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Sample records for state brazil dynamic

  1. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  2. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  3. New route for uranium concentrate production from Caetite ore, Bahia State, Brazil; dynamic leaching - direct precipitation

    Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz A.; Scassiotti Filho, Walter [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mails: gomiero@inb.gov.br; scassiotti@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The common uranium concentrate production consists of ore leaching, uranium purification/concentration by solvent extraction and uranium precipitation as ammonium diuranate steps. In the present work, a new route of uranium concentrate production from Caetite, BA-Brazil ore was investigated. The following steps were investigated: dynamic leaching of the ground ore with sulfuric acid; sulfuric liquor pre-neutralization until pH 3.7; uranium peroxide precipitation. The study was carried out in bath and continuous circuits. In the dynamic leaching of ground ore in agitated tanks the uranium content in the leached ore may be as low as 100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, depending on grinding size. In the pre-neutralization step, the iron content in the liquor is decreased in 99 wt.%, dropping from 3.62 g/L to 0.030 g/L. The sulfate content in the liquor reduces from 46 g/L to 22 g/L. A calcinated final product assaying 99.7 wt.% U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained. The full process recovery was over 94%. (author)

  4. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1 and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r² = 0.24, p = 0.001 supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection.

  5. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in the northernmost state of Brazil: a likely port-of-entry for dengue virus 4

    Cláudia Torres Codeço

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Roraima is the northernmost state of Brazil, bordering both Venezuela and Guyana. Appropriate climate and vector conditions for dengue transmission together with its proximity to countries where all four dengue serotypes circulate make this state, particularly the capital Boa Vista, strategically important for dengue surveillance in Brazil. Nonetheless, few studies have addressed the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti in Boa Vista. In this study, we report temporal and spatial variations in Ae. aegypti population density using ovitraps in two highly populated neighbourhoods; Centro and Tancredo Neves. In three out of six surveys, Ae. aegypti was present in more than 80% of the sites visited. High presence levels of this mosquito suggest ubiquitous human exposure to the vector, at least during part of the year. The highest infestation rates occurred during the peak of the rainy seasons, but a large presence was also observed during the early dry season (although with more variation among years. Spatial distribution of positive houses changed from a sparse and local pattern to a very dense pattern during the dry-wet season transition. These results suggest that the risk of dengue transmission and the potential for the new serotype invasions are high for most of the year.

  7. Spatial dynamics of urban populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae in Caxias, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Maria do Desterro Soares Brandao Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this paper, we report the ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Caxias City, located in the eastern part of State of Maranhão, Brazil and highlight its seasonal and geographical distribution by environment. In addition, we discuss natural Leishmania infection and its relationship with visceral leishmaniasis. Methods Between September 2007 and August 2009, the collection of sandflies was performed using Center for Disease Control (CDC light traps from 15 houses in 5 selected neighborhoods. Results Lutzomyia longipalpis was present in all zones of the city. We also found that Lu. longipalpis was regularly detected both inside and around the house, predominantly in outdoor areas. In urban areas, Lu. longipalpis was present in both the dry and rainy seasons, with a higher density present in the latter. One female specimen of Lu. longipalpis was observed to have natural Leishmania infection. Conclusions The presence of Lu. longipalpis was observed throughout the year during 2 seasonal periods, with a predominance in the rainy season. A low rate of natural Leishmania infection was observed in urban areas during the rainy season.

  8. Spatial dynamics of urban populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Caxias, State of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Silva, Maria Helena; Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Leonardo, Francisco Santos; Bezerra, Geusa Felipa de Barros; Silva, Antonia Suely Guimarães e; Soares, Valéria Cristina Pinheiro; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Caxias City, located in the eastern part of State of Maranhão, Brazil and highlight its seasonal and geographical distribution by environment. In addition, we discuss natural Leishmania infection and its relationship with visceral leishmaniasis. Between September 2007 and August 2009, the collection of sandflies was performed using Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps from 15 houses in 5 selected neighborhoods. Lutzomyia longipalpis was present in all zones of the city. We also found that Lu. longipalpis was regularly detected both inside and around the house, predominantly in outdoor areas. In urban areas, Lu. longipalpis was present in both the dry and rainy seasons, with a higher density present in the latter. One female specimen of Lu. longipalpis was observed to have natural Leishmania infection. The presence of Lu. longipalpis was observed throughout the year during 2 seasonal periods, with a predominance in the rainy season. A low rate of natural Leishmania infection was observed in urban areas during the rainy season.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of the karyotype of the wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum nitidum (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae from the Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Ricardo Scher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis based on the distribution of C-bands showed two groups of karyotypes in a Trypoxylon nitidum population from the Rio Doce Park, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these groups, that was identical to a previously described karyotype (n = 15; 2n = 30, had a stable chromosome number and was rich in acrocentric chromosomes, whereas the other had a variable chromosome number (n = 12 to 14; 2n = 25 to 28 and was rich in pseudo-acrocentric chromosomes. We propose a hypothesis explaining the dynamics of the modifications which occurred in the karyotype of this species, based on the minimum interaction theory of Imai et al. (1986, 1988, 1994 and on the chromosome rearrangements and heteromorphisms observed by us.

  10. Speleoclimate dynamics in Santana Cave (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil: general characterization and implications for tourist management

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Show caves provide tourists with the opportunity to have close contact with natural underground spaces. However, visitation to these places also creates a need for management measures, mainly the definition of tourist carrying capacity. The present work describes the results of climate monitoring and atmospheric profiling performed in Santana Cave (Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park – PETAR, Brazil between 2008 and 2011. Based on the results, distinct preliminary zones with different levels of thermal variation were identified, which classify Santana Cave as a warm trap. Two critical points along the tourist route (Cristo and Encontro Halls were identified where the temperature of the locality increased by 1.3 °C when tourists were present. Air flow from the inner cave to the outside occurs during the austral summer, and the opposite flow occurs when the outside environment is colder than the air inside the cave during the austral winter. The temperature was used to establish thresholds to the tourist carrying capacity by computing the recovery time of the atmospheric conditions after the changes caused by the presence of tourists. This method suggests a maximum limit of approximately 350 visits per day to Santana Cave. The conclusion of the study is that Santana Cave has an atmosphere that is highly connected with the outside; daily variations in temperature and, to a lesser extent, in the relative humidity occur throughout the entire studied area of the cave. Therefore, the tourist carrying capacity in Santana Cave can be flexible and can be implemented based on the climate seasonality, the tourism demand and other management strategies.

  11. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  12. Vegetation dynamics during the late Pleistocene in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, based on carbon isotopes in soil organic matter

    Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Ribeiro, Adauto de Souza; Gouveia, Susy Eli Marques; Aravena, Ramon; Boulet, Rene; Bendassolli, José Albertino

    2004-09-01

    The study place is in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. A vegetation transect of 78 km was studied among four vegetation types: Restinga (coastal vegetation), Cerrado (woody savanna), Cerradão (dense woody savanna), and Forest, as well as three forested sites around Lagoa do Caçó, located approximately 10 km of the transect. Soil profiles in this transect were sampled for δ13C analysis, as well as buried charcoal fragments were used for 14C dating. The data interpretation indicated that approximately between 15,000 and ˜9000 14C yr B.P., arboreal vegetation prevailed in the whole transect, probably due to the presence of a humid climate. Approximately between ˜9000 and 4000-3000 14C yr B.P., there was the expansion of the savanna, probably related to the presence of drier climate. From ˜4000-3000 14C yr B.P. to the present, the results indicated an increase in the arboreal density in the area, due to the return to a more humid and probably similar climate to the present. The presence of buried charcoal fragments in several soil depths suggested the occurrence of palaeofires during the Holocene. The vegetation dynamic inferred in this study for northeastern Brazil is in agreement with the results obtained in areas of Amazon region, based on pollen analysis of lake sediments and carbon isotope analysis of soil organic matter (SOM), implying than similar climatic conditions have affected these areas during the late Pleistocene until the present.

  13. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Concepta McManus

    Full Text Available Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region. This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  14. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  15. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging

  16. Sovereign Risk and Simple Debt Dynamics: The Case of Brazil and Argentina

    Haselmann,Rainer; Holle,Stephanie; Kool,Clemens; Ziesemer,Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simple neoclassical growth model with perfect internationalcapital mobility to analyze the international debt dynamics of developing countries ingeneral and Brazil and Argentina in particular. We show that three different regimes canbe distinguished: a stable steady state debtor regime, a stable steady state creditor regimeand an unstable regime. A switch from a stable debtor or a stable creditor position to anunstable creditor regime may be a sign of forthcoming tr...

  17. The Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, as a segmented internationalization territory of the national space

    Adolmar A. Rückert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes recent scenarios of the territorial restructuring and the new roles of territories as links of the global society, specially limited to the case of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The constitutional reform of the Brazilean economy southeast portion of the country - particularly in Rio Grande do Sul, a southern state that borders Argentina and Uruguay. The above process has redefined the role of borders from defensive to articulating, focusing the strategic infrastructure and the industrial economy's dynamic nuclei toward the geoeconomical core Mercosur. This has led to deepening of the interreglonal inequalities in southeastern and southern Brazil, as well as internally amongthe Federation states.

  18. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  19. Atenção básica e dinâmica urbana nos grandes municípios paulistas, Brasil Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Estudos de Linha de Base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família construíram indicadores e modelos de atenção básica para os 62 municípios paulistas com mais de 100 mil habitantes, e apontaram uma diversidade de comportamento destes indicadores e modelos em relação às diferentes dinâmicas urbanas do estado. Nesse sentido, houve a necessidade de realizar uma reflexão sobre saúde e uso urbano do território. O principal objetivo desta reflexão foi compreender melhor sobre como a dinâmica urbana tem influência no perfil, na organização e no funcionamento do sistema de saúde. A partir daí, foi possível extrair algumas hipóteses e discussões sobre como a urbanização paulista impõe desafios à expansão e consolidação da atenção básica e do Programa Saúde da Família nos municípios estudados.The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities.

  20. Human Development and Social Support for State Authority in Brazil

    Daniel Capistrano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have observed a syndrome of shifting values within different cultures over the past five decades. This work investigates whether these cultural changes have been followed by changes in individual attitudes regarding state authority in Brazil. Using data from the World Values Survey, we tested the hypotheses proposed by Ronald Inglehart that the increasing prevalence of self-expression and secular-rational values has been followed by an increasing societal emphasis on civic autonomy over state authority. The results do not provide evidence to support this hypothesis for Brazil. Instead, the study shows a stable pattern of support for state authority in the past three decades despite the increasing level of self-expression values. The study suggests that these attitudes are related to long-lasting characteristics of the political culture and public expectations regarding the role of the state in reducing social inequality in Brazil.

  1. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  2. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  3. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Leporinus striatus Kner (Teleostei, Characiformes, Anostomidae from the Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Helena A.S. Chini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a sequense of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells. These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature females were collected monthly, during one year, from the Rio Sapucaí, tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir system in the state of Minas Gerais. The observed material showed that oogonias were small spherical cells, had a big spherical nucleus, with a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (FG stained, which indicate their protein content. The primary oocytes showed a big basophilic nucleus, with a large peripheral nucleolus, and several smaller nucleoli. They show a reduced cytoplasmic content. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. The zona radiata had two layers, the outer and the inner, which showed its protein content when stained with CM and FG techniques. TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 staining showed that oocytes undergoing vitellogenesis presented weakly stained cytoplasm and peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles. The follicle cells that were squamous became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the yolk granules that filled the cytoplasm became green and blue when stained with FG and CM techniques, indicating their protein content. The perivitclline region showed rosy stained vesicles (TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 spread among the weakly stained peripheral vesicles, which seemed to be the cortical alveoli. The zona radiata cells, CM and FG stained, still showed two layers like the oocytes from the previous stage, but thicker.

  4. Uranium prospecting in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Cenachi, N.C.

    1974-01-01

    A brief description is made of the program established by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) - Brazil, for the radiogeological survey of a large area in the state of Bahia. Details of the projects carried out since 1971 are also given. Projects of aerogeophysical surveys are also mentioned [pt

  5. Radiocrystalographic study on chernovite from Jaguaracu, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Baptista, N.R.; Baptista, A.

    1985-01-01

    Some data on study of chernovite crystals, YAsO 4 localized in Jaguaracu state of Minas Gerais, Brazil are reported. The spectrochemical analysis and methods used for identification, as well as its chemical composition are described. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed....

  7. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  8. Bahia State, Brazil : Ariculture Sector Risk Assessment

    Arias, Diego; Caballero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present study is part of an effort by the World Bank and the State of Bahia to assess agriculture sector risks as a contribution to the strategic economic development and poverty reduction agenda of the state government. It is composed of two phases: an agricultural sector risk identification and prioritization (volume one) and a risk management strategy and action plan (volume two). T...

  9. Fuel demand in Brazil in a dynamic panel data approach

    Santos, Gervásio F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of fuel consumers regarding price and income, taking recent changes in the Brazilian fuel market into account. In this market, new market rules, energy policy towards fuel diversification and introduction of flex-fuel engines have determined fuel competition among gasoline, ethanol and compressed natural gas. Using a dynamic panel data model, demand equations for these three fuels are econometrically estimated to obtain consumer adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities in the short and long-run. In addition, the effect of the introduction of flex-fuel engines in the market and the rationality of consumers towards efficiency constraints of the engines were tested. Apart from considerable competition, results show that the dynamics of the Brazilian fuel market revolves around ethanol instead of gasoline. While demands for gasoline and natural gas are inelastic to price, demand for ethanol is elastic in Brazil. Furthermore, after the introduction of the flex-fuel technology the sensitivity of consumers to fuel prices changed, and ethanol consumers take efficiency constrains into account when ethanol prices reach the threshold of 70% of gasoline prices. - Highlights: ► Fuel demand in Brazil is evaluated, considering the changes in the fuel market. ► A dynamic panel data model is used to fit demand equations for fuels. ► Adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities are estimated. ► The impact of flex-fuel technology on the consumer behavior is tested. ► The results showed that the dynamic of the fuel market revolves around ethanol. ► The flex-fuel technology increased the competition among fuels

  10. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Zickel, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restinga vegetation occurs along the entire coast of Brazil. The 187 km of coastline of the state ofPernambuco demonstrates a diversity of habitats, such as beaches, dunes, and restingas. The present study sought toelaborate a checklist of the phanerogamic species found there. The species listed were compiled from surveysundertaken between 1951 and 2007, as well as from herbaria collections in that state. A total of 477 species distributedamong 303 genera and 95 families were encountered. The families with the greatest numbers of species were Poaceae(39 species, Fabaceae (34, Cyperaceae (26, Euphorbiaceae (25, Myrtaceae (24, Rubiaceae (20, Caesalpiniaceae(17, Mimosaceae (16, Asteraceae (14, Orchidaceae (14, Bromeliaceae (9, Boraginaceae (8, Malvaceae (8,Solanaceae (8, and Annonaceae, Araceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Melastomataceae (7 each.Approximately 60 % of the species were common to other restinga areas in northeastern Brazil, and 39.3 % wererestricted to the coast of Pernambuco.

  11. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  12. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  13. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  14. Testing the Goodwin growth-cycle macroeconomic dynamics in Brazil

    Moura, N. J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the empirical validity of Goodwin’s (1967) macroeconomic model of growth with cycles by assuming that the individual income distribution of the Brazilian society is described by the Gompertz-Pareto distribution (GPD). This is formed by the combination of the Gompertz curve, representing the overwhelming majority of the population (˜99%), with the Pareto power law, representing the tiny richest part (˜1%). In line with Goodwin’s original model, we identify the Gompertzian part with the workers and the Paretian component with the class of capitalists. Since the GPD parameters are obtained for each year and the Goodwin macroeconomics is a time evolving model, we use previously determined, and further extended here, Brazilian GPD parameters, as well as unemployment data, to study the time evolution of these quantities in Brazil from 1981 to 2009 by means of the Goodwin dynamics. This is done in the original Goodwin model and an extension advanced by Desai et al. (2006). As far as Brazilian data is concerned, our results show partial qualitative and quantitative agreement with both models in the studied time period, although the original one provides better data fit. Nevertheless, both models fall short of a good empirical agreement as they predict single center cycles which were not found in the data. We discuss the specific points where the Goodwin dynamics must be improved in order to provide a more realistic representation of the dynamics of economic systems.

  15. Bryophytes from restinga in Setiba State Park, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Visnadi, Sandra Regina; Vital, Daniel Moreira

    1995-01-01

    A total of 34 bryophyte species were identified (25 hepatics, 9 mosses) from restinga at Setiba State Park, Guarapari Municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Several species reported previously from restinga appear to be erroneous records, based on misidentification.

  16. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  17. Natural and artificial radionuclides in soils from Parana State, Brazil

    Schuch, L.A.; Barreto, W.O.; Cardoso, A.

    1994-01-01

    Soil samples from Parana State, Brazil, were collected in 1991 and compared with others collected at some location in March 1977 and at the end of 1983. Pedological analyses were practiced on the samples and 137 Cs and 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A latitude dependence of 137 Cs was found as well. It was impossible to determine the 137 Cs contribution from Chernobyl nuclear accident because of low fallout and intense leaching, erosion and re-suspension in soils of regions with high annual precipitation. Natural radionuclides did not show such effects. (author) 39 refs; 6 tabs

  18. The Dom Feliciano belt in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A geological synthesis and a proposal for the geotectonic evolution of the precambrian to eopaleozoic terrains of the southern part of Santa Catarina state is presented. The methods utilized were conventional (field works, petrological studies and bibliographic analysis), including structural analysis, lithogeochemical and geochronological investigations. Over a hundred new radiometric determinations, using several methods some of which not yet available in Brazil, as U-Pb in zircon and Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd in whole rocks, are presented. The results allowed us to determine the emplacement epoch of granitoids and consequently the associated deformational phases. (author)

  19. Discourses of cyberspace securitization in Brazil and in the United States

    LUÍSA CRUZ LOBATO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper uses the framework of the Copenhagen School to understand the process of securitization of cyberspace, exploring how something in such sphere becomes a threat. Seeking to contribute to the debate, this study analyses the securitization discourses of Brazil and of the United States from Hansen and Nissenbaum's (2009 theorization about the existence of a specific sector for cybersecurity. To comprehend the securitization of cyberspace in these terms allows not only to identify distinct levels of securitization, but also to capture the dynamics of cyber threats, distinguishing them from those existent in other sectors, as well as to trace distinctions between tendencies of securitization and militarization.

  20. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Oliveira J.M.B., Batista Filho A.F.B., Borges J. de M., Soares L.B.F., Ortega-Mora L.M., Brandespim D.F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. [Tritrichomonas foetus em touros no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:449-453, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sanidade e Reprodução de Ruminantes. Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, 55296-901, Brazil. E-mail: juniormariobaltazar@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 105 samples of preputial smegma were collected from bulls in service belonging to different herds (n=63 and slaughterhouses (n=42. Genomic DNA extraction from collected samples was carried out to identify the agent in the samples and they were also submitted to the polymerase chain reaction. A frequency of 6.6% (2.7 - 13.2%; C.I. 95% was found for T. foetus. None of the slaughterhouse samples were positive. With regards to the number of foci, 21.8% (7/32 of the properties contained animals that were positive for T. foetus. In conclusion, T. foetus infection occurred in bulls in this way, this agent should be included in the diagnosis in animal health control programs. Therefore, as the removal of infected bulls and their replacement by younger animals, should be implemented in order to avoid the dissemination of the agent in herds.

  1. Portrait of leptospirosis in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Eloizy Mariana Dias de Medeiros Cirilo Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute bacterial disease, that has global distribution and manifests itself in subclinical or asymptomatic way, having mild or severe conditions that can lead to the death of the patient. Objective: To identify, among the municipalities of the state of Acre, Brazil, those with the highest incidence of leptospirosis between 2010 and 2015, and in addition, to determine the prevalence of this disease between the sexes. Methods: Descriptive study, of documentary character, with epidemiological base and quantitative approach. It was made by available documents through the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System of Brazil (DATASUS and also by the Health Secretary of State of Acre (SESACRE. Variables were selected as sex, age and year of notification. Regarding the analysis, it is emphasized that it was quantitative and descriptive and the results were presented in tables built in Microsoft Word. Results: It was found that the capital of the state of Acre, Rio Branco, led every year, contributing to the higher proportion of notifications related to leptospirosis. Regarding gender, there was a predilection for males and among age groups, the period of 20 to 39 years contributes to the greater number of cases of the disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is a worldwide public health problem and in the state of Acre, the high rainfall, the agglomeration of low income combined with inadequate sanitation, collaborate to infestation of transmitters animals, providing high rates of the disease. Thus, it appears that these high numbers can probably be attributed to the ineffectiveness of preventive activities, as well as insufficient investment directed to social policies and infrastructure sectors. Keywords: Infectious Disease. Leptospirosis. Prevalence. Incidence.

  2. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  3. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education...: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program Notice inviting applications for new... projects that include a plan to work with an institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in...

  4. Management report 2001 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil - management report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  5. Social balance sheet 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil social balance report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  6. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  7. Distribution of Cs137 in soils from Bahia state, Brazil

    Sakai, T.

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method was developed in order to study the distribution of Cs 137 in topsoils of State of Bahia (Brazil). The results has shown concentrations varying between 0.6 and 6.0 nCi/m 2 . Correlation of the Cs 137 concentration with environmental and ohysico-chemical parameters has shown a tendency for greatest accumulation in soils with regions of greatest precipitation rates: 2.0 nCi/m 2 , on the average, for regions with 700mm to 1,000 mm/year and 2.8 nCi/m 2 , on the average, in regions with 1,700 mm to 2,000 mm/year. On the other hand, an anti-correlation between this radionuclide and both calcium and clay content, for soils of similar type and under similar climatic conditions is seen. (C.D.G.) [pt

  8. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    1990-11-01

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  9. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  10. Soy moratorium impacts on soybean and deforestation dynamics in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Kastens, Jude H; Brown, J Christopher; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Bishop, Christopher R; Esquerdo, Júlio César D M

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established the usefulness of remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterize the spatial dynamics of agriculture in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. With these data it has become possible to track MT agriculture, which accounts for ~85% of Brazilian Amazon soy production, across periods of several years. Annual land cover (LC) maps support investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of agriculture as they relate to forest cover and governance and policy efforts to lower deforestation rates. We use a unique, spatially extensive 9-year (2005-2013) ground reference dataset to classify, with approximately 80% accuracy, MODIS VI data, merging the results with carefully processed annual forest and sugarcane coverages developed by Brazil's National Institute for Space Research to produce LC maps for MT for the 2001-2014 crop years. We apply the maps to an evaluation of forest and agricultural intensification dynamics before and after the Soy Moratorium (SoyM), a governance effort enacted in July 2006 to halt deforestation for the purpose of soy production in the Brazilian Amazon. We find the pre-SoyM deforestation rate to be more than five times the post-SoyM rate, while simultaneously observing the pre-SoyM forest-to-soy conversion rate to be more than twice the post-SoyM rate. These observations support the hypothesis that SoyM has played a role in reducing both deforestation and subsequent use for soy production. Additional analyses explore the land use tendencies of deforested areas and the conceptual framework of horizontal and vertical agricultural intensification, which distinguishes production increases attributable to cropland expansion into newly deforested areas as opposed to implementation of multi-cropping systems on existing cropland. During the 14-year study period, soy production was found to shift from predominantly single-crop systems to majority

  11. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed.

  12. The Dynamics of the Innovation System for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pozzo, Daniele; Ferreira, Gabriela Cardozo; Lionello, Rafael Laitano

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the dynamics of the innovation system for functional foods (FF) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foo...

  13. Dinâmica intra-urbana das epidemias de dengue em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1996-2002 Intra-urban dynamics of dengue epidemics in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1996-2002

    Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões espacial e temporal das epidemias de dengue em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre 1996 e 2002, analisando o endereço de residência como marcador do local de exposição. Casos de dengue notificados foram agrupados segundo semana epidemiológica do início dos sintomas e setor censitário de residência. O índice de Moran local foi utilizado para avaliar a autocorrelação espacial dos coeficientes de incidência. Também foi verificada a reincidência dos setores nas diferentes ondas epidêmicas. Por meio da função K de Ripley, foram comparadas as distribuições espaciais de dois grupos populacionais, supondo terem diferentes comportamentos em relação ao seu deslocamento pela cidade. Foram analisados 99.559 casos, evidenciando-se sete alças epidêmicas com diferentes durações e intensidades, com concentração de casos numa parcela reduzida de setores e tendência de dispersão espacial e temporal. A distribuição de casos dos dois grupos populacionais evidenciou padrões diferenciados, apontando a necessidade de melhorar o registro do provável local de infecção. O padrão de endemização da doença encontrado requer estratégias específicas e constitui um maior desafio para a vigilância em saúde.This study aimed to describe the temporal-spatial patterns of dengue epidemics in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2002 and to analyze residential address as a proxy for exposure. Reported dengue cases were analyzed according to week of onset of symptoms and residential census tract. Local Moran's index was used to assess spatial autocorrelation of incidence coefficients, and recurrent census areas over different epidemic waves were also verified. Ripley's K-function was used to compare spatial distribution patterns between the two population groups, assuming that they were distributed differently around the city. A total of 99,559 dengue cases were

  14. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil

    Luiz da Silva, Márcio; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes 238 U and 234 U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01–1.4 µg L −1 and 1.0–3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW–NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. - Highlights: • U-isotopes data in important aquifer systems in Amazon area. • Application of the U-isotopes data to investigate the groundwater flow direction. • Evaluation of the drinking-water quality in terms of dissolved uranium

  15. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil

    M. S. A. Luz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil, its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240 were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8. In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  16. Snakebites in southwestern Goiás State, Brazil

    U. P. Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated snakebite cases recorded by the Southwest II Regional Health Bureau [Regional de Saúde Sudoeste II], Goiás State, Brazil. The following data were analyzed: accident period; patient's age and gender; bite site; envenomation severity; and time elapsed between the bite and medical treatment. We evaluated 211 cases recorded between January 2002 and December 2005, which resulted in an incidence coefficient of 32.4/100,000 inhabitants. Most accidents were due to the bite of snakes from the Bothrops genus (78.2%. The months between January and April had a larger number of accidents (93%-44.1%, although no significant differences were observed. Only one death occurred, resulting in a mortality rate of 0.5%. The lower limbs were the most frequently affected (66.3%. The majority of the victims were male (75.1%. The age group of most of the patients was from 21 to 30 years (20.8%. The accidents were classified as mild, moderate and severe, representing 44.9%, 47.6% and 7.5% of the cases, respectively. The time elapsed between the accident and medical treatment was less than 3h in most of the cases (80.7%, reflecting the high frequency of mild and moderate accidents (92.5% as well as the large number of healed patients.

  17. INAA: environmental studies in Minas Gerais State - Brazil

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Arantes, Irene Albernaz; Cabaleiro, Henrique L.; Almeida, Marcus Ronan M.G.; Severo, Maria Izabel

    2005-01-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil bring out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also occurs in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic a nervous disease, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and was applied to determine several elements in environmental samples. The irradiation characteristics are chosen to determine the isotopes in the best conditions. In this work the INAA, was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 (CDTN/CNEN).. The obtained results show that the contaminated water, sediment and forage with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km. (author)

  18. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  19. An application of sample entropy to precipitation in Paraíba State, Brazil

    Xavier, Sílvio Fernando Alves; da Silva Jale, Jader; Stosic, Tatijana; dos Santos, Carlos Antonio Costa; Singh, Vijay P.

    2018-05-01

    A climate system is characterized to be a complex non-linear system. In order to describe the complex characteristics of precipitation series in Paraíba State, Brazil, we aim the use of sample entropy, a kind of entropy-based algorithm, to evaluate the complexity of precipitation series. Sixty-nine meteorological stations are distributed over four macroregions: Zona da Mata, Agreste, Borborema, and Sertão. The results of the analysis show that intricacies of monthly average precipitation have differences in the macroregions. Sample entropy is able to reflect the dynamic change of precipitation series providing a new way to investigate complexity of hydrological series. The complexity exhibits areal variation of local water resource systems which can influence the basis for utilizing and developing resources in dry areas.

  20. Excited-state molecular photoionization dynamics

    Pratt, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    This review presents a survey of work using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and double-resonance techniques to study excited-state photoionization dynamics in molecules. These techniques routinely provide detail and precision that are difficult to achieve in single-photon ionization from the ground state. The review not only emphasizes new aspects of photoionization revealed in the excited-state experiments but also shows how the excited-state techniques can provide textbook illustrations of some fundamental mechanisms in molecular photoionization dynamics. Most of the examples are confined to diatomic molecules. (author)

  1. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  3. State dynamics of a double sandbar system

    Price, T.D.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    A 9.3-year dataset of low-tide time-exposure images from Surfers Paradise, Northern Gold Coast, Australia was used to characterise the state dynamics of a double sandbar system. The morphology of the nearshore sandbars was described by means of the sequential bar state classification scheme of

  4. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  5. State-to-state dynamics of molecular energy transfer

    Gentry, W.R.; Giese, C.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program is to elucidate the elementary dynamical mechanisms of vibrational and rotational energy transfer between molecules, at a quantum-state resolved level of detail. Molecular beam techniques are used to isolate individual molecular collisions, and to control the kinetic energy of collision. Lasers are used both to prepare specific quantum states prior to collision by stimulated-emission pumping (SEP), and to measure the distribution of quantum states in the collision products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The results are interpreted in terms of dynamical models, which may be cast in a classical, semiclassical or quantum mechanical framework, as appropriate.

  6. Conflito social e welfare state: Estado e desenvolvimento social no Brasil Social conflict and welfare state: state and social development in Brazil

    Fábio Guedes Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta que no Brasil a luta de classes não alcançou dimensões profundas que pudesse engendrar a constituição do welfare state. Ao contrário, o Estado, sobretudo sua forma mais moderna, capitalista, que emergiu a partir da década de 1930, sempre se antecipou aos movimentos sociais que representassem ameaças de rupturas. De forma repressiva, o Estado brasileiro desde o Império dissipou os conflitos com o objetivo de manter uma certa harmonia em favor do processo de expansão e reprodução capitalista e a integração dos espaços regionais. O artigo, portanto, é uma tentativa, prematura, de entender o processo de constituição dos sistemas de seguridade social, analisando as experiências de alguns países e suas respectivas características, com isso confrontando alguns estudos e realizando comparações com a dinâmica da luta de classes no Brasil e a função do Estado nesse processo.This article defends the theory that the class struggle in Brazil has not been able to engender the formation of a welfare state. On the contrary, the nation which emerged in the 1930s - above all in its more modern capitalistic form - has always prevented social movements that could pose any threat of a rupture. Since when it was a monarchy, Brazil has dealt with its conflicts in a repressive fashion, with the goal of maintaining a certain harmony in the interest of the expansion and the propagation of capitalism as well as regional integration. This text, therefore, is an attempt, albeit premature, to understand the process involving the formation of the social security system in Brazil, by analyzing the experiences of a number of countries and their respective characteristics, thus examining a few studies and making comparisons with the class struggle dynamic in Brazil and the role of the State in this process.

  7. Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime

    1990-03-19

    Pursues Dream in Space," Washington Post, 13 December 1984, lf, 4f. According to Defense News, "Brazil’s Andrade Gutierrez Quimica produces ammonium...owned by Engesa (EnQenheiros Especializados S.A. - 40 percent), Embraer (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. - 40 percent), Esca ( Engenharia de...AeronAutica S.A. EMFA - Estado Maior das Forcas Armadas (General Staff of the Armed Forces) Engesa - Engenheiros Es~ecializados S.A. Esca - Engenharia de

  8. Participation and environment: The realization of environmental public audiences in the United States, Quebec and Brazil

    Fischer de Lemos, Chelen

    2001-01-01

    This article examines three experiences accomplishment of environmental public hearings as mechanisms of society participation in discussion and decision-making concerning the environmental problems: the United States experience, the Quebec experience and the Brazil experience. The analysis focuses the most significant aspects of the citizen participation for the state environment management and effective resolution of the environmental problems

  9. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    2013-05-29

    .... Candidates are currently sought for membership on the U.S. Section of the Forum. Each candidate must be the... currently doing business in both Brazil and the United States. Each candidate also must be a U.S. citizen or... United States to attend official Forum meetings as well as independent U.S. Section and Committee...

  10. Analysis of rural electrification in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Reis Neto, J.F. dos

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of rural electrification in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil as the main factor for increasing the rural production, generating new jobs and collecting tributes is studied. An analysis of rural electrification in producer, state government and electric power concessionary are also presented. (author)

  11. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  12. Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics.

    Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N

    2018-02-13

    An extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  13. New record of the mangrove rivulid Kryptolebias hermaphroditus Costa, 2011 (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) in the Pará state, northern Brazil

    Guimarães-Costa, Auryceia; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2017-01-01

    The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias herma­phro­ditus is reported to the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Recently, a specimen of K. hermaphroditus was collected in a shallow running seawater stream at Ajuruteua beach, Pará state, northern Brazil. This new record is ca. 1,350 km from the nearest previously known occurrence in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects of this species are described.

  14. Flora of the State of Paraíba, Brazil: Loranthaceae Juss.

    Gabriella Carla Leite de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species, Psittacanthus (two species, Pusillanthus (one species and Struthanthus (six species. Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.

  15. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  16. Rethinking State Politics: The Withering of State Dominant Machines in Brazil

    André Borges

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on Brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected. The article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites’ control over the electoral arena across Brazilian states. It relies on factor analysis to create an index of “electoral dominance”, comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites’ capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. Based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 Brazilian states. Further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. The empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. In view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in Brazil’s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses’ machine-building strategies. It is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.

  17. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  18. Phytoplankton dynamics in a highly eutrophic estuary in tropical Brazil

    Marilene Felipe Santiago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The port of Recife in northeastern Brazil is an important ecological and social area but little is known about its environmental quality. Observations, sampling and measurements of phytoplankton were performed during spring and neap tides in the dry (January-February, 2005 and rainy (June, 2005 seasons to assess the environmental quality of the port of Recife. The area had chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 3.30 to 54.40 mg m-3, the highest values occurring at low tide during the dry season. A total of 129 species were identified: 53 of them in the dry season and 97 in the rainy season. Diatoms were the most diverse group and comprised 75.47% of the phytoplankton collected in the dry season and 60.82% of those collected in the rainy season. The dry season was characterized by Coscinodiscus sp. and Helicotheca tamesis; the rainy season by Oscillatoria sp. and Coscinodiscus centralis. Species diversity indices varied from 1.06 to 3.74 bits cel-1. Low indices were related to the dominance of Helicotheca tamesis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus sp. and Aulacoseira granulata. Seasonal forcing, rather than the estuarine flux, determined the phytoplankton community structure. The area is exposed to seasonally varying negative impacts due to metropolitan degradation and the high level of eutrophication.Para avaliar a qualidade ambiental Porto do Recife (Nordeste do Brasil, uma área ecológica e socialmente importante mas pouco investigada, observações, medições e amostragem do fitoplâncton foram realizadas durante as marés de sizígia e quadratura no período de estiagem (janeiro-fevereiro / 2005 e chuvoso (junho/2005. A área apresentou concentração de clorofila a variando de 3,30 a 54,40 mg m-3, com maiores valores registrados durante a maré baixa no período de estiagem. Um total de 129 espécies foi identificada com 53 espécies durante o período de estiagem e 97 espécies no chuvoso. As diatomáceas formaram o grupo mais

  19. Photoionization dynamics of excited molecular states

    Dehmer, J.L.; O'Halloran, M.A.; Tomkins, F.S.; Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) utilizes tunable dye lasers to ionize an atom or molecule by first preparing an excited state by multiphoton absorption and then ionizing that state before it can decay. This process is highly selective with respect to both the initial and resonant intermediate states of the target, and it can be extremely sensitive. In addition, the products of the REMPI process can be detected as needed by analyzing the resulting electrons, ions, fluorescence, or by additional REMPI. This points to a number of opportunities for exploring excited state physics and chemistry at the quantum-state-specific level. Here we will first give a brief overview of the large variety of experimental approaches to excited state phenomena made possible by REMPI. Then we will examine in more detail, recent studies of the three photon resonant, four photon (3 + 1) ionization of H 2 via the C 'PI/sup u/ state. Strong non-Franck-Condon behavior in the photoelectron spectra of this nominally simple Rydberg state has led to the examination of a variety of dynamical mechanisms. Of these, the role of doubly excited autoionizing states now seems decisive. Progress on photoelectron studies of autoionizing states in H 2 , excited in a (2 + 1) REMPI process via the E, F 1 Σ/sub g/ + will also be briefly discussed. 26 refs., 7 figs

  20. Sedimentation rate at Olho d'agua Lagoon in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Valentim, Eliane; Hazin, Clovis A.; Khoury, Helen J.; Lima, Ricardo A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the dynamic of sediments in coastal estaurine areas has attracted rthe attenition of a great number of scientists, due to its role in determining the impact of human activities on the ecosystem. A knowledge of the rate at which sediments have been accumulating can be a useful parameter in quantifying the amount of polltuants that reach the marine environment. This study had thge objective of determining the sediment accumulation rate at the Olho D'agua Lagoon, located at the Jabotao dos Guararapes District, in the metropolitan region of Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco -Brazil. This lagoon was selected by the Brazilian government to benefit from the Habitat II Program, which is sponsored by the United Nations Organization. Sedimentation rates were estimated by measuring the vertical distribution of 210 Pb in sediment cores collected in two different areas of the lagoon. The determination of the 210 Pb content was based upon the measurement of its descendent 210 Po which was deposited in a cooper disk. The results indicated rates of accumulation of 0.6 cm/year and 1.5 cm/year at points near the Olho D'agua and Setubal channels, respectively. These channels are important conveyors of sediments to this estuary. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  2. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  3. Aragonite saturation state in a tropical coastal embayment dominated by phytoplankton blooms (Guanabara Bay - Brazil).

    Cotovicz, Luiz C; Knoppers, Bastiaan A; Brandini, Nilva; Poirier, Dominique; Costa Santos, Suzan J; Abril, Gwenaël

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of the aragonite saturation state (Ω arag ) were investigated in the eutrophic coastal waters of Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil). Large phytoplankton blooms stimulated by a high nutrient enrichment promoted the production of organic matter with strong uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters, lowering the concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2aq ), and increasing the pH, Ω arag and carbonate ion (CO 3 2- ), especially during summer. The increase of Ω arag related to biological activity was also evident comparing the negative relationship between the Ω arag and the apparent utilization of oxygen (AOU), with a very close behavior between the slopes of the linear regression and the Redfield ratio. The lowest values of Ω arag were found at low-buffered waters in regions that receive direct discharges from domestic effluents and polluted rivers, with episodic evidences of corrosive waters (Ω arag <1). This study showed that the eutrophication controlled the variations of Ω arag in Guanabara Bay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  5. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  6. Glanders in donkeys (Equus asinus in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a case report

    Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  7. Annual report 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil, during the calendar year of 2003 is presented, comprising: a management report, portraying the Company's accomplishments during the year in connection with its core businesses and a social balance sheet, addressing the Company's efforts to contribute to the development and well-being of the community by means of socially oriented projects

  8. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  9. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  10. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  11. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  12. 6. State energy balance - 1978/1987 - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    1989-05-01

    The energetic plan of Minas Gerais state and the steps such as energy balance, state potential energy identification, social and economic analysis, energetic flux, energy consumption is presented. (L.J.C.)

  13. Market study of pipe gas for the Bahia State, Brazil

    1992-09-01

    The energy market that will be conquered by the natural gas in Bahia State is identified, allowing measure the potentiality of gas industry and the gas supply, that the State will plead to the Federal Government. (C.G.C.)

  14. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  15. New species of Poecilocloeus Bruner, 1910 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Proctolabinae) from Paraná State, Brazil.

    DA Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fianco, Marcos; Martins, Fernando DE Farias; Prasniewski, Victor Mateus; Szinwelski, Neucir; Zefa, Edison

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we describe a new species of the genus Poecilocloeus from Renascença municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Poecilocloeus renascensis n. sp. inhabits the Atlantic Semideciduous Forest edges of Renascença and adjacent areas, and our study is the first record of this genus from southern Brazil. The species belongs to the group bullatus (Rehn, 1908), and the descriptions are based on morphological characters, mainly from male genitalia. Morphological descriptions are provided together with illustrations emphasizing the most significant diagnostic features of external morphology and male genitalia. Information is given about type specimens, examined material and geographic distribution.

  16. Comparison of the potential for producing energy from agriculture in Brazil, India, and the United States

    Tyner, W E

    1980-04-01

    The energy supply and demand conditions and factor conditions are examined for Brazil, India, and the United States to compare energy development from agricultural programs. Each country is seen to be concentrating on an energy from biomass that is particularly suited: biogas from cow dung and crop residues in India; gasohol from corn or sugar cane in Brazil; and gasohol from grains in the US. Economic rationality, when viewed from a social perspective, appears to have prevailed in the policy decision in each of the countries. 6 references, 2 tables.

  17. The dynamic state monitoring of bearings system

    Marek Krynke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methods of dynamic state monitoring of bearings system. A vibration signal contains important technical information about the machine condition and is currently the most frequently used in diagnostic bearings systems. One of the main ad-vantages of machine condition monitoring is identifying the cause of failure of the bearings and taking preventative measures, otherwise the operation of such a machine will lead to frequent replacement of the bearings. Monitoring changes in the course of the operation of machin-ery repair strategies allows keeping the conditioned state of dynamic failure conditioned preventive repairs and repairs after-failure time. In addition, the paper also presents the fundamental causes of bearing failure and identifies mechanisms related to the creation of any type of damage.

  18. Learning State Space Dynamics in Recurrent Networks

    Simard, Patrice Yvon

    Fully recurrent (asymmetrical) networks can be used to learn temporal trajectories. The network is unfolded in time, and backpropagation is used to train the weights. The presence of recurrent connections creates internal states in the system which vary as a function of time. The resulting dynamics can provide interesting additional computing power but learning is made more difficult by the existence of internal memories. This study first exhibits the properties of recurrent networks in terms of convergence when the internal states of the system are unknown. A new energy functional is provided to change the weights of the units in order to the control the stability of the fixed points of the network's dynamics. The power of the resultant algorithm is illustrated with the simulation of a content addressable memory. Next, the more general case of time trajectories on a recurrent network is studied. An application is proposed in which trajectories are generated to draw letters as a function of an input. In another application of recurrent systems, a neural network certain temporal properties observed in human callosally sectioned brains. Finally the proposed algorithm for stabilizing dynamics around fixed points is extended to one for stabilizing dynamics around time trajectories. Its effects are illustrated on a network which generates Lisajous curves.

  19. On the dynamics of generalized coherent states

    Nikolov, B.A.; Trifonov, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The exact and stable evolutions of generalized coherent states (GCS) for quantum system are considered by making use of the time- dependent integrals of motion method and of the Klauder approach to the relationship between quantum and classical mechanics. It is shown that one can construct for any quantum system overcomplete family of states, related to the unitary representations of the Lie group G by means of integral of motion generators, and the possibility of using this group as a dynamic symmetry group is pointed out. The relation of the GCS with quantum measurement theory is also established [ru

  20. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  1. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  2. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  3. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Guimaraes, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  4. Radiographic analysis of 1000 cast posts in Sergipe state, Brazil

    Caroline Garcez MENDONÇA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronary destruction require posts and cores to enable prosthetic restoration. Despite the increasing use of prefabricated posts, cast metal posts and cores are still widely used. The quality of the latter is important for the longevity of restorative treatment, and failure can occur if the fundamental principles are not followed. Objective To radiographically evaluate the prosthetic principles of 1000 cast metal post-and-core restorations performed in single-rooted teeth and their coherence with the principles used for their confection. Material and method Digital periapical radiographs of 1000 endodontically treated, single-rooted teeth with cast metal posts and cores were selected from the collection of a radiology clinic (Centro de Imagem, Aracaju/SE, Brazil. The images were analyzed using a measurement software (ImageJ, USA in accordance with the fundamental prosthetic principles: length and diameter of the post, ratio between post and bone crest, contiguity of post to the root canal, gap between post and the remaining root canal filling, amount of remaining root canal filling, and absence of periapical lesion. The data were qualitatively analyzed, classified into ideal and not ideal, and submitted to the chi-square test (α=0.05. Result Only 6.7% of the cast metal posts analyzed were satisfactorily fabricated. Conclusion Many prosthetic criteria are neglected during the manufacturing of cast metal post and cores, resulting in inadequate work that may compromise the longevity of restorative treatments.

  5. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. RESULTS: Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species...

  6. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  7. Slope-scale dynamic states of rockfalls

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    Rockfalls are common earth surface phenomena characterised by complex dynamics at the slope scale, depending on local block kinematics and slope geometry. We investigated the nature of this slope-scale dynamics by parametric 3D numerical modelling of rockfalls over synthetic slopes with different inclination, roughness and spatial resolution. Simulations were performed through an original code specifically designed for rockfall modeling, incorporating kinematic and hybrid algorithms with different damping functions available to model local energy loss by impact and pure rolling. Modelling results in terms of average velocity profiles suggest that three dynamic regimes (i.e. decelerating, steady-state and accelerating), previously recognized in the literature through laboratory experiments on granular flows, can set up at the slope scale depending on slope average inclination and roughness. Sharp changes in rock fall kinematics, including motion type and lateral dispersion of trajectories, are associated to the transition among different regimes. Associated threshold conditions, portrayed in "phase diagrams" as slope-roughness critical lines, were analysed depending on block size, impact/rebound angles, velocity and energy, and model spatial resolution. Motion in regime B (i.e. steady state) is governed by a slope-scale "viscous friction" with average velocity linearly related to the sine of slope inclination. This suggest an analogy between rockfall motion in regime B and newtonian flow, whereas in regime C (i.e. accelerating) an analogy with a dilatant flow was observed. Thus, although local behavior of single falling blocks is well described by rigid body dynamics, the slope scale dynamics of rockfalls seem to statistically approach that of granular media. Possible outcomes of these findings include a discussion of the transition from rockfall to granular flow, the evaluation of the reliability of predictive models, and the implementation of criteria for a

  8. Flex-fuel vehicle adoption and dynamics of ethanol prices: lessons from Brazil

    Du, Xiaodong; Carriquiry, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on dynamics of the relative prices of substitute fuels, namely ethanol and gasoline, this study quantifies the impact of the increase in shares of flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) in the vehicle fleet on the domestic ethanol prices in Brazil. A modified partial adjustment model is employed. Estimation results provide strong support for our research hypotheses: (i) when consumers can choose between the fuels the relative ethanol and gasoline prices converge to a long-run equilibrium level, which is determined by the fuel economy, and (ii) price dynamics are largely determined by market supply and demand factors including the price of sugar, ethanol exports, and composition of vehicle fleet. Furthermore, the impacts of demand factors such as ethanol exports are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs in the vehicle fleet. - Highlights: • The relative prices of ethanol and gasoline in Brazil exhibit strong mean-reversion. • The fuel price dynamics are mainly influenced by supply and demand factors. • The impacts of demand factors are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs

  9. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Hélio Augusto Alves Fracasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm=167.91 (1-e-0.062t--0.23 to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006, whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks’ main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil.

  10. The roles and functions of occupational health nurses in Brazil and in the United States.

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi Saeng; Morris, Judy A; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional exploratory research developed to outline the roles and functions of occupational health nurses (OHNs) in Brazil and compare them with those in the United States. The sample consisted of 154 Brazilian occupational health nurses. First, the instrument Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice was translated into Portuguese, followed by data collection and data analysis, comparing the results of the proposed study in Brazil with the findings of a job delineation study conducted in the United States. It was found that most were women, white, between 41 and 50 years of age and working primarily at hospitals or medical centers as clinicians and managers/administrators. Besides, it was found that most Brazilian OHNs spend more time in managerial roles, followed by consultant and educator responsibilities while, in the United States, OHNs spend significantly more time in education/advisory roles.

  11. The epidemiology of envenomation via snakebite in the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

    Nayana da Rocha Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This communication describes a retrospective study of the epidemiology of snakebite cases that were recorded from 2007 to 2012 in the State of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the State of Piauí's Health Department. RESULTS: A total of 1,528 cases were identified. The cases occurred most frequently in rural areas between January and July. Victims were predominantly male farmers, and were typically 30-39 years old. Most victims were bitten on the foot, and received medical assistance within 1-3h after being bitten. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profile of snakebites in the State of Piauí is similar to that in all of Brazil.

  12. Dinâmica migratória e o processo de ocupação do Centro-Oeste brasileiro: o caso de Mato Grosso Migratory dynamics and the occupation process in central-western Brazil: the case of the State of Mato Grosso

    José Marcos Pinto da Cunha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das últimas áreas de fronteira do país, o Estado de Mato Grosso é ainda hoje uma possibilidade para a população que busca alternativas para a migração. Paralelamente ao processo de "urbanização da fronteira", assiste-se em Mato Grosso outras iniciativas com impactos importantes, que dão novas especificidades ao reordenamento da população no território e também às perspectivas de continuidade de ocupação demográfica do Estado, como os assentamentos agrícolas e novas frentes pioneiras. Após ter apresentado um forte processo de ocupação até meados dos anos 80, Mato Grosso experimenta um visível arrefecimento do seu crescimento demográfico, contudo mantendo áreas ainda com relativo dinamismo. Ancorado na análise de dados dos Censos Demográficos e Agropecuários e em entrevistas realizadas no Estado, este artigo centra-se na análise das tendências migratórias e seus impactos no processo de ocupação do espaço matogrossense nos últimos vintes anos, com ênfase no comportamento de algumas áreas representativas dos principais processos em curso, buscando situá-las no contexto mais amplo de mudanças nos padrões de ocupação econômica. As análises mostram, por um lado, uma forte associação entre ambos os fenômenos, a partir do impacto das atividades extensivas (pecuária, soja, algodão na redução das possibilidades de absorção dos migrantes no meio rural, e, por outro, os efeitos "compensadores" dos assentamentos de reforma agrária.The State of Mato Grosso is one of the last frontier areas in Brazil, and still shows some potential for populations that continue to seek alternatives for migration. Concurrently with the process of "urbanization of the frontier," one can see other phenomena in the state that are having strong impacts on the opening up of new possibilities for realigning the population in the territory, such as small farm settlements and new pioneering projects, which would have positive

  13. State Transfers, Taxes and Income Inequality in Brazil

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient, we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary income flows to and from the Brazilian State. The income flows from the State include public sector workers' earnings, Social Security pensions, unemployment benefits, and Social Assistance transfers. The income flows to the State comprise direct taxes and employees' social security contributions. Data come from the Brazilian POF 2008–09. We do not measure indirect contributions to inequality of subsidies granted to and taxation of companies, nor the in-kind provision of goods and services. The results indicate that the State contributes to a large share of family per capita income inequality. Incomes associated with work in the public sector—wages and pensions—are concentrated and regressive. Components related to the private sector are also concentrated, but progressive. Contrary to what has been found in European countries, public spending associated with work and social policies is concentrated in an elite group of workers and, taken as a whole, tends to increase income inequality. Redistributive mechanisms that could reverse this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small. Consequently, their effect is completely offset by the regressive income flows from the State.

  14. Excited state dynamics of DNA bases

    Kleinermanns, K.; Nachtigallová, Dana; de Vries, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 308-342 ISSN 0144-235X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1318 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0911564; NASA (US) NNX12AG77G; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 663; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) KI 531-29 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA bases * nucleobases * excited state * dynamics * computations * gas phase * conical intersections Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.920, year: 2013

  15. Macroeconomic effects of oil price shocks in Brazil and in the United States

    Cavalcanti, Tiago; Jalles, João Tovar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We find that output growth volatility in the US has been decreasing over time. ► The contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility has also been decreasing. ► In Brazil, oil shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on growth. ► They account for a small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output volatility. ► Counterfactuals show US output would be 10% less volatile with Brazil’s oil import share. - Abstract: This paper studies the effects of oil price shocks in the last 30 years on the Brazilian and American inflation rate and rhythm of economic activity. The Brazilian and the United States economies are interesting polar cases, since they had a completely different path on the oil import dependence rate. While the oil import dependence rate has increase sharply in the United States (US), it has decreased substantially in Brazil. We found that output growth volatility in the United States has been decreasing over time as well as the contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility, despite the increase in oil import dependence. Inflation volatility has also been decreasing but oil price shocks are accounting for a larger fraction of this volatility in the US. In Brazil, such shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on output growth and they account for a very small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output growth rate volatility. We finally run some counterfactual experiments to analyze how real output growth in the United States would had been if net oil import share in the United States behaved similarly to what was observed in Brazil. We conclude that output level would be roughly the same, however, it would be about 10% less volatile if the US had the actual Brazilian oil import share

  16. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  17. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos

    1999-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used

  18. Hydrologic cycle and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in two intermittent rivers of the semi-arid region of Brazil

    F. Pedro

    Full Text Available The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.

  19. Twelve years of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil: epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects.

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2010-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection in the Americas caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Although the disease occurs in Brazil in sporadic form, little information about these cases is available. In this study, we summarize the most important clinical, epidemiologic, and diagnostic features of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State (Northeast Brazil) during the past 12 years. In this period, 19 cases of coccidioidomycosis were diagnosed. All the patients were young males and came from semiarid areas of the state. The majority of cases were associated to armadillo hunting, and pulmonary disease was the most common clinical presentation. In our laboratory, coccidioidomycosis was confirmed by culture, serology, and polymerase chain reaction tests, which together were very suitable for the diagnosis of this disease. Based on our local experience, we believe many cases of this disease are misdiagnosed or not diagnosed in our region. Therefore, some strategies for improvement of diagnosis should be encouraged by local authorities.

  20. New species and records of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho; Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Salles, Frederico Falcão

    2017-06-01

    Two new species of the perlid genus Anacroneuria, A. rotunda n. sp and A. pitii n. sp are described from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Additionally, six species of Anacroneuria and four species of Kempnyia are reported for the first time from Espírito Santo State. Records are also provided for A. debilis, A. subcostalis, K. flava, K. gracilenta, and K. neotropica. An undetermined species of Macrogynoplax based on nymphs is also reported from Espírito Santo State.

  1. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  2. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a red-yellow podzolic soil in the Northern Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State - Brazil

    Maciel Netto, A.

    1994-08-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3.5 m x 3.5 m, at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The internal drainage method proposed by Hillel (1972) was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K(θ), in the three characteristic horizons of the soil. Three neutron probes were used for measuring the humidity, that was determined by a calibration curve. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy A horizon, with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with a massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. (author). 79 refs, 17 figs, 11 tabs

  3. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Vaz-Silva, W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a checklist of the herpetofaunal assemblage from Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant region(UHE Espora, southwestern of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Representatives of 32 amphibian and 71 reptile species wereobtained during faunal monitoring and faunal rescue programs carried out in the study area. The obtained species listand distribution records are here discussed in an attempt to improve the still limited knowledge on Cerradoherpetofaunal assemblages.

  4. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Martins, AR; Bruno, SF.; Navegantes, AQ.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º...

  5. Orchidaceae of the Grumari restinga: floristic and similarity among restingas in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Moreira, Marina Muniz; Barberena, Felipe Fajardo Villela Antolin; Lopes, Rosana Conrado

    2014-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse plant families in the world. The number of floristic studies of this family in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, has increased significantly in recent years. However, only a few such studies have been conducted in areas of restinga vegetation and none of those have examined the similarity, in terms of orchid diversity, among such areas. The present study sought to improve our knowledge of the Orchidaceae diversity occurring in Grumari restinga, a...

  6. Brazil and the United States: The Need for Strategic Engagement (Strategic Forum, Number 266, March 2011)

    2011-03-01

    If accurate, these astonishing numbers in themselves tell the story of Brazil’s explosive growth. 7 Embrapa is short for Empresa Brasileira de ...in the world. Geography. U.S. citizens think of Brazil as be- ing Rio de Janeiro and its beautiful beaches or as the Amazon, an endless jungle...United States www.ndu.edu/inss SF No. 266 3 and port systems lag. One study suggests that domestic transportation costs and port fees for soy, Brazil’s

  7. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs). Methods This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national l...

  8. Pollen spectrum of honey produced in cerrado areas of Minas Gerais State (Brazil

    E. M. A. F. Bastos

    Full Text Available The pollen spectra of honey samples collected in five apiaries situated near cerrado areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were studied from April 1996 to April 1998 in order to establish the contribution of different plant species in pollen or nectar production The honey samples were characterized by the following native species: Astronium sp., Alternanthera sp., Schinus sp., and Serjanea sp. The pollinic participation percentage of those species was related to the degree of preservation in the areas.

  9. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  10. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Cear? State, Northeast Brazil

    Pinto, M?rcia Freire; Mour?o, Jos? da Silva; Alves, R?mulo Romeu N?brega

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Cear? State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews ...

  11. Factors related to severe dengue during an epidemic in Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2011

    Vicente, Creuza Rachel; Lauar, Julia Castanheira; Santos, Bruna Silva; Cobe, Victor Marchesi; Cerutti Junior, Crispim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prognosis of dengue depends on early diagnosis and treatment, which can help prevent severe forms whose characteristics were evaluated here. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving dengue cases in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2011. Results Two health regions registered 56.3% of 371 cases of severe dengue. Of these cases, 21.3% presented with dengue hemorrhagic fever. There were associations between dengue hemorrhagic fever with yo...

  12. First record of Amphisbaena mertensi Strauch, 1881 (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Silveira, Adriano; Brites, Vera; Valinhas e Valinhas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first record of Amphisbaena mertensi in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Through analysis of scientific collections, we found specimens of A. mertensi from municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Indianópolis, Uberlândia and Araguari, in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions. These localities are inserted in the Cerrado biome, with Atlantic Forest enclaves, and represent an expansion of the previously known geographic distribution for the species.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ACCIDENT TRANSPORT BETWEEN STATE WORKERS OF BAHIA AND BRAZIL

    Jéssica de Jesus dos Santos; Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the situation of mortality from traffic accidents among workers are still insufficient. This study aimed to describe the mortality rates for traffic accidents / path between state workers of Bahia and Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive study of fatal work accidents related to traffic accidents / path with the Mortality Information System data in the period from 2009 to 2011. The results show 317 reported deaths from traffic accidents in Bahia and...

  14. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  15. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  16. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  18. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: First record from the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Sampaio, P. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylidfrog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously.An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofaunasampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  19. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: first record for the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Sampaio, Paulo; da Silva, Talisson; Peloso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylid frog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously. An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofauna sampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  20. Patterns of sediment dispersion coastwise the State of Bahia - Brazil

    ABÍLIO CARLOS DA SILVA PINTO BITTENCOURT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the average directions of the main wave-fronts which approach the coast of Bahia State - coinciding with that of the main wind occurring in the area - and of their periods, we define a wave climate model based on the construction of refraction diagrams. The resulting model of sediment transport was able to reproduce, in a general way, the sediment dispersion patterns furnished by geomorphic indicators of the littoral drift. These dispersion patterns control the generation of different types of sediment accumulations and of coastal stretches under erosion. We demonstrate that the presence of the Abrolhos and Corumbaú Point coral reefs is an important factor controlling the sediment dispersion patterns, since them act as a large protection against the waves action.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  2. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Hiromoto, Goro; Peres, Ana C.; Taddei, Maria H. Tirolo; Soares, Marcio R.; Alleoni, Luis R. Ferracciu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137 Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg -1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, -1 for 210 Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg -1 for 137 Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Carlos Eduardo Rangel Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With a technical approach, this diagnosis aims to fill a gap in the overview of the activity, considering its technical aspects that manage the fishing effort of shrimping of Penambuco. From October 2013 to August 2014, the fishing grounds were identified used in this activity, as well as the fishing method, the number of boats and fishermen acting, type of boat and gears used. Analyses were performed with the major communities operating in this fishery (Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Barra de Sirinhaém and São Jose da Coroa Grande. The analyzes of the catch were tested using one-way ANOVA (α 5%. They observed two traditional types: the beach seining and trawing. It was cataloged about 50 vessels in the activity, with approximately 100 fishermen. They are caught mainly three types of shrimp: pink (Farfantepenaeus spp., Seabob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and white (Lithopenaeus schmitii. Statistical data concentrated in the metropolitan area of Recife and Barra de Sirinhaém. There seems to be a direct relationship rainfall with shrimp production because with increased rainfall, there is a higher volume of landing fishery. Barra de Sirinhaém is the main area used in the State. Keywords: ‘mangote’; trawling fishing; pink shrimp; Farfantepenaeus spp.

  4. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  5. Dynamic state switching in nonlinear multiferroic cantilevers

    Wang, Yi; Onuta, Tiberiu-Dan; Long, Christian J.; Lofland, Samuel E.; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate read-write-read-erase cyclical mechanical-memory properties of all-thin-film multiferroic heterostructured Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 / Fe0.7Ga0.3 cantilevers when a high enough voltage around the resonant frequency of the device is applied on the Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 piezo-film. The device state switching process occurs due to the presence of a hysteresis loop in the piezo-film frequency response, which comes from the nonlinear behavior of the cantilever. The reference frequency at which the strain-mediated Fe0.7Ga0.3 based multiferroic device switches can also be tuned by applying a DC magnetic field bias that contributes to the increase of the cantilever effective stiffness. The switching dynamics is mapped in the phase space of the device measured transfer function characteristic for such high piezo-film voltage excitation, providing additional information on the dynamical stability of the devices.

  6. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  8. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  9. Synoptic thermodynamic and dynamic patterns associated with Quitandinha River flooding events in Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    da Silva, Fabricio Polifke; Justi da Silva, Maria Gertrudes Alvarez; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; Pires, Gisele Dornelles; Sampaio, Rafael João; de Araújo, Afonso Augusto Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    Natural disasters are the result of extreme or intense natural phenomena that cause severe impacts on society. These impacts can be mitigated through preventive measures that can be aided by better knowledge of extreme phenomena and monitoring of forecasting and alert systems. The city of Petropolis (in a mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is prone to heavy rain events, often leading to River overflows, landslides, and loss of life. In that context, this work endeavored to characterize the thermodynamic and dynamic synoptic patterns that trigger heavy rainfall episodes and the corresponding flooding of Quitandinha River. More specifically, we reviewed events from the time period between January 2013 and December 2014 using reanalysis data. We expect that the overall description obtained of synoptic patterns should provide adequate qualitative aid to the decision-making processes involved in operational forecasting procedures. We noticed that flooding events were related to the presence of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), frontal systems (FS), and convective storms (CS). These systems showed a similar behavior on high-frequency wind components, notably with respect to northwest winds before precipitation and to a strong southwest wind component during rainfall events. Clustering analyses indicated that the main component for precipitation formation with regard to CS systems comes from daytime heating, with the dynamic component presenting greater efficiency for the FS configurations. The SACZ events were influenced by moisture availability along the vertical column of the atmosphere and also due to dynamic components of precipitation efficiency and daytime heating, the latter related to the continuous transport of moisture from the Amazon region and South Atlantic Ocean towards Rio de Janeiro state.

  10. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  11. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2002-02-01

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro TM , version 3.2. The energy resolution of the 137 Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 212 Pb of the 232 Th series, 214 Bi and 214 Pb from the 238 U series, 227 Ac from the 235 U series and 40 K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a 152 Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of 40 K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 + - 9 .1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 ± 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values expected for non contaminated normal environmental samples, except for soy crumb, whose 40 K

  12. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Circulation of different lineages of Dengue virus 2, genotype American/Asian in Brazil: dynamics and molecular and phylogenetic characterization.

    Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Full Text Available The American/Asian genotype of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 was introduced into the Americas in the 80's. Although there is no data showing when this genotype was first introduced into Brazil, it was first detected in Brazil in 1990. After which the virus spread throughout the country and major epidemics occurred in 1998, 2007/08 and 2010. In this study we sequenced 12 DENV-2 genomes obtained from serum samples of patients with dengue fever residing in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SJRP/SP, Brazil, in 2008. The whole open reading frame or envelope sequences were used to perform phylogenetic, phylogeographic and evolutionary analyses. Isolates from SJRP/SP were grouped within one lineage (BR3 close to isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Isolates from SJRP were probably introduced there at least in 2007, prior to its detection in the 2008 outbreak. DENV-2 circulation in Brazil is characterized by the introduction, displacement and circulation of three well-defined lineages in different times, most probably from the Caribbean. Thirty-seven unique amino acid substitutions were observed among the lineages, including seven amino acid differences in domains I to III of the envelope protein. Moreover, we dated here, for the first time, the introduction of American/Asian genotype into Brazil (lineage BR1 to 1988/89, followed by the introduction of lineages BR2 (1998-2000 and BR3 (2003-05. Our results show a delay between the introduction and detection of DENV-2 lineages in Brazil, reinforcing the importance and need for surveillance programs to detect and trace the evolution of these viruses. Additionally, Brazilian DENV-2 differed in genetic diversity, date of introduction and geographic origin and distribution in Brazil, and these are important factors for the evolution, dynamics and control of dengue.

  14. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  15. Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren

    1994-01-01

    indicate that phenyl torsional motion is not important to the excited-state dynamics and reveal alternative excited-state reaction pathways. The results demonstrate how molecular systems that are structually similar can exhibit different electronic properties and excited-state dynamics....

  16. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  17. State regulation of nuclear sector: comparative study of Argentina and Brazil models

    Monteiro Filho, Joselio Silveira

    2004-08-01

    This research presents a comparative assessment of the regulation models of the nuclear sector in Argentina - under the responsibility of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), and Brazil - under the responsibility of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), trying to identify which model is more adequate aiming the safe use of nuclear energy. Due to the methodology adopted, the theoretical framework resulted in criteria of analysis that corresponds to the characteristics of the Brazilian regulatory agencies created for other economic sector during the State reform staring in the middle of the nineties. Later, these criteria of analysis were used as comparison patterns between the regulation models of the nuclear sectors of Argentina and Brazil. The comparative assessment showed that the regulatory structure of the nuclear sector in Argentina seems to be more adequate, concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, than the model adopted in Brazil by CNEN, because its incorporates the criteria of functional, institutional and financial independence, competence definitions, technical excellence and transparency, indispensable to the development of its functions with autonomy, ethics, exemption and agility. (author)

  18. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  19. Dynamics in the Fitness-Income plane: Brazilian states vs World countries.

    Operti, Felipe G; Pugliese, Emanuele; Andrade, José S; Pietronero, Luciano; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm, called Exogenous Fitness, to calculate the Fitness of subnational entities and we apply it to the states of Brazil. In the last decade, several indices were introduced to measure the competitiveness of countries by looking at the complexity of their export basket. Tacchella et al (2012) developed a non-monetary metric called Fitness. In this paper, after an overview about Brazil as a whole and the comparison with the other BRIC countries, we introduce a new methodology based on the Fitness algorithm, called Exogenous Fitness. Combining the results with the Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPp), we look at the dynamics of the Brazilian states in the Fitness-Income plane. Two regimes are distinguishable: one with high predictability and the other with low predictability, showing a deep analogy with the heterogeneous dynamics of the World countries. Furthermore, we compare the ranking of the Brazilian states according to the Exogenous Fitness with the ranking obtained through two other techniques, namely Endogenous Fitness and Economic Complexity Index.

  20. Outbreaks of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in tomato plantations in Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Gilberto Santos Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has been reported in various crops in recent years in Brazil. The outbreaks of S. eridania were observed in regions of tomato production in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The chemical control used as the main method of control pests, without the agronomic observations of integrated pest management, is a probable cause of such outbreaks in tomato in these regions.

  1. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  2. Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: pollen characters

    Renata Suzano Candido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type, exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl. Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.

  3. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  4. Composição e dinâmica de grupos de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae em Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Composition and dynamics of Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, groups (Primates, Atelidae on an Araucaria Pine Forest remnant on Paraná State, Brazil

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-03-01

    state of Paraná (Southern Brazil. The vegetation in this area is the Araucaria Pine Forest, and this reserve is located within the Area for Environmental Protection of the Devonian Scarp. During observations, groups were identified and their sex/age composition and dynamics were recorded. Six groups were observed over the course of three years. Average composition values were 6.33 individuals/group; 1.47 adult male (AM/group; 0.46 subadult male/group; 2.2 adult females (AF/group; 1.13 juvenile II/group; 0.8 juvenile I/group, and 0.27 infant/group. In order to describe the sex/age composition of this species, the data obtained in the present study were combined with information on 66 additional groups of A. g. clamitans available in the literature, totaling 72 groups. Ensemble values obtained for this species are 6.25 individuals/group; 1.39 AM/group; 2.26 AF/group and 2.62 immature individuals/group. With respect to the dynamics of the groups, the following data were recorded: 11 births, 25 age class changes, 4 solitary individuals, 1 death/disappearance, and the fission of one group into two. Therefore, the current study described the the sex/age composition of A. g. clamitans groups, as well as some aspects of their dynamics.

  5. How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-04-01

    Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.

  6. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  7. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond.

  8. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  9. The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Kitada, Amanda Akemi Braga; Boechat, Jéssica Sepulveda; Viana, Paula Gonçalves; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011). The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.

  10. The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Sandro Antonio Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011. Methods The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. Results In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. Conclusions These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.

  11. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  12. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the 232 Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  13. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  14. The emerald deposits of ultramafic rocks of Capoeirana and Belmont, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Abreu Machado, G.; Schorscher, H.

    1998-01-01

    The emerald deposits of Capoeirana and Belmont, State of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil, occur vithin an area comprising a deeply weathered Archean Metavulcano-Sedimentary Sequence (SVS) in tectonic contact with the Borrachudos Metagranitoids (GB) and Fluorite bearing Foliated Metagranitoids (MGF). The SVS is formed by intercalation s of ultramafic schists and amphibolites, basic to intermediate amphibolites, vulcanoclastic, metapelitic and calcsilicate schists and gneisses, banded iron formation and metacherts. The metaultramafic rocks include minor chromitite cumulates and occur at the base of the SVS. When metasomatized in the shear zones adjoining GB and MGF they host emerald mineralizations. (author)

  15. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  16. First record of Phaethornis pretrei (Birds, Trochilidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Rodrigo Vargas Damiani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species of the genus Phaethornis, Swainson 1827 (Trochilidae in Brazil. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, to date, only Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832 has been found. This work presents the first record of Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839 in Rio Grande do Sul. The record was made in the urban perimeter of the town of Campinas do Sul. The species was documented in three ways by use of photography, video, and the recording of a spontaneous call.

  17. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  18. Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance inHaematobia irritans (Muscidae from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

    Antonio Thadeu Medeiros Barros

    Full Text Available Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33 from all over the state. All populations were highly resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors (RF ranging from 89.4 to 1,020.6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr mutation also were performed in 16 samples. The kdr mutation was found in 75% of the tested populations, mostly with relatively low frequencies (<20%, and was absent in some highly resistant populations. Addition of TPP did not significantly reduce the LC50 in any population. However, PBO reduced LC50s above 40-fold in all tested populations, resulting in RFs ≤ 10 in most cases. Horn fly resistance to cypermethrin is widespread in the state, being primarily caused by an enhanced activity of P450 mono-oxygenases and secondarily by reduced target site sensitivity.

  19. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  20. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Overview of feedstock research in the United States, Canada, and Brazil

    Ferrell, J. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Tardif, M.L. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Garca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ashworth, J. [Meridian Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This is an overview of the current biomass feedstock efforts in Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The report from Brazil provides an historical perspective of incentive programs, the charcoal and fuelwood energy programs, the alcohol program, and other biomass energy efforts. The efforts in Brazil, particularly with the sugar cane to ethanol and the charcoal and fuelwood programs, dwarfs other commercial biomass systems in the Americas. One of the bright spots in the future is the Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine Electricity Project initially funded in 1992. The sugar cane-based ethanol industry continues to develop higher yielding cane varieties and more efficient microorganisms to convert the sugar cane carbohydrates into alcohol. In Canada a number of important institutions and enterprises taking part in the economical development of the country are involved in biomass research and development including various aspects of the biomass such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, urban, food processing, fisheries and peat bogs. Biomass feedstock research in the United States is evolving to reflect Department of Energy priorities. Greater emphasis is placed on leveraging research with the private sector contributing a greater share of funds, for both research and demonstration projects. The feedstock program, managed by ORNL, is focused on limited model species centered at a regional level using a multidisciplinary approach. Activities include a stronger emphasis on emerging environmental issues such as biodiversity, sustainability and habitat management. DOE also is a supporter of the National Biofuels Roundtable, which is developing principles for producing biomass energy in an economically viable and ecologically sound manner. Geographical Information Systems are also being developed as tools to quantify and characterize the potential supply of energy crops in various regions.

  2. Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae, their host plants and parasitoids (Hymenoptera in the state of Roraima, Brazil: state of the art

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p13 The aim of this review was to update the available information on Anastrepha species in the state of Roraima, Brazil, with emphasis on distribution, host plants and parasitoids. In total, 25 species of Anastrepha and 27 host plant species have been recorded to date in Roraima. Anastrepha striata and A. obliqua are widely distributed in the state. Anastrepha obliqua is the most polyphagous species, where it is associated with 13 hosts. Six species of parasitoids of Anastrepha have been reported in Roraima. Of these, Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant and has been associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species.

  3. Supply and usage of hemodynamic services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Maria de Fatima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper analyzes the supply and the utilization of hemodynamic services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods: It's an exploratory study that uses data obtained from Brazilian official databases. The period of supply analysis was from 1999 to 2009, and of utilization was from 2008 to October 2012.Results: Since 1999 there is a growth of hemodynamic equipment purchase. The private sector concentrates most of the supply, but it has been reducing its availability to SUS. The rate between population and equipment in Brazil exceeds the ones of some rich countries. In the sense of supply, there are in 2009, a supply rate of 1,4 equipments for 1 million inhabitants in RJ state, larger than brazilian rate, of 3,4 but the rates are similar for public customers.Conclusion: Interventional cardiology procedures have improved in the state, but in a different way. And this is because the public hospitals at Rio de Janeiro have mostly reduced their production, while the private ones have increased their production. The observed result is the SUS users performing their procedures at great distances.

  4. Records of threatened bird and mammal species in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Sylvia Torrecilha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a detailed review of threatened bird and mammal occurrence records obtained from surveys across Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern region of Brazil which has an extent of 357,145 km2, aiming to support environmental and biodiversity conservation initiatives, as strategic plans to protect threatened species in this region. We included all records of species categorized as threatened by the Brazilian and global red list of threatened species. We collected 760 records of threatened birds and mammals in Mato Grosso do Sul State, with 319 records of 40 bird’s species and 441 records of 24 mammal’s species. The status of the 40 bird species under de Brazilian threat category were as follow: 1 Critically Threatened (CR, 6 Endangered (EN, 11 Vulnerable (VU, 11 Near Threatened (NT, and 11 species only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN category for the bird´s species, were as follow: 3 EN, 13 VU, 18 NT, 5 Least Concern (LC and 1 taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List. Regarding mammal’s species under the Brazilian threat category were as follow: 2 EN, 18 VU, 2 NT and 1 only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN status the species ranged from 2 EN, 6 VU, 10 NT, and 6 LC. Each record identified corresponds to the existence of at least one occurrence of threatened birds or mammals in a particular region. The records of threatened species belongs to the three biomes in the state: 269 mammal’s records and 147 bird’s records from Cerrado (Neotropical Savanna biome, 117 mammal’s records and 162 bird’s records from Pantanal (Wetland biome, and 55 mammal’s records and 10 bird’s records from Atlantic Forest biome. In addition, we also included in the dataset environmental information where each record was obtained. Supplementary Files 1- Records of Threatened Mammals_MS_Brazil and Supplementary File 2. Records of Threatened Birds of_MS_Brazil Keywords: Threatened species, Protected areas, Database, Brazil

  5. State-dependent intrinsic predictability of cortical network dynamics.

    Leila Fakhraei

    Full Text Available The information encoded in cortical circuit dynamics is fleeting, changing from moment to moment as new input arrives and ongoing intracortical interactions progress. A combination of deterministic and stochastic biophysical mechanisms governs how cortical dynamics at one moment evolve from cortical dynamics in recently preceding moments. Such temporal continuity of cortical dynamics is fundamental to many aspects of cortex function but is not well understood. Here we study temporal continuity by attempting to predict cortical population dynamics (multisite local field potential based on its own recent history in somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model. We found that the intrinsic predictability of cortical dynamics was dependent on multiple factors including cortical state, synaptic inhibition, and how far into the future the prediction extends. By pharmacologically tuning synaptic inhibition, we obtained a continuum of cortical states with asynchronous population activity at one extreme and stronger, spatially extended synchrony at the other extreme. Intermediate between these extremes we observed evidence for a special regime of population dynamics called criticality. Predictability of the near future (10-100 ms increased as the cortical state was tuned from asynchronous to synchronous. Predictability of the more distant future (>1 s was generally poor, but, surprisingly, was higher for asynchronous states compared to synchronous states. These experimental results were confirmed in a computational network model of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our findings demonstrate that determinism and predictability of network dynamics depend on cortical state and the time-scale of the dynamics.

  6. [Evaluation of dental care coverage in the State Military Police in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Ribeiro-Sobrinho, Clóvis; Souza, Luís Eugênio Portela Fernandes de; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima

    2008-02-01

    This study seeks to evaluate dental care coverage in the State Military Police in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, from 2002 to 2004, estimating potential and real coverage rates. A single descriptive study was performed. Calculations were made of potential coverage rates considering hourly workloads of staff dentists and the real rates resulting from actual outpatient treatment. Potential human resources coverage was adequate (1 dentist per 1,618 policemen), while the real coverage rate was considered below the standard proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (0.39 procedures per policeman per year). The low real coverage rate could be related to low productivity, the reasons for which should be investigated in greater depth in future studies, and might include organizational problems and lack of a management system to improve the quality of professional practice, with specifically defined targets.

  7. Description of a newly discovered Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Foci in Ibipeba, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Renato Freitas Araújo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease transmitted by the Triatoma infestans was eradicated from Brazil in 2006. However, reports of triatomine foci threaten the control of Chagas disease. The goal of this study was to determine T. infestans foci in the City of Ibipeba, State of Bahia. Methods Triatominae specimens were collected in Ibipeba and entomologic indicators were calculated using indices of domiciliary infestation, density, and colonization. Results T. infestans foci was discovery in Ibipeba, State of Bahia. Approximately 95% of the specimens were discovered inside dwellings, of which 34% were T. infestans. This species was also discovered forming a colony in tree bark in the peridomicile. Conclusions Triatoma infestans foci in peridomestic ecotopes in Ibipeba, BA, indicate increased the risk of transmission Chagas disease.

  8. Teacher training in the formation of the higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Daisi Teresinha Chapani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil, comprises four universities offering, altogether, several undergraduation and graduation courses, in a number of areas. The system configuration is around 20 years old, but the colleges which gave rise to it were structured back in the late sixties. The aim of this study is to highlight the teacher training role in the system formation. Also, it is presented a discussion on the possibilities and limitations originated from the teacher training colleges in the higher education democratization process. The conclusion is that, although the teacher training courses have been the driving force of the higher education system in Bahia for more than 40 years, the number of vacancies offered by the course is not sufficient to equate the historical problem regarding the lack of titled teachers in the state.

  9. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  10. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Neurisvan Ramos Guerra

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that affects homeothermic animals, including humans. Felines are considered the definitive host of this parasite, while other animals act as intermediate hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Serum samples (n = 427 from animals in 13 municipalities of the coastal forest/plantation region of the state were analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall results revealed a prevalence rate of 16.63% (27/427. High percentages of positivity were found among animals aged 25 to 36 months (28.57%; 30/42 and in males (22.22%; 2/9. The present findings suggest that bovine toxoplasmosis is endemic in the area under study.

  11. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  12. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  13. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  15. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais state, 'steel valley', Brazil

    Queiroz, Marluce Teixeira Andrade; Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UNILESTE-MG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: mariavasc@unilestemg.br; marluce.queiroz@yahoo.com.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Amaral, Maria Angela [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Zn ( 43 - 76 {mu}g g{sup -1}); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cr (126 - 447 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Co ( 540 - 1016 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Th (7.9 - 50 {mu}g g{sup -1}). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  16. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

    L. A. N. N. Agra

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2 equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73% over K-strategist (27% species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  18. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  19. Gall-inducing insects of deciduous and semideciduous forests in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Ana Paula M. Goetz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are specific changes induced by insects on plant organs mainly through increases in plant cell number and/or size. Gall diversity is easy to recognize in the field because gallers are mostly species-specific, and thus each gall morphotype can be a proxy for a galling species. Insect galls are virtually unknown in Seasonal Deciduous and Semi-Deciduous forests of southern Brazil. Here, galls and host plants were surveyed between 2015 and 2017 in four forest fragments of Rio Grande do Sul State in these two vegetation types, in secondary-growth and areas under restoration. We recorded 89 gall morphotypes, with gallers belonging to Lepidoptera and Diptera, with the latter represented mainly by Cecidomyiidae. Galls were associated to 46 plant species in 27 families. Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Lauraceae were the richest families in terms of galls, whilst Piper aduncum and Mikania glomerata were superhosts. Most galls occurred in leaves and shoots. The most common shapes were fusiform, globoid and lenticular. Forty-eight gall morphotype records are new for both Rio Grande do Sul and Brazil, an expressive number considering only two seasonal forest types sampled and few sampling points, showing how important surveys still are for these little know fauna both in taxonomic and ecological terms.

  20. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella spp. isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Flávia Corrêa Bastos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Shigella spp. are Gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We studied the antibiotic resistance profiles of 122 Shigella spp. strains (81 S. flexneri, 41 S. sonnei, 1 S. boydii isolated from patients (female and male from 0 to 80 years of age presenting diarrhea in different districts of the State of Pará, in the North of Brazil. The antibiotic resistance of the strains, isolated from human fecal samples, was determined by the diffusion disk method and by using the VITEK-2 system. RESULTS: The highest resistance rate found was the resistance rate to tetracycline (93.8%, followed by the resistance rate to chloramphenicol (63.9% and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (63.1%. Resistance to at least three drugs was more common among S. flexneri than S. sonnei (39.5% vs. 10%. Six (4.9% strains were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. are a serious public health concern in Brazil. It is extremely important to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistances of Shigella spp. for effective therapy and control measures against shigellosis.

  2. Vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383, Rondônia, Brazil.

    Luiz Carlos Batista Turci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Roadkills are a serious threat to many species of wildlife worldwide. In Brazil, few studies are available about the importance of roadkills. Information about roadkills in Amazonia are even more scarce when compared to central and southern Brazil. Here we describe the vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383 in Rondônia. From May 2004 – April 2005, thirty samples were taken the along 110km of the highway between Cacoal and Alta Floresta D’Oeste. Thirty-four vertebrate species were found in 259 specimens. In terms of absolute numbers, amphibians were the most frequent roadkills, with 68 individuals of two species. Birds followed, with 67 individuals of 12 species, then reptiles (67 indiv., 12 species and mammals (63 indiv.,13 species. Eight species (Leptodactylus gr. pentadactylus, Rhinella sp, Amphisbaena sp., Liophis reginae, Crotophaga ani, Didelphis marsupialis, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cerdocyon thous were the most frequent roadkills, accounting for 76% of the vertebrate roadkills. More than half of the roadkills occurred during the dry season.

  3. [Work accidents in Brazil. A study in São Paulo state, Brazil, the Botucatu region, using the causal tree method].

    Binder, M C; Almeida, I M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses, within the prevailing Brazilian situation, the possibility of applying "causal tree" (CT) method in investigating occupational accidents by safety personnel in the public health services and workers' unions. The method was developed during the seventies in France, for use by plant safety personnel. The authors used this method in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to investigate 40 serious occupational accidents that occurred in industrial plants during the second half of 1993, that had been registered by social security. In these cases, the predominance of situations in which the lack of safety measures were identified by inspection indicates that in most instances, the use of CT is unnecessary. However, the authors discuss its use by safety personnel from the public health services and workers' unions to investigate certain accidents to contribute to the knowledge base and help overcome the cultural based guilt which, in Brazil, has turned the victim into the person responsible for the accident.

  4. Prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Mônica M. Osório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in Pernambuco, a state in northeastern Brazil, so as to help guide health and nutrition policies there. Methods. In 1997 a representative sample of 777 young children had their hemoglobin concentration measured. The sampling process was in three stages. First, 18 municipalities were randomly selected to represent the state and its three geographic areas (metropolitan region of Recife, urban interior, and rural interior. Next, using census lists, 45 census sectors were randomly chosen. Finally, 777 children aged 6-59 months old were selected. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and hemoglobin was measured with a portable hemoglobinometer. In the analysis, prevalence was weighted to reflect the census age distribution. Results. The prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months old was 40.9% for the state as a whole. Prevalence in the metropolitan region of Recife was 39.6%, and it was 35.9% in the urban interior. The rural interior had the highest prevalence, 51.4%. Prevalence was twice as high in children aged 6-23 months as among those 24-59 months old, 61.8% vs. 31.0% (chi² = 77.9, P < 0.001. The mean hemoglobin concentrations in the younger and older age groups were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD = 1.5 and 11.4 g/dL (SD = 1.4, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in terms of prevalence. Conclusions. This is the first statewide assessment of anemia prevalence among young children in Brazil. Given the very high prevalence of anemia among the children studied in Pernambuco, especially those in the age group of 6-23 months, public health interventions are needed.

  5. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  6. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004.

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods--especially eggs and meat products--were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  7. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  8. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  9. A System Dynamics Model for Long-Term Planning of the Undergraduate Education in Brazil

    Strauss, Luísa Mariele; Borenstein, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil has experienced a rapid expansion since the 1990s as a consequence of the government's pliability in launching new programs and educational institutions. This expansion was mainly driven by the private sector. Despite this expansion, Brazil has not yet achieved the enrollment goal expected in the National Education Plan…

  10. Distributed Dynamic State Estimation with Extended Kalman Filter

    Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu; Sun, Yannan; Diao, Ruisheng; Kalsi, Karanjit; Anderson, Kevin K.; Li, Yulan; Lee, Barry

    2011-08-04

    Increasing complexity associated with large-scale renewable resources and novel smart-grid technologies necessitates real-time monitoring and control. Our previous work applied the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the use of phasor measurement data (PMU) for dynamic state estimation. However, high computation complexity creates significant challenges for real-time applications. In this paper, the problem of distributed dynamic state estimation is investigated. One domain decomposition method is proposed to utilize decentralized computing resources. The performance of distributed dynamic state estimation is tested on a 16-machine, 68-bus test system.

  11. A dynamical topology for the space of states

    Dittrich, J.

    1979-01-01

    A new topology is introduced for the space of states of a physical system. This topology is given by dynamics, every state has a neighbourhood consisting of states connected by the time evolution only. With respect to the new topology, all conservation laws can be treated as topological laws. (author)

  12. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  13. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

    Luiz C.R. Pessenda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental, carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de reconstruir trocas de vegetação (com referências climáticas que ocorreram durante o Holoceno na ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa utilizou-se de análises geoquímicas (minerais, elementar, isótopos do carbono (δ13C, 14C e análises polínicas em solos e sedimentos coletados na Lagoa da Viração e no manguezal do Sueste. Os isótopos do carbono dos solos indicaram que não houve trocas significativas de vegetação durante os últimos 7400 anos AP, sugerindo

  14. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  15. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  16. STATE DEBT DYNAMICS: THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Stela CRIJANOVSCHI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development.

  17. Spatial and temporal analysis of stem bleeding disease in coconut palm in the state of sergipe, Brazil

    REJANE R. DA COSTA E CARVALHO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stem bleeding disease (resinosis of coconut palm is caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa and is very important in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Understanding the epidemiological behavior of the disease is essential for establishing more efficient control strategies. Thus, we characterized the temporal progression and spatial distribution of stem bleeding in a commercial orchard under conditions of natural infection in the area of Neopolis, Sergipe. Three plots with 729 plants each were selected and evaluated every two months for stem bleeding incidence. In the temporal analysis, the monomolecular model gave the best fit to data on disease incidence, as it accurately showed the temporal dynamics of the disease during the experiment period. The spatial pattern of stem bleeding varied over time, with initial infections presenting random pattern and then evolving to aggregate pattern during evaluations. This indicates that the disease may have originated from the pathogen survival structures, followed by auto infections caused by dissemination from plant to plant, either by humans, by contact between roots, or by the vector Rhynchophorus palmarum.

  18. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  19. Incentives to Fair trade certification: the case of orange production in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that contemporary challenges related to sustainable rural development planning and food security are encouraging experiments with new models of rural development that includes Fair trade arrangements. The article is based on the outcomes of a case study of motivations to adopt these arrangements among orange cultivators located in the state of Paraná, in South Brazil. These arrangements are seen as an alternative, successful strategy for the small-scale farmers located in this area. The evidences confirm that the main impulse to make use of this kind of certification is related to expectations of improvements in quality of life for producers and their families. Regular access to markets was assumed as one important economic feature. From the environmental perspective the certification process allows too for coherent enforcement of the established regulations and also for the strengthening of so-called “good practices”. Otherwise, monitoring reveals the emergence of several obstacles due to cultural factors and to working contingencies. Bureaucratic control of the certification dynamics was considered rather as a positive factor of improvement of the whole productive system.

  20. Magnetometry, radiometry and gammaspectrometry of the Janjao diatreme, Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Svisero, D.P.; Scheibe, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic, radiometric and gamma spectrometric surveys have been carried out on the Janjao diatreme which outcrops near Lajes in central-east Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The body is deeply weathered on the surface and its concentrates contain serpentinized olivine, phlogopote, pyroxenes, ilmenites, garnet and zircon. The interpretation of the magnetic anomaly revealed an irregular diatreme whose main dimensions are 50 X 190 meters. A vertical to subvertical dyke cuts the main diatreme. The radiometric anomaly as well as the potassium content helped to delineate the contacts between the diatreme and its country rocks (sandstones). Faults striking NNE controlled the emplacement of the Janjao diatreme as well as the intrusion of an alkaline dyke located near the diatreme. (Author) [pt

  1. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  2. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  3. Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Stumpf, M; Ternes, T A; Wilken, R D; Rodrigues, S V; Baumann, W

    1999-01-12

    The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from 0.1 to 1 microgram/l. The removal rates of individual drugs during passage through a Brazilian STP varied from 12 to 90%. As a consequence of the incomplete removal of these residues during passage through a STP, rivers were also found to be contaminated. Median concentrations ranged from between 0.02 and 0.04 microgram/l in river water, whereas the maximum values were observed to be up to 0.5 microgram/l.

  4. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi natural clones from the state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Christian Barnabé

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from the state of Paraíba, Brazil, isolated from man, wild mammals, and triatomine bugs were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random primed amplified polymorphic DNA. Despite the low number of stocks, a notable genetic, genotypic, and phylogenetic diversity was recorded. The presence of the two main phylogenetic subdivisions, T. cruzi I and II, was recorded. The strong linkage disequilibrium observed in the population under survey suggests that T. cruzi undergoes predominant clonal evolution in this area too, although this result should be confirmed by a broader sample. The pattern of clonal variation does not suggests a recent origin by founder effect with a limited number of different genotypes.

  5. [Echinococcus vogeli cysts in paca liver (Cuniculus paca) native from the Acre State, Brazil].

    Meneghelli, U G; Martinelli, A L; Velludo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Four of the patients with polycystic hydatid disease observed by us reported that they were aware of the presence of liver disease in the pacas hunted for food. The viscera of these animals were usually given to domestic dogs. All of our 7 patients reported contact with dogs that had previously ingested viscera of pacas. Examination of the liver considered to be diseased by one of the patients and removed from a paca killed in the same region (State of Acre, Brazil) from which the human cases originated showed the presence of hydatid cysts. The characteristics of the rostellar hooks of the protoscolex indicated that this was the larval form of Echinococcus vogeli. These observations confirm the participation of pacas in the biological cycle of E. vogeli and the pathway through which man may become an alternative intermediate host of this echinococcus.

  6. Mercury exposure in Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, state of Para, Brazil

    Oliveira Santos, Elisabeth C. de; Maura de Jesus, Iracina; Camara, Volney e M.; Brabo, Edilson; Brito Loureiro, Edvaldo C.; Mascarenhas, Artur; Weirich, Judith; Ragio Luiz, Ronir; Cleary, David

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate mercury exposure and health status among Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai inza, State of Para, Brazil. The population studied included 330 Indians, who submitted to a questionnaire, clinical exams, and collection of hair, blood, urine, and feces. Mercury was measured in hair and fish. Although no person was found to have overt mercury intoxication, the mean levels of mercury in hair were elevated (14.45 μg/g for children from 7 to 12 years ld, 15.70 μg/g for women between 14 and 44 years old, and 14.1 μg/g or the remaining population). Mercury levels in fish were below levels recommended by the World Health Organization, but rates of fish consumption ere high. These results place this indigenous population as a group under risk of mercury toxicity from the gold production

  7. [A Street Clinic in a state capital in Northeast Brazil from the perspective of homeless people].

    Ferreira, Cíntia Priscila da Silva; Rozendo, Célia Alves; Melo, Givânya Bezerra de

    2016-08-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Street Clinic strategy in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, from the perspective of its users. This was a qualitative study in coverage areas of the Street Clinic in Maceió. Research subjects were 18 homeless individuals assisted by the clinic (10 men and 8 women), ranging from 20 to 40 years of age. Data were collected from September 2014 to February 2015 using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was applied to the data and identified two categories: the first, the Street Clinic as such, revealed the strategy's critical points, challenges, and potentialities; the second showed the Street Clinic as social support, affect, and hope for change for the homeless. The strategy was rated positively by users, providing social support on health problems and other daily issues.

  8. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  9. Dietary recommendations: comparing dietary guidelines from Brazil and the United States.

    Sichieri, Rosely; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Willett, Walter C

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.

  10. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  11. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  12. Factors related to severe dengue during an epidemic in Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2011

    Creuza Rachel Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of dengue depends on early diagnosis and treatment, which can help prevent severe forms whose characteristics were evaluated here. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving dengue cases in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2011. Results Two health regions registered 56.3% of 371 cases of severe dengue. Of these cases, 21.3% presented with dengue hemorrhagic fever. There were associations between dengue hemorrhagic fever with younger ages and a longer time before receiving care. Conclusions There was a greater involvement of dengue hemorrhagic fever in young people. Delay in care, poor urban quality and high endemicity were identified as possible risk factors for dengue severity.

  13. Herpetofauna, municipality of Porto Murtinho, Chaco region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Souza, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physiographic regions included in the central South American diagonal of open formations,the Chaco, with some endemic species, represents the southernmost dry area. In Brazil, the Chaco is foundin southwestern corner of Mato Grosso do Sul state, mostly in the municipality of Porto Murtinho along theParaguay and Apa rivers. From February 2008 to December 2009, we carried out an inventory of amphibiansand reptiles in Porto Murtinho, using pitfall traps, time-limited searches, and occasional encounters. A total of34 amphibian and 39 reptile species were registered. Although some typical Chacoan species were found, mostof the species are open area dwellers that also occur in other open biomes, such as the Cerrado and Caatinga.

  14. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  15. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  16. Environmental impacts assessment of future electricity generating plants for the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Pinheiro, Ricardo Brandt; Ribeiro, Leonardo Marcio Vilela; Loures, Marcelo de Melo Gomide

    1999-01-01

    The Energy and Power Evaluation Program was used for energy planning analysis of the entire energy system of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The environmental impact and resource requirements were estimated with the IMPACTS module, using results obtained from the electricity generating system expansion plan generated by WASP, together with results of marketplace energy supply and demand balances over the study period (1995-2015) computed with the BALANCE module for five different scenarios. The results for the electricity generating system show that: the air emission levels increase in all scenarios: the growth rate of the economy and energy conservation are the most important factors affecting the emissions; the land use increase significantly, the new hydroelectric power plants contributing to almost the total of this increase. (author)

  17. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children.

  18. Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil

    Gaglianone, P.C.; Trindade, L.A.F.; Nascimento, M.M. do

    1987-01-01

    Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, carbon isotopes, assessment of oils and extrats by liquid and gas chromatography and gas chromatography - spectrometry. Three main source rock systems have been identified in offshore Bahia: the Mucuri shales from Rio da Serra and Aratu Stages lower Neocomian related to a lacustrine fresh water environment; the Jiquia shales (Upper Neocomian) deposited in a lacustrine saline water environment, and the Alagoas Shales related to an evaporitic environment of Aptian age. (author) [pt

  19. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Rita de Cássia Nascimento Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153 obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene. Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153 of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in this area.

  20. Intense rainfalls prediction models for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Sidney Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain intensity data are necessary to increase security of hydraulic projects. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships among intensity-duration-frequency (IDF and Bell’s model for the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The equations were obtained by disaggregation of 24 h rainfall data from 136 rain stations available in the National Water Agency (ANA data base. Employing Gumbel distribution, the rainfalls were estimated for each time duration and for the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years, and thereafter for each season. The coefficients of IDF relationships and Bell’s models were adjusted by the minimum square method, for all seasons evaluated. The coefficients of determination and Willmott agreement index exceeded 0.98 and 0.85, respectively, for all stations, which classifies the adjustment of the rainfall models as great.

  1. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  3. Vascular flora of an inselberg in the state of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the floristic composition of an inselberg in the Puxinanã municipality, of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil. Ninety-seven species were recorded that belong to 35 families: Asteraceae (12 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (nine spp. each, Rubiaceae and Convolvulaceae (eight spp. each were the richest families, comprising 47.42% of the total species registered. The herbaceous habit was predominant, occurring in 39% of the species, followed by species of shrubs (22%, vines (20%, rupicolous plants (6%, subshrubs (5%, trees (4% and epiphytes (1%. Passiflora luetzelburgii Harms (Passifloraceae is a new record for the flora of the state. The data from this study provides information that could be used in the conservation and rational use of the study area, and contributes to what is known about the flora and vegetation of the Caatinga.

  4. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  5. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  6. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  7. Parent-professional partnerships in young children's care and education in the United States and Brazil

    Lia B. L. Freitas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the most promising practices in intervening with young children at risk for adverse developmental outcomes include respectful partnerships between professionals and children’s families. Often referred to as the family-centered system of care, this approach has been incorporated into policy both in the United States and Brazil. This paper focuses on outlining historical changes in young children’s care and education in these two societies, changes in the views of child care and the importance of socio-emotional development, and the key elements of meaningful professionalfamily partnerships. It also presents a set of necessary conditions to translate the family-centered system’s principles and research findings into practice

  8. Herpetofauna, Santa Edwiges I and II hydroelectric power plants, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Cintra, C. E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the area under the influence of Santa Edwiges I and IIsmall hydroelectric power plants on Rio Buritis, state of Goiás, Brazil. The list was the result of faunal rescueoperations carried out between 31 August and 29 September 2005 (Santa Edwiges II and between 30 July and 12September 2006 (Santa Edwiges I. The list comprises 30 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera and 8 families(Caeciliidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Brachycephalidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, andMicrohylidae, and 45 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera and 16 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae,Gekkonidae, Gymnophtalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae,Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.

  9. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study.

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-05-17

    Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs). This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national live birth registry system of Brazil's National Health Service - Live Birth Information System (Sinasc), for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The preterm birth rates was calculated on a yearly basis and grouped into three-year periods (2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008, 2009-2011) and one two-year period (2012-2013), according to gestational age and mother's Regional Health Office of residence. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis. The predominance of preterm birth rate increased from 6.8 % in 2000 to 10.5 % in 2013, with an average increase of 0.20 % per year (r(2) = 0.89), and a greater share of moderate preterm births (32 to rate of prematurity and average annual growth during that period (7.55 % and 0.35 %, respectively). The trend analysis of preterm birth rates according to RHO showed a growing trend for almost all RHOs - except for the 7(th) RHO where a declining trend was observed (-0.95 a year); and in the 20(th), 21(st) and 22(nd) RHOs which remained unchanged. In the last three-year of the study period (2011-2013), no RHO showed preterm birth rates below 7.3 % or prevalence of moderate preterm birth below 9.4 %. The results show an increase in preterm births with differences among Macro-regional and RHOs, which indicate the need to improve actions during the prenatal period according to the specificities of each region.

  10. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  11. Assessment of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil

    Francisco Kennedy Scofoni Faleiros de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is funded by the national public health system (SUS. To evaluate treatment results in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil, we have consulted the files of the office of the State Department of Health responsible for supplying such medications. We obtained information on 232 treatments of 201 patients who underwent treatment in or prior to 2008. The study was conducted by reviewing medical records, making telephone calls and interviewing the assistant physicians. Thirty-nine patients (19.4% had cirrhosis and HCV genotype 1 predominated (64.3%. Excluding patients with comorbidities or treatment without ribavirin we analysed 175 treatments (sustained virologic response occurred in 32.6% of cases. Twenty-six of these 175 were retreatments and the sustained virological response (SVR rate among them was 30.8%; the SVR rate was 32.9% among those receiving treatment for the first time. The SVR rate of genotype 1 patients was 27.8%, whereas it was 37.5% in non-1 genotype patients. The adjusted multivariate analysis showed association of SVR with the absence of cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR: 7.7; confidence interval (CI 95%: 2.5, 33.3], the use of pegylated interferon (OR: 5.8; CI 95%: 1.5, 21.4, non-1 genotype (OR: 5.3; CI 95%: 1.7, 16.7 and uninterrupted treatment (OR: 9.0; CI 95%: 3.3, 45.4. The SVR rates were similar to those found in other Brazilian studies about HCV, but lower than those found in national and international clinical trials. These data suggest that the treatments of chronic hepatitis C that are made available by SUS does not, under normal conditions, work as well as the original controlled studies indicated.

  12. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  13. Seasonality in insect abundance in the "Cerrado" of Goiás State, Brazil

    Neuza Aparecida Pereira da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in insect abundance in the "Cerrado" of Goiás State, Brazil. Many studies have provided evidence that tropical insects undergo seasonal changes in abundance and that this is partly due to alternation between the dry and rainy seasons. In the Brazilian "Cerrado" (savannah, this season alternation is particularly evident. The purpose of this work was to study the seasonal abundance of insects in a "Cerrado" area in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Brazil. The insects were captured fortnightly using a light trap between September 2005 and August 2006. The insects collected were separated at the order level and counted. Faunistic analysis was performed to select the predominant insect orders, a multiple linear regression to examine the relation between climatic variables (temperature and precipitation with the abundance of insects and a circular distribution analysis to evaluate the existence of seasonality in the abundance of insect orders. A total of 34,741 insect specimens were captured, belonging to 19 orders. The orders with the greatest number of specimens were Hymenoptera (8,022, Coleoptera (6,680, Diptera (6,394, Lepidoptera (6,223, Isoptera (2,272, Hemiptera (2,240 and Trichoptera (1,967, which represent 97.3% of all the specimens collected. All the orders, except for Diptera, Isoptera and Trichoptera, showed a relationship with the climate variables (temperature, and all the orders, except for Diptera, presented a grouped distribution, with greater abundance in the transition from the end of the dry season (September to the start of the rainy one (October/November. A discussion about seasonality on the abundance of the insects is presented.

  14. Origin and evolution of the Pirituba aluminous calc-alkalic magma, state of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil

    Wernick, Eberhard

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Late Proterozoic calc-alkalic Pirituba magmatism near the city of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil, are presented and discussed on the basis of geological, petrographic, mineralogical, chemical (rocks and minerals), isotopic and zircon typology data. (author)

  15. Energy and social and environmental consequences in Rondonia State, Brazil; Energia e reflexos socio-ambientais em Rondonia

    Lascio, Vania L. di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica; Paz, Luciana R.L. da [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Sociologia

    1996-12-31

    The social and environmental consequences of the recent occupation of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, are presented.The lack of basic structure for settlement of the migrants brought many problems and in this context, the use of renewable energy could be the basis for developing the region 10 refs., 2 figs.

  16. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  17. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  18. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  19. First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).

    Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed.

  20. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil.

    Moura, Maria Edileuza Soares; da Guarda Reis, Mônica Nogueira; Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2015-05-01

    HIV-1 transmitted-drug-resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross-sectional study describes transmitted-dru- resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV-1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self-declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted-drug-resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic inference. Overall, transmitted-drug-resistance rate was 11.2% (10/89; CI 95%: 5.8-19.1%); 22.7% among men who have sex with men (5/22; CI 95%: 8.8-43.4%), 10% in heterosexual men (2/20; CI 95%: 1.7-29.3%) and 6.8% in women (3/44; CI 95%: 1.8-17.4%). Singleton mutations to protease-inhibitor/PI, nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NRTI or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NNRTI predominated (8/10): PI mutations (M46L, V82F, L90M); NRTI mutations (M41L, D67N) and NNRTI mutations (K103N/S). Dual class resistance mutations to NRTI and NNRTI were observed: T215L (NRTI), Y188L (NNRTI) and T215N (NRTI), F227L (NNRTI). Subtype B prevailed (86.6%; 77/89), followed by subtype F1 (1.1%, 1/89) and subtype C (1.1%, 1/89). B/F1 and B/C intersubtype recombinants represented 11.2% (10/89). In Piauí State extensive testing of incidence and transmitted-drug-resistance in all populations with risk behaviors may help control AIDS epidemic locally. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamics and statistics of unstable quantum states

    Sokolov, V.V.; Zelevinsky, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical theory of spectra formulated in terms of random matrices is extended to unstable states. The energies and widths of these states are treated as real and imaginary parts of complex eigenvalues for an effective non-hermitian hamiltonian. Eigenvalue statistics are investigated under simple assumptions. If the coupling through common decay channels is weak we obtain a Wigner distribution for the level spacings and a Porter-Thomas one for the widths, with the only exception for spacings less than widths where level repulsion fades out. Meanwhile in the complex energy plane the repulsion of eigenvalues is quadratic in accordance with the T-noninvariant character of decaying systems. In the opposite case of strong coupling with the continuum, k short-lived states are formed (k is the number of open decay channels). These states accumulate almost the whole total width, the rest of the states becoming long-lived. Such a perestroika corresponds to separation of direct processes (a nuclear analogue of Dicke coherent superradiance). At small channel number, Ericson fluctuations of the cross sections are found to be suppressed. The one-channel case is considered in detail. The joint distribution of energies and widths is obtained. The average cross sections and density of unstable states are calculated. (orig.)

  2. Survival dynamics of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae, a threatened species endemic to northeastern Brazil

    Hévila Prates Luz-Freire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the survival of species are essential to understanding their biology and to developing effective conservation and management plans. This study aimed to determine the best model to explain the survival of the species Melocactus conoideus on the basis of time, density, age structure and habitat location, as well as to describe the interactions among those factors. The study was conducted in three M. conoideus habitat patches in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, only one of which was within a "conservation unit" (protected area. In each patch, we selected 120 specimens of M. conoideus, which were marked with identification plates and classified by developmental stage and density. The survival of those individuals was monitored for a period of one year. The overall survival of M. conoideus was 87.5% and was found to correlate with the month, as well as with the interaction between the factors Patch and Density. Our results show that the survival of M. conoideus individuals is related to the intrinsic characteristics of each habitat patch and suggest that more areas should be set aside for the conservation of this species.

  3. Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae a branchial parasite of freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae from state of Pará, Brazil

    Marcus V. Domingues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. is described from freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp. and Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson, 1987 from the state of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all known species of Ergasilus Nordman, 1832 from Brazilian waters by possessing: (1 an elongate bullet-shaped cephalosome; (2 antennule setal formula 1: 10: 4: 4: 2 + 1 ae: 6 + 1 ae; (3 maxillule bearing two distal setae; and (4 terminal endopodal segment of leg 1 with rosette-like array of blunt spinules. This is the first species of a freshwater stingray Ergasilus reported from Brazil.

  4. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  5. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  6. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Santos, Demilson Rodrigues Dos; Ferreira, Adão Celestino; Bisetto Junior, Alceu

    2012-10-01

    We report the first find of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The specimens were captured in the urban area of the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu, with Falcão light traps, in domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of 61 properties, on two consecutive nights from 18:00 to 06:00hs in March 2012. We captured 40 specimens of Lu. longipalpis and 54 specimens of other sandfly species. This find expands knowledge of the geographical distribution of this sandfly in Brazil.

  7. Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Kjerfve, Björn; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Landim de Souza, Weber F.; Damasceno, Raimundo N.

    2003-08-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance calculations indicate large amounts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs. The data indicate that the lagoon currently is oligotrophic but is in a state of transition to become a mesotrophic system. Molar dissolved inorganic nitrogen:dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIN/DIP) varied between 2.2:1 and 659:1 with a volume-weighted average of 22:1. The high DIN/DIP ratio contrasts with that found in nearby lagoons, suggesting that phytoplankton primary production is limited by phosphorus in Lagoa de Araruama. The major loss of DIP is apparently driven by biological assimilation and diagenic reactions in the sediments. Calculations indicate that the lagoon is slightly net autotrophic at +0.9 mol C m -2 yr -1. This suggests that the biomass of the primary producers is restricted by phosphorus availability. Phosphorus retention in the sediment and the hypersaline state of the lagoon prevent changes in autotrophic communities and the formation of eutrophic conditions.

  8. Entomological investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever area in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Camargo-Neves, Vera L F de; Poletto, Daniela W; Rodas, Lílian A C; Pachioli, Márcio L; Cardoso, Rubens P; Scandar, Sirle A S; Sampaio, Susy M P; Koyanagui, Paulo H; Botti, Mauricio V; Mucci, Luis F; Gomes, Almério de C

    2005-01-01

    Following reports of two autochthonous cases of sylvatic yellow fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000, entomological surveys were conducted with the objective of verifying the occurrence of vector species in forest environments close to or associated with riparian areas located in the western and northwestern regions of the State. Culicidae were captured in 39 sites distributed in four regions. Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species and were captured in all the regions studied. H. leucocelaenus was the most abundant species in the municipalities of Santa Albertina and Ouroeste, where the two cases of sylvatic yellow fever had been reported. Mosquitoes from the janthinomys/capricornii group were only found at eight sites in the São José do Rio Preto region, while Sabethes chloropterus was found at one site in Ribeirão Preto. H. leucocelaenus showed its capacity to adapt to a secondary and degraded environment. Our results indicate a wide receptive area for yellow fever transmission in the State of São Paulo, with particular emphasis on the possibility of H. leucocelaenus being involved in the maintenance of this sylvatic focus of the disease.

  9. First case report of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Inácio José Clementino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Records from the Official Veterinary Services of the State of Paraíba were analyzed while responding to a suspected case of vesicular disease at a property (property I in the municipality of Pombal in which the cattle showed clinical signs and lesions of vesicular disease. Surveillance in the surrounding area revealed similar lesions in cattle at two other properties (II and III. Based on these events, the suspicion was considered well founded, and samples were collected for evaluation at the National Agricultural Laboratory of the State of Pará. The property was interdicted, and those located within a 3 km radius (perifocal from the focus were inspected. At property I, 42.86% (6/14 of the cattle showed vesicular disease lesions characterized by intense sialorrhea, ruptured oral vesicles, epithelial detachment of the tongue and muzzle, and vesicular lesions in the udder and interdigital space. Similar lesions were detected in cattle at properties II and III, affecting 80.95% (34/42 and 11.54% (3/26 of the animals, respectively. Tissue samples collected from the three properties were positive for the vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana 3 subtype. The properties were monitored for 21 days after the last infected animal was cured, and afterwards, the three properties were released.

  10. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Melo, Helen Aline; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA). The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high). A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2) and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676), but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (pCinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  11. [Poles of American tegumentary leishmaniasis production in northern Paraná State, Brazil].

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teodoro, Ueslei; Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira Costa

    2009-05-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic in the State of Paraná, with 99.3% of the cases reported in the South of Brazil. Spatial distribution of the disease in northern Paraná was verified, identifying the most relevant geographic areas in epidemiological terms. The study used data recorded on epidemiological forms from the Teaching and Research Clinical Test Laboratory of the State University in Maringá, from 1987 to 2004. The study only included individuals that were infected in the municipalities (counties) in northern Paraná. Identification of the epidemiological units (poles and circuits) was based on spatial density of cases, according to the model proposed by the National Health Foundation, considering the most likely infection sites. Considering 1,933 reported cases, 1,611 were infected in northern Paraná. American tegumentary leishmaniasis distribution in Paraná State suggests two circuits for production of the disease: Paraná-Paranapanema, highlighting the Cinzas-Laranjinha, Tibagi, Ivaí-Pirapó, Piquiri, and Baixo Iguaçu poles, and Ribeira, highlighting the Alto Ribeira pole.

  12. Retrospective Study on Dengue in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil

    Cunha RV da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serologic study was carried out in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, in order to detect the dengue virus activity before recognizing the epidemic of 1994. Mac-Elisa was performed by using a mixture of specific DEN-1 and DEN-2 antigens on serum samples from the Emilio Ribas Laboratory collection. Samples were obtained from 1,224 patients with exanthematic febrile disease and negative serological results for rubella. All specimens were taken during November 1993 to May 1994. The results confirmed dengue infections in Fortaleza by November 1993, approximately six months before the beginning of the epidemic, proving how misleading diagnosis of dengue infection are still troublesome, in spite of the strong dengue activity in Ceará. The authors stress the urgent necessity to implement the active surveillance system in order to prevent another extensive dengue fever epidemics in the state. Epidemiological background of the dengue activity in the State of Ceará is also described.

  13. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  14. Industrial radiography in the State of Bahia, Brazil: The health protection of workers

    Andrade, Ana Emilia Oliveira de

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the Regulatory and Inspection Authority for actions developed by industrial radiography enterprises in the State of Bahia, Brazil, concerning health protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in industry. Institutions which legislate about this matter at international, national and State level were identified. These legislations were analysed according to recommendations by the Basic Safety Standards from the Atomic Energy International Agency. Medical Supervision is proposed as a factor to warrant protection to worker's health. This is a service evaluation study, encompassing results, processes and structural components. Emphasis is given to the process component which investigated the adequacy of which is performed by employees and workers. Five enterprises which provide industrial radiography services in the State of Bahia were identified, employing forty workers on a temporary basis. This study also observed: intense workforce, a complete process of contracting out in the sector; inadequate conditions of work organization (long work journey, night work, lack of days-off schedule); inefficiency of medical services responsible by worker's protection concerning radiation specific risks as well as other occupational risks, unrelated to main activity. There is a legal basis for Authorities actions, although it has not been completely implemented. These findings embased the elaboration of a proposal of a Surveillance Program for the Worker Exposed to Industrial Radiation, which includes the setting of safety standards and monitoring of workers exposed to ionization radiation in the occupational environment, accident prevention in this activity and the specialized health care to those affected by radio accidents. (author)

  15. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  16. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  17. Capturing Dynamics in the Power Grid: Formulation of Dynamic State Estimation through Data Assimilation

    Zhou, Ning [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meng, Da [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elbert, Stephen T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shaobu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diao, Ruisheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-31

    With the increasing complexity resulting from uncertainties and stochastic variations introduced by intermittent renewable energy sources, responsive loads, mobile consumption of plug-in vehicles, and new market designs, more and more dynamic behaviors are observed in everyday power system operation. To operate a power system efficiently and reliably, it is critical to adopt a dynamic paradigm so that effective control actions can be taken in time. The dynamic paradigm needs to include three fundamental components: dynamic state estimation; look-ahead dynamic simulation; and dynamic contingency analysis (Figure 1). These three components answer three basic questions: where the system is; where the system is going; and how secure the system is against accidents. The dynamic state estimation provides a solid cornerstone to support the other 2 components and is the focus of this study.

  18. American visceral leishmaniasis dissociated from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Pinto,Israel de Souza; Santos,Claudiney Biral dos; Grimaldi Jr.,Gabriel; Ferreira,Adelson Luiz; Falqueto,Aloísio

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of American visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil has always been associated with the presence of the Lutzomyia longipalpis vector. The geographic distribution of this vector in this state is related to the presence of specific geoclimatic characteristics, such as a dry climate, low elevations (< 450m), steep slopes and rocky outcrops. The occurrence of human autochthonous cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in municipalities without these geoclimat...

  19. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  20. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  1. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  2. Judicialization of access to medicines in Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil.

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Brandão, Cristina Mariano Ruas; Faleiros, Daniel Resende; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the profile of claimants and medicines demanded in lawsuits. Descriptive study that examined 827 lawsuits with 1,777 demands of access to medicines in the period between July 2005 and June 2006 in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. There were examined the type of health care provided to claimants and their attorneyship. The medicines were described based on the following: drug registration at the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa); wheter they were essential medicines; supply in the Brazilian Health System programs; and evidence of drug efficacy. More than 70% of the claimants were provided care in the private health system and 60.3% hired private lawyers. The most common diagnosis of claimants was rheumatoid arthritis (23.1%) and the immunosuppressant agents were the most frequent demand medicines (mainly adalimumab and etanercept). Approximately 5% of the medicines demanded were not registered at Anvisa, 19.6% were included in the Brazilian List of Essential Medicine, 24.3% were included in the High-Cost Drug Program and 53.9% showed consistent evidence of efficacy. Among the medicines that were not available in Brazilian Health System, 79.0% had therapeutic alternatives in drug programs. The phenomenon of judicialization of health in Brazil can point out failures in the public health system as some medicines demanded are included in its lists. However, it is a barrier for rational drug use and application of the National Drug Policy guidelines, especially when there are demanded medicines with no evidence of efficacy and that are not included in Brazilian Health System standards.

  3. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves substantia......We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves...

  4. Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state by neutron scattering

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kaji, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state was studied by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering techniques in the time range of 10 -13 to 10 -10 s. The present work can be classified into three parts: (i) dynamics in the glassy, state, (ii) dynamics near the glass transition and (iii) dynamics in the molten state. In the first section, we discuss the low energy excitation in glassy polymers, which is an origin of anomalous thermal properties of amorphous materials at low temperatures. In the next section, we study dynamics of amorphous polymers near the glass transition which is one of the current topics of solid state physics as well as polymer physics. It was found that two modes of motion appear near the glass transition in the energy ranges near 1 meV and of 10-30μeV. These fast and slow modes arising ca. 50K below T g and just above T g , respectively, are discussed from viewpoints of molecular basis. In the last section, dynamics in the molten state is investigated by focusing on the mechanism of local conformational transition of polymer chains. The results are analyzed in terms of jump diffusion model with damped vibrational motions and compared with the Kramers' rate theory. (author)

  5. Dynamic Hazards In Critical Infrastructure Of State

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors are interested in some aspects of a development project entitled “The methodology of risk assessment for the purposes of crisis management system RP (ID 193751”. The project funded by the National Research and Development Centre under the Competition 3/2012 (security and defense. As part of the project the following items were reviewed and analyzed: materials related to the Government Security Centre, already completed and available products of the project ID 193751, and literature relating to, among other things, crisis management, critical infrastructure, business continuity, security, and threats. The basic emphasis of the article is focused on the resource-critical infrastructure interpretation of the state, whereby the state is perceived as a complex administrative structure in which, on the basis of external and internal interactions of resources, the risk of threats measurement is done.

  6. Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states

    In recent years, the non-linear quantum dynamics of these states have revealed some striking features. It was found that under the action of a Hamil- tonian which is a non-linear function of the photon operator(s) only, an initial coherent state loses its coherent structure quickly due to quantum dephasing induced by the non-.

  7. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...

  8. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  10. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Patricia Lofego Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%; hepatitis B or C (26.7%; other (3.8%; and cryptogenic (10.6%. The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  11. [Indigenous peoples' access to health services in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Gomes, Silvana Cardoso; Esperidião, Monique Azevedo

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to evaluate indigenous peoples' access to medium and high-complexity health services in the municipality of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, through the Casa de Saúde Indígena or Indigenous Peoples' Clinic (CASAI Cuiabá). A single case study with a qualitative approach was conducted at CASAI Cuiabá. Data were obtained from observation of the work routines at CASAI Cuiabá, semi-structured interviews with health professionals and administrators from the Cuiabá Special Indigenous Health District (DSEI) and CASAI Cuiabá, and document analysis. Data analysis used a matrix derived from the theoretical and logical model of accessibility, validated by the Delphi method with a group of experts on indigenous peoples' health. Despite advances achieved by CASAI in improving indigenous peoples' access, there are persistent social, organizational, cultural, and geographic barriers in access to medium and high-complexity health services in Cuiabá. The study highlights the need for specific strategies to improve access to health services by indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso State.

  12. [Demographic characteristics and mortality among indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Matsuo, Tiemi; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess mortality rates and related demographic factors among indigenous peoples in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Brazil, compared to the State's general population. Mortality rates were estimated based on data obtained from the Health Care Database for Indigenous Peoples and monthly patient care records as well as demographic data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and mortality data from the SUS Mortality Database. Compared to the overall population, among indigenous peoples there were proportionally more individuals under 15 years of age and fewer elderly, besides higher mortality rates at early ages and from infectious and parasitic diseases. Indigenous men showed significantly higher mortality rates from external causes and respiratory and infectious diseases, while among women the mortality rates from external causes and infectious diseases were higher. Suicide rates among young indigenous individuals were also particularly alarming. Indigenous people's health conditions are worse than those of the general population in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  13. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  14. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  15. Performance of soy cultivars in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Elaine Cristina Batista

    2017-11-01

    behavior of 23 soy cultivars in the soil-climatic conditions of the south region of Minas Gerais State (MG, Brazil, in the municipality of Inconfidentes. The evaluated traits were grain yield, plant height, height of insertion of the first legume and lodging. The experiments were conducted on the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 harvests, adopting a randomized block design with three replicates and 23 treatments, which were constituted by the following cultivars: FAVORITA RR, BRS MG 760SRR, NA 5909 RG, NA 7200 RR, CD 2630, CD 250, NA 7620 RR, CD 2737, TMG 123, V-MAX RR, P 98Y11 RR, NS 7100 RR, BMX Potencia, Anta 82 RR, CD 237, V-TOP, TMG 1176 RR, TMG 1174 RR, TMG 1179 RR, TMG 1181 RR, BMX Força, Monsoy 7211 RR and BRS MG 780 RR. Of the studied cultivars, those that most stood out for the traits evaluated in the conditions of Inconfidentes (MG were TMG 1179 RR (48.6 bags of 60 kg ha-1, NA 7200 RR (45.6 bags, CD 2737 (41.1 bags, CD 237 (41 bags and BRS MG 760 SRR (40.6 bags, all of which displayed satisfactory conditions for mechanical harvesting, demonstrating the good performance of the crop in the south region of Minas Gerais State.

  16. FRESH FISH TRADE NETWORKS IN THE STREET MARKETS OF PALMAS, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

    Kelly Bessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on fresh fish trade networks found in the street markets of Palmas, capital of Tocantins state, Brazil, so as to identify the economic agents involved and the various geographical spaces which interact as a result of these networks. Fresh fish trade in Palmas takes place in distributor warehouses, grocery stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets, fish shops, and fishing communities, but it is street markets that constitute the most popular sale venues. Market sellers establish upstream supply networks with sectors in the fish food system (suppliers in primary and secondary production, distribution, and retail, whose interactions generate connections in Palmas (fishermen, distributors, retailers on a local scale, as well as connections with locations in Tocantins and Pará states (fishermen, fisheries, cold storage companies on a regional scale. Sellers also establish downstream trade networks with the end consumer at markets and with establishments in the food and small retail sectors, whose interactions produce mostly local connections, in Palmas and in the Luzimangues district (close to Palmas. Such connections are marked by consumption processes in these urban areas. Key-words: network, fresh fish trade, street markets.

  17. [International migration, health, and work: an analysis of Haitians in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Palos, Cássia Carraco; Martins, Maria Angela C; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco

    2017-07-27

    This article addresses the relations between immigration, health, and work in Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, emphasizing their work conditions. This was an exploratory study based on primary data collected through a survey of the Haitian population in Cuiabá in 2014-2015. A total of 452 Haitians were interviewed, living in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande (373 men and 79 women), and the findings point to the precarious social situation of Haitian immigrants in Mato Grosso State, marked by high unemployment. Of the immigrants interviewed, 52.7% were currently working and 26.5% reported a workweek greater than 48 hours. The two main occupations for Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá were construction and services, and most were working below their original level of training, skills sets, and job experience in Haiti. The main risks identified in these two sectors were physical (53.2% and 63.4%, respectively) and accidents (23.4% and 17.1%, respectively), in addition to reports of physical and psychosocial distress. The study points to the precarious social, economic, and labor conditions of the Haitian population in the capital of Mato Grosso.

  18. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  19. The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics

    Newman, C M; Stein, D L

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)

  20. On the dynamics of generalized coherent states

    Nikolov, B.A.; Trifonov, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Klauder approach the stable evolution of generalized coherent states (GCS) for some groups (SU(2), SU(1.1) and U(N)) is considered and it is shown that one and the same classical solution z(t) can correctly characterize the quantum evolution for many different (in general nonequivalent) systems. As examples some concrete systems are treated in greater detail: it is obtained that the nonstationary systems of the singular oscillator, of the particle motion in a magnetic field and of the oscillator with a friction all have stable SU(1.1) GCS whose quantum evolution is determined by one and the same classical function z(t). The physical properties of the constructed SU(1.1)GCS are discussed and it is shown particularly that in the case of discrete series Dsub(k)sup((+)) they are those states for which the quantum mean value coincides with the statistical one for an oscillator in a thermostat [ru

  1. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  2. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Erivânia Camelo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The state was divided into three regions, and in each region, approximately 300 properties were randomly sampled. From these selected properties, a pre-established number of animals were randomly selected and blood serum samples were obtained. A total of 3,901 animals were selected from 900 properties. For each selected property, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to assess the type of farming, the animal husbandry practices and the sanitary practices that could be associated with the presence of brucellosis infection. The testing protocol consisted of screening the samples with a buffered acidified plate antigen test and retesting the positive samples with a complement fixation test (CF. One positive animal was enough to define an infected herd. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the state were 4.5% [3.2; 6.4%] and 1.4% [0.7; 2.7%], respectively. By region, the prevalence rates of infected herds and animals, respectively, were as follows: Zona da Mata, 3.3% [1.8; 6.1%] and 1.7% [0.5; 3.0%]; Agreste, 7.4% [4.9; 10.9%] and 1.9% [0.8; 3.0%]; and Sertão, 1.3% [0.5; 3.5%] and 0.7% [0.0; 1.6%]. Flooded pastures (OR = 2.86 [1.37; 6.42] and the presence of 13 or more females in the herd (3rd quartile (OR = 2.65 [1.19; 5.89] were identified as risk factors. The existence of veterinary care emerged as a protective factor against bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco (OR = 0.24 [0.10; 0.58].

  3. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil: geographical and clinical aspects

    Wilma Batista de Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to show the situation of paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This study is a descriptive case series developed in two stages. First, a survey of cases originating from the state of Maranhão at the Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela, Piauí (IDTNP from 1997 to 2007, and second, the clinical description of 29 cases diagnosed in the Centro de Referências em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Maranhão (CREDIP from 2004 to 2010. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen cases have been cataloged at the IDTNP. West, east, and central regions of the state of Maranhão recorded 90.3% of cases proving to be important areas for study. The western region, with a prevalence of 10.8/100,000 inhabitants, has a significantly higher proportion of cases than the northern, southern, and eastern regions (p < 0.05. The occurrence was higher in men with 89.3% of cases, and the male-to-female ratio was 8.4:1. The majority of patients were older than 20 years, lived in rural areas, and had farming or soil management as main occupation (73.8%. At CREDIP, 29 cases were diagnosed, of which 26 (89.6% had multifocal manifestations. Mucous tissues were involved more (75.8% frequently, followed by lymph nodes, skin, and lungs with 65.5%, 39% and 37.9 %, respectively. The diagnosis was made by combining direct examination, culture, and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the geographical distribution and the epidemiological and clinical aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, revealing the significance of the disease to the state of Maranhão.

  4. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  5. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs. Methods This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national live birth registry system of Brazil’s National Health Service - Live Birth Information System (Sinasc, for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The preterm birth rates was calculated on a yearly basis and grouped into three-year periods (2000–2002, 2003–2005, 2006–2008, 2009–2011 and one two-year period (2012–2013, according to gestational age and mother’s Regional Health Office of residence. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis. Results The predominance of preterm birth rate increased from 6.8 % in 2000 to 10.5 % in 2013, with an average increase of 0.20 % per year (r2 = 0.89, and a greater share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which increased from 5.8 % to 9 %. The same pattern was observed for all Macro-regional Health Offices, with highlight to the Northern Macro-Regional Office, which showed the highest average rate of prematurity and average annual growth during that period (7.55 % and 0.35 %, respectively. The trend analysis of preterm birth rates according to RHO showed a growing trend for almost all RHOs – except for the 7th RHO where a declining trend was observed (−0.95 a year; and in the 20th, 21st and 22nd RHOs which remained unchanged. In the last three-year of the study period (2011–2013, no RHO showed preterm birth rates below 7.3 % or prevalence of moderate preterm birth below 9.4 %. Conclusions The results show an increase in preterm births

  6. Controlling the dynamics of multi-state neural networks

    Jin, Tao; Zhao, Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyze the distribution of local fields (DLF) which is induced by the memory patterns in the Q-Ising model. It is found that the structure of the DLF is closely correlated with the network dynamics and the system performance. However, the design rule adopted in the Q-Ising model, like the other rules adopted for multi-state neural networks with associative memories, cannot be applied to directly control the DLF for a given set of memory patterns, and thus cannot be applied to further study the relationships between the structure of the DLF and the dynamics of the network. We then extend a design rule, which was presented recently for designing binary-state neural networks, to make it suitable for designing general multi-state neural networks. This rule is able to control the structure of the DLF as expected. We show that controlling the DLF not only can affect the dynamic behaviors of the multi-state neural networks for a given set of memory patterns, but also can improve the storage capacity. With the change of the DLF, the network shows very rich dynamic behaviors, such as the 'chaos phase', the 'memory phase', and the 'mixture phase'. These dynamic behaviors are also observed in the binary-state neural networks; therefore, our results imply that they may be the universal behaviors of feedback neural networks

  7. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole.

    Yang, Dongyuan; Min, Yanjun; Chen, Zhichao; He, Zhigang; Yuan, Kaijun; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Wu, Guorong

    2018-04-17

    The ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range of 265.7-216.7 nm is studied using the time-resolved photoelectron imaging method. It is found that excitation at longer wavelengths (265.7-250.2 nm) results in the population of the S1(1πσ*) state, which decays out of the photoionization window in about 90 fs. At shorter pump wavelengths (242.1-216.7 nm), the assignments are less clear-cut. We tentatively assign the initially photoexcited state(s) to the 1π3p Rydberg state(s) which has lifetimes of 159 ± 20, 125 ± 15, 102 ± 10 and 88 ± 10 fs for the pump wavelengths of 242.1, 238.1, 232.6 and 216.7 nm, respectively. Internal conversion to the S1(1πσ*) state represents at most a minor decay channel. The methyl substitution effects on the decay dynamics of the excited states of pyrrole are also discussed. Methyl substitution on the pyrrole ring seems to enhance the direct internal conversion from the 1π3p Rydberg state to the ground state, while methyl substitution on the N atom has less influence and the internal conversion to the S1(πσ*) state represents a main channel.

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  9. Quality evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services in the states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena; Andrade, Wellington Gomes de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds associated with a radionuclide. They can be considered as vectors that have some specificity for an organ or a physiological or pathophysiological function. Assessing the radiopharmaceutical's quality is essential to obtain adequate images, avoiding repetition of examinations and unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Resolution no. 8 (RCD 38) of 06/04/2008 by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in the routines of nuclear medicine services (NMS). The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical purity and pH of radiopharmaceuticals used in NMS in states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography where a paper Whatman and TLC were used as steady state and the solvents were used related to the appropriate radiopharmaceutical, both as recommended by the manufacturer's directions. The chromatographic strips were placed in closed containers to avoid contact with the walls. After, the strips were cut in 1cm pieces and the activity was determined in each NMS's activity calibrators. The radiopharmaceuticals pH was evaluated by using universal pH paper (Merck) and the obtained color was compared with its range of colors. It was observed that 33.34% and 2.3% of the tested radiopharmaceuticals showed PRQ (radiochemical purity) and pH values, respectively, are outside of the limits described by the manufacturers. The results show that the radiochemical purity assessment in the NMS's routine can indicate problems with a radioisotope tagging, allowing their exclusion before administration. (author)

  10. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Helen Aline Melo

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA. The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high. A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2 and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676, but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (p< 0.05. In the construction and analysis of the cluster maps, areas with a high-high positive association were found in the Ivaí-Pirapó, Tibagi, Cinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  11. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria in the state of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil

    Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the State of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil, has reported the highest annual parasite incidence (API of malaria among the Brazilian states. This study examines malaria incidence in Acre using spatial and spatio-temporal analysis based on an ecological time series study analyzing malaria cases and deaths for the time period 1992- 2014 and using secondary data. API indexes were calculated by age, sex, parasite species, ratio of Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum malaria, malaria mortality rate and case fatality rate. SaTScan was used to detect spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of malaria cases and data were represented in the form of choropleth maps. A high-risk cluster of malaria was detected in Vale do Juruá and three low-risk clusters in Vale do Acre for both parasite species. Those younger than 19 years of age and females showed a high incidence of malaria in Vale do Juruá, but working-age males were the most affected in Vale do Acre. The malaria mortality rate showed a decreasing trend across the state, while the case fatality rate increased only in the micro-region of Rio Branco during the study period. We conclude that malaria is a focal disease in Acre showing different spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cases and deaths that vary by age, sex, and parasite species. Malaria incidence is thought to be influenced by factors related to regional characteristics; therefore, appropriate disease and vector control strategies must be implemented at each locality.

  12. Determination of soil screening levels for natural radionuclides in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Balaine, Fernando; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Soil screening levels express the levels of contaminant concentration in the soil, which guide the actions to be taken following investigation to confirm contamination. The list of toxic substances or elements under Brazilian legislation includes organics, volatile organics and metals but does not consider radioactive elements. Radioactive elements are all potentially carcinogenic and therefore need to be subject to legal control. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the federal agency currently responsible for legislation regarding the control of Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) facilities does not establish guiding values for intervention in terms of soil activity concentration in the case of contamination with radioactive elements. In mining, the processing and treating of ores such as cassiterite, uranium, phosphate, niobium, and rare earths contribute to the generation of large amounts of NORM residues. Obviously, the improper disposal of these materials may lead to situations that result in soil and groundwater contamination and unnecessary exposure of the population in general. In order to establish guiding values for soil quality for natural radionuclides in the state of Minas Gerais, the study area included the entire state, which has unique characteristics related to the lithology, genesis, and morphology of the soils. These characteristics have tremendous influence on the petrogeochemistry of elements and radionuclides. A total of 110 soil samples were collected and analyzed in order to determine the activity concentration of U, Th, 226Ra, 228Ra e 210Pb. In general, it was possible to verify that the activity concentrations of U are higher than those of Th. This fact can be explained by the intense weathering that most of the state's soil has undergone and the chemical and geochemical characteristics of the two elements. The values obtained up to the present are higher than the reference values for soil quality adopted in other parts of

  13. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis chemotype populations in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Shaw, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out between May and November 2011 to investigate the epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions. Three hundred farms from each region, with reproductive activity, were randomly chosen and included as primary sample units. A fixed number of bovine females, older than 2 years of age, were randomly selected and tested, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test. An epidemiological questionnaire based survey was conducted in the selected farms. Our results show that in the state of São Paulo, the apparent prevalence of positive farms was 9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 7.8 – 10.5%. The prevalence in the individual regions varied between 3.5% (95% CI = 1.7 ? 6.8% and 13.9% (95% CI = 10.2 – 18.8%. The apparent prevalence of positive animals in the state was 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9 – 1.7% and varied from 0.3% (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.6% to 2.5% (95% CI = 1.4 – 4.5% in the regions. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in the state were (i number of adult females in a herd is ? 24 (Odds ratio, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.32 – 2.75, (ii type of farm enterprise (dairy: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.40 – 5.21; mixed: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.08 – 3.82, (iii milking process (milking parlor: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.46 – 11.64; portable milking machine: OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.09, and (iv pasture sharing (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07 – 2.33. The state of São Paulo should implement a structured surveillance system to detect and mitigate the disease. Further, an efficient animal health education program, which encourages the farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds and to avoid pasture sharing with farms of unknown sanitary conditions should also be implemented.

  15. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  16. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  17. Quantitative analysis of savanna wood species, in Teixeira, state of Paraiba, Brazil

    José Adelmo Nunes Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Savanna is the vegetation of semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, which is largely determined by climate and topography. The municipality of Teixeira in the state of Paraiba presents hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal caatinga land cover, which differs in size and density from those found in Sertaneja Depression, due to higher humidity. The objective of this work was to quantify forest remnant in the municipality of Teixeira, using geographic information system and forest inventory techniques. Native vegetation was mapped using satellite images, from November, 2008. Forest inventory was carried out in 40 sample plots (20 m × 20 m that were selected systematically. Height and diameter at 1.30 m from soil level (DBH were measured in every tree with DBH ≥ 10 cm. Each tree was identified by common and scientific names. A total of 4,911 trees were sampled, representing 46 species and 24 families that corresponds to 3,069 trees ha-1. The species with highest importance value (IV were: Croton sonderianus, Mimosa tenuiflora and Piptadenia stipulacea and the more important families were Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae and Caesalpinaceae. The municipality of Teixeira has its best preserved areas in mountainous regions with difficult access.

  18. [Municipal public health spending in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007].

    Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Fernando, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of macro-political measures implemented in the latter half of the 1990s on the increase in public spending on health and the possible reduction in allocation inequity, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 184 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from the Public Health Budget Information System was used, with the selected indicator being spending on health per inhabitant under the responsibility of the municipality. The correlations of this variable with the municipal Human Development Index, population size and value of the municipal budget per capita were analyzed. It was seen that, although the mean increase in municipal spending on health is 190.76%, the value per capita has remained relatively low - at around R$183.79 - which is below the national and macro-regional averages. Both spending on health per capita and growth percentages are distributed irregularly among health regions as well as among municipalities within a single region. In conclusion, there is marked allocation inequity among municipalities with regard to the distribution of public resources for health, despite the macro-political measures adopted to reduce this inequity.

  19. Effect of phosphate rate on the L-value of two soils from Bahia State, Brazil

    Cotrim Duete, Robson Rui; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe Carlos; Muraoka, Takashi; Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton

    1999-01-01

    The determination of L value in low phosphate content soils has presented contradictory results in the literature. In order to evaluate the effect of P rates on L value of two representative soils of Bahia State, Brazil, an experiment was carried out in green house of CENA, USP in Piracicaba. The experiment consisted of two soils (calcareous Red-yellow latosol ''LVc'' and distrofic Red-yellow latosol ''LVd'', collected from Irec and Ribeira do Pombal, respectively) and three P rates (0; 28; and 140 kg P ha -1 ) as triple superphosphate and carried out in plastic pot with 2.5 kg of soil, using corn (Zea mays L.) ''Catetinho Sabugo Roxo'' cultivar as the test plant. The 32 P was applied as KH2PO4 solution, 3.7MBq/pot. The plants were collected 45 days after emergence, dried, weighed, ground and analised for total P content and 32 P radioactivity. The increasing fertilizer P rate increased the nutrient derived from the soil and consequentely, the L values varied with the rate of P fertilizer. The calcareous LV soil showed to have higher L value, though the greater relative increase were observed in distrofic LV soil, due to lower P adsorption values

  20. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  1. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test ( p River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  2. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Maldonado, Caio; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  3. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  4. [Stigma and resistance among travestis and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Magno, Laio; Dourado, Inês; Silva, Luis Augusto Vasconcelos da

    2018-01-01

    This was a qualitative study based on an analysis of narratives produced by travestis and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, with the aim of analyzing their experiences with stigmatization by describing events, actors, and contexts that have marked their life stories, as well as elucidating the relationship between stigma and their female performances. The narratives came from 19 in-depth interviews during an epidemiological survey, based on a prior script that explored the production of narratives on lifestyles and experiences of travestis and transsexual women in the city of Salvador. The life stories that emerged in the field were transcribed and analyzed from a theoretical and narrative perspective. The narratives of many travestis and transsexual women described an "effeminate" gender performance that had been identified since their childhood by family and community members. This performance was presented as insubordination to the power established by heteronormative society's legal system. The process of stigmatization begins to operate when social expectations concerning the coherence between "biological sex" and "gender performance" are frustrated in social interactions, submitting the individuals to discrimination and violence. Thus, stigmatization is operated through the power exercised over bodies by the laws of compulsory heterosexuality. However, during the life stories of travestis and transsexual women, strategies of resistance to stigma are produced, with the potential to transform this situation.

  5. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  6. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    AR Martins

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W. The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian. Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated.

  7. Insect fauna in soil at different grassland ecosystems at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil

    Gislane dos Santos Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was perform a surveillance of the insect fauna in soil in three grassland ecosystems of experimental farm Vale do Acaraú of Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil, by the using of traps soil, with fortnightly collections, from March 2011 to February 2012. To characterize the insect fauna established a distribution pattern, whereas the rates of occurrence and dominance of species grouped by order, as an indicator of the frequency and the occurrence of the amount of captured. At the end, we collected and identified a total of 17,008 specimens of insects belonging to 11 orders, namely: Blattariae, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera and Mantodea. The Order Hymenoptera was the one that stood out the largest number of individuals captured, attributing the presence of large amount of ants, are still considered common to the three ecosystems studied, according to the method employed.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  9. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    G. M. Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon’s diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  10. Interstitial nephritis of slaughtered pigs in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    João X. Oliveira Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated histological lesions in kidney samples from pigs with nephritis in two slaughterhouses in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Four hundred samples were subjected to histology, anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, anti-Leptospira sp. immunofluorescence (IF, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV, and Torque teno virus type 1 and 2 (TTV1, TTV2 detection. Histological lesions were found in 81% of the samples, and mononuclear interstitial nephritis was the most frequent lesion (77.50%. A follicular pattern was observed in 40.97% of the interstitial nephritis lesions. PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were identified in the kidneys by PCR in 27.25%, 28.50%, 94%, and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. Leptospira sp. was not detected through IF. Infection by PCV2 (PCR and the presence of histological lesions (P=0.008 and giant cells (P=0.0016 were significantly associated. An association was observed between the TTV2-TTV1 co-infection (P<0.0001 and the risk for pathogenesis. These findings indicated that PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were widely distributed among pigs in the local farms and that the presence of these agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidneys with interstitial nephritis in pigs.

  11. Land use intensification effects in soil arthropod community of an entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    Siqueira, G M; Silva, E F F; Paz-Ferreiro, J

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  12. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  13. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall'Olio, Attilio; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao

    1996-01-01

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  14. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Marcos Jun Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  15. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Ferrer, Glênio César Nunes; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Ferrer, Kelian Tenfen; Traebert, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population), YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population), followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population). In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions.

  16. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

  17. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  18. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    Silva, Richard M.C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Aragao, Pedro H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Cost of paricá wood production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil

    Rafaela da Silveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The silvicultural and economic potential of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum has encouraged the expansion of this crop, mainly in the northern region of the country, provoking the need for studies on the species. The objective of this study was to estimate paricá production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil, at 5, 6 and 7 years, in three classes of productivity considering five plant arrangements, being identified the main costs of production, in addition to those most affected by plant arrangements. The volumetric estimation was obtained by modeling in population level and the analysis of the costs, through the methodology of the operational cost. It was possible to infer that the arrangement of plants 3 m x 2 m was superior in volume, compared to the other analyzed plant arrangements. The effective operating cost represented on average 65% of the total production costs. Transport was the most significant individual cost, in all analyzed plant arrangements. The maintenance, among the set of activities, was the most significant in planting, fact that may be related to the number and the long period for the activities execution. Smaller plant arrangements presented the higher total costs of production, depending or not on the remuneration for the use of the permanent and current capital.

  20. Fee - fishing operation evaluation at Nothwest São Paulo State, Brazil

    Lopes Ruy Bessa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fee-fishing operations developed recently in Brazilian agricultural scenery in a rather disordered manner. This study, carried out at the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, focuses on the productive performance of fee-fishing system. Several visits were made monthly to nine fee-fishing establishments, for six months. A questionnaire by owners targeting 13 indicators of the operation's productive performance. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis (MANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis. MANOVA indicated significant differences between the fee-fishing operations. The PCA analyses indicated, from the higher coefficient eigenvectors, three attributes for the lakes, such as productive system, fishery management and operational administration. The cluster analyses classified the fishing lakes in four groups. The indicators angler frequency (AF, stocking density (SD, stocking biomass (SB, total capture (TC and capture/lake/day (CLD, which are part of the attribute productive system, were the most important indicators of "fee-fishing" operations performance in this study.

  1. Quantification of aluminium in soil of the Solimões Formation, Acre State, Brazil

    Thiago Andrade Bernini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of soils in the State of Acre is wide and their chemical profiles are still not fully understood. The nature of the material of origin of these soils is indicated by the high aluminium (Al content, commonly associated with high calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg contents. The study objective was to use different methods to quantify Al in soils from toposequences formed from material of a sedimentary nature originating from the Solimões Formation, in Acre, Brazil. Trenches were opened at three distinct points in the landscape: shoulder, backslope and footslope positions. Soil samples were collected for physical, chemical, mineralogical analyses. The Al content was quantified using different methods. High Al contents were found in most of these horizons, associated with high Ca and Mg levels, representing the predominant cations in the sum of exchangeable bases. The mineralogy indicates that the soils are still in a low weathering phase, with the presence of significant quantities of 2:1 minerals. Similar Al contents were determined by the methods of NaOH titration, xylenol orange spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. However, no consistent data were obtained by the pyrocatechol violet method. Extraction with KCl overestimated the exchangeable Al content due to its ability to extract the non-exchangeable Al present in the smectite interlayers. It was observed that high Al contents are related to the instability of the hydroxyl-Al smectite interlayers.

  2. Coccidioides immitis isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the state of Piauí, northeast Brazil.

    Eulálio, K D; de Macedo, R L; Cavalcanti, M A; Martins, L M; Lazéra, M S; Wanke, B

    2001-01-01

    Natural infection of armadillos with Coccidioides immitis was studied in the state of Piauí, northeast of Brazil, endemic for coccidioidomycosis. In 1998, 26 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were captured in 4 different counties. The animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia with ether. At necropsy fragments of spleen, liver, lungs and heart were homogenized and seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide (BBL, USA). Part of each organ was also processed for histological examination. Suspected colonies of filamentous fungi observed after the second week of incubation at room temperature, exhibiting barrel-shaped arthroconidia alternating with empty spaces, were inoculated intraperitoneally into mice. Three armadillos proved to be infected with C. immitis. Mice inoculated with suspected colonies obtained from homogenized spleen of three and liver of two armadillos developed disseminated coccidioidomycosis and immature and mature spherules of C. immitis were disclosed in several organs. For the first time armadillos (D. novemcinctus) were found naturally infected with C. immitis, adding new data on the ecology and on a possible role of these ancestral mammals in the evolutionary life cycle of this fungus.

  3. Plants and pollinating bees in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Toledo Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to survey the bees as visitors to melliferous flora in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 331 insects were captured, and the fauna comprised 39.88% Trigona spinipes, 38.37% Apis mellifera, 8.16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3.93% Halictidae, 1.21% Megachilidae, 2.42% Anthophoridae, and 3.32% other Hymenoptera. Eleven plant species from nine families were observed. The four families most frequently visited by A. mellifera were Pontederiaceae (93.53%, Sterculiaceae and Polygoniaceae (47.22%, Apocynaceae and Apiaceae (42.86%. The families most visited by T. spinipes were Lamiaceae (64.70%, Apocynaceae (57.14%, Sterculiaceae (51.85% and Anacardiaceae (48.39%, and the families most visited by T. angustula were (28.57%, Asteraceae (22.22% and Labiatae (16.47%. Three species predominated in number of bee visits Dombeya wallichii (32.63%, Ocimum americanum (15.5% and Antigonon leptopus (15.2%. T. angustula was the most frequent visitor of O. gratissimum flowers (60.87%.

  4. [Femicide in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: gender iniquities in dying].

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Margarites, Ane Freitas

    2017-12-18

    Femicide is the murder of women as the result of gender inequalities. It is the most extreme form of violence against women. The theoretical and methodological frame of reference used in this study was patriarchy theory and critical discourse analysis. We analyzed the discourses from 64 police inquiries categorized as femicides in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010. The victims were mostly poor young women living in outlying areas of the city with high rates of prostitution and women murdered by the drug traffic, deaths not routinely classified as femicides by the police. Many inquiries were shelved for purported lack of evidence, and many other cases were not even started. The discourse in the police reports often demeaned and blamed the victims, although some criticized the inequalities between men and women and identified the lethal effects of male chauvinism. Police inquiries are important sources for studying femicide in society, adding abundant information on the crimes' victims, perpetrators, and scenarios.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of Brazilian spotted fever in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2000-2008

    Frederico Figueiredo Amâncio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is the most common rickettsiosis in Brazil, most prevalent in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Brazilian spotted fever in Minas Gerais from 2000 to 2008. Of the 132 cases of Brazilian spotted fever, 53 patients died, representing a case-fatality rate of 40.2%. Males predominated, with 78.8% of confirmed cases, and median age was 26.5 years. Absence of rash was associated with increased risk of death (p = 0.005. Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Rio Doce Valley, and Zona da Mata accounted for 70.6% of the cases, which occurred mainly from May to November. There was an increase in the number of cases, which could suggest an expansion of the disease, but probably resulted from an increase in the health system's diagnostic capacity and sensitivity. Despite this improvement, the case-fatality rate remains high and with no apparent tendency to decrease, thus indicating the need for improved prevention and patient care.

  6. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Glenio Cesar Nunes Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs and years lived with disability (YLDs. Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population, YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population, followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions.

  7. Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane fields in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Marissônia de Araujo Noronha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to accomplish a survey on populations of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane farming areas in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty samples of soil and roots were processed to extract and quantify nematodes; however, the identification of Meloidogyne species was performed using only 12 samples. Pratylenchus spp. were reported at moderate population levels of 68-1556 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 2-298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil in twenty analyzed samples. For Meloidogyne spp., these values were of 12-487 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 0-140 specimens 100cm-3 of soil. Based on electrophoresis of esterase isozymes, M. incognita was reported to be the most frequent species, followed by M. javanica and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus species identified through morphometrical and morphological characteristics were P. zeae and P. brachyurus , with predominance for the first species. No significant correlation (P≤0.05 were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.

  8. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  9. Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil

    Monte Cristina Maria Gomes do

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992_1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation-8.7 months-was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators.

  10. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  11. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carvalho Raimundo Wilson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758 within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01 and dogs (p < 0.01 were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01: female (62.2% infested of 143 examined and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined. All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01 and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%. In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01 and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01. Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended.

  12. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Gasparotto, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Liebel, Sandra Mara Rodrigues da Silva; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Cristovão, Edilson Colhera; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. PMID:28380111

  13. [Sexual behavior and emergency contraception among adolescents from public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Araújo, Maria Suely Peixoto de; Costa, Laura Olinda Bregieiro Fernandes

    2009-03-01

    This study focused on knowledge and use of emergency contraception among 4,210 adolescents (14-19 years) enrolled in public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Information was collected using the Global School-Based Student Health Survey, previously validated. Knowledge, frequency, and form of use of emergency contraception were investigated. Independent variables were classified as socio-demographic and those related to sexual behavior. Most adolescents reported knowing and having received information about the method, but among those who had already used it, only 22.1% had done so correctly. Adjusted regression analysis showed greater likelihood of knowledge about the method among girls (OR = 5.03; 95%CI: 1.72-14.69) and the sexually initiated (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.34-1.75), while rural residents were 68% less knowledgeable. Rural residents showed 1.68 times higher odds (CI95%: 1.09-2.25) of incorrect use, while girls showed 71% lower likelihood of incorrect use. Sexual and reproductive education is necessary, especially among male and rural adolescents.

  14. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Jaqueline de Carvalho Gasparotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing.

  15. Evidence of Borrelia in wild and domestic mammals from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Carlos Emmanuel Montandon

    Full Text Available The main of the study was to evaluate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in domestic and wild vertebrates and ectoparasites in endemic areas from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 445 serum samples were examined by ELISA, which used the Borrelia burgdorferi strain G39/40 U.S. source and 3,821 tick samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. B. burgdorferi antibodies were found in 30 serum samples (6.74%; three in marsupials (7.69%, three in rodents (2.80%, nine in dogs (6.25%, and 15 in horses (9.68%. Nested-PCR performed in DNA samples obtained from collected ticks demonstrated negative results. Although attempts to amplify B. burgdorferi DNA from ticks had been not successful, the presence of seroreactive vertebrates suggests the possibility the Borrelia species circulating in these regions. Further research is required to provide information on the presence of Borrelia in Brazilian territory and its association with Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome.

  16. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  17. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Carina Margonari de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7% were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  18. Uranium deposits of Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Ribeiro, C.I.; Carvalho Filho, C.A. de; Hashizume, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is situated in the south-central part of the state of Bahia and constitutes, at the present moment, one of the most promising uranium districts of Brazil. The first anomaly was recorded in 1977 and, since then intense exploration and evaluation has been carried out in the area, resulting in the characterization of six ore deposits until now. Simultaneously, NUCLEBRAS has performed tests to establish the beneficiation characteristics of the ore, and developed preliminary mining plans. The host rock for the ore mineralization is related to sodic metasomatism and controlled by lithology and structure. The ore exhibits granoblastic texture, fine to coarse grain size, and the principal uranium minerals are uraninite, and, in minor quantities, pitchblende and uranophane. The solubility is over 90% of the U 3 O 8 contained, with an average acid consumption of 35 Kg per ton of ore treated. This paper presents a brief description of the main ore deposits and touches on their general characterisitcs. As an example, the deposit 'Jazida Cachoeira' is dealt with in greater detail, since this deposit is considered in the present context to be the most important one in the province. (Author) [pt

  19. Characterization of heavy metals in a uranium ore region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Bezerra, Jairo Dias; dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; dos Santos Júnior, José Araújo; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; de Oliveira, Iane Andrade

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of As, Zn, Co, Cr, and Ba were determined in soil samples from an anomalous uranium ore region in the countryside of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main land use system in this region is dairy farming, and there is a need to evaluate the potential risk of milk contamination. Twenty-three soil samples were activated with neutrons and analyzed using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. The results, recorded in mg kg(-1), varied from 0.4 to 6.7 for As, from 17.0 to 110.0 for Zn, from 2.8 to 38.4 for Co, from 12.1 to 65.5 for Cr, and from 443.0 to 1,497.0 for Ba. All of the Ba concentrations were higher than the intervention value adopted by the Brazilian National Environmental Board. This finding justifies research in other environmental areas to predict the toxicological risks to the local population.

  20. Detection of enteroviruses in cases of neurological disorders in the State of Pará, Brazil

    GOMES Maria de Lourdes Contente

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples mainly from cases of aseptic meningitis and motor deficiency syndrome were sent to the Virology Section of Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém Pará, in the period of January 1995 to January 1996 in order to isolate viruses. All samples were inoculated onto HEp-2 cell culture and newborn mice, with negative results. The probability of isolating viruses by these methods is reduced because of the low concentration of viral particles in these specimens. In order to obtain more information about the etiology of these cases, a group of 23 samples were selected to be tested by a more sensitive technique than the virus isolation - the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers directed to conserved regions in the enterovirus genome were used, considering that this group of viruses is frequently associated with these neurological disorder. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 55 years and nearly all of them lived in Belém, State of Pará, North of Brazil. Of 15 samples analyzed by RT PCR nine (60% were positive; of these, 6 (66.6% had motor deficiency and 3 (33.3% developed aseptic meningitis. These results show that it is important to investigate enterovirus as cause of these syndromes.

  1. [Knowledge and use of the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) by municipal health administrators, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Silva, Keila Silene de Brito E; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano

    2010-02-01

    Considering the importance of Brazil's Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) as a tool for planning, management, and social control of public expenditures in health, this article aimed to evaluate the relationship between the regularity of data entry into the SIOPS and knowledge and use of the system by municipal health administrators in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Ten municipalities were selected from the State's five meso-regions, five of which entered information into the system and five only on an irregular basis. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the municipal health secretaries. Analysis of the data showed that command of information technology and knowledge of the System do not affect the regularity of data entry, as a function of the distance between the Municipal Health Secretariat administrators and the SIOPS, such that the data are normally entered by outsourced services. Thus, the resulting information has not been fully explored by systems administrators as a management tool.

  2. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  3. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  4. Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

    2009-08-26

    From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is

  5. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  6. Using fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Regis Vinícius Souza Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries enhance growth and maximize the survivorship of initial development stages of fish species, functioning as nursery grounds for many species. However, estuaries throughout the world host a wide variety of human activities, and fish communities can be severely impacted. Protection of aquatic biodiversity and proper management of these coastal systems require robust tools to assess habitat integrity and ecological quality status. Thus, the present study investigated the use of fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Brazil, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with different human impacts and environmental conditions carry distinct larval fish assemblages. For this, four estuaries were analysed with: similar environmental conditions (the same water mass surveyed, similar pool of species (the same geographical region and no seasonal influences (different periods analysed separately. Surveys were conducted in Macaé, São João, Bracuí and Perequê-Açu estuaries located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling surveys were conducted every two months between May 2013 and March 2015. All samples were taken in the estuary middle region (salinity 15-25 during nightly ebb tides. At each estuary, ichthyoplankton subsurface tows were perfomed using a Bongo net. Water parameters were measured by a multiparameter probe and surface water samples collected for further analytical analyses. Fish larvae were identified and species were assigned into functional guilds. The water conditions were assessed based on water temperature, pH, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen and total particulate matter. Faecal coliforms, nutrient load (NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4, SiO3 and presence/absence of dams, dredging and mangroves were used as anthropogenic pressure descriptors. The species composition and ecological guilds of Macaé and Perequê-Açu differed significantly of São João and Bracuí, separating the impacted versus non-impacted estuaries

  7. Burrow characteristics and habitat associations of armadillos in Brazil and the United States of America

    Colleen M. McDonough; Michael J. DeLaney; Phu Quoc Le; Mark S. Blackmore; W. J. Loughry

    2000-01-01

    We censused and measured armadillo burrows in ten 10 m x 40 m plots in each of four habitat types at a study site in northern Florida and one in the Atlantic coastal rainforest of Brazil. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) was the only species of armadillo found in Florida, but several additional species were present in Brazil. Burrows were more numerous but smaller in Brazil than in the U. S., probably due to the inclusion of burrows dug by the smaller congener D. septemcinctus...

  8. Medicinal knowledge and plant utilization in an Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, Pará State (Brazil).

    Coelho-Ferreira, Márlia

    2009-10-29

    It shows the local medicinal uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral, promoting the value of folk knowledge, and its applicability in future studies. To demonstrate the importance of the knowledge of medicinal plants in the Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, located in Pará State, Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted between 1996 and 1998, using the methods of participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal discussions to elicit information from community residents and plant specialists, in addition to collecting plant material. Community residents possess knowledge of 229 medicinal plants distributed in 81 botanical families and know how to manipulate them in a variety of ways, with special care taken to ensure that they are used in the safest and most efficient manner. Therapeutic indications for these plants include illness and disease recognized in the repertoire of Western medicine as well as ailments perceived from a local cultural perspective. Results from this study attest to informants' knowledge of medicinal flora and their ability and openness to integrate new species from diverse origins into their gamut of medicinal knowledge, including industrial therapeutic preparations and animal products. Local uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral are also evinced, promoting the value of folk medicinal knowledge. Similarly, it mentions the potential of implementing local knowledge in Brazil's Unitary Health System.

  9. Power system dynamic state estimation using prediction based evolutionary technique

    Basetti, Vedik; Chandel, Ashwani K.; Chandel, Rajeevan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new robust LWS (least winsorized square) estimator is proposed for dynamic state estimation of a power system. One of the main advantages of this estimator is that it has an inbuilt bad data rejection property and is less sensitive to bad data measurements. In the proposed approach, Brown's double exponential smoothing technique has been utilised for its reliable performance at the prediction step. The state estimation problem is solved as an optimisation problem using a new jDE-self adaptive differential evolution with prediction based population re-initialisation technique at the filtering step. This new stochastic search technique has been embedded with different state scenarios using the predicted state. The effectiveness of the proposed LWS technique is validated under different conditions, namely normal operation, bad data, sudden load change, and loss of transmission line conditions on three different IEEE test bus systems. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the conventional extended Kalman filter. On the basis of various performance indices, the results thus obtained show that the proposed technique increases the accuracy and robustness of power system dynamic state estimation performance. - Highlights: • To estimate the states of the power system under dynamic environment. • The performance of the EKF method is degraded during anomaly conditions. • The proposed method remains robust towards anomalies. • The proposed method provides precise state estimates even in the presence of anomalies. • The results show that prediction accuracy is enhanced by using the proposed model.

  10. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  11. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The ethnoecological knowledge of fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Lopes, Alexandre Ferreira; Bozelli, Reinaldo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the ethnoecological knowledge developed by fishermen through their fishing activities and searched for ways to match such knowledge to empirical data available in the scientific literature. The research involved fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were consulted through semi-structured interviews after the establishment of a trustful relationship over a period of three years with the interviewer...

  13. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata sn...

  14. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    Chernaki-Leffer,AM.; Almeida,LM.; Sosa-Gómez,DR.; Anjos,A.; Vogado,KM.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter a...

  15. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Malagutti Filho, W.; Oliveira Braga, T. de.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.) [pt

  16. Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n., sp. n. (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae from a coastal marine fish of Paraná State, Brazil

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n.. sp. n. is described from the marine fish, Sphoeroides greeleyi (Steindachner, taken in Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. The new genus differs from Acanthocephalus Koelreuter, 1771, the nearest genus in the family Echinorhynchidae, by having very flat and variable lemnisci in both sexes and a uterine egg reservoir in the female. The species is characterized by its spherical body form and in having parallel or diagonal testes.

  17. Entanglement dynamics of three-qubit states in noisy channels

    Siomau, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu (Finland); Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The implementation of schemes for quantum teleportation requires the quantification of entanglement for states that, in general, are mixed due to the interaction with the environment. We study the entanglement dynamics of three-qubit GHZ and W states under the influence of the environment. As noise models for the influence of the environment we use {sigma}{sub z}, {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli as well as the depolarizing channel. The entanglement of the states is quantified with the lower bound to the three-qubit concurrence. We show that the GHZ state preserves more entanglement than the W state in transmission through {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli and the depolarizing channels. For {sigma}{sub z} Pauli channel, in contrast, the W state preserves more entanglement than the GHZ state.

  18. An Energy-Based State Observer for Dynamical Subsystems with Inaccessible State Variables

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Sabanovic, Asif; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an energy-based state estimation formalism for a class of dynamical systems with inaccessible/unknown outputs, and systems at which sensor utilization is impractical, or when measurements can not be taken. The power-conserving physical interconnections among most of the dynamical

  19. Health and economic growth among the states of Brazil from 1991 to 2000

    Kenya Noronha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health status can affect economic growth through at least three mechanisms: 1 directly, through the relationship between health status and individual earnings, 2 indirectly, through the effect of health on levels of education, and 3 through physical capital investments. Poor health status causes considerable losses in individual income by decreasing labor productivity, numbers of hours worked, and participation in the labor force. These losses can affect a population's level of wealth and contribute to decreased social well-being. The main goal of this study is to assess the relationship between health and economic growth among the Brazilian states between 1991 and 2000. In order to take into account the different epidemiological and morbidity profiles observed among the states, several health measures were selected such as infant mortality rate, hospital mortality rate in the public healthcare system due to perinatal complications, and proportion of deaths from selected causes (vascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, AIDS and other communicable diseases, homicides and ill-defined causes. Our main findings show that in Brazil health correlates positively with economic growth. We also found that decreases in infant mortality rates are closely associated with higher rates of economic growth. We found a significant negative relationship for health indicators that are related to poverty, less access to health care services and deaths from avoidable causes, such as communicable diseases and hospital mortality rates due to perinatal complications. In contrast, we found a positive and significant correlation between the proportion of deaths from diabetes and cancer, on the one hand, and economic growth, on the other.

  20. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis.

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; Miranda, Marina Jorge de; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Santos, Patrícia Carlos Dos; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2017-08-23

    Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Horimoto, Alex Magno Coelho; Matos, Erica Naomi Naka; Costa, Márcio Reis da; Takahashi, Fernanda; Rezende, Marcelo Cruz; Kanomata, Letícia Barrios; Locatelli, Elisangela Possebon Pradebon; Finotti, Leandro Tavares; Maegawa, Flávia Kamy Maciel; Rondon, Rosa Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Natália Pereira; Couto, Flávia Midori Arakaki Ayres Tavares do; Figueiredo, Túlia Peixoto Alves de; Ovidio, Raphael Antonio; Costa, Izaias Pereira da

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease which shows extreme heterogeneity in its clinical presentation and that follows a variable and unpredictable course. Although some discrepancies in the incidence and prevalence rates between geographical regions may reflect methodological differences in the definition and verification of cases, they may also reflect true local differences. To determine the prevalence and incidence of systemic sclerosis in the city of Campo Grande, state capital of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, during the period from January to December 2014. All health care services of the city of Campo Grande - MS with attending in the specialty of Rheumatology were invited to participate in the study through a standardized form of clinical and socio-demographic assessment. Physicians of any specialty could report a suspected case of systemic sclerosis, but necessarily the definitive diagnosis should be established by a rheumatologist, in order to warrant the standardization of diagnostic criteria and exclusion of other diseases resembling systemic sclerosis. At the end of the study, 15 rheumatologists reported that they attended patients with systemic sclerosis and sent the completed forms containing epidemiological data of patients. The incidence rate of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande for the year 2014 was 11.9 per million inhabitants and the prevalence rate was 105.6 per million inhabitants. Systemic sclerosis patients were mostly women, white, with a mean age of 50.58 years, showing the limited form of the disease with a mean duration of the disease of 8.19 years. Regarding laboratory tests, 94.4% were positive for antinuclear antibody, 41.6% for anti-centromere antibody and 19.1% for anti-Scl70; anti-RNA Polymerase III was performed in 37 patients, with 16.2% positive. The city of Campo Grande, the state capital of MS, presented a lower incidence/prevalence of systemic sclerosis in comparison with those numbers found in US studies and close

  3. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  5. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  6. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  7. Dynamics of Eco-innovation in Emerging Economies: the Case of Green Food Production in Brazil

    Lima, Lucas Ferreira; Andersen, Maj Munch

    food agenda in Brazil? Particularly what is the role of the big international companies to induce eco-innovation in green food? (ii) To what degree is the green food agenda forwarded by Brazilian versus international companies? (iii) How does the organic chain work? More specifically, to what degree do...

  8. Forest Clearing Dynamics and the Expansion of Landholdings in Apuí, a Deforestation Hotspot on Brazil's Transamazon Highway

    Gabriel C. Carrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a local-scale case study in the Rio Juma Settlement Project (RJSP in Apuí, a deforestation hotspot in the southern portion of Brazil's state of Amazonas. We analyze land accumulation and land use strategies of households with a view to elucidating how their strategies are shaping deforestation. More than 76% of the household sample was from southern Brazil, and around 72% of them migrated to older expansion frontiers before reaching Apuí. The percentage of properties with legal land titles was up to five times less while land accumulation was much greater than reported for other settlement projects in Brazil. Land use change followed different patterns depending on whether the lot had been obtained with 100% forest cover or with inherited land use. Regression-tree analysis showed that the size of the cattle herd and the total area of the property do not always explain the area deforested, nor is the size of the deforested area necessarily related to productive activities. Lack of income obtained from livestock indicated that at least 30% of the cases studied were related to the speculative nature of land acquisition and deforestation. Increasing consolidation of land in larger, more highly capitalized ranches indicates the potential for high rates of deforestation in the future, even when the profitability of livestock is questionable.

  9. Dynamic state estimation assisted power system monitoring and protection

    Cui, Yinan

    The advent of phasor measurement units (PMUs) has unlocked several novel methods to monitor, control, and protect bulk electric power systems. This thesis introduces the concept of "Dynamic State Estimation" (DSE), aided by PMUs, for wide-area monitoring and protection of power systems. Unlike traditional State Estimation where algebraic variables are estimated from system measurements, DSE refers to a process to estimate the dynamic states associated with synchronous generators. This thesis first establishes the viability of using particle filtering as a technique to perform DSE in power systems. The utility of DSE for protection and wide-area monitoring are then shown as potential novel applications. The work is presented as a collection of several journal and conference papers. In the first paper, we present a particle filtering approach to dynamically estimate the states of a synchronous generator in a multi-machine setting considering the excitation and prime mover control systems. The second paper proposes an improved out-of-step detection method for generators by means of angular difference. The generator's rotor angle is estimated with a particle filter-based dynamic state estimator and the angular separation is then calculated by combining the raw local phasor measurements with this estimate. The third paper introduces a particle filter-based dual estimation method for tracking the dynamic states of a synchronous generator. It considers the situation where the field voltage measurements are not readily available. The particle filter is modified to treat the field voltage as an unknown input which is sequentially estimated along with the other dynamic states. The fourth paper proposes a novel framework for event detection based on energy functions. The key idea is that any event in the system will leave a signature in WAMS data-sets. It is shown that signatures for four broad classes of disturbance events are buried in the components that constitute the

  10. Judges in the Formation of the Nation- State: Professional Experiences, Academic Background and Geographic Circulation of Members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States

    Luciano Da Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the career profiles of judges from the highest bodies of the Judiciary in Brazil and the United States of America, examining the biographies of all the ministros of the Supreme Court of Justice (Empire and of the Supreme Federal Tribunal (Republic in Brazil, and of all the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed until 2008 in both cases. Based on the sociology of political elites perspective, the article examines data concerning academic background, geographic circulation and the different professional experiences — legal, political and linked to the administration of the State’s coercive activity (police or military — lived through by future members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States so as to identify the types of individuals recommended to join the top bodies of the Judiciary in the two countries. In this sense, different State-building processes are identified on the basis of the examination of Brazilian and US judicial elites, suggesting a more fragmented and diverse trajectory in the case of US justices, and greater homogeneity and centralization in the case of their Brazilian counterparts.

  11. Causal relations among events and states in dynamic geographical phenomena

    Huang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xuan, Wenling; Chen, Xiuwan

    2007-06-01

    There is only a static state of the real world to be recorded in conventional geographical information systems. However, there is not only static information but also dynamic information in geographical phenomena. So that how to record the dynamic information and reveal the relations among dynamic information is an important issue in a spatio-temporal information system. From an ontological perspective, we can initially divide the spatio-temporal entities in the world into continuants and occurrents. Continuant entities endure through some extended (although possibly very short) interval of time (e.g., houses, roads, cities, and real-estate). Occurrent entities happen and are then gone (e.g., a house repair job, road construction project, urban expansion, real-estate transition). From an information system perspective, continuants and occurrents that have a unique identity in the system are referred to as objects and events, respectively. And the change is represented implicitly by static snapshots in current spatial temporal information systems. In the previous models, the objects can be considered as the fundamental components of the system, and the change is modeled by considering time-varying attributes of these objects. In the spatio-temporal database, the temporal information that is either interval or instant is involved and the underlying data structures and indexes for temporal are considerable investigated. However, there is the absence of explicit ways of considering events, which affect the attributes of objects or the state. So the research issue of this paper focuses on how to model events in conceptual models of dynamic geographical phenomena and how to represent the causal relations among events and the objects or states. Firstly, the paper reviews the conceptual modeling in a temporal GIS by researchers. Secondly, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal entities: objects and events. Thirdly, this paper investigates the causal relations amongst

  12. A new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil and comments on additional species.

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras DA Conceição; Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho

    2016-12-14

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil were studied. A new species, Anacroneuria ruschii n. sp. is described. Brief remarks on A. debilis (Pictet) and Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson & Bianchi) are also presented.

  13. Dynamic polarizabilities for the low lying states of Ca+

    Tang, Yong-Bo; Shi, Ting-Yun; Qiao, Hao-Xue; Mitroy, J

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic polarizabilities of the 4s, 3d and 4p states of Ca + are calculated using a relativistic structure model. The wavelengths at which the Stark shifts between different pairs of transitions are zero are calculated. Experimental determination of the magic wavelengths could prove useful in developing better atomic structure models and in particular lead to improved values of the polarizabilities for the Ca + (3d) states

  14. The architecture of dynamic reservoir in the echo state network

    Cui, Hongyan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lixiang

    2012-09-01

    Echo state network (ESN) has recently attracted increasing interests because of its superior capability in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. In the conventional echo state network model, its dynamic reservoir (DR) has a random and sparse topology, which is far from the real biological neural networks from both structural and functional perspectives. We hereby propose three novel types of echo state networks with new dynamic reservoir topologies based on complex network theory, i.e., with a small-world topology, a scale-free topology, and a mixture of small-world and scale-free topologies, respectively. We then analyze the relationship between the dynamic reservoir structure and its prediction capability. We utilize two commonly used time series to evaluate the prediction performance of the three proposed echo state networks and compare them to the conventional model. We also use independent and identically distributed time series to analyze the short-term memory and prediction precision of these echo state networks. Furthermore, we study the ratio of scale-free topology and the small-world topology in the mixed-topology network, and examine its influence on the performance of the echo state networks. Our simulation results show that the proposed echo state network models have better prediction capabilities, a wider spectral radius, but retain almost the same short-term memory capacity as compared to the conventional echo state network model. We also find that the smaller the ratio of the scale-free topology over the small-world topology, the better the memory capacities.

  15. Microscopic observation of magnon bound states and their dynamics.

    Fukuhara, Takeshi; Schauß, Peter; Endres, Manuel; Hild, Sebastian; Cheneau, Marc; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian

    2013-10-03

    The existence of bound states of elementary spin waves (magnons) in one-dimensional quantum magnets was predicted almost 80 years ago. Identifying signatures of magnon bound states has so far remained the subject of intense theoretical research, and their detection has proved challenging for experiments. Ultracold atoms offer an ideal setting in which to find such bound states by tracking the spin dynamics with single-spin and single-site resolution following a local excitation. Here we use in situ correlation measurements to observe two-magnon bound states directly in a one-dimensional Heisenberg spin chain comprising ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. We observe the quantum dynamics of free and bound magnon states through time-resolved measurements of two spin impurities. The increased effective mass of the compound magnon state results in slower spin dynamics as compared to single-magnon excitations. We also determine the decay time of bound magnons, which is probably limited by scattering on thermal fluctuations in the system. Our results provide a new way of studying fundamental properties of quantum magnets and, more generally, properties of interacting impurities in quantum many-body systems.

  16. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  17. Epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2013

    Jonata de Melo Barbieri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed to assess the epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2013. The state was divided into seven regions, and a preset number of herds was randomly sampled in each region. From each farm, female cattle aged 24 months or older were randomly sampled and subjected to the comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCTT. Animals with inconclusive test results were re-tested with the same diagnostic procedure after a minimum interval of 60 days. A total of 31?832 animals were tested from 2?182 farms. An epidemiological questionnaire was administered in the farms to identify risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis. Prevalence in the state was estimated at 4.25% (95% CI: 3.36% – 5.15% for herds and at 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46% – 0.66% for animals. Data on herd prevalence for bovine tuberculosis for each stratum showed the highest prevalences at region Sul e Sudoeste (stratum 5 and region Central (stratum 3 which were significantly different from the lowest prevalences found at regions Noroeste, Norte e Nordeste (stratum 1 and region Leste (stratum 2. The highest animal prevalences observed for the region Sul e Sudoeste (stratum 5, region Zona da Mata (stratum 4 and region Central (stratum 3 were significantly different from the lowest ones at region Triângulo Mineiro (stratum 7, region Noroeste, Norte, e Nordeste (stratum 1 and region Leste (stratum 2. The presence of bovine tuberculosis was associated with animal purchase from cattle traders (OR?=?2.59 [95% CI: 1.28 – 5.20], higher yield intensive dairy (OR?=?7.55 [95% CI: 1.89% – 30.09%] and non-intensive dairy production (OR?=?3.58 [95% CI: 1.06% – 12.04%], as well as with herds with 30 or more cows (OR?=?1.97 [95% CI: 1.02 – 3.80]. Non-specific reactors to the CCTT were found in 95.07% (95% CI: 94.05% - 96.09% of the herds. Therefore, the state of Minas Gerais should implement surveillance systems for the

  18. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    Lucimara Junko Koga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity among Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the USA, assess their aggressiveness variability, and verify the existence of an isolate-cultivar interaction. Isolate variability was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG, and isolate aggressiveness by cut-stem inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine isolates from the same soybean field in Brazil and nine from the Midwest region of the USA. The second set included 16 isolates from several regions of Brazil and one from the USA. In the first set, 18 isolates formed 12 different MCGs. In the second set, 81% of the isolates from Brazil grouped into a single MCG. No common MCGs were observed among isolates from Brazil and the USA. The isolates showed aggressiveness differences in the first set, but not in the second. Although aggressiveness differed in the first set, soybean cultivars and isolates did not interact significantly. Cultivar rank remained the same, regardless of the genetic diversity, aggressiveness difference, and region or country of origin of the isolate. Results from screening of soybean cultivars, performed by the cut-stem method in the USA, can be used as reference for researchers in Brazil.

  19. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  20. Chaotic Dynamical State Variables Selection Procedure Based Image Encryption Scheme

    Zia Bashir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led to rapid developments in cryptography, due to the imminent need for system security. Low-dimensional chaotic systems have low complexity and key space, yet they achieve high encryption speed. An image encryption scheme is proposed that, without compromising the security, uses reasonable resources. We introduced a chaotic dynamic state variables selection procedure (CDSVSP to use all state variables of a hyper-chaotic four-dimensional dynamical system. As a result, less iterations of the dynamical system are required, and resources are saved, thus making the algorithm fast and suitable for practical use. The simulation results of security and other miscellaneous tests demonstrate that the suggested algorithm excels at robustness, security and high speed encryption.

  1. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  2. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  3. steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach

    HOD

    The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...

  4. The state of the art in static and dynamic games

    De Giovanni, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of the art in static and dynamic games (or inter-firm relationships). This research area has changed significantly over the last 25 years through the development of phenomena such as the supply chain and the progressive overcoming of

  5. Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach

    This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...

  6. Optimal control of peridinin excited-state dynamics

    Dietzek, B.; Chábera, P.; Hanf, R.; Tschierlei, S.; Popp, J.; Pascher, T.; Yartsev, A.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 129-136 ISSN 0301-0104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : peridin * excited-state dynamics * coherent control Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  7. Stormflow influence on nutrient dynamics in micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Cerrado and Amazon Biomes, Brazil

    Edelmann, Katharina; Nóbrega, Rodolfo L. B.; Gerold, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon and Cerrado biomes in Brazil have been under intense land-use change during the past few decades. The conversion of native vegetation to pastures and croplands has caused impacts on hydrological processes in these biomes, resulting in increased streamflow and nutrient fluxes. Our aim was to compare the nutrient dynamics during stormflow events in two pairs of adjacent micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics under contrasting land use, i.e. native vegetation (rainforest or cerrado) and pasture. One pair of catchments was located in the Amazon and the other in the Cerrado, both on the Amazon Agricultural Frontier in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. We collected hydrological and hydrochemical data on 50 stormflow events on a sub-hourly resolution during the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014. We compared the dynamics of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) in different hydrograph parts, i.e. rising limb, peak and recession limb, between the catchments within the same biome. For the Cerrado biome, our findings show that the nutrient concentrations in the stormflows were higher in the pasture catchment than in the cerrado catchment. In the Amazon biome, we found an inverse relationship with higher concentrations in the forest catchment than in the pasture catchment, except for TIC and K. Most nutrients in the cerrado catchment had the highest concentrations in the rising limb. Mg, however, reached highest concentrations during peak discharge, and lowest in the recession limb. In the adjacent pasture catchment, in contrast, the highest nutrient concentrations were observed during the peak discharge (TIC, TOC, Ca) or the recession limb (DOC, NO3, K, Mg) with lowest in the rising limb, except for NO3, which showed the lowest concentrations during peak discharge. In the Amazon forest catchment, the peak discharge showed the

  8. Accounting for dynamics of mean precipitation in drought projections: A case study of Brazil for the 2050 and 2070 periods.

    Mpelasoka, Freddie; Awange, Joseph L; Goncalves, Rodrigo Mikosz

    2018-05-01

    Changes in drought around the globe are among the most daunting potential effects of climate change. However, changes in droughts are often not well distinguished from changes in aridity levels. As drought constitutes conditions of aridity, the projected declines in mean precipitation tend to override changes in drought. This results in projections of more dire changes in drought than ever. The overestimate of changes can be attributed to the use of 'static' normal precipitation in the derivation of drought events. The failure in distinguishing drought from aridity is a conceptual problem of concern, particularly to drought policymakers. Given that the key objective of drought policies is to determine drought conditions, which are rare and so protracted that they are beyond the scope of normal risk management, for interventions. The main objective of this Case Study of Brazil is to demonstrate the differences between projections of changes in drought based on 'static' and '30-year dynamic' precipitation normal conditions. First we demonstrate that the 'static' based projections suggest 4-fold changes in the probability of drought-year occurrences against changes by the dynamic normal precipitation. The 'static-normal mean precipitation' based projections tend to be monotonically increasing in magnitude, and were arguably considered unrealistic. Based on the '30-year dynamic' normal precipitation conditions, the 13-member GCM ensemble median projection estimates of changes for 2050 under rcp4.5 1 and rcp8.5 2 suggest: (i) Significant differences between changes associated with rcp4.5 and rcp8.5, and are more noticeable for droughts at long than short timescales in the 2070; (ii) Overall, the results demonstrate more realistic projections of changes in drought characteristics over Brazil than previous projections based on 'static' normal precipitation conditions. However, the uncertainty of response of droughts to climate change in CMIP5 simulations is still large

  9. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte

    2014-08-06

    Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services.

  10. Assessment of the Trophic State of Saquarema Lagoonal System, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Pierre Philippe Belart Brandão Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to apply new ecological descriptors to a coastal marine area aiming to assess its environmental trophic status. This approach makes possible to identify relevant variables associated with eutrophication process applicable and valid worldwide. The aim of this work is to study the organic matter (OM quality and quantity, in terms of biopolymers, in Saquarema Lagoonal System (SLS located in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. Sediment samples collected in SLS were analyzed in this study for granulometric and geochemical data such as total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS and biopolimeric carbon (BPC concentrations, including proteins (PTN, carbohydrates (CHO and lipids (LIP. These data were combined with additional environmental parameters measured in water of the four linked lagoons that compose SLS. Data analyses allowed the identification of four distinct regions in SLS: an inner and impacted zone characterized by sediment particularly enriched in TOC, with lowest quality of OM most probably provided by contaminated effluents and rivers runoff; an outer-less impacted lagoonal area with relatively low TOC content and submitted to high hydrodynamic forces; an intermediate area characterized by transitional features between the two previously mentioned and a zone that is influenced mainly by salinity. The organic matter accumulation depends on the hydrodynamic conditions mostly governed by tidal currents. The quality of organic matter seems to be mainly influenced by the water renewal, rivers inputs and mangroves contributions as well as by the autochthonous lagoonal biological productivity. Results of this work indicate that the inner zone of SLS is being affected by eutrophication not necessarily caused by anthropic factors.

  11. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  12. PRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE IN PROEJA, BRAZIL (2006-2013: A STATE OF THE ART

    Antonio Marcos Uchoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to conduct an initial survey and map the academic production on the theme: National program of professional and basic education integration in the young and adult education mode (Programa Nacional de Integração da Educação Profissional com a Educação Básica na Modalidade de Educação de Jovens e Adultos - PROEJA from dissertations, theses and articles published from 2006 to 2013. In order to undertake this research, we observed some theoretical and methodological procedures, literature review and documents which delimit this conceptual and historic field with the studies of Moura (2007, Moll (2010 Di Pierro (2010, Romanowski and Ens (2006, and Ferreira (2002. It is a bibliographical study which describes the state of the art about PROEJA in the country, having the word “PROEJA” as the research descriptor and the following analysis indicators: year of publication, the place where the research was performed (with empirical research, institution, type of production, categories of knowledge and keywords. The following sources were chosen as databases: Platform Scielo Brazil, the Public Domain Portal of Theses and Dissertations and the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD of the Brazilian Institute of Information Science and Technology (IBCT. It can be concluded that scientific production in the mentioned area is still shy considering the theoretical and methodological challenges posed by the implementation of PROEJA, and there is still remarkably little research related to aspects such as didactic teaching materials, funding and the relationship with rural education.

  13. Soil-plant transfer factors of radionuclides in mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Paiva, J.D.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are the main inputs of chemical substances, considering the Brazilian estuarine environments. Natural radionuclides such as 40 K and 228 Ra can be transferred to vegetation. The objective of this work is to determine the transfer factors (TF) and aggregate transfer (TF ag ) of radionuclides 40 K and 228 Ra in the soil-plant system of mangroves in the State of Pernambuco , Brazil. Concentrations of 40 K and 228 Ra activity in the soil of mangroves and in samples composed of leaves of individuals of the native plant species Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Aviccenia Schaueriana were determined from Gamma Spectrometry with hyper-pure germanium detector (HPGe). The transfer and aggregate transfer factors were calculated according to the methodology proposed in the literature. The respective TF and TF ag values for the 40 K radionuclide were 0.384 and 2.13 x 10 -3 for R. mangle; 0.394 and 2.05 x 10 -3 for L. racemosa and 1.348 and 3.44 x 10 -3 for Avicennia sp. For the radionuclide 228 Ra, the results were lower for R. mangle (TF = 0.089; TF ag = 1.95 x 10 -4 ) and L. race-mosa (TF = 0.142; TF ag = 3.46 x 10 -4 ). For Avicennia schaueriana, the concentrations of 228 Ra activity in the leaves were below the detection limit. The TF values found demonstrated a greater 40 K transfer in Avicennia and 228 Ra dominated mangroves for mangroves where the L. racemosa distribution predominates

  14. Recovery of Mollicutes from the reproductive tract of dairy cattle in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Sandra B. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.

  15. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  16. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  17. Chagas disease ecoepidemiology and environmental changes in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Souza E Guimarães, Ricardo José de Paula; Souza, Christian Rezende; Gorla, David; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2017-11-01

    Triatoma sordida and Triatoma pseudomaculata are frequently captured triatomine species in the Brazilian savannah and caatinga biomes, respectively, and in Brazilian domiciles. This study identified eco-epidemiological changes in Chagas disease in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and considered the influence of environmental shifts and both natural and anthropogenic effects. Domicile infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates were obtained from triatomines and sylvatic reservoirs during the following two time periods: the 1980s and 2007/2008. Entomological and climatic data with land cover classification derived from satellite imagery were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS), which was applied for atmospheric correction, segmentation, image classification, and mapping and to analyse data obtained in the field. Climatic data were analysed and compared to land cover classifications. A comparison of current data with data obtained in the 1980's showed that T. sordida colonised domiciliary areas in both periods, and that T. pseudomaculata did not colonise these areas. There was a tendency toward a reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in sylvatic reservoirs, and of triatomines captured in both households and in the sylvatic environment. T. sordida populations have reduced in the sylvatic environment, while T. pseudomaculata showed an expanding trend in the region compared to counts observed in the 1980's in the sylvatic environment. This may be related to high deforestation rates as well as gradual increases in land surface temperature (LST) and temperatures along the years. Our results suggest a geographical expansion of species into new biomes as a result of anthropogenic and climatic changes that directly interfere with the reproductive and infection processes of vectors.

  18. Chagas disease ecoepidemiology and environmental changes in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Elisa Neves Vianna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Triatoma sordida and Triatoma pseudomaculata are frequently captured triatomine species in the Brazilian savannah and caatinga biomes, respectively, and in Brazilian domiciles. OBJECTIVES This study identified eco-epidemiological changes in Chagas disease in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and considered the influence of environmental shifts and both natural and anthropogenic effects. METHODS Domicile infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates were obtained from triatomines and sylvatic reservoirs during the following two time periods: the 1980s and 2007/2008. Entomological and climatic data with land cover classification derived from satellite imagery were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS, which was applied for atmospheric correction, segmentation, image classification, and mapping and to analyse data obtained in the field. Climatic data were analysed and compared to land cover classifications. RESULTS A comparison of current data with data obtained in the 1980's showed that T. sordida colonised domiciliary areas in both periods, and that T. pseudomaculata did not colonise these areas. There was a tendency toward a reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in sylvatic reservoirs, and of triatomines captured in both households and in the sylvatic environment. T. sordida populations have reduced in the sylvatic environment, while T. pseudomaculata showed an expanding trend in the region compared to counts observed in the 1980's in the sylvatic environment. This may be related to high deforestation rates as well as gradual increases in land surface temperature (LST and temperatures along the years. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest a geographical expansion of species into new biomes as a result of anthropogenic and climatic changes that directly interfere with the reproductive and infection processes of vectors.

  19. Variability of soil fertility properties in areas planted to sugarcane in the State of Goias, Brazil

    José Avelino Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil sampling should provide an accurate representation of a given area so that recommendations for amendments of soil acidity, fertilization and soil conservation may be drafted to increase yield and improve the use of inputs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of soil fertility properties of Oxisols in areas planted to sugarcane in the State of Goias, Brazil. Two areas of approximately 8,100 m² each were selected, representing two fields of the Goiasa sugarcane mill in Goiatuba. The sugarcane crop had a row spacing of 1.5 m and subsamples were taken from 49 points in the row and 49 between the row with a Dutch auger at depths of 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m, for a total of 196 subsamples for each area. The samples were individually subjected to chemical analyses of soil fertility (pH in CaCl2, potential acidity, organic matter, P, K, Ca and Mg and particle size analysis. The number of subsamples required to compose a sample within the acceptable ranges of error of 5, 10, 20 and 40 % of each property were computed from the coefficients of variation and the Student t-value for 95 % confidence. The soil properties under analysis exhibited different variabilities: high (P and K, medium (potential acidity, Ca and Mg and low (pH, organic matter and clay content. Most of the properties analyzed showed an error of less than 20 % for a group of 20 subsamples, except for P and K, which were capable of showing an error greater than 40 % around the mean. The extreme variability in phosphorus, particularly at the depth of 0.2-0.4 m, attributed to banded application of high rates of P fertilizers at planting, places limitations on assessment of its availability due to the high number of subsamples required for a composite sample.

  20. Incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Cíntia Helena de Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, during the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods Ecological, temporal, and descriptive methods were employed using data obtained from the Information System on Disease Notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Results One hundred sixteen reported cases of tuberculous meningitis occurred from 2001 to 2010, corresponding to 1.2% (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants of all meningitis cases reported in SC. There was a predominance of new cases in males, corresponding to 56.9% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; males vs. females; p=0.374, in patients aged 20-39 years, corresponding to 52.6% of new cases (0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 20-39 years versus others; p<0.001, and in urban areas, corresponding to 91.4% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; urban vs. rural; p=0.003. In 48.3% of cases, the outcome was death. Conclusions The incidence rate of tuberculous meningitis in SC has increased within the last decade, with the most affected population comprising young adult white males with an average education. Thus, tuberculous meningitis remains a serious disease, emphasizing the need for disease prevention with vaccination campaigns against tuberculosis, the development of faster and more accurate diagnostic methods, and the use of current epidemiological knowledge regarding the disease to facilitate the establishment of early treatment.

  1. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; de Miranda, Marina Jorge; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; dos Santos, Patrícia Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Design Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. Settings The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Participants Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Main outcome measures Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. Results In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). Conclusions The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. PMID:28838894

  2. Dynamic Influence of Emotional States on Novel Word Learning

    Guo, Jingjing; Zou, Tiantian; Peng, Danling

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers realize that it's unrealistic to isolate language learning and processing from emotions. However, few studies on language learning have taken emotions into consideration so far, so that the probable influences of emotions on language learning are unclear. The current study thereby aimed to examine the effects of emotional states on novel word learning and their dynamic changes with learning continuing and task varying. Positive, negative or neutral pictures were employed to induce a given emotional state, and then participants learned the novel words through association with line-drawing pictures in four successive learning phases. At the end of each learning phase, participants were instructed to fulfill a semantic category judgment task (in Experiment 1) or a word-picture semantic consistency judgment task (in Experiment 2) to explore the effects of emotional states on different depths of word learning. Converging results demonstrated that negative emotional state led to worse performance compared with neutral condition; however, how positive emotional state affected learning varied with learning task. Specifically, a facilitative role of positive emotional state in semantic category learning was observed but disappeared in word specific meaning learning. Moreover, the emotional modulation on novel word learning was quite dynamic and changeable with learning continuing, and the final attainment of the learned words tended to be similar under different emotional states. The findings suggest that the impact of emotion can be offset when novel words became more and more familiar and a part of existent lexicon. PMID:29695994

  3. A characterization of ecosystem services, drivers and values of two watersheds in São Paulo State, Brazil

    N. A. Periotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evaluation of ecosystem services is a tool to raise awareness about benefits of ecosystem functions for human well-being. In Brazil, few studies and reports assess ecosystem services in a watershed context. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by assessing ecosystem services of Jacaré-Guaçu and Jacaré-Pepira Watersheds (São Paulo State, Brazil in a temporal scale of 10 years. Land cover and uses’ capacity to provide ecosystem services and drivers were assessed as a result of mapping these areas. Economic values were estimated based on literature information. Results showed that cultivated and managed terrestrial areas stands out over other areas and then, regulation and maintenance services are reduced in these areas. Wetlands and natural vegetation, with smaller areas, are important for the supply of regulation and maintenance services of both watersheds and economic values indicate the magnitude of degradation or maintenance/restoration.

  4. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis: three cases in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    Togashi, Ricardo Hideo; Aguiar, Fernando Moreira Batista; Ferreira, Dalton Barros; Moura, Camille Matos de; Sales, Monique Teixeira Montezuma; Rios, Nikaelle Ximenes

    2009-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal illness acquired by the inhalation of arthroconidia of Coccidioides sp., was first described in 1894. Coccidioidomycosis is mainly restricted to areas with arid climate, alkaline soil and low rainfall. Consequently, most of the reported cases in Brazil have occurred in the northeastern region. We report three cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis occurring between 2005 and 2006 in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The three patients were immunocompetent adult males, hunters of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), with complaints of cough, fever, dyspnea and pleuritic pain. All three patients presented pulmonary involvement, and only one also presented cutaneous lesions. Chest X-rays and CT scans of the patients revealed characteristic coccidioidomycosis lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological testing. All of the patients evolved to cure after antifungal treatment.

  5. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  6. State-to-state photodissociation dynamics of triatomic molecules: H2O in the B band

    Jiang Bin; Xie Daiqian; Guo Hua

    2012-01-01

    State-to-state photodissociation dynamics of H 2 O in its B band has been investigated quantum mechanically on a new set of non-adiabatically coupled potential energy surfaces for the lowest two 1 A' states of H 2 O, which are developed at the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. Quantum dynamical calculations carried out using the Chebyshev propagator yield absorption spectra, product state distributions, branching ratios, and differential cross sections, which are in reasonably good agreement with the latest experimental results. Particular focus is placed here on the dependence of various dynamical observables on the photon energy. Detailed analyses of the dynamics have assigned the diffuse structure in absorption spectrum to short-time recurring dynamics near the HOH conical intersection. The non-adiabatic dissociation to the ground state OH product via the HOH conical intersection is facile, direct, fast, and produces rotationally hot OH(X-tilde) products. On the other hand, the adiabatic channel on the excited state leading to the OH(A-tilde) product is dominated by long-lived resonances, which depend sensitively on the potential energy surfaces.

  7. An approach to the coastal water circulation in the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation, Northeast of Amapa State, Brazil

    Takiyama, L. R.; Silveira, O. M.

    2007-05-01

    This study shows the pioneer results of the water quality characterization of a lake region, including the Piratuba lake (within the limits of the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation) and the Sucuriju river, localized at the northeast portion of the Amapa State, Brazil, and left margin of the Amazon River mouth. Due to the influence of the Amazon river and another important river, the Araguari river, the northeast coast of Amapa State receive little impact of salty water from the Atlantic ocean. The highest salinity values detected on this coastal area is 20 psu. The Piratuba Lake region which can be described as an unique wetland system formed by recent geological processes (Quaternary), it constitutes a very fragile environment and possesses a number of shallow water lakes distributed into a mixed mangrove and "varzea" type of vegetation and it is considered very important looking at the biological point of view. The borderline between this lake system with the coastal waters is a narrow portion of mangrove containing species of Rizhophora and Avicennia parallel to the coast line. A preliminary water circulation could be accessed through the detection of variation in water quality parameters throughout three field studies conducted on March, 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Surface water sampling points spatially distributed on the study area with distances less than 2 km were set, covering almost 800 square kilometers. Among the parameters studied (pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, concentration of suspended solids, depth, temperature, chloride, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) the turbidity, electrical conductivity and pH were the most important for identifying the entering of coastal waters into the lake region. Mainly, three points of direct contact were identified; one of them is a manmade illegal entrance to the Biological Reservation. The seasonal variation was also very important factor and as expected, during the dry season

  8. Irregular dynamics in up and down cortical states.

    Jorge F Mejias

    Full Text Available Complex coherent dynamics is present in a wide variety of neural systems. A typical example is the voltage transitions between up and down states observed in cortical areas in the brain. In this work, we study this phenomenon via a biologically motivated stochastic model of up and down transitions. The model is constituted by a simple bistable rate dynamics, where the synaptic current is modulated by short-term synaptic processes which introduce stochasticity and temporal correlations. A complete analysis of our model, both with mean-field approaches and numerical simulations, shows the appearance of complex transitions between high (up and low (down neural activity states, driven by the synaptic noise, with permanence times in the up state distributed according to a power-law. We show that the experimentally observed large fluctuation in up and down permanence times can be explained as the result of sufficiently noisy dynamical synapses with sufficiently large recovery times. Static synapses cannot account for this behavior, nor can dynamical synapses in the absence of noise.

  9. Tri-State Current Source Inverter With Improved Dynamic Performance

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wong, Chow Pang

    2008-01-01

    Traditional dc-ac current source inverter (CSI) has a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in its control-to-output transfer function. This RHP zero causes the inverter output to fall before rising when a step increase in command reference is required (commonly known as non-minimum-phase effect). To achieve...... a better dynamic response, this paper proposes the design of a tri-state CSI using only an additional semiconductor switch for introducing unique freewheeling states to the traditional six active and three null states of a CSI. With the freewheeling states inserted appropriately within the inverter state...... sequence, the inductive boosting and discharging intervals can be decoupled, allowing the RHP zero to be eliminated with only minor circuit modifications (high level control schemes like predictive and multiloop voltage/current control remain unchanged). The designed inverter can be controlled using...

  10. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA – BRAZIL (1970, 1996 AND 2007

    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial displacement of the productivity of Gross Value of Agricultural Production of the main activities and cultures of Parana’s State in 1970, 1996 and 2007. To this, we used a database of pre-existing on the Gross Value of Agricultural Production - the VBPA contained in the Agricultural Censuses (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the SEAB (Secretary of Agriculture and Supply of Paraná. The results showed that the VBPA of Paraná State has a spatial displacement during the period, where it was concentrated in 1970 in the northern portion of the state, influenced mainly by coffee plantations. In 2007, the most visible concentration hovered over the West and Southwest regions, and motion to expand the activities poultry and swine in those regions as well as crop production technicality as soybeans and corn. The findings of this study confirm the dynamism of the regions, as well as the impact of modernization on the field, and also highlights the role that agricultural activities have on the economy of the state of Parana.

  11. Characteristics of tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2002-2009

    Claudio Jose Augusto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of tuberculosis cases reported between 2002 and 2009 in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, as well as to comorbidities and mortality. METHODS: This was a descriptive, epidemiological study based on data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database for the 2002-2009 period. RESULTS: There were 47,285 reported cases of tuberculosis, corresponding to a mean incidence of 22.3/100,000 population. The individuals diagnosed with tuberculosis were predominantly in the 20- to 49-year age bracket and male (62.4% and 67.0%, respectively. Individuals with a low level of education accounted for 18.5% of the cases. New cases, cases of recurrence, and cases of retreatment accounted for 83.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, respectively. The rates of cure and treatment noncompliance were 66.2% and 11.2%, respectively; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 0.2% of the cases; and the mortality rate was 12.9%. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS strategy was applied in 21.8% of the cases. Sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed in only 73.9% and 12.9% of the cases, respectively. Chest X-rays were performed in 90.5% of the cases. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the predominant form (in 83.9%. Comorbidity with alcoholism, HIV infection, and diabetes mellitus were identified in 17.2%, 8.3%, and 3.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the numbers of new cases, cases of treatment noncompliance, and deaths were high, comorbidities were common, and there was a failure to perform adequately basic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Multidisciplinary approaches, expanded use of the DOTS strategy, better knowledge of the distribution of tuberculosis, and improvements in the databases are needed in order to achieve better control of the disease in the state of Minas Gerais.

  12. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; Maximo, Michele; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; de Santana, Antonio Luís Ferreira; da Costa, Simone Miranda; da Costa Rego, Taiana Amancio Neves; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-11-13

    The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the

  13. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  14. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    Erlane Chaves FREITAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154 were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease.

  15. Changes in dynamic resting state network connectivity following aphasia therapy.

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-10-24

    Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.

  16. Effects of the international soybean trade on the dynamics of Gross Primary Productivity in soybean-producing regions in China and Brazil

    Viña, A.; Silva, R. F. B. D.; Yang, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international trade of agricultural commodities, such as soybean, is driven by a series of pull and push factors linked to market demand. These in turn fluctuate based on changes in economic affluence, infrastructure development, and socioeconomic homogenization, among others, in both sending and receiving systems. While many studies have analyzed some of these push/pull factors and their environmental effects in either sending or receiving systems, few studies have assessed these effects simultaneously in both sending and receiving systems. This study evaluates the effects of the soybean trade between Brazil and China on the spatio-temporal patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) in both sending and receiving systems. The GPP is a measure of the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis across space and through time. This metric is directly related with the amount of carbon that is sequestered from the atmosphere, and thus is related with the impacts of land use/cover dynamics on global climate change. The spatio-temporal patterns of both GPP and land use/cover were evaluated simultaneously in two soybean-producing regions (state of Mato Grosso in Brazil, and Heilongjiang province in China) through the use of surface reflectance data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA's Terra satellite, combined with a production efficiency model (PEM) entirely based on remotely sensed data. Results from this analysis provide new insights on the consequences of the international trade at local/regional scales, and allow assessing how changes in market demand for agricultural commodities may generate drastic environmental effects in both sending and receiving systems, with global implications on carbon sequestration and thus on climate change.

  17. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  18. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  19. Fermionic molecular dynamics for ground states and collisions of nuclei

    Feldmeier, H.; Bieler, K.; Schnack, J.

    1994-08-01

    The antisymmetric many-body trial state which describes a system of interacting fermions is parametrized in terms of localized wave packets. The equations of motion are derived from the time-dependent quantum variational principle. The resulting Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) equations include a wide range of semi-quantal to classical physics extending from deformed Hartree-Fock theory to Newtonian molecular dynamics. Conservation laws are discussed in connection with the choice of the trial state. The model is applied to heavy-ion collisions with which its basic features are illustrated. The results show a great variety of phenomena including deeply inelastic collisions, fusion, incomplete fusion, fragmentation, neck emission, promptly emitted nucleons and evaporation. (orig.)

  20. Introduction to State Estimation of High-Rate System Dynamics.

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Dodson, Jacob; Joyce, Bryan

    2018-01-13

    Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer's convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued that adaptive observers are important to this research. In particular, adaptive data-driven observers are advantageous due to their adaptability and lack of dependence on the system model.

  1. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist

    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.

  2. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  3. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Matioli, Andre L.; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G.

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (± 360 μm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  4. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  5. Solution structure, copper binding and backbone dynamics of recombinant Ber e 1-the major allergen from Brazil nut.

    Louise Rundqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required. Structural details of Ber e 1 may contribute to the understanding of the allergenic properties of the protein and its potential interaction partners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The solution structure of recombinant Ber e 1 was solved using NMR spectroscopy and measurements of the protein back bone dynamics at a residue-specific level were extracted using (15N-spin relaxation. A hydrophobic cavity was identified in the structure of Ber e 1. Using the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement property of Cu(2+ in conjunction with NMR, it was shown that Ber e 1 is able to specifically interact with the divalent copper ion and the binding site was modeled into the structure. The IgE binding region as well as the copper binding site show increased dynamics on both fast ps-ns timescale as well as slower µs-ms timescale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overall fold of Ber e 1 is similar to other 2S albumins, but the hydrophobic cavity resembles that of a homologous non-specific lipid transfer protein. Ber e 1 is the first 2S albumin shown to interact with Cu(2+ ions. This Cu(2+ binding has minimal effect on the electrostatic potential on the surface of the protein, but the charge distribution within the hydrophobic cavity is significantly altered. As the hydrophobic cavity is likely to be involved in a putative lipid interaction the Cu(2+ can in turn affect the interaction that is essential to provoke an allergenic response.

  6. Dynamics of Photoexcited State of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Trivedi, Dhara J.

    In this thesis, non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) of excited states in semiconductor quantum dots are investigated. Nanoscale systems provide important opportunities for theory and computation for research because the experimental tools often provide an incomplete picture of the structure and/or function of nanomaterials, and theory can often fill in missing features crucial in understanding what is being measured. The simulation of NAMD is an indispensable tool for understanding complex ultrafast photoinduced processes such as charge and energy transfer, thermal relaxation, and charge recombination. Based on the state-of-the-art ab initio approaches in both the energy and time domains, the thesis presents a comprehensive discussion of the dynamical processes in quantum dots, ranging from the initial photon absorption to the final emission. We investigate the energy relaxation and transfer rates in pure and surface passivated quantum dots of different sizes. The study establishes the fundamental mechanisms of the electron and hole relaxation processes with and without hole traps. We develop and implement more accurate and efficient methods for NAMD. These methods are advantageous over the traditional ones when one encounters classically forbidden transitions. We also explore the effect of decoherence and non-adiabatic couplings on the dynamics. The results indicate significant influence on the accuracy and related computational cost of the simulated dynamics.

  7. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  8. Spin dynamics in tunneling decay of a metastable state

    Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze spin dynamics in the tunneling decay of a metastable localized state in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin polarization at short time scales is affected by the initial state while at long time scales both the probability- and the spin density exhibit diffraction-in-time phenomenon. We find that in addition to the tunneling time the tunneling in general can be characterized by a new parameter, the tunneling length. Although the tunneling length is independent...

  9. Unveiling HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia Moreira; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Garcia, Ana Cristina F.; Castro, Cristiane V.; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M.; Liu, Albert Y.; Farland, Willi Mc; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Wilson, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen, and identify the factors associated with newly diagnosed HIV infections. Methods “Transcender” was a respondent driven sampling study of transwomen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, conducted from August 2015 to January 2016. Twelve seeds were recruited from social movements and formative phase. Eligibility criteria were: self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. Participants were categorized as HIV-negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. Predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections were assessed by comparing the newly diagnosed with the HIV-negative. Population estimates were adjusted using the RDSII estimator. Findings In total, 345 eligible transwomen were enrolled. The study sample was young and diverse on gender identity. Population estimates of no prior HIV testing, HIV-infection and newly diagnosed as HIV-infected were 29·1%, 32·1% and 7·0%, respectively (based on n=60 with no prior testing, n=141 HIV-infected, n=40 newly diagnosed). Syphilis, rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were diagnosed in 28·9%, 14·6%, and 13·5%, respectively. Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (22·8; 95%CI 2·9–178·9), travesti (34·1; 95%CI 5·8–200·2) or transsexual woman (41·3; 95%CI 6·3–271·2) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7; 95%CI 3·5–267·3), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4; 95%CI 1·4–14·1). Interpretation Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health care and prevention services in order to curb the HIV epidemic and improve the quality-of-life of

  10. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  11. Learning to Estimate Dynamical State with Probabilistic Population Codes.

    Joseph G Makin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects, including one's own body, is a fundamental ability of higher organisms, playing a central role in many perceptual and motor tasks. While it is unknown how the brain learns to follow and predict the dynamics of objects, it is known that this process of state estimation can be learned purely from the statistics of noisy observations. When the dynamics are simply linear with additive Gaussian noise, the optimal solution is the well known Kalman filter (KF, the parameters of which can be learned via latent-variable density estimation (the EM algorithm. The brain does not, however, directly manipulate matrices and vectors, but instead appears to represent probability distributions with the firing rates of population of neurons, "probabilistic population codes." We show that a recurrent neural network-a modified form of an exponential family harmonium (EFH-that takes a linear probabilistic population code as input can learn, without supervision, to estimate the state of a linear dynamical system. After observing a series of population responses (spike counts to the position of a moving object, the network learns to represent the velocity of the object and forms nearly optimal predictions about the position at the next time-step. This result builds on our previous work showing that a similar network can learn to perform multisensory integration and coordinate transformations for static stimuli. The receptive fields of the trained network also make qualitative predictions about the developing and learning brain: tuning gradually emerges for higher-order dynamical states not explicitly present in the inputs, appearing as delayed tuning for the lower-order states.

  12. Investigating the Intersession Reliability of Dynamic Brain-State Properties.

    Smith, Derek M; Zhao, Yrian; Keilholz, Shella D; Schumacher, Eric H

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic functional connectivity metrics have much to offer to the neuroscience of individual differences of cognition. Yet, despite the recent expansion in dynamic connectivity research, limited resources have been devoted to the study of the reliability of these connectivity measures. To address this, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 100 Human Connectome Project subjects were compared across 2 scan days. Brain states (i.e., patterns of coactivity across regions) were identified by classifying each time frame using k means clustering. This was done with and without global signal regression (GSR). Multiple gauges of reliability indicated consistency in the brain-state properties across days and GSR attenuated the reliability of the brain states. Changes in the brain-state properties across the course of the scan were investigated as well. The results demonstrate that summary metrics describing the clustering of individual time frames have adequate test/retest reliability, and thus, these patterns of brain activation may hold promise for individual-difference research.

  13. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. A ESPACIALIZAÇÃO BANCÁRIA NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ: CONTRIBUIÇÃO PARA UMA GEOGRAFIA FINANCEIRA - BANKING SPACE IN THE STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL: A CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS A FINANCIAL GEOGRAPHY

    Sandra Lúcia Videira

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the bank agencies network are highly relevant due to the fact that they are the main means of access and supply of bank services, revealing the region´s economical dynamics. Analyses have shown that bank agencies do not occupy space in a neutral or indifferent manner within Brazil and a trend towards their concentration in a reduced number of attractive spaces may be perceived. The result is the formation of different territorial densities regarding the presence of agencies banking. Current paper focuses on bank agencies in the state of Paraná, Brazil, to understand how they are spatialized in the state, to discover the existence of places which are more or less appealing for banking and to fill a gap in research work on the Financial Geography in that state. Research reveals that banking space in the state of Paraná does not differ from the concentration trend shown in other areas. The above reinforces the idea that bank agencies exist where the highest capital exchange is extant, or rather, in economically dynamic town and cities. Although extremely different way of spatialized, agencies operating in Paraná with a basic trend: they are located concentrate mode.

  15. Temporal and spatial dynamics of phytoplankton near farm fish in eutrophic reservoir in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in phytoplankton communities in continental waters have received attention from limnologists, since they are differently influenced by many physico-chemical and biological factors. This study was undertaken with the aim to identify the environmental variables that influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of the phytoplankton near a fish farm in the Jucazinho reservoir, in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. Samples were taken from three sampling sites, at two depths during the rainy (Aug 2008, Feb and Mar 2009 and dry (Oct, Nov and Dec 2008 seasons. Phytoplankton was identified, density determined, and biomass values obtained. Concomitantly, abiotic analyses were performed for the characterization of the system. The reservoir was homogeneous with regard to the spatial-temporal variation in hydrological variables: water well oxygenated at the surface and anoxic at the bottom; pH ranging from neutral to alkaline; temperatures always above 25ºC; high turbidity; and high electrical conductivity at all sampling sites and both depths. For both seasons, there was limited nitrogen and high concentrations of phosphorus. Cyanophyta species were predominant, generally representing 80% of the phytoplankton biomass throughout practically the entire study, at all sampling sites and both depths. Co-dominance of cyanobacteria belonging to H1, MP, S1 and Sn associations was recorded in most of the months studied, except August 2008, when there was a substitution of the S1 association (Planktothrix agardhii by the P association (Aulacoseira granulata. Water temperature, precipitation and pH were the parameters with the greatest influence over the temporal variation in phytoplankton, whereas the vertical distribution of the phytoplankton biomass was directly related to the availability of light in the wáter column. There were no spatial or temporal differences in water quality, likely due to the fact that the sampling

  16. Burrow characteristics and habitat associations of armadillos in Brazil and the United States of America

    Colleen M. McDonough

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We censused and measured armadillo burrows in ten 10 m x 40 m plots in each of four habitat types at a study site in northern Florida and one in the Atlantic coastal rainforest of Brazil. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus was the only species of armadillo found in Florida, but several additional species were present in Brazil. Burrows were more numerous but smaller in Brazil than in the U. S., probably due to the inclusion of burrows dug by the smaller congener D. septemcinctus. In Brazil, burrows were larger and more numerous in swamp and forest habitats than in grassland or disturbed areas, suggesting that D. novemcinctus is found primarily in forests and swamps while D. septemcinctus is located in the other areas. This was supported by data from sightings of live animals. In Florida, burrows were more numerous in hardwood hammocks than in wetlands, fields or upland pine areas, but burrow dimensions did not vary across habitat types. In Florida, armadillos were seen more frequently than expected in hammocks and wetlands and less frequently than expected in fields and upland pine areas. There were also age (juvenile versus adult, sex, and yearly differences in habitat use in Florida. Biomass, abundance, and species diversity of terrestrial invertebrates did not vary significantly between habitat types in Florida, suggesting that habitat associations of armadillos were not influenced by prey availability.

  17. Metallic lithium: state-of-art, production and perspectives for the Brazil

    Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Almendra, Ericksson Rocha e; Silva, Flavio Teixeira da

    1995-01-01

    After consideration on the main lithium minerals, the metallic lithium production by lithium chloride in molten salts is reviewed. The perspective and the strategic relevance for the Brazil are examined, taking into consideration the various applications, specifically high energy density batteries with emphasis on thermal batteries, and batteries operating at ambient temperature

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  19. Oil sands from Sao Paulo State, Brazil and La Brea de Chumpi, Peru: a geologic perspective

    Kramers, John W [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Santos, Paulo R. dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gianello, Pedro T [Petroleos del Peru, Lima (Peru)

    1987-12-31

    This work describes two `non-conventional` oil sands occurrences in Peru and Brazil. The study of such occurrences has pointed out the fact that oil sands are found in widely varying geological situations and that not all oil sands have origins similar to the supergiant `conventional` deposits in Canada and Venezuela. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  20. A new population of the endangered Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) (Primates: Atelidae) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Ingberman, Bianca; Kaminski, Nicholas; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio

    2016-01-01

    The endangered southern muriqui or mono [Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)], is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. One known extant population is found at the southern limit of its distribution, in the state of Paraná, where it is regionally classified as Critically Endangered. Here, we report on a new population in southern Brazil. Additionally, we express our concern about the conservation status of this species in Paraná, because both populations are in small, is...

  1. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil

    Karina Vieira Martins; Eduardo José dos Reis Dias; Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    “Restingas” are herbaceous/ shrubby coastal sand-dune habitats that cover great areas of Brazil, particularly along the Bahia state coast. The restingas are disturbed and are under strong pressure, mainly in northeastern Brazil. Fragmentation of the landscape and habitat loss within natural ecosystems are the factors which are mainly responsible for reduction of species diversity by extinction events. The goal of thepresent study was elucidate whether the conservation status of restinga habit...

  2. Dinâmica inicial da composição florística de uma área restaurada na região do Pontal do Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brasil Initial dynamics of floristic composition in a restoresd area in the region of Pontal do Paranapanema, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Elisangela Ronconi Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Pontal do Paranapanema, extremo oeste do Estado de São Paulo, é marcado pela recente devastação florestal, e ações visando à recuperação de áreas onde outrora havia cobertura florestal tornam-se indispensáveis para a conservação da biodiversidade na região, principalmente quando se trata de áreas de Reserva Legal ou Preservação Permanente. Diante do exposto, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a dinâmica inicial da composição florística em uma área de Reserva Legal restaurada. O trabalho foi realizado no assentamento Nova Esperança, Município de Euclides da Cunha Paulista, em uma área de 26,75 ha. O levantamento das espécies foi realizado pelo método de parcelas (16 parcelas de 20 x 30 m em duas fases distintas do plantio, e as análises foram feitas utilizando-se o software Fitopac. Os resultados evidenciaram diminuição da biodiversidade pela alta mortalidade de espécies, levando à conclusão de que em projetos de restauração as intervenções são necessárias para a manutenção do plantio mesmo em sua fase inicial.The Pontal do Paranapanema Region is located in the western range of the State of São Paulo is characterized by recent forest destruction and actions are needed for forest restorations and conservation of biodiversity in the region, principally when if treated of areas of Legal Reserve or Permanent Preservation. Before of the exposed this research had it objective analyze the dynamics initial from floristic composition an area of Legal Reserve restored. This work was realized into the Nova Esperança settlement, city of Euclides da Cunha Paulista, an area of 26,75 ha. The lifting from the species was realized at method of parcels (16 parcels of 20 x 30 m into two phases differentiate of the plantation, and the analisys have been using Fitopac software.The results they show only one decrease from biodiversity by high mortality of species, taking the conclusive what projects of restoration

  3. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Fortes, Caio; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Vitti, Andre Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15 N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  4. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

    Aurélio Ferreira Borges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. Aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia presents two fish production systems: extensive and semi-intensive. In the semi-intensive system, stocking rate was one fish per m3, on average; tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, tilapias (Oreochromis spp., pirarucu (Arapaima gigas and pintado (Pseudoplatystoma spp. were the species farmed at the largest number. The rate of water renewal was due to the greater availability of natural food in this system. Water renewal was constant in the ponds (1,500 liters per minute. In the semi-intensive system using dug ponds, alevins were stocked and fed during the entire rearing time with natural and exogenous food. The extensive system relied on the natural production of the pond, with stocking density limited by the production of natural food. The little renewal of water made the cultivation tank itself acted as a decantation lake, with the occurrence of oxidation and sedimentation of residual organic matter, consisting of feces, debris and organic fertilizer. Production of reduced effluent volume took place in the extensive system, compared to the cultivation area. In addition, there was high water turbidity, caused by high concentration of planktonic organisms, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water

  5. Factors associated with death from dengue in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: historical cohort study.

    Campos, Kauara Brito; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-02-01

    To analyse the clinical and epidemiological profiles of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and complicated dengue cases and deaths from 2008 to 2010 that occurred in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil, and to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Historical cohort study using data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases. A descriptive analysis of the DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases and deaths was performed; the incidence, mortality and case-fatality rates were estimated. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Comorbidities were not included in the analysis because the information system does not contain such data. During the study period, 2214 DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases were reported, including 156 deaths. The annual case-fatality rates for DHF/DSS and complicated dengue cases in the period of 2008-2010 were 7.3%, 4.8% and 7.9%, respectively. The factors associated with death from dengue included residence in a municipality with a population of fewer than 100,000 inhabitants [odds ratio (OR) 2.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.55], age over 65 years (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.99-4.68) and plasma leakage (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.16-2.46). The results support the importance of plasma leakage as a warning sign associated with death from dengue as well as the signs and symptoms that allow the diagnosis of DHF. Moreover, our findings suggest that increased attention is necessary for individuals over 65 years of age and in municipalities with populations under 100,000 inhabitants to ensure a better quality of care during the management of severe patients of dengue in these locations. Differences in the interpretation of the DHF definition have hindered the comparison of data from different countries; it can improve from the WHO 2009 dengue classification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  7. Structure of the phytoplankton in a water supply system in the State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytoplankton community composition at limnetic environment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Samplings were carried out from April/2001 to March/2002. Samples to analyses the biotic variables were taken using a recipient with a large overture, at the subsurface and with a Van Dorn bottle at the bottom. The rainfall data were recorded and the water transparency was used to calculate the light attenuation coefficient, photic zone and the determination of trophic state index. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were determined in a typical dry and rainy month. Equitability, also the, similarity and diversity indexes and the densities and correlation of total densities among depths were calculated. Forty-five taxa were identified in Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp and Bacillariophyta (7spp, while flagellates were quantified in groups without identification. Cyanophyta presented highest diversity at both the depths and Planktothrix agardhii was the highest density species. Significant differences were not observed between subsurface and bottom densities. Results showed that the reservoir was eutrophicated and presented high densities of Cyanophyta.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica em ambiente limnético de Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas de abril/2001 a março/2002. As amostras para análises abióticas foram coletadas na superfície da água e destinadas às análises bióticas foram coletadas na subsuperfície e no fundo, sendo fixadas com solução de lugol e quantificadas usando microscópio invertido. Equitatividade, índices de similaridade e diversidade foram calculados, bem como correlação entre as profundidades. 45 táxons foram identificados, pertencentes as Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp e Bacillariophyta (7spp. Os flagelados foram apenas quantificados, mas não foram identificados. Cyanophyta apresentou a mais alta

  8. Clinical evaluation and evolution of colic cases associated with Panicum maximum in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dória R.G.S., Freitas S.H., Laskoski L.M., Carvalho M.B., Monteiro A.O.N., Camplesi A.C. & Valadão C.A.A. [Clinical evaluation and evolution of colic cases associated with Panicum maximum in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.] Avaliação clínica e da evolução dos casos de cólica associados a Panicum maximum no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:303-308, 2015. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Centro, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brasil. E-mail: redoria@usp.br An acute disease characterized by colic and timpanism was reported in Pará and Rondônia after horses fed with Panicum maximum cultivars Momba- ça, Tanzânia and Massai pasture grazing. In this study an acute abdomen case was experimentally reproduced after the ingestion of Panicum maximum var Massai pasture based on twenty two clinic and surgical cases of acute timpanic colic cases reported in a farm in the city of Cuiabá – MT, fed with Panicum maximum var Massai pasture, confirming the etiology and accompanying the clinical evolution of the disease. A horse kept in a stall fed only with Massai pasture was daily evaluated and it was verified that the animal presented as result a clinic perfil of pain, high cardiac frequency, respiratory difficulty, intestinal motility absence and exaggerated distention of the stomach and bowels by gas, seeing during the necropsy the stomach and bowels fully distended by gas with liquefied content except by small colon where the feces presented dry and with mucus characterizing the intestinal atony. The necessity of studies that search the identification of the agent responsible for the intestinal atony and gas accumulation in horses fed with Panicum maximum is exposed.

  9. Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Lara Patrícia Santos Carrasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrasco L.P.S., Oliveira R.L.S., Moreira C.M.R., Santos C.R.G.R., Corgozinho K.B. & Souza H.J.M. [Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.] Diagnóstico de Cryptosporidium spp. pela técnica de qPCR em gatos no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.:22-26, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em MedicinaVeteriná- ria, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: carrasco.lara@gmail.com Cryptosporidium spp. is recognized as an important etiologic agent of diarrhea in many countries. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of DNA of the parasite Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of cats with history of chronic diarrhea attended in the Feline Medicine Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, by the polymerase chain reaction technique in real time (RT-PCR. In this study, 100 animals were admitted, of any breed or sex and from 8 weeks of age. As inclusion criteria, patients had to have diarrhea history for more than three weeks, with little success of clinical response to previously established therapies. From the samples obtained by collecting via washing the animal colon and spontaneous defecation, methods of direct examination of the feces, centrifugal flotation technique and real-time PCR were carried out. Of all cats selected for this study, 10% showed infection by Cryptosporidium spp. Most positive animals were aged over one year (70% and only 30% had up to one year old. Cats were 50% purebred and 50% were domestic short hair cats. The clinical signs presented by these cats at the time of consultation were diarrhea (60% and prolapsed rectum (40%. Four animals had co-infections with other enteropathogens (40%, such as Giardia, Toxocara sp. or Tritrichomonas fetus alone or combined. We concluded that infection by

  10. Overview of the state of the art of constructed wetlands for decentralized wastewater management in Brazil.

    Machado, A I; Beretta, M; Fragoso, R; Duarte, E

    2017-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) commonly require large capital investments as well as operation and maintenance costs. Constructed wetlands (CWs) appear as a cost-effective treatment, since they can remove a broad range of contaminants by a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes with a low cost. Therefore, CWs can be successfully applied for decentralized wastewater treatment in regions with low population density and/or with large land availability as Brazil. The present work provides a review of thirty nine studies developed on CWs implemented in Brazil to remove wastewater contaminants. Brazil current sanitation data is also considered to evaluate the potential role of CWs as decentralized wastewater treatment. Performance of CWs was evaluated according to (i) type of wetland system, (ii) different support matrix (iii) vegetation species and (iv) removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The reviewed CWs in overall presented good efficiencies, whereas H-CWs achieved the highest removals for P, while the higher results for N were attained on VF-CW and for COD and BOD 5 on HF-CW. Therefore, was concluded that CWs are an interesting solution for decentralized wastewater treatment in Brazil since it has warm temperatures, extensive radiation hours and available land. Additionally, the low percentage of population with access to the sewage network in the North and Northeast regions makes these systems especially suitable. Hence, the further implementation of CW is encouraged by the authors in regions with similar characteristics as Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics: On-the-fly limiting of essential excited states

    Nelson, Tammie [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Naumov, Artem [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian [Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Roque Saenz Pea 352, B1876BXD Bernal (Argentina); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The simulation of nonadiabatic dynamics in extended molecular systems involving hundreds of atoms and large densities of states is particularly challenging. Nonadiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) represent a significant numerical bottleneck in surface hopping approaches. Rather than using unreliable NACT cutting schemes, here we develop “on-the-fly” state limiting methods to eliminate states that are no longer essential for the non-radiative relaxation dynamics as a trajectory proceeds. We propose a state number criteria and an energy-based state limit. The latter is more physically relevant by requiring a user-imposed energy threshold. For this purpose, we introduce a local kinetic energy gauge by summing contributions from atoms within the spatial localization of the electronic wavefunction to define the energy available for upward hops. The proposed state limiting schemes are implemented within the nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics framework to simulate photoinduced relaxation in poly-phenylene vinylene (PPV) and branched poly-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) oligomers for benchmark evaluation.

  12. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  13. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.

  14. Evolution of the Cubatão urban mangrove in São Paulo State (Brazil) over space and time

    Flandroy, J.; Cunha-Lignon, M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2009-01-01

    With 120,000 inhabitants and an area of 140km2 Cubatão (São Paulo State, Brazil) qualifies as an urban area. The mangrove of this coastal area occupies 136,538m2 but only 40% is in good condition. Many anthropogenic activities cause pollution, but despite these environmental impacts, the region is important for its biodiversity. The aim of this research is to study the evolution of the urban mangrove forest in Cubatão between 1962 and 2008.Imagery of 1962, 1994 and 2008 was used to detect the...

  15. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  16. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Anaruma Filho Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  17. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  18. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  19. Balking blood pressure "control" by older persons of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an ethno-epidemiological inquiry.

    Nations, Marilyn; Firmo, Josélia O A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Uchôa, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This ethno-epidemiological inquiry aims to comprehend hypertension-related experiences in the elderly population of Bambuí, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It combines ethnographic descriptions with statistical data. The subjective significance of factors associated with adequate arterial pressure control is explored. A baseline cohort of 26 people with hypertension, randomly selected from a total number of 1,494 residents over the age of 60, was interviewed utilizing signs, meanings and actions methodology. Multivariate analysis shows an association (p free choice. Giving elderly people a voice regarding their social context can promote autonomy, well-being and happiness in later life.

  20. Anurans of the Reserva Ecológica da Michelin, Municipality of Igrapiúna, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Camurugi, Felipe; Lima, Tasso Meneses; Mercês, Ednei de Almeida; Juncá, Flora Acuña

    2010-01-01

    We studied the richness and distribution of anuran species on different breeding sites at the Reserva Ecológica da Michelin (13° 50' S and 39° 10' W, approximately 90-400 m above sea level), Municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia State, Brazil. The reserve includes fragments of Atlantic Rain Forest varying from 140 to 650 ha. Five types of environments were sampled: leaf litter inside forest fragments, streams inside forest fragments, dam on the edge of forest fragment, temporary pond inside forest...

  1. [Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Dos Santos, Sonia M C; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Luque, José L

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea) in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda) in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea) and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala) in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100%) and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%). Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively). All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  2. Dynamics of Pertussis Transmission in the United States

    Magpantay, F. M. G.; Rohani, P.

    2015-01-01

    Past patterns of infectious disease transmission set the stage on which modern epidemiologic dynamics are played out. Here, we present a comprehensive account of pertussis (whooping cough) transmission in the United States during the early vaccine era. We analyzed recently digitized weekly incidence records from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports from 1938 to 1955, when the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was rolled out, and related them to contemporary patterns of transmission and resurgence documented in monthly incidence data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. We found that, during the early vaccine era, pertussis epidemics in US states could be categorized as 1) annual, 2) initially annual and later multiennial, or 3) multiennial. States with predominantly annual cycles tended to have higher per capita birth rates, more household crowding, more children per family, and lower rates of school attendance than the states with multiennial cycles. Additionally, states that exhibited annual epidemics during 1938–1955 have had the highest recent (2001–2010) incidence, while those states that transitioned from annual cycles to multiennial cycles have had relatively low recent incidence. Our study provides an extensive picture of pertussis epidemiology in the United States dating back to the onset of vaccination, a back-story that could aid epidemiologists in understanding contemporary transmission patterns. PMID:26022662

  3. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  4. Pharmaceutical companies vs. the State: who is responsible for post-trial provision of drugs in Brazil?

    Wang, Daniel Wei L; Ferraz, Octavio Luiz Motta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the post-trial access to drugs for patients who participated in clinical trials in Brazil. The ethical guidance for clinical trials in Brazil is arguably one of the clearest in the world in attributing to research sponsors the responsibility for providing post-trial drugs to patients who participated in their experiments. The Federal Constitution recognizes health as a fundamental right to be fulfilled by the State. Based on the Brazilian constitution and on the National Health Council resolutions, courts have been accepting patients' claims and ordering the State and the pharmaceutical companies to provide these patients with the tested treatment in the quantity and duration they need it. This generous interpretation of the duties of the pharmaceutical companies and the State makes the Brazilian model for post-trial access unique when compared to the experience of other countries and thus should be followed with attention by future research in order to assess its consequences for patients, research sponsors, and the public health system. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement for spin systems

    Jafari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the ideas of the quantum renormalization group and quantum information by exploring the low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement resources of a system close to its quantum critical point. We demonstrate that low-energy-state dynamical quantities of one-dimensional magnetic systems can show a quantum phase transition point and show scaling behavior in the vicinity of the transition point. To present our idea, we study the evolution of two spin entanglements in the one-dimensional Ising model in the transverse field. The system is initialized as the so-called thermal ground state of the pure Ising model. We investigate the evolution of the generation of entanglement with increasing magnetic field. We obtain that the derivative of the time at which the entanglement reaches its maximum with respect to the transverse field diverges at the critical point and its scaling behaviors versus the size of the system are the same as the static ground-state entanglement of the system.

  6. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  8. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  9. Static and dynamic properties of QCD bound states

    Kubrak, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The QCD phenomenology can be faced with the framework of the coupled quark DSE, meson BSE and baryon Faddeev equation, providing non-perturbative, continuum and Poincare invariant scientific approach. The research performed throughout this thesis is twofold. From one perspective we focus on the investigation of mass spectra for mesons with total spin quantum number J=3 and arising Regge-trajectory for natural parity states J PC =1 -- ,2 ++ ,3 -- within rainbow-ladder single gluon exchange model. The other findings are concerning the impact of the pion cloud effect on J>2 meson states, baryon masses, namely on Nucleon and Delta three-body bound states and meson dynamical properties like the pion form factor.

  10. Dynamic generation of light states with discrete symmetries

    Cordero, S.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Castaños, O.; López-Peña, R.

    2018-01-01

    A dynamic procedure is established within the generalized Tavis-Cummings model to generate light states with discrete point symmetries, given by the cyclic group Cn. We consider arbitrary dipolar coupling strengths of the atoms with a one-mode electromagnetic field in a cavity. The method uses mainly the matter-field entanglement properties of the system, which can be extended to any number of three-level atoms. An initial state constituted by the superposition of two states with definite total excitation numbers, |ψ〉 M1,and |ψ〉 M 2, is considered. It can be generated by the proper selection of the time of flight of an atom passing through the cavity. We demonstrate that the resulting Husimi function of the light is invariant under cyclic point transformations of order n =| M1-M2| .

  11. Chiral SU(3) dynamics and antikaon-nuclear quasibound states

    Weise, W.; Haertle, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments are summarised concerning low-energy K-bar N interactions as they relate to the possible existence of antikaon-nuclear quasibound states. An exploratory study of antikaons bound to finite nuclei is performed, with emphasis on the evolution of such states from light to heavy nuclei (A = 16-208). The energy dependent, driving attractive K-bar N interactions are constructed using the s-wave coupled-channel amplitudes involving the Λ(1405) and resulting from chiral SU(3) dynamics, plus p-wave amplitudes dominated by the Σ(1385). Effects of Pauli and short-range correlations are discussed. The decay width induced by K - NN two-body absorption is estimated and found to be substantial. It is concluded that K-bar-nuclear quasibound states can possibly exist with binding energies ranging from 60 to 100 MeV, but with short life times corresponding to decay widths of similar magnitudes

  12. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Automatic Emotional State Detection using Facial Expression Dynamic in Videos

    Hongying Meng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic emotion detection system is built for a computer or machine to detect the emotional state from facial expressions in human computer communication. Firstly, dynamic motion features are extracted from facial expression videos and then advanced machine learning methods for classification and regression are used to predict the emotional states. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, i.e. GEMEP_FERA and AVEC2013, and satisfied performances are achieved in comparison with the baseline results provided. With this emotional state detection capability, a machine can read the facial expression of its user automatically. This technique can be integrated into applications such as smart robots, interactive games and smart surveillance systems.

  14. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock

  15. Dynamic behavior of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil (1954-2008

    Fernando Portela Câmara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sylvatic yellow fever (SYF is enzootic in Brazil, causing periodic outbreaks in humans living near forest borders or in rural areas. In this study, the cycling patterns of this arbovirosis were analyzed. METHODS: Spectral Fourier analysis was used to capture the periodicity patterns of SYF in time series. RESULTS: SYF outbreaks have not increased in frequency, only in the number of cases. There are two dominant cycles in SYF outbreaks, a seven year cycle for the central-western region and a 14 year cycle for the northern region. Most of the variance was concentrated in the central-western region and dominated the entire endemic region. CONCLUSIONS: The seven year cycle is predominant in the endemic region of the disease due the greater contribution of variance in the central-western region; however, it was possible identify a 14 cycle that governs SYF outbreaks in the northern region. No periodicities were identified for the remaining geographical regions.

  16. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    Pereira, Marcos Paulo Santos; Justino, Flavio; Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes; Barbosa, Humberto; Marengo, José

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate–vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere. (letter)

  17. Approximate Dynamic Programming: Combining Regional and Local State Following Approximations.

    Deptula, Patryk; Rosenfeld, Joel A; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Dixon, Warren E

    2018-06-01

    An infinite-horizon optimal regulation problem for a control-affine deterministic system is solved online using a local state following (StaF) kernel and a regional model-based reinforcement learning (R-MBRL) method to approximate the value function. Unlike traditional methods such as R-MBRL that aim to approximate the value function over a large compact set, the StaF kernel approach aims to approximate the value function in a local neighborhood of the state that travels within a compact set. In this paper, the value function is approximated using a state-dependent convex combination of the StaF-based and the R-MBRL-based approximations. As the state enters a neighborhood containing the origin, the value function transitions from being approximated by the StaF approach to the R-MBRL approach. Semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) convergence of the system states to the origin is established using a Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulation results are provided for two, three, six, and ten-state dynamical systems to demonstrate the scalability and performance of the developed method.

  18. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  19. Blackleg in cattle in the state Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: 59 cases

    Heckler, Rubiane F.; Lemos, Ricardo A.A. de; Gomes, Danilo C.; Dutra, Iveraldo S.; Silva, Rodrigo O.S.; Lobato, Francisco C.F.; Ramos, Carlos A.N.; Brumatti, Ricardo C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to review cases of blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei infection) diagnosed in cattle from Midwestern Brazil from 1994 to 2014 considering epidemiological, clinical, necropsy and histopathological findings. Also the following laboratory tests were used for the diagnosis of some cases of blackleg: microbiological culture and identification of the agent, microbiological culture and identification of the agent by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and identification of th...

  20. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in pa...