on income, taxes on goods and services, and taxes on property. Furthermore, the chapter offers insights to procedural issues of

  15. Tax reforms in EU Member States - Tax policy challenges for economic growth and fiscal sustainability – 2012 Report

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the report ‘Tax reforms in EU Member States’ intends to contribute to the tax policy debate in the EU. Following the successful 2011 edition, the report consists of two parts: i) a short analysis of tax revenue data and an overview of recent tax reforms in Member States, and ii) a discussion of selected up-to-date tax policy topics in the form of two analytical chapters. The first analytical chapter focuses on the economic implications and policy challenges of the EU VAT s...

  16. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. FRENCH TAXES NOTIFICATION OF JULY/AUGUST 2001 RELATING TO THE 2000 INCOME DECLARATION

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel residing in France who are not of French nationality are about to receive or have already received at their home addresses a document from their Centre des Impôts (CDI) [The Tax Office], which is drafted in a way that raises a number of questions. On page 1 of this pre-printed recto/verso form appears a computer print-out of the following statements: "LA DECLARATION QUE VOUS AVEZ DEPOSEE NE COMPORTE AUCUN REVENU POUR L'ANNEE 2000. JE VOUS INFORME QUE LE PRESENT AVIS NE CONSTITUE PAS UN JUSTIFICATIF D'ABSENCE DE TOUT REVENU. VOUS AVEZ DES REVENUS PERCUS EN PROVENANCE D'ORGANISMES INTERNATIONAUX, DE MISSIONS DIPLOMATIQUES OU CONSULAIRES EXONERES D'IMPOT EN FRANCE. INDIQUEZ-LES AU BAS DE CET AVIS.' (i.e. The declaration which you have returned shows no income for 2000. I would like to inform you that this notification does not represent certification of the absence of any income. You receive income from an international organization or a displomatic mission or consulate which is exempt...

  18. FRENCH TAXES NOTIFICATION OF JULY/AUGUST 2000 RELATING TO THE 1999 INCOME DECLARATION

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel residing in France who are not of French nationality are about to receive or have already received at their home addresses a document from their Centre des Impôts (CDI) [The Tax Office], which is drafted in a way that raises a number of questions. On page 1 of this pre-printed recto/verso form appears a computer printout of the following statements: 'LA DECLARATION QUE VOUS AVEZ DEPOSEE NE COMPORTE AUCUN REVENU POUR L'ANNEE 1999. JE VOUS INFORME QUE LE PRESENT AVIS NE CONSTITUE PAS UN JUSTIFICATIF D'ABSENCE DE TOUT REVENU. VOUS AVEZ DES REVENUS PERCUS EN PROVENANCE D'ORGANISMES INTERNATIONAUX, DE MISSIONS DIPLOMATIQUES OU CONSULAIRES EXONERES D'IMPOT EN FRANCE. INDIQUEZ-LES AU BAS DE CET AVIS.' (i.e. The declaration which you have returned shows no income for 1999. I would like to inform you that this notification does not represent certification of the absence of any income. You receive income from an international organisation or a diplomatic mission or consulate which is exempt fr...

  19. International Tax Evasion, State Purchases of Confidential Bank Data and Voluntary Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

    2017-01-01

    State purchases of bank data on suspected tax evaders from international tax havens constitute a potential tool to combat international tax evasion. Using self-compiled data for North-Rhine Westphalia on the timing and content of such data acquisitions from whistleblowers and on monthly voluntary disclosures of international tax evasion involving Swiss banks, we show that purchases of data by tax authorities on potential tax evaders have a positive and sizeable effect on voluntary disclosures.

  20. Using payroll deduction to shelter individual health insurance from income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; Hager, Christie L; Orentlicher, David

    2011-02-01

    To assess the impact of state laws requiring or encouraging employers to establish "section 125" cafeteria plans that shelter employees' premium contributions from tax. Available descriptive statistics, 65 key-informant interviews, and relevant documents in study states and nationally, 2008-2009. Case studies were conducted in Indiana, Massachusetts, and Missouri--three states adopting laws in 2007. Descriptive quantitative information came from insurers, regulators, and surveys of employers. In each state, 15-17 semistructured but open-ended interviews were conducted with insurance agents, insurers, government officials, and third-party administration firms, and 29 informed sources were interviewed from a national perspective or other states. Key informants were selected based on their known or reported experience, in a "snowball" fashion until saturation was reached. Interview notes were coded for systematic analysis. Finally, relevant rulings, brochures, instructions, marketing materials, and other documents were collected and analyzed. Despite the potential for substantial cost savings, use of section 125 plans to purchase individual insurance remained low in these states after 1 or 2 years. Absent a mandate, few employers were strongly motivated to offer these plans in order to retain an adequate workforce, and uncertainty about federal legality deterred doing so. For smaller employers, benefits to owners did not outweigh administrative complexities. Nevertheless, few downsides were found to states mandating or encouraging these plans. In particular, there is little evidence that many employers dropped group coverage as a result. Section 125 plans remain a limited tool for states to reduce the inequitable tax treatment of individually purchased insurance, but a complete remedy requires reform of federal tax law. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System: A Second Look After Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Marsha; Slemrod, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to answer whether or not TRA'86 simplified or complicated taxes by comparing data from surveys of compliance costs conducted in 1982 and 1989. Concludes that tax reform did not reverse the growth in compliance costs in the 1980's.

  2. Data science for assessing possible tax income manipulation: The case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy; Mir, Tariq A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores a real-world fundamental theme under a data science perspective. It specifically discusses whether fraud or manipulation can be observed in and from municipality income tax size distributions, through their aggregation from citizen fiscal reports. The study case pertains to official data obtained from the Italian Ministry of Economics and Finance over the period 2007-2011. All Italian (20) regions are considered. The considered data science approach concretizes in the adoption of the Benford first digit law as quantitative tool. Marked disparities are found, - for several regions, leading to unexpected "conclusions". The most eye browsing regions are not the expected ones according to classical imagination about Italy financial shadow matters.

  3. 41 CFR 302-15.13 - What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for my property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for my property management services? 302-15.13 Section 302-15.13 Public....13 What are the income tax consequences when my agency pays for my property management services? When...

  4. Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The federal government loses both individual and corporate income tax revenue from the shifting of profits and income into low-tax countries, often referred to as tax havens. Tax havens are located around the world with concentrations in the Caribbean and Europe. Corporate profit shifting may cost up to $60 billion in revenue and remedies are likely to involve tax law changes. Individual income tax losses more often arise from tax evasion, and are facilitated by the lack of information report...

  5. Taxation Human Rights – a Concrete Case: the right to the full income tax deduction of expenses with medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Araújo Leonetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to address aspecific aspect related to the taxation humanrights:  the right to full deduction of expenseswith medicines from the basis for calculat-ing the income tax. After a brief introductionto the topic of taxation human rights a rela-tively new vision in universal law, the articlemakes a foray into the income tax-individual,revisiting its basic concepts and principles. Ispresented, also, a brief history of the IRPF inBrazil, in order to better situate the subject infocus. In the sequel, the article faces the ques-tion about the deductions allowed, on the ba-sis of calculation of the tax. Finally, the articleanalizes the possible inclusion of spending onmedicines among these deductions, conclud-ing that it is an imperative of Fairness and re-spect to the Constitution

  6. 26 CFR 20.6905-1 - Discharge of executor from personal liability for decedent's income and gift taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discharge of executor from personal liability... DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Procedure and Administration § 20.6905-1 Discharge of executor from personal liability for decedent's income and gift taxes. For regulations concerning the discharge of an executor from...

  7. 26 CFR 25.6905-1 - Discharge of executor from personal liability for decedent's income and gift taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discharge of executor from personal liability... 31, 1954 Procedure and Administration § 25.6905-1 Discharge of executor from personal liability for decedent's income and gift taxes. For regulations concerning the discharge of an executor from personal...

  8. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.123 Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying...

  9. 26 CFR 55.4981-1 - Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed during the taxable year; taxable years ending on or before January 1, 1987. 55.4981-1 Section 55.4981-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-1 - Overpayment of income tax on account of bad debts, worthless securities, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of bad... bad debts, worthless securities, etc. (a)(1) If the claim for credit or refund relates to an... the deductibility of a bad debt under section 166 or section 832(c), or of a loss from the...

  11. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  12. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

  13. An Analysis of Arizona Individual Income Tax-Credit Scholarship Recipients' Family Income, 2009-10 School Year. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. PEPG 10-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vicki E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data…

  14. The Applicability of Tax Treaties in Respect of Income Distributed by Luxembourgian SIF and SICAR Private Equity Funds and the Tax Consequences for Finnish Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    In a globalized market for private equity investments, the risk for international double taxation has made the applicability of tax treaties all the more important. The study is concerned with private equity fund structures, where a Luxembourgian SIF or SICAR is used as fund vehicle, where the investor is resident in Finland and where the target company is resident in a third state. In such triangular investment structures the determination of the applicable tax treaty may not always be clear...

  15. Influence of Rules for Computing Corporate Income Tax on the Accuracy of Financial Statements of Lithuanian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernius Gintaras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies in Lithuania have to follow Business Accounting Standards (BAS when preparing their financial statements. Recording financial transactions according to BAS ensures that the information a company shares with potential lenders and investors gives a true and fair view of its business situation. However, the tax law prescribes its own set of accounting rules, which can result in a difference between what a business shows in financial statements and what it reports on its tax returns. This paper examines whether Lithuanian companies predominantly use tax accounting principles that migrate into their financial statements to create an inaccurate picture of business performance. The method of experts’ evaluation was chosen for that purpose. The results indicate that Lithuanian companies tend to heavily rely on accounting principles prescribed in corporate income tax law thus distorting information contained in financial statements. The paper contributes to the scarce literature on this issue of high relevance to both academics and practitioners.

  16. 26 CFR 509.118 - Credit against United States tax for Swiss tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... For the purpose of mitigating double taxation, Article XV(1)(a) of the convention provides that a citizen or resident of the United States, or a domestic corporation, deriving income from sources within... royalty derived from sources within the United States by a resident of Switzerland, such royalty shall be...

  17. The Analysis of the Evolution of Tax Revenues in EU Member States during 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Elena Tureac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state budget is a financial plan at the macroeconomic level, and it is designed as a set of accounts of the nation, which reflects the current year and next year projections on all economic agents in the country / region. The size of the public sector varies significantly from one Member State to another, which means that the financial resources available to the public sector differ substantially at the European Union level. The paper includes an analysis of the evolution of the main indicators corresponding to public financial resources at EU level achieved between January 2009 - December 2012 or December 2013, where data processing was available. The information was taken from the Eurostat statistics database. The research methodology used in this work was done by the use of indicators: the share of total public revenue in GDP; the share of taxes in GDP of production and imports; the share of current taxes on income, wealth etc. in GDP; the share of social security contributions in GDP. In the analysis there were considered, of the total financial resources of government, only the taxes levied on production and imports, current taxes on income, wealth etc. and social security contributions. In conclusion, the share of government revenues in GDP increases, but there are states where it decreases, such as Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Sweden. The public financial resources share in GDP at the level of the Eurozone was always higher in relation to the entire European Union, but always keeping the difference around 0.8 to 0.9 percentage points. France recorded the highest share of social security contributions in GDP (18.8% in 2009 and 19.4% in 2013 while Denmark has the lowest share of these financial resources in GDP, i.e. only 1.9% in 2009 and 1.8% in 2013.

  18. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  19. 26 CFR 1.996-6 - Effectively connected income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....996-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-6 Effectively connected income. In... permanent establishment of such shareholder within the United States, and shall be subject to tax in...

  20. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable... from sources without the United States to the extent the income, based on all the facts and... income derived by a CFC is income from sources without the United States to the extent the income, based...

  1. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon S Nakhimovsky

    Full Text Available The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs. Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1, changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2, and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3.We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016 and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied.The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  2. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S; Feigl, Andrea B; Avila, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Gael; Macgregor-Skinner, Elizabeth; Spranca, Mark

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  3. Cutting Provincial Corporate Income Tax Rates to Promote Investment, Employment and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergete Ferede

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué is based on the following paper: The Costliest Tax of All: Raising Revenue Through Corporate Tax Hikes can be Counter-Productive for the Provinces by Ergete Ferede and Bev Dahlby.

  4. Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Tax Billingusing A Letter Of Reprimand In Increasing The Acceptance Of Income Tax Year 2011-2014 Agency Study On Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Kemala Dewi Lubis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the Acceptance of Income Tax on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East and also to know the effectiveness of the implementation of the tax Billing with a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. The type of research is descriptive and the research object is the tax billing using a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. In this research it is to measure the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the acceptance of the tax ratio of the effectiveness of tax billing with a letter of reprimand and the ratio of tax revenue contribution.The test result shows that the tax billing with a letter of reprimand in 2011 and 2014 classified as ineffective and contributed less to the receipt of income tax in Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East.Head of Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East can perform various business both internally and externally to increase the effectiveness and contribution of tax billing in working areas.

  5. 75 FR 75439 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... charitable contributions. The IRS may also provide a limited administrative exemption for specified tax... the agenda will be available free of charge at the hearing. Drafting Information The principal author... accountant who recently graduated from college with an accounting degree and has opened his own practice. A...

  6. Risks and threats of tax state security and methods of their neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lebedzevych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the relevance of the study to ensure security of the state tax. Scientists studied different approaches to defining the essence of the concept of "security tax" on the key features that would satisfy the interests of all subjects of tax relations and the necessity of legal consolidation of this concept. Analyzed the economic, social and legal nature of the existence of the security tax, identified key indicators of fiscal security of Ukraine. To determine the effectiveness of the tax administration in the interests of the tax security highlights the main threats, tax security risks caused by external and internal factors, and propose measures for their elimination and prevent the possibility of their occurrence. The stages of tax risk management with effective building security tax, designed structurally-logic of the tax risk management security.

  7. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIRECT TAXES IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is showed the trends in the evolution of indirect taxes of the Member States of the European Union, using for this purpose, statistical series, because this category of taxes can be successfully used by the economic situation. As these taxes are placed on transactions, the yield of these taxes is influenced by developments in the tax bases of economic transactions volume, price and level of rates. The importance of the work is based on the fact that there are countries in the single market with different degrees of development and different living standards and fiscal policy through the transition from direct to indirect taxes. This creates a tax base budget by shifting the tax burden from operators for the whole population, consumption being heavily taxed. The consumer society is the company of the tax payer of the consumer society.

  8. 76 FR 77053 - Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Reform Act of 1984. The regulations affect qualified employee benefit plans, welfare benefit funds, and... gift taxes; effective dates and other issues arising under the employee benefit provisions of the tax..., Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates and Other Issues Arising Under the Employee Benefit...

  9. 26 CFR 1.863-9 - Source of income derived from communications activity under section 863(a), (d), and (e).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable... business within the United States is income from sources within the United States to the extent the income... taxpayer is paid to transmit the communication. Income derived by a United States or foreign person from...

  10. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dixon, L Beth

    2017-01-01

    Interest and funding continue to grow for bringing supermarkets to underserved areas, yet little is known about their impact. A quasi-experimental study was used to determine the impact of a new supermarket opening as a result of tax and zoning incentives. The study took place in the South Bronx, New York City, New York. Studied were residents of two South Bronx neighborhoods deemed high need. Food purchasing and consumption were examined via surveys and 24-hour dietary recalls before and at two points after the supermarket opened (1-5, 13-17 months). Data were analyzed using difference-in-difference models controlling for gender, race and ethnicity, age, education, marital status, and self-reported income. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were estimated for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. At baseline, 94% to 97% of consumers shopped at a supermarket. There was a 2% increase in this behavior in the intervention community ( p supermarket did not result in substantial or broad changes in purchasing patterns or nutritional quality of food consumed, though smaller, positive changes were observed over a 1-year period. Future work should examine different contexts and a broader set of outcomes, including economic development.

  11. Ontario’s Bold Move to Create Jobs and Growth: Impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and Other Recent Tax Measures on Investment, Jobs and Incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available • The 2009 Ontario Budget measures, together with other recent tax changes, will have a profound impact on Ontario’s competitiveness by lowering the tax burden on new business investment. • Within ten years, Ontario will benefit from: – increased capital investment of $47 billion; – increased annual incomes of up to 8.8%, or $29.4 billion; and – an estimated 591,000 net new jobs. This paper documents the impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and other recent tax changes on capital investment, jobs, and incomes in the province. In the March 2009 Budget, Ontario announced it will harmonize its sales tax with the federal goods and services tax (GST as well as reduce corporate and personal taxes. The Budget measures will have a profound impact on the willingness of business to invest in Ontario since corporate tax rate reductions and the adoption of the federal GST base would result in the virtual elimination of taxes on capital goods and business intermediate inputs once fully phased in. Since 1980, when I began modelling the impact of taxes on investment, this is the largest change ever seen in a single budget, leading to the sharpest reduction in the tax burden on capital investment in any one province. Coupled with federal reductions in corporate taxes and Ontario’s already legislated elimination of all remaining capital taxes,1 Ontario will see its effective tax rate on new investments by medium and large businesses plummet from 33.6% in 2009 to 23.7% in 2010 and then to 18.5% by 2018. The province will then have an effective tax rate on non-resource investments that is similar to most other provinces, including Alberta, British Columbia, and Quebec. Ontario will also improve its international competitiveness dramatically with a lower tax burden on new investment compared with the average of 20 major industrialized and emerging economies. Small businesses will also benefit substantially from the 2009 Budget. The effective tax rate on

  12. Taxes; Business Education: 6463.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksa, Cecelia

    This course explores questions of why we have taxes and how they benefit people. Various other taxes (local, State and Federal, property, income, excise, and inheritance taxes) are dealt with. There is no specific prerequisite for this course, but it is recommended that students enroll in other consumer economics and business mathematics courses…

  13. Introducing Family Tax Splitting in Germany: How Would It Affect the Income Distribution, Work Incentives and Household Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Steiner; Katharina Wrohlich

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effects of three alternative proposals to reform the taxation of families relative to the current German system of joint taxation of couples and child allowances: a French-type family splitting and two full family splitting proposals. The empirical analysis of the effects of these proposals on the income distribution and on work incentives is based on a behavioral micro-simulation model which integrates an empirical household labor supply model into a detailed tax-benefit model...

  14. Assessment of Consequences of Replacement of System of the Uniform Tax on Imputed Income Patent System of the Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Manokhina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main questions concerning possible consequences of replacement of nowadays operating system in the form of a single tax in reference to imputed income with patent system of the taxation. The main advantages and drawbacks of new system of the taxation are shown, including the opinion that not the replacement of one special mode of the taxation with another is more effective, but the introduction of patent a taxation system as an auxilary system.

  15. METHOD OF TAX AUDIT OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF TAXPAYERS BY STATE FISCAL SERVICE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Kostiuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tax audit is an important part of tax control. It’s aimed to control the observance of tax legislation on taxes and fees. The purpose of the research is to generalize the method of performance of tax audits of individual taxpayers by State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. The subject of research is the methods of audit by State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. Methods. It was used general and specific methods of research, including: analysis and synthesis, system and process approaches, induction and deduction, etc. Results. The problem of tax auditing process in Ukraine is the absence of integrated and systematic approach for its implementation. Unfortunately, the practice of the tax audit is not yet examined clearly. Today the basic principles of tax audit are considered by the scientists only in theory. Apart from the existence of guidelines on verification of a particular type of taxes, other obligatory payments that are designed fiscal service, the formation of evidence, procedure for using certain methods and techniques for auditing, information sources are ignored legislators and scientists. Apart from the existence of guidelines on verification of a particular type of taxes, other obligatory payments which are designed by fiscal service, the formation of evidence base, procedure of usage of certain methods and techniques for audit, information sources and other issues are ignored by legislators and scientists. Despite this, today the tax audit is a tool to fully examine and reduce the tax risks of the organization. Another problem of tax audit is that legislation doesn’t fix the notion of tax audit so there is no exact interpretation of it. Tax audit engages more efficient flow of taxes and fees to the state budget. Although there is increase of the efficiency of the national tax auditing mechanism now, but there are some problems which need be resolved in order to ensure rational tax revenues in the budget under the present conditions of socio

  16. Income inequality and income mobility in the Scandinavian countries compared to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Aaberge, Rolf; Björklund, Anders; Jäntti, Markus; Palme, Mårten; Pedersen, Peder J.; Smith, Nina; Wennemo, Tom

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares income inequality and income mobility in the Scandinavian countries and the United States during the 1980's. The results demonstrate that inequality is greater in the United States than in the Scandinavian countries and that the ranking of countries with respect to inequality remains unchanged when the accounting period of income is extended from one to 11 years. The pattern of mobility turns out to be remarkably similar despite major differences in labor market and social...

  17. International Tax Evasion in the Current Geopolitical Context

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Sergiu-Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Tax evasion means the avoidance of declaring and paying the tax obligations. Through the manifestation of this phenomenon, the state incomes are reduced, the governments not being capable of complying with their tasks. As the economic globalization progresses, tax evasion becomes international thanks to the tax havens which usually are small states that provide various tax facilities to those who want to carry out their activity through their agency, especially through offshore companies. It ...

  18. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  19. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  20. Financing Schools and Property Tax Relief -- A State Responsibility. The Report in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report is the first response to President Nixon's request to the Commission for an evaluation of the proposed replacement of school property taxes by a Federal value added tax. The report findings reveal that a federal program to bring tax relief is neither necessary nor desirable, and the Commission suggests that the States assume a greater…

  1. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  2. Fiscal Sovereignty of Member States and Tax Harmonization on Mutual Assistance for the Recovery of Tax Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina DRAGODAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the impact of harmonization of legislation on the recovery of claims relating to taxes and duties by the mutual assistance between the EU Member States for their tax sovereignty. The research is grounded upon previous studies on the same topic conducted in during the research stage within the Graduate School of Public Law and Tax Law at the University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, which was held during the year 2010. The objectives of the work aim at showing that tax sovereignty implies on the one hand the right of the National Parliament to determine taxes. On the other hand, taxation is the most important instrument of economic and social policy of the governments of member states. It is important to note that the States have broad discretion to create their own direct tax systems in a way that ensures best meet their objectives and internal politics as possible. With regard to the methodology, in order to realize this study it was used a combination of research methods, namely: bibliographical research, the systemic method, the logical method and the comparative method. We consider that our scientific approach presents timeliness and usefulness both academics and practitioners.

  3. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  4. Fast Money? The Contribution of State Tax Amnesties to Public Revenue Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikesell, John L.; Ross, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    State tax amnesties have become a commonplace component of state tax administration over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the structural evolution of all state amnesty programs and makes the case that their fundamental purpose has shifted from improving tax administration to emphasizing revenue maximization. It then provides empirical evidence on which state amnesty program features aid in this effort. The regression results reveal that most of the malleable amnesty program features that...

  5. Impact of income and income inequality on infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maren E; Diekema, Douglas; Elliott, Barbara A; Renier, Colleen M

    2010-12-01

    The goal was to investigate the relationships of income and income inequality with neonatal and infant health outcomes in the United States. The 2000-2004 state data were extracted from the Kids Count Data Center. Health indicators included proportion of preterm births (PTBs), proportion of infants with low birth weight (LBW), proportion of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), and infant mortality rate (IMR). Income was evaluated on the basis of median family income and proportion of federal poverty levels; income inequality was measured by using the Gini coefficient. Pearson correlations evaluated associations between the proportion of children living in poverty and the health indicators. Linear regression evaluated predictive relationships between median household income, proportion of children living in poverty, and income inequality for the 4 health indicators. Median family income was negatively correlated with all birth outcomes (PTB, r = -0.481; LBW, r = -0.295; VLBW, r = -0.133; IMR, r = -0.432), and the Gini coefficient was positively correlated (PTB, r = 0.339; LBW, r = 0.398; VLBW, r = 0.460; IMR, r = 0.114). The Gini coefficient explained a significant proportion of the variance in rate for each outcome in linear regression models with median family income. Among children living in poverty, the role of income decreased as the degree of poverty decreased, whereas the role of income inequality increased. Both income and income inequality affect infant health outcomes in the United States. The health of the poorest infants was affected more by absolute wealth than relative wealth.

  6. 26 CFR 20.2011-1 - Credit for State death taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit for State death taxes. 20.2011-1 Section....2011-1 Credit for State death taxes. (a) In general. A credit is allowed under section 2011 against the... possession of the United States (hereinafter referred to as “State death taxes”). The credit, however, is...

  7. Effect of taxes and financial incentives on family-owned forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Greene; Thomas J. Straka; Tamara L. Cushing

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsFederal and State taxes reduce the pre-tax value of family-owned forest land in the South by amounts ranging from little more than one-quarter to nearly half, with the greatest share of the reduction attributable to the Federal income tax and State property taxes.Most family forest owners are aware of some general...

  8. Using Search Query Surveillance to Monitor Tax Avoidance and Smoking Cessation following the United States' 2009 “SCHIP” Cigarette Tax Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W.; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online. PMID:21436883

  9. Fiscal and accounting policies on the income taxes. Conciliation between accounting and taxation at the company’s level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena ANTON

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop commercial relations, the harmonization of the tax system with the accountancy of the company is oriented towards the elaboration of accounting policies pursuing the interest of the management to enforce the development strategies and sending the necessary information to the shareholders in order to underlie the economic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relation accounting – taxation and the tendency in the approach of this relation showed by the managers of the companies from the point of view of income tax. The research methods took into consideration qualitative methods. The reading and systematization of the specialty literature enabled an overview of the accounting – taxation and shaped an action direction for the harmonization process intensification at the company’s level.

  10. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette price minimization strategies in the United States: price reductions and responsiveness to excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Licht, Andrea S; Kruger, Judy M

    2013-11-01

    Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Regression analysis used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in "some other way," including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64-94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%-22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise.

  12. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  13. Income Distribution Policy in the United States [and] Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okner, Benjamin A.; Rivlin, Alice M.

    The focus of this paper is inequality - primarily, income - inequality - in the United States and the historical-political context in which policies that affect inequality are being discussed. The first section gives a brief description of recent trends in the distribution of income in the United States, a picture whose most remarkable feature is…

  14. 18 CFR 367.2820 - Account 282, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transfer the balance in this account or any related portion to retained earnings or make any other use of... it can be determined that the related balance must be retained to offset future group item tax...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2830 - Account 283, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the account or any portion of the account to retained earnings or to any other account or make any... it can be determined that the related balance must be retained to offset future group item tax...

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  17. Estimating the Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, John L.; O'Hare, John F.; Stavrianos, Michael P.; Toder, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, development, and use of the Individual Taxpayer Burden Model (ITBM) -- a microsimulation model developed jointly by IBM and the IRS to estimate the amount of time and money that individuals spend on federal tax compliance. First, the authors summarize the methodology that was used to define, measure, and model tax compliance burden. Next, they present estimates of overall compliance burden, and results from a simulation of economic and policy changes that too...

  18. 浅议我国现行个人所得税制改革%On the Reform of the Current Personal Income Tax System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦小虹

    2011-01-01

    Personal Income Tax Income Distribution as a major taxes, plays a vital role in our countries' economic life. Personal income tax adjustment is directly related to people's pocketbook, for that it is on forcus about the situation in the hot inflation. As China's economic growth, disposable income is increasing year by year, but as the income gap between rich and poor regulation, "personal income tax" the tax lever lags behind changes in our economy, these problems not only seriously affected the economy, tax regulation function, but also unfavorable for social stability. This paper clarifies the existed personal income tax reform issues that after the proposed targeted policy recommendations related to academics.%个人所得税作为调节居民收入分配的一个重要税种,在我国经济生活中起着至关重要的作用.个税调整直接关系百姓钱袋子,在通胀形势下成为关注热点.随着我国经济的增长,居民可支配收入也在逐年增多,但是作为调节贫富收入差距的“个人所得税”这一税收杠杆却滞后于我们经济的变化,这些问题不仅严重影响了税收调节经济的功能,而且对社会稳定也极为不利.本文在阐明了我国个人所得税制改革中存在的相关问题后,有针对性的提出了相关学者的政策建议.

  19. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6861-1 - Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift..., Bankruptcy, and Receiverships Jeopardy § 301.6861-1 Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift, and certain... that the assessment or collection of a deficiency in income, estate, gift, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44...

  1. 26 CFR 1.691(c)-1 - Deduction for estate tax attributable to income in respect of a decedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the date of his death to a fee for services rendered in a case not completed at the time of his death... this amount is $23,700 from which is subtracted a $75 credit for State death taxes leaving an estate...,200 was collected by X's son, who was the sole beneficiary of the estate. This amount was included...

  2. The relationship between income and personal vehicle fuel efficiency and associated equity concerns for the fuel tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The fuel tax, which is assessed on the physical amount of fuel purchased by the consumer, is the primary : means of funding roadway development at the state and national level. However, because it is assessed on a : gallon basis, drivers of vehicles ...

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Exempting Municipal Bonds from the Federal Income Tax: The U.S. Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban G. DALEHITE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania and other Eastern European countries have undergone dramatic reforms as they have sought to democratize political institutions, develop their economies, rely on private markets for the provision of goods and services, and pursue a course of economic integration with Western European nations (Lazar, 2005. Of course, these reforms have included the complete overhaul of tax and revenue systems (Lazar, 2005. As these tax reforms mature and are adapted to the differing realities of each country, it might be useful to reflect on the experiences and mistakes of countries whose tax systems they have used as blueprint for their own reforms. This is the spirit in which this analysis is written. The article presents a synthesis of the American experience with tax-exempt municipal bonds, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with this tax exemption. The exemption represents a subsidy from the federal government to states and local governments, and as such, it has powerful incentives with implications from the economic and redistributive standpoints. This article explains these implications and how they have been addressed in the U.S.

  4. Geographical pattern analysis of income migration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, D A

    1999-01-01

    "How one conceptualises the impacts of migration depends on whether one takes the viewpoint of aggregate area-level income change, of per capita change, or of longer-term (future earnings) change. Several empirical analytical measures are proposed in order to conceptualise the various income impacts of migration.... [A] decomposition procedure is developed for examining how the changes in per capita income of states reflect three different income differentials: those between (a) in-migrants and 'stayers', (b) out-migrants and 'stayers', and (c) in-migrants and out-migrants. Examination of these measures, and of typologies based on them, highlights how income migration significantly and differentially impacts upon U.S. states. The methods are illustrated here in the context of an important new American data source: the 1993-94 migrant income data released by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service." excerpt

  5. The role of tax audit as a component of restaurants` financial state audit

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Omelianchuk; B.V. Kostyk

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of tax audit in the process of audit the financial state the enterprises of restaurant economy arises through accumulation in the balance sheet information about the state of fiscal discipline in such forms like the debt on payment taxes, fees and other payments to the budget. In connection with the widespread scientific pluralism views, the purpose of the article is an analysis the role of the tax audit of the company in restaurant facilities today. Dialectical method of ...

  6. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  7. Income tax credits and incentives available for producing energy from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's the US became interested in the development of energy from biomass and other alternative sources. While this interest was stimulated primarily by the oil embargoes of the 1970's, the need for environmentally friendly alternative fuels was also enhanced by the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, two prominent pieces of environmental legislation. As a result, Congress created several tax benefits and subsidies for the production of energy for biomass. Congress enacted biomass energy incentives in 1978 with the creation of excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, in 1980 with the enactment of the IRC section 29 nonconventional fuel credit provisions and the IRC section 40 alcohol fuel credits, and recently with the addition of favorable biomass energy provisions as part of the Comprehensive National energy Policy Act of 1992. This article focuses on the following specific tax credits, tax benefits and subsidies for biomass energy: (1) IRC section 29 credit for producing gas from biomass, (2) IRC section 45 credit for producing electricity from biomass, (3) Incentive payments for electricity produced from biomass, (4) Excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, (5) IRC section 40 alcohol fuels credits, and (6) IRC section 179A special deduction for alcohol fuels property

  8. 76 FR 5070 - Offset of Tax Refund Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts AGENCY: Financial Management Service... (referred to as ``tax refund offset'') to collect delinquent State unemployment compensation debts. The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) will incorporate the procedures necessary to collect State unemployment...

  9. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  10. Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

  11. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... reviewed by the HCA before referral to the AAG/A. The referral will include all pertinent data on which the... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this subpart...

  12. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is an agent of the Government, the matter shall be referred to the agency head for review. The referral... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by States...

  13. 12 CFR 1.110 - Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... impact of any possible limitations regarding the State's or political subdivision's taxing powers, as... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision. 1.110 Section 1.110 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  14. The public health benefit of increasing tobacco taxes in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R

    1990-04-01

    The 1989-1990 New York State budget increased the tax on a package of cigarettes from 21 to 33 cents. In this paper we estimate the impact of this tax increase on smoking prevalence and smoking-induced deaths in New York State. Findings show that 115,967 New Yorkers will be encouraged to quit or not start smoking as a result of the increased cigarette tax. The reduced prevalence of smoking attributed to the tax will result in the avoidance of approximately 28,992 premature smoking-induced deaths over the next generation.

  15. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (pconvenience stores per million people in a state. State-level SFA policies do not correlate with convenience store density in a state, regardless whether gas stations were included. These results are robust across different model specifications. In addition, they are robust with regard to the inclusion/exclusion of other state-level tobacco control measures and gasoline prices. Contrary to tobacco industry and related organisations' claims, higher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  16. Tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and the European Union : Preface to the special issue of Financial Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preface to a special issue of Financial Theory and Practice, which is devoted to the comparison of tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and other EU countries. The articles in this issue have arisen from the students’ research project, undertaken in 2015. This Preface outlines the motivation behind the research project, explains the most important methodological issues, and reviews the literature on the measurement of tax wedge in Croatia.

  17. The impact of a fat tax: progressive in health, but regressive in income?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chudá, T.; Janský, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), s. 445-458 ISSN 1210-0455 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Czech Republic * fat tax * food Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016 http://www.vse.cz/pep/569

  18. 26 CFR 1.901-2 - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Country X imposes a “headquarters company tax” on country X corporations that serve as regional... paragraph (d) of this section. A headquarters company for purposes of this tax is a corporation that... headquarters companies would charge affiliates for such services, gross receipts of a headquarters company are...

  19. TAX SYSTEM FOR MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL LIVING IN FRANCE - DECLARATION OF INCOME FOR 2003 -

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2004-01-01

    (Please see the web pages) Important The French tax authorities have informed the Organization of certain changes to the tax system applicable to certain members of the CERN personnel residing in France. The CERN Management is currently seeking to clarify a number of points relating to the application of these measures. For the moment, members of the personnel residing in France are requested to follow the instructions(1) outlined below and any other related instructions published later in 2004. To deal with the increasing number of requests for personal advice, the Human Resources Department has set up a Help-Desk, on 72838, which will direct you to the relevant in-house or outside services. However, as the Human Resources Department cannot speak for the tax authorities and does not have the necessary resources to handle all the problems that are referred to it, members of the personnel are strongly urged to contact the French tax authorities directly, either at the information desks organised at the pla...

  20. TAX SYSTEM FOR MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL LIVING IN FRANCE -DECLARATION OF INCOME FOR 1999-

    CERN Document Server

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    This text is also available on the Human Resources Division Web site.ImportantThe French tax authorities have informed the Organisation of certain changes to the tax system applicable to certain members of the CERN personnel residing in France. The CERN Management is currently seeking to clarify a number of points relating to the application of these measures. For the moment, members of the personnel residing in France are requested to follow the intructions outlined below and any other related instructions published later in 2000.To deal with the increasing number of requests for personal advice, the Human Resources Division has set up a Help-Desk, on 72838, which will direct you to the relevant in-house or outside services.However, as the Human Resources Division cannot speak for the tax authorities and does not have the necessary resources to handle all the problems that are referred to it, members of the personnel are strongly urged to contact the French tax authorities directly, either at the information...

  1. The Impact of Negative Income Tax on Participation in Electoral Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Joseph

    This paper reports on the impact of the Rural Income Maintenance Experiment on participation in the electoral process. Paradigms of the left and of the right predict dramatically different consequences of universal income supplement, the left wing seeing such a program as essential for minimal democratic processes while the right sees in universal…

  2. Income inequality and child maltreatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; Smith, Elliott G; McCarthy, Margaret E; Dineen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relation between county-level income inequality and rates of child maltreatment. Data on substantiated reports of child abuse and neglect from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. County-level data on income inequality and children in poverty were obtained from the American Community Survey. Data for additional control variables were obtained from the American Community Survey and the Health Resources and Services Administration Area Resource File. The Gini coefficient was used as the measure of income inequality. Generalized additive models were estimated to explore linear and nonlinear relations among income inequality, poverty, and child maltreatment. In all models, state was included as a fixed effect to control for state-level differences in victim rates. Considerable variation in income inequality and child maltreatment rates was found across the 3142 US counties. Income inequality, as well as child poverty rate, was positively and significantly correlated with child maltreatment rates at the county level. Controlling for child poverty, demographic and economic control variables, and state-level variation in maltreatment rates, there was a significant linear effect of inequality on child maltreatment rates (P income inequality across US counties was significantly associated with higher county-level rates of child maltreatment. The findings contribute to the growing literature linking greater income inequality to a range of poor health and well-being outcomes in infants and children.

  3. Stateless Income

    OpenAIRE

    Edward D Kleinbard

    2012-01-01

    This paper and its companion, The Lessons of Stateless Income, together comprehensively analyze the tax consequences and policy implications of the phenomenon of “stateless income.” Stateless income comprises income derived for tax purposes by a multinational group from business activities in a country other than the domicile of the group’s ultimate parent company, but which is subject to tax only in a jurisdiction that is not the location of the customers or the factors of production through...

  4. Reconciling State Aid and Property Tax Relief for Urban Schools: Birthing a New STAR in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Killeen, Kieran M.

    2007-01-01

    Similar to many property tax relief programs, New York State's School Tax Relief (STAR) program has been shown to exacerbate school resource inequities across urban, suburban, and rural schools. STAR's inherent conflict with the wealth equalization policies of New York State's school finance system are highlighted in a manner that effectively…

  5. 1977 guidebook to California taxes with special emphasis on relationship to Federal taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick reference work on California State taxes. With this in mind, the amount of detail is kept to a minimum by assuming that the reader has some knowledge of Federal taxes that are generally similar to the major California taxes (or that he has access to the wealth of information about Federal taxes that is readily available). The book explains the four major California taxes (personal income tax, tax on corporate income, inheritance tax, and gift tax), whenever possible, in terms of the comparable Federal taxes. Differences between the two laws are pointed out, and cross-references make it possible to trace from a given provision in one law to a comparable provision in the other. Special attention is given to subjects peculiar to the California law. In addition to the major State taxes, the book provides general information about other taxes levied by the State. Property taxes are also discussed briefly, because of their statewide impact, although they are imposed by local governmental units.

  6. Double Dividend Taxation Relief: A New View From The Corporate Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Lazar

    2010-01-01

    Double taxation of dividends is a matter of great interest in the actual context of globalization and free movement of capital and persons. As the classical system is more and more abandoned, new solutions for the relief of double taxation are put into practice as a mean to reduce the fiscal burden on shareholders. With few exceptions, all these solutions are based on dividend tax relief. The paper aims at providing alternative solutions for double dividend taxation relief by taking some acti...

  7. The role of tax audit as a component of restaurants` financial state audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Omelianchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of tax audit in the process of audit the financial state the enterprises of restaurant economy arises through accumulation in the balance sheet information about the state of fiscal discipline in such forms like the debt on payment taxes, fees and other payments to the budget. In connection with the widespread scientific pluralism views, the purpose of the article is an analysis the role of the tax audit of the company in restaurant facilities today. Dialectical method of cognition of the essence of the tax audit and methods of comparison, generalization, systematization and synthesis of the study of the peculiarities of tax audit of the company in restaurant facilities were used for achievement the purpose of research. Discovered the features of realization the tax audit оn the company of the restaurant facilities. Studied the state the market development of the external audit of taxes and tax audit in Ukraine. Have been identified the features of the system of taxation of business entities in the restaurant industry. The scope of results’ application are the participants’ assessment of the financial state and fiscal capacity of the enterprise restaurant economy.

  8. A just distribution of burdens? : Attitudes toward the social distribution of taxes in 26 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether people believe that tax burdens are fairly distributed is an important condition for welfare state legitimacy. This article examines how people evaluate this distribution of tax burdens in their country by using latent cluster analysis. We use 2006 International Social Survey Program data

  9. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Oklahoma. State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to provide outcomes-based information on Oklahoma's proposal to give tax credits for contributing to organizations that provide scholarships to K-12 private schools. The study constructs a model to determine the fiscal impact of tax-credit scholarships on the state and on local school districts. The author estimates the impact…

  10. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-04-26

    The relationship between income and life expectancy is well established but remains poorly understood. To measure the level, time trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy and to identify factors related to small area variation. Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion deidentified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Pretax household earnings as a measure of income. Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. The sample consisted of 1,408,287,218 person-year observations for individuals aged 40 to 76 years (mean age, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61,175 per year). There were 4,114,380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100,000) and 2,694,808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100,000). The analysis yielded 4 results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for women in the bottom 5% (P income individuals varied substantially across local areas. In the bottom income

  11. A fundamental tax reform in Norway : a comparison of the allowance for corporate equity system and the comprehensive business income tax system in a Norwegian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Riskjell, Ole Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis seeks to answer what are the main distortions in the Norwegian tax system and to determine which of the ACE or CBIT systems that best could replace the current system. First, the thesis considers the current distortions in the Norwegian tax system. I find that the current tax system is distortive with regards to the tax-treatment of debt versus equity, as only cost of debt is deductible for tax purposes, while cost of equity is not. Moreover, the current system is d...

  12. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  13. The Impact of Greening Tax Systems on Sustainable Energy Development in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the greening of tax systems in the European Union (EU, and reviews the achievements of the Baltic States in relation to greening their tax systems and implementing the sustainable energy development goals set by the EU’s energy policies. Environmental taxes promote sustainable energy development, as they allow internalizing the external costs of atmospheric pollution in the energy sector. Energy production and consumption are a major source classical pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Almost of the all EU member states (MS apply pollution taxes as the most important economic tool for mitigating the environmental impacts of various economic activities. Considering the importance of the energy sector in terms of its contributions to total atmospheric emissions in the EU, it is supposed that environmental taxes are important drivers of sustainable energy development. Environmental taxes, as the main tool for the integration of negative externalities that are related to atmospheric pollution, are imposed to create incentives for reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to renewable energy sources or fuels that have a lower carbon content and thus cause less pollution. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the impact of environmental taxes on sustainable energy development indicators in three selected countries from the Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia during the period 2005–2015, and reveals the role that the greening of tax systems has had on implementing sustainable energy development targets in the Baltic States.

  14. Thoughts on a comprehensive tax reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wanfu

    2015-01-01

    "The Decision on Several Major Issues Regarding the Deepening of Reform" adopted by the Third Plenum of the Eighteenth Session of the CPC Central Committee gave a new position to the next round of tax reform,and proposed its objectives,tone,mission,and core tasks.The new round of tax reform should cover a wide range of issues,including state governance,tax legislation,economic reform and development,social management,globalization,ecological and environmental protection,improvement of tax collection,as well as other related issues.Particular attention should be paid to replacing business tax with VAT,completing legislation on VAT,adjusting the scope,collection mechanisms,and rates of consumption tax;strengthening regulation and control,implementing a personal income tax system that considers both aggregate income and income by source,promoting real estate tax legislation,expanding the ad valorem natural resource tax,accelerating the gradual replacement of fees with taxes,and introducing legislation on environmental protection taxes.

  15. Impact of GDP and tax revenue on health care financing: An empirical investigation from Indian states

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar BEHERA; Umakant DASH

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the long run impact of GDP and tax revenue on public health care expenditure using panel FMOLS and DOLS models for sixteen major states of India over the period 1980-2013. This study is more relevant in order to measure the progress in universal health care financing across the states of India because states are heterogeneous in terms of health care spending, associated with low tax bases and low level of GDP growth. The empirical result shows that healt...

  16. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  17. Social Capital, Race, and Income Inequality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the United States has witnessed increasing wealth concentration in the hands of the ultra-rich. Measured at the state level, the top 10 percent of income earners amassed roughly 43% of total income, and economic growth only enhanced this inequality between the ultrarich and the rest of citizens. This paper examines whether social capital plays a positive role in mitigating income inequality at the state level, with an emphasis on racial diversity and its relation to church attendance. The empirical findings demonstrate that social capital, whether measured by Robert Putnam’s state-level social capital index (SCI, or a new measure that improves SCI’s original measurement, fails to improve income equality. In comparison, racial diversity is found to be a consistent contributor of income inequality. In states with a greater proportion of minority population, the ultra-rich tend to share more wealth and social capital potentially facilitates the ultra-rich to enjoy the benefit of economic growth.

  18. 26 CFR 1.671-3 - Attribution or inclusion of income, deductions, and credits against tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... portion he is treated as owning. Similarly, he may have a power over corpus which is such that he is... be treated as an owner of the income if the power were a reversionary interest. (See paragraph (c) of... be treated as an owner under section 673 if the power were a reversionary interest. Similarly, a...

  19. The use of tax planning schemes based on the differential taxation of labor income and capital income. Tööjõu ja kapitali maksustamise erinevustel põhinevate maksude planeerimise skeemide kasutamine Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper covers one of the tax optimization schemes popular in Estonia – full or partial replacement of labor income with dividends. Such scheme is used by some owner-managers as the regulation concerning emoluments of members of management body is very flexible. The main incentive to use the scheme is to reduce tax burden as dividends are only subject to income tax but emoluments to the members of management body are also taxed with the social tax. Basic results show that considered schemes are widespread. We estimate that due to replacement of salaries and wages with dividends there was a significant loss in social tax revenues in Estonia during 2005-2008. In majority of the sectors average dividends of ownermanagers in 2008 were higher than their average salaries. Also, the average amount of owner-managers’ emoluments in majority of the sectors was below the national monthly average salary, in some cases it was even below subsistence level

  20. THE METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE ESTIMATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF TAXES IN FORMING OF INCOMES OF BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BELGOROD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted questions of formation of tax incomes of budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Approaches of a regional tax policy are proved by granting of tax privileges. The system of factors allowing quantitatively to estimate value of tax payments in formation own and aggregate prots of the budget is offered; approbation on an example of the budget of the Belgorod region is spent.

  1. 18 CFR 367.103 - Accounts 409.1, 409.2, and 409.3, Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts of taxes become known, the current tax accruals must be adjusted by charges or credits to these accounts, so that these accounts include the actual taxes payable by the service company. (b) The accruals... must be charged to account 431, Other interest expense (§ 367.4310). (d) Interest on tax refunds or...

  2. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  3. Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-10-31

    To model the overall and income specific effect of a 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK. Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. United Kingdom. Adults aged 16 and over. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks. The primary outcomes were the overall and income specific changes in the number and percentage of overweight (body mass index ≥ 25) and obese (≥ 30) adults in the UK following the implementation of the tax. Secondary outcomes were the effect by age group (16-29, 30-49, and ≥ 50 years) and by UK constituent country. The revenue generated from the tax and the income specific changes in weekly expenditure on drinks were also estimated. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks was estimated to reduce the number of obese adults in the UK by 1.3% (95% credible interval 0.8% to 1.7%) or 180,000 (110,000 to 247,000) people and the number who are overweight by 0.9% (0.6% to 1.1%) or 285,000 (201,000 to 364,000) people. The predicted reductions in prevalence of obesity for income thirds 1 (lowest income), 2, and 3 (highest income) were 1.3% (0.3% to 2.0%), 0.9% (0.1% to 1.6%), and 2.1% (1.3% to 2.9%). The effect on obesity declined with age. Predicted annual revenue was £276m (£272m to £279m), with estimated increases in total expenditure on drinks for income thirds 1, 2, and 3 of 2.1% (1.4% to 3.0%), 1.7% (1.2% to 2.2%), and 0.8% (0.4% to 1.2%). A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks would lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in the UK of 1.3% (around 180,000 people). The greatest effects may occur in young people, with no significant differences between income groups. Both effects warrant further exploration. Taxation of sugar sweetened drinks is a promising population measure to target population obesity, particularly among younger adults.

  4. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  5. How tax incentives affect the economics of solar energy equipment in the state of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuffey, B.; Brooks, B.; Shirley, L.

    1998-01-01

    To promote and encourage the use of solar energy, the state of North Carolina has put in place one of the most favorable corporate energy tax credit packages in the country. The capital cost of solar energy systems can be reduced 50 to 70% by state and federal tax incentives. The available incentives for solar equipment installation are (1) a 35% state tax credit, up to a one year maximum of $25,000, from North Carolina; (2) a 10% unlimited federal tax credit; and (3) a 5-year federal accelerated depreciation schedule. To promote residential solar systems, the state has provided a residential credit of 40% up to a one year maximum of $1,500

  6. After Mexico Implemented a Tax, Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Decreased and Water Increased: Difference by Place of Residence, Household Composition, and Income Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Molina, Mariana; Guerrero-López, Carlos M

    2017-08-01

    Background: In January 2014, Mexico implemented a tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) purchases of 1 peso/L. Objective: We examined the heterogeneity of changes in nonalcoholic beverage (SSB and bottled water) purchases after the tax was implemented by household income, urban and rural strata, and household composition. Methods: We used 4 rounds of the National Income and Expenditure Surveys: 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Changes in purchases in per capita liters per week were estimated with the use of 2-part models to adjust for nonpurchases. We compared absolute and relative differences between adjusted changes in observed purchases in 2014 with expected purchases in 2014 based on prior trends (2008-2012). The models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of the households, place of residence, and lagged gross domestic product per capita. Results: We found a 6.3% reduction in the observed purchases of SSBs in 2014 compared with the expected purchases in that same year based on trends from 2008 to 2012. These reductions were higher among lower-income households, residents living in urban areas, and households with children. We also found a 16.2% increase in water purchases that was higher in low- and middle-income households, in urban areas, and among households with adults only. Conclusions: SSB purchases decreased and water purchases increased after an SSB tax was imposed in Mexico. The magnitude of these changes was greater in lower-income and urban households. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Federal Contributions to High-Income School Districts: The Use of Tax Deductions for Funding K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susannna; Socias, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    The federal role in education finance is commonly seen as compensatory. The federal government gives large sums of money to low-income schools and school districts through programs such as Title 1. Yet, this view of federal aid is based solely on direct educational expenditures. The federal government and state governments also support schools…

  8. Tax Expenditures in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Croatia contains a large number of very diverse kinds of tax expenditures whose the declared aim is to achieve certain social and economic objectives. This paper considers all the items that constitute tax expenditures in Croatia, within the systems of the personal income tax, corporate income tax, and real estate transfer tax and value added tax. The objective of the article is to determine the real level of tax expenditures per form of tax in the 2001-2004 period. We hypothesised that the tax expenditures in the analysed forms of tax are both high and growing, which was ultimately borne out, for almost all the analysed items in the tax forms considered are growing.

  9. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  10. Income inequality: A complex network analysis of US states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, Periklis; Gupta, Rangan; Miller, Stephen M.; Papadimitriou, Theophilos; Sarantitis, Georgios Antonios

    2017-10-01

    This study performs a long-run, inter-temporal analysis of income inequality in the US spanning the period 1916-2012. We employ both descriptive analysis and the Threshold-Minimum Dominating Set methodology from Graph Theory, to examine the evolution of inequality through time. In doing so, we use two alternative measures of inequality: the Top 1% share of income and the Gini coefficient. This provides new insight on the literature of income inequality across the US states. Several empirical findings emerge. First, a heterogeneous evolution of inequality exists across the four focal sub-periods. Second, the results differ between the inequality measures examined. Finally, we identify groups of similarly behaving states in terms of inequality. The US authorities can use these findings to identify inequality trends and innovations and/or examples to investigate the causes of inequality within the US and implement appropriate policies.

  11. Veterans’ Pensions: Verifying Income with Tax Data Can Identify Significant Payment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    NOT RETURN THE COMPLETED FORM TO THE VA BY DC 1, -1’on YOUR BENEFITS WILL BE DISCONTINUEr IMPOPTA -Pless. read the inclosO Evp IsuctIos (VA Porn 2 1...physically or mentally helpless before age 18. If you have unmarried children in any of these categories. show the number of such children. If a child is...away at school but still a member of your household, consider that child to be IN YOUR CUSTODY It you have no dependent children show Ŕ". 2. INCOME

  12. WIDENING THE TAX NET: LESSONS FROM LAGOS STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Department of Accounting ... CITI Bank direct monitoring and reporting of internal revenue system – 1999 ... Ordinarily, people abhor tax payment due to its effect on their ..... O. (2013): ―The Impact of information and communication technology on internal control's prevention and detection of fraud‖ Unpublished PhD ...

  13. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  14. 48 CFR 1652.229-70 - Taxes-Foreign Negotiated benefits contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. “Excepted tax” does...

  15. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  16. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  17. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  18. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-7 - Reporting of income, deductions and investment tax credit; at risk rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax credit; at risk rules. 5c.168(f)(8)-7 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... investment tax credit; at risk rules. (a) In general. The fact that the lessor's payments of interest and... property shall be limited to the extent the at risk rules under the investment tax credit provisions and...

  19. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  20. Forum: Interaction of State Aid, Free Movement, Policy Competition and Abuse Control in Direct Tax Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union has woken up to State aid possibly contained in national direct tax measures. As a result, the number of Commission actions against Member States on the basis of fiscal State aid has increased in recent years, with some amazing results. It has also revealed overlap and