Sample records for starr-edwards bjork-shiley c-c

  1. Bjork-Shiley convexoconcave valves: Susceptibility artifacts at brain MR imaging and mechanical valve fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Maarten J.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Ramos, Lino M. P.; Mali, Willem P. T. M.


    PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between heart valve history and susceptibility artifacts at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in patients with Bjork-Shiley convexoconcave (BSCC) valves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images of the brain were obtained in 58 patients with prosthetic heart

  2. [The Starr-Edwards heart valve: one of the oldest mechanical heart valves still functioning today]. (United States)

    Schoenaker, Michiel H; van Wetten, Herbert B; Morshuis, Wim J


    In the 1960s, the Starr-Edwards valve was the first artificial heart valve to be successfully implanted in humans. This valve has now been in use for decades with outstanding results: patients whose life expectancy had previously been short acquired a good prognosis with this development. Nowadays the Starr-Edwards valve is not used anymore, but patients are being described today in whom these valves are still functioning well after more than 40 years.

  3. Bentall procedure 39 years after implantation of a Starr-Edwards Aortic Caged- Ball-Valve Prosthesis (United States)


    We report a case of a male patient who received an implantation of a Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis in 1967. The surgery and postoperative course were without complications and the patient recovered well after the operation. For the next four decades, the patient remained asymptomatic - no restrictions on his lifestyle and without any complications. In 2006, 39 years after the initial operation, we performed a Bentall-Procedure to treat an aortic ascendens aneurysm with diameters of 6.0 × 6.5 cm: we explanted the old Starr-Edwards-aortic-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis and replaced the ascending aorta with a 29 mm St.Jude Medical aortic-valve-composite-graft and re-implanted the coronary arteries. This case represents the longest time period between Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prothesis-implantation and Bentall-reoperation, thereby confirming the excellent durability of this valve. PMID:20298579

  4. Bentall procedure 39 years after implantation of a Starr-Edwards Aortic Caged- Ball-Valve Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohns Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a male patient who received an implantation of a Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis in 1967. The surgery and postoperative course were without complications and the patient recovered well after the operation. For the next four decades, the patient remained asymptomatic - no restrictions on his lifestyle and without any complications. In 2006, 39 years after the initial operation, we performed a Bentall-Procedure to treat an aortic ascendens aneurysm with diameters of 6.0 × 6.5 cm: we explanted the old Starr-Edwards-aortic-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis and replaced the ascending aorta with a 29 mm St.Jude Medical aortic-valve-composite-graft and re-implanted the coronary arteries. This case represents the longest time period between Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prothesis-implantation and Bentall-reoperation, thereby confirming the excellent durability of this valve.

  5. Valve Replacement with the Starr-Edwards and Hancock Prostheses: Comparative Analysis of Late Morbidity and Mortality (United States)

    Oyer, Philip E.; Stinson, Edward B.; Griepp, Randall B.; Shumway, Norman E.


    Although the Starr-Edwards caged-ball valve remains a standard of comparison for more recently introduced prostheses, a substantial incidence of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications prompted our evaluation of the Hancock glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine xenograft. We have compared the results of 435 aortic valve replacements using the Starr- Edwards valve (SE-AVR), 515 mitral valve replacements (SE-MVR), and 121 double-valve replacements (SE-AVRMVR) with 251 aortic valve replacements using the xenograft aortic valve (X-AVR), 338 mitral valve replacements (X-MVR), and 88 double-valve replacements (X-AVR-MVR). The Starr- Edwards valves were used during the period 1963 through 1973 and the xenograft valves between 1971 and 1976. No significant differences in patient age, sex, or preoperative hemodynamic data were noted between comparable groups. All patients with Starr-Edwards valves received long-term anticoagulation while anticoagulants were used only for specific indications in patients with xenograft valves. Total follow up was 3944 patient years for the Starr-Edwards patients and 947 patient years for the xenograft patients. Hospital mortality was not significantly different for comparable groups: SE-AVR 6.9% vs. X-AVR 6.4%, SE-MVR 9.7% vs X-MVR 8.6%, and SE-AVR-MVR 7.5% vs. X-AVR-MVR 10.2%. Linearized mortality and morbidity data expressed as percent per patient- year are tabulated below. Pairs which differ significantly (p < .05) are italicized. PMID:560824

  6. Sodium dichloroiodate promoted C-C bond cleavage: An efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 1, 2018 ... benzimidazoles/benzothiazoles/benzoxazoles under mild conditions. This tandem process involved a C-C bond cleavage and C-N bond formation. Keywords. Benzimidazole/benzothiazole/benzoxazole; β-diketones; NaICl2; C-C bond cleavage. 1. Introduction. Nitrogen-containing five-member heterocyclic ...

  7. Development of mechanical heart valves - an inspiring tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajashekar


    Full Text Available The historical evolution of the prosthetic heart valves from the first attempts with the Hufnagel′s valve in the treatment of the aortic insufficiency to the Starr-Edwards′ ball valve and later the tilting disc valves (Bjork-Shiley etc., and finally the bileaflet valves (St. Jude are discussed. The Indian contribution with Chitra valve is also described.

  8. Internal friction and gas desorption of {C}/{C} composites (United States)

    Serizawa, H.; Sato, S.; Kohyama, A.


    {C}/{C} composites are the most promising candidates as high heat flux component materials, where temperature dependence of mechanical properties and gas desorption behavior at elevated temperature are important properties. At the beginning, the newly developed internal friction measurement apparatus, which enables the accurate measurement of dynamic elastic properties up to 1373 K along with the measurement of gas desorption behavior, was used. The materials studied were unidirectional (UD) {C}/{C} composites reinforced with mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, which were heat treated at temperatures ranging from 1473 to 2773 K which produced a variety of graphitized microstructures. Two-dimensional (2D) {C}/{C} composites reinfored with flat woven fabrics of PAN type carbon fibers were also studied. These materials were heat treated at 1873 K. From the temperature spectrum of internal friction of 2D {C}/{C} composites, these internal friction peaks were detected and were related to gas desorption. Also the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of UD {C}/{C} composites, negative and positive dependence of Young's modulus were observed reflecting microstructure changes resulting from the heat treatments.

  9. Efficient C/C++ programming smaller, faster, better

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Steve


    Efficient C/C++ Programming describes a practical, real-world approach to efficient C/C++ programming. Topics covered range from how to save storage using a restricted character set and how to speed up access to records by employing hash coding and caching. A selective mailing list system is used to illustrate rapid access to and rearrangement of information selected by criteria specified at runtime.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins by discussing factors to consider when deciding whether a program needs optimization. In the next chapter, a supermarket price lookup system is used to

  10. Get more control over your C/C++ service

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Are you looking for a way to better diagnose or monitor your C/C++ programs? Find out more about CMX - a neat, lightweight library (<32Kb) which targets this need. It allows to expose information from inside a process through a simple API, enabling pre-failure detection in combination with your favourite monitoring system.

  11. On the Michael addition of water to C = C bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.


    ?-Hydroxy carbonyl compounds are an important class of compounds often found as a common structural motif in natural products. Although the molecules themselves look rather simple, their synthesis can be challenging. Water addition to conjugated C = C bonds opens up a straightforward route for the

  12. Ion chemistry in octafluorocyclobutane, c-C 4F 8 (United States)

    Jiao, C. Q.; Garscadden, A.; Haaland, P. D.


    Cross-sections for electron impact ionization of octafluorocyclobutane ( c-C 4F 8) have been measured from 10 to 200 eV by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. No parent ion is observed, and over half of the dissociative ionization yields C 2F 4+ and C 3F 5+. Eleven other fluorocarbon cations are produced with smaller cross-sections, giving a total ionization cross-section of (1.6±0.2)×10 -15 cm 2 between 80 and 200 eV. Only CF 2+ and C 2F 3+ react further with the parent molecule to yield C 3F 5+ as the primary product. No evidence of cationic polymerization was found. F - and C 4F 8- are formed by electron attachment at energies below 10 eV, but neither reacts further with c-C 4F 8.

  13. Microstructure of C/C Composites with Different Matrix Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Hao


    Full Text Available The microstructure of carbon/carbon(C/C composites with different matrix carbon was studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and XRD techniques respectively. PLM results indicate that the different matrix carbon exhibits different optical reactivity, and the average optical reactivity is gradually enhanced from normal pitch carbon, smooth laminar of pyrocarbon, rough laminar of pyrocarbon to mesophase pitch carbon; SEM results show that the normal pitch carbon is mainly of grapy structure, the pyrocarbon exhibits like-crinkle lamellar structure, while the mesophase pitch carbon exhibits lamellar banded structure with different shapes. Under HRTEM, the lattice fringes of the mesophase pitch carbon are arranged regularly, is a long range ordered crystal structure, and the preferred orientation is high. The degree of the graphite and the interlayer spacing of the material B (mesophase pitch-based C/C composites are better than that of the material D (pyrocarbon-based C/C composites.

  14. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guoding


    Full Text Available A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on performance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineering fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization; in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic performance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  15. Borane-catalyzed cracking of C-C bonds in coal; Boran-katalysierte C-C-Bindungungsspaltung in Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narangerel, J.; Haenel, M.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)


    Coal, especially coking coal, was reacted with hydrogen at comparatively mild reaction conditions (150-280 degrees centigrade, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure) in the presence of catalysts consisting of borange reagents and certain transition metal halides to obtaine more than 80 percent of pyridine-soluble products. The influence of the degree of coalification, catalyst and temperature on the borane-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of C-C bonds in coal was investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Steinkohlen, insbesondere im Inkohlungsbereich der Fettkohlen (Kokskohlen), werden in Gegenwart von Katalysatoren aus Boran-Reagentien und bestimmten Uebergangsmetallhalogeniden mit Wasserstoff bei vergleichsweise milden Reaktionsbedingungen (250-280 C, 20 MPa Wasserstoffdruck) in zu ueber 80% pyridinloesliche Produkte umgewandelt. Der Einfluss von Inkohlungsgrad, Katalysator und Temperatur auf die Boran-katalysierte C-C-Bindungshydrogenolyse in Kohle wurde untersucht. (orig.)

  16. C.C.D. Readout Of A Picosecond Streak Camera With An Intensified C.C.D. (United States)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J. C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.


    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube. Starting from the output screen of the streak camera, the constitutive elements are : - A fiber optic taper (A.O. Scientific Instruments) set in contact with the fiber optic output window of the streak tube achieves the image demagnification ; - A double proximity focused image intensifier (RTC - XX1410 SP) achieves the bright-ness amplification without any distortion ; - A second fiber optic taper achieves the dimensional matching between intensifier output and C.C.D. sensitive area ;

  17. Mirrors fabricated with slightly oxidized C/C composites (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Xie, Yongjie; Ma, Zhen


    Up to now, traditional materials, such as glass, metal and SiC ceramic, gradually begin to be unsatisfied development of the future mirrors. Designable carbon fiber reinforced composites became optimized material for large aperture lightweight mirrors. Carbon/carbon composites exhibit low thermal expansion and no moisture-absorption expansion problem, therefore, they get particular attention in the space reflector field. Ni was always employed as optical layer in the mirror, however, the coating behaved poor bond with substrate and often peeled off during optical processing. In order to solve this problem, slight oxidation was carried on the C/C composites before Ni plated. The Ni coating exhibited stronger coherence and better finish performance. Finally, a 100mm diameter plane mirror was successful fabricated.

  18. Deformation microstructure and orientation of F.C.C. crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Q.; Hansen, N.


    that dependent on the crystallographic orientation of the crystal the subdividing boundaries may be nearly parallel to slip planes or they may have a non-crystallographic orientation. This difference is discussed on the basis of an analysis of potential slip planes identified by a Schmid factor analysis.......The effect of crystallographic orientation on the microstructural evolution in f.c.c. metals with medium to high stacking fault energy is analyzed. This analysis is based on a literature review of the behaviour of single crystals and polycrystals supplemented with an experimental study of cold......-rolled pure aluminium. It is generally observed that all crystallites subdivide during deformation into cell blocks and cells bounded by rotation dislocation boundaries. In general the boundaries have a macroscopic orientation with respect to the geometry of the specimen. A crystallographic analysis shows...

  19. Influence of applied load on wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites under electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin


    Full Text Available Using carbon fiber needled fabrics with Cu-mesh and graphite powder as the preform, Cu mesh modified carbon/carbon(C/C-Cu composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD with C3H6 and impregnation-carbonization (I/C with furan resin. C/C composites, as a comparison, were also prepared. Their microstructures and wear morphologies were observed by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. Wear behavior of C/C and C/C-Cu composites under different applied loads were investigated on a pin-on-disc wear tester. The results show that Cu meshes are well dispersed and pyrolytic carbon is in rough laminar structure. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The current-carrying capacity of C/C-Cu composites increases and the arc discharge is hindered as the applied load increases from 40 N to 80 N. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The mass wear rate of C/C-Cu composites under 80 N was only 4.2% of that under 60 N. In addition, C/C-Cu composites represent different wear behaviors because wear mechanisms of arc erosion, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and oxidative wear are changing under different applied loads.

  20. Measurements of psi -> K-Lambda(Xi)over-bar(+) + c.c. and psi -> gamma K-Lambda(Xi)over-bar(+) + c.c.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Duan, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.


    Using a sample of 1.06 x 10(8) psi(3686) events produced in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s = 3.686 GeV and collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we present studies of the decays psi(3686) -> K-Lambda(Xi) over bar (+) + c.c. and psi(3686) -> gamma K-Lambda(Xi) over bar (+) + c.c.

  1. Application of C/C composites to the combustion chamber of rocket engines. Part 1: Heating tests of C/C composites with high temperature combustion gases (United States)

    Tadano, Makoto; Sato, Masahiro; Kuroda, Yukio; Kusaka, Kazuo; Ueda, Shuichi; Suemitsu, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kude, Yukinori


    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) has various superior properties, such as high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures of more than 1800 K. Therefore, C/C composite is expected to be useful for many structural applications, such as combustion chambers of rocket engines and nose-cones of space-planes, but C/C composite lacks oxidation resistivity in high temperature environments. To meet the lifespan requirement for thermal barrier coatings, a ceramic coating has been employed in the hot-gas side wall. However, the main drawback to the use of C/C composite is the tendency for delamination to occur between the coating layer on the hot-gas side and the base materials on the cooling side during repeated thermal heating loads. To improve the thermal properties of the thermal barrier coating, five different types of 30-mm diameter C/C composite specimens constructed with functionally gradient materials (FGM's) and a modified matrix coating layer were fabricated. In this test, these specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of the rocket engine using nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) / monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) to evaluate the properties of thermal and erosive resistance on the thermal barrier coating after the heating test. It was observed that modified matrix and coating with FGM's are effective in improving the thermal properties of C/C composite.

  2. JACoW SIP4C/C++ at CERN - Status and lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Steen; Dworak, Andrzej; Gourber-Pace, Marine; Hoguin, Frederic; Lauener, Joel; Locci, Frank; Sigerud, Katarina; Sliwinski, Wojciech


    After 4 years of promoting the Software Improvement Process for C/C++ (SIP4C/C++) initiative at CERN, we describe the current status for tools and procedures along with how they have been integrated into our environment. Based on feedback from four project teams, we present reasons for and against their adoption. Finally, we show how SIP4C/C++ has improved development and delivery processes as well as the first-line support of delivered products.

  3. A newly designed jellyfish valve for an artificial heart blood pump. (United States)

    Imachi, K; Fujimasa, I; Mabuchi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Maeda, K; Imanishi, K; Kouno, A; Ono, T; Atsumi, K


    Bjork-Shiley and Hall valves used in most artificial heart blood pumps have often induced problems, which include 1) An expensive valve must be used even when the AH is used for only a few days, 2) Ring thrombus was often formed at the interface between the valve ring and blood pump, seamless fabrication was not possible, and 3) Mechanical failure often occurred. To improve these circumstances, a new jellyfish valve was designed and manufactured. The valve has a simple structure: The center of a thin circular polyurethane membrane is fixed on a polyurethane base plate, which has many holes or slits to reduce flow resistance and help hold the membrane during the diastolic phase. In a mock circulation study, the valve displayed performance similar to the Bjork-Shiley valve. A small amount of regurgitant flow was observed at valve closure, in comparison with the Bjork-Shiley valve. It was recognized in the flow visualization study that the central region of the membrane was washed out well by the flapping of the membrane. This jellyfish valve is promising for use in a AH blood pump.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y


    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and

  5. Observation of the decay psi -> Lambda(Sigma)over-bar(+/-) pi(-/+) + c.c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X. T.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Johansson, T.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kloss, B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, H. L.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, G. G.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. B.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.


    Using a sample of 1:06 X 10(8) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of psi(3686) -> Lambda(Sigma) over bar (+) pi(-) + c.c. and psi(3686) -> Lambda(Sigma) over bar (-) pi(+) + c.c. The branching fractions are measured to be B(psi(3686)

  6. C. C. Li (1912–2003): his science and his spirit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Ching Chun Li passed away on 20 October 2003, in Pitts- burgh. He was an outstanding population geneticist, a wonderful teacher, and above all, a great human being. Devotion to work and humility were the hallmarks of. C. C. Li, who was known as C.C. to his contemporaries and colleagues, and as Dr Li to his students.

  7. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) (United States)


    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-130200-08...

  8. Densification Behavior and Performances of C/C Composites Derived from Various Carbon Matrix Precursors (United States)

    Shao, H. C.; Xia, H. Y.; Liu, G. W.; Qiao, G. J.; Xiao, Z. C.; Su, J. M.; Zhang, X. H.; Li, Y. J.


    Three types of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were manufactured by densifying the needled carbon fiber preform through resin and pitch impregnation/carbonization repeatedly, as well as propylene pyrolysis by chemical vapor infiltration plus carbonization after the resin impregnation/carbonization. The densification behavior and performances (involving electric, thermal, and mechanical properties, as well as impurity) of the C/C composites were investigated systematically. The results show that besides the processing and testing conditions, the electric resistivity, thermal conductivity (TC), coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), strength, and fracture, as well as impurity content and composition of the C/C composites were closely related to the fiber orientation, interfacial bonding between carbon fiber and carbon matrix, material characteristics of the three precursors and the resulting matrix carbons. In particular, the resin-carbon matrix C/C (RC/C) composites had the highest electric resistivity, tensile, and flexural strength, as well as impurity content. Meanwhile, the pitch-carbon matrix C/C (PC/C) composites possessed the highest TC and CTE in the parallel and vertical direction. And most of the performances of pyro-carbon/resin carbon matrix C/C composites were between those of the RC/C and PC/C composites except the impurity content.

  9. Thermal response experiments of {SiC}/{C} and {TiC}/{C} functionally gradient materials as plasma facing materials for fusion application (United States)

    Araki, M.; Sasaki, M.; Kim, S.; Suzuki, S.; Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.


    To evaluate the applicability of a functionally gradient technique for the fabrication of the armor tile or the interface of the divertor plate element for next fusion machines such as ITER/FER, {SiC}/{C} and {TiC}/{C} functionally gradient materials (FGMs) were prepared and tested using an electron and ion beams test facilities. FGM layer with a thickness of 1.0 mm was produced by CVD process on fine grain graphite. Their thermal resistivities were evaluated under a condition for surface heat fluxes up to 70 MW/m 2 for durations up to several seconds. As the results, we confirmed that FGMs are clearly better than non-FGMs from a view point of the reduction of thermal stress. Both FGM layers on the graphite bulk material could withstand a temperature difference as high as 1500 K without cracking or melting, leading us to conceive a promising prospect for the application of the divertor plate.

  10. The Complaint before the Judge against the Prosecutor’s Resolutions or Writs for not Proceeding to Trial – Article278 (8, Letter c C.C.P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragu Cretu


    Full Text Available It has been noticed in the doctrine a more pronounced current trend of “privatizing” the trial, this aspect concerning a significant part of the foreign doctrine. It was proved that its most insidious form, and undoubtedly the most dangerous, is not the traditional one, of the injured person’s prior complaint, but that which is incident to the public prosecution itself. Romanian legislator gave up the prior complaint formulated in the article 279. par. 2 letter A, C.C.P., repealing these provisions through the Law no. 356/2006, thuseliminating the procedure of direct criminal proceedings. The complaint registered in the article 278 C.C.P. arousing lots of controversies, which allow almost unlimited access from the crime victim to public proceeding. Generally, the complaint governed by the provisions of the article 275 and the next C.C.P. is, in terms of legal nature, an appeal against criminal acts and measures of prosecution and a way to control their legality. According to the law, any person whose legitimate rights were affected can lodge a complaint. The law without prescribing a limitation period, the complaint can be lodged by any natural or legal person, if there is evidence of harm of her legitimate interests.

  11. Tribological Property of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Isothermal Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yueming


    Full Text Available Four kinds of C/C-SiC composites were fabricated by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI, and the 2.5D needle-punching carbon felt was taken as the preform. The volume fraction of carbon fiber in felt is 30%. The density of C/C-SiC composites is similar (1.87-1.91 g/cm3, while the weight ratio of SiC is decreased from 56% to 15%. The microstructure and phase composition of C/C-SiC composites were observed by SEM and XRD respectively. Friction and wear behavior of the C/C-SiC composites were investigated with the MM-1000 friction machine. The results show that the average macro hardness of matrix is decreased from 98.2HRA to 65.1HRA with the decrease of SiC content from 56% to 15%, and uniformity of hardness distribution is significantly decreased. Finally, by the analysis of microtopography of friction surface and wear debris, it is found that the superficial hardness has an obvious influence on mechanism of wear during braking process. The wear mechanism of the C/C-SiC composites transforms from grain wear to the combination of grain wear and adherent wear with the decrease of surface hardness. At the same time, the average friction coefficient and mass wear rate is increased obviously during breaking process.

  12. Characterization of C/C composites porosity for the fusion; Caracterisation de la porosite de composites C/C d'interet pour la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Ballet, A.C.; Pardanaud, C.; Roubin, P. [Universite de Provence, Centre St-Jerome, Laboratoire PIIM, 13 - Marseille (France); Beurroies, I.; Richou, M. [Universite de Provence, Centre St-Jerome, Laboratoire Madirel, 13 - Marseille (France); Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache, 13 - St-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    In tokamaks, the composites C/C are used as components facing the plasma because of their excellent thermo-mechanical properties. In Tore Supra tokamak, analysis of particles of graphite erosion showed a big deuterium retention by the machine wall. This fuel retention will lead in ITER to a non acceptable level of tritium. As the diffusion in materials is bound to the porosity, the authors realized a study of two composites porosity: N11 and NB31. Different analysis methods have been performed and the temperature or grain size dependence studied. (A.L.B.)

  13. Efficient detection of dangling pointer error for C/C++ programs (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhe


    Dangling pointer error is pervasive in C/C++ programs and it is very hard to detect. This paper introduces an efficient detector to detect dangling pointer error in C/C++ programs. By selectively leave some memory accesses unmonitored, our method could reduce the memory monitoring overhead and thus achieves better performance over previous methods. Experiments show that our method could achieve an average speed up of 9% over previous compiler instrumentation based method and more than 50% over previous page protection based method.

  14. Why is the linking C-C bond in tetrahedranyltetrahedrane so short? (United States)

    Mo, Yirong


    [structure: see text]. The block-localized wave function (BLW) method has been employed to probe the origin of the very short linking C-C bond (1.436 A) in tetrahedranyltetrahedrane. Computations show that the vicinal hyperconjugative interactions between the two tetrahedranyl groups is stronger than the conjugation in butadiene, and if there were no hyperconjugation effect, the bond distance would be 1.491 A. Thus, both the hybridization mode and hyperconjugative interactions contribute to the shortening of the central C-C bond in tetrahedranyltetrahedrane.

  15. Monitoring and Diagnostics for C/C++ Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Yves

    Knowledge about the internal state of computational processes is essential for problem diagnostics as well as for constant monitoring and pre-failure recognition. The CMX li- brary provides monitoring capabilities similiar to the Java Management Extensions (JMX) for C and C++ applications. This thesis provides a detailed analysis of the requirements for monitoring and diagnos- tics of the C/C++ processes at CERN. The developed CMX library enables real-time C/C++ processes to expose values with- out harming their normal execution. CMX is portable and can be integrated in different monitoring architectures.

  16. Development of a Class for Multiple Precision Arithmetic in C/C++ Language


    福田, 宏


    We have defined a floating-point variable of arbitrary length for a calculation of high precision and have developed a set of mathematical functions of it in C/C++ language. The variable and the functions are combined into a class in C++ language. In addition, the functions can be easily converted to those in FORTRAN language.

  17. Admission chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 levels predict survival in pediatric septic shock. (United States)

    Nowak, Jeffrey E; Wheeler, Derek S; Harmon, Kelli K; Wong, Hector R


    Stratification with an effective outcome biomarker could improve the design of interventional trials in pediatric septic shock. The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 as an outcome biomarker for mortality in pediatric septic shock. A cross-sectional, observational study. Eighteen pediatric intensive care units in the United States. One hundred fifty-six pediatric patients with septic shock. Serum samples were obtained within 24 hrs of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. Serum levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with mortality in a training set of 34 patients. These data were used to generate a cutoff value whose usefulness was evaluated through prospective application-without post hoc modification-to a larger validation set of 122 patients. On inspection of the training set data, a cutoff value of 140 pg/mL was chosen. When applied to the validation set, serum chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 levels >140 pg/mL yielded a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 40% for mortality. A serum level of pediatric septic shock. Exclusion of patients with a chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 level of pediatric septic shock could create a study population in which survival benefit from the study agent could be more readily demonstrated.

  18. 77 FR 10004 - C$ cMoney, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading (United States)


    ... COMMISSION C$ cMoney, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 16, 2012. It appears to the Securities... the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading... the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is...

  19. Botnet C&C Traffic and Flow Lifespans Using Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Oujezsky


    Based on our research we have figured out a possibility to distinguish the individual lifespans of C&C communications that are identical to each other by using survival projection curves, although it occurred in a different time course.

  20. Anti-metastatic Semi-synthetic Sulfated Maltotriose C-C Linked Dimers. Synthesis and Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Torri


    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the usual anomeric bond. SMTCs neutral precursors came from maltotriosyl bromide electroreduction through maltotriosyl radical intermediate dimerisation. The new C-C bond configuration, named for convenience a,a, a,b and b,b as the natural anomeric bond, dictated the statistic ratio formation of three diastereoisomers. They were separated by silica gel flash chromatography followed by semi preparative HPLC chromatography. Each diastereoisomer was exhaustively sulfated to afford the corresponding SMTCs. SMTCs were huge characterised by NMR spectroscopy which provided the sulfation degree, too. a,a and a,b were found quite homogeneous samples with a high degree of sulfation (85–95%. b,b appeared a non-homogeneous sample whose average sulfation degree was evaluated at around 78%. Mass spectroscopy experiments confirmed the sulfation degree range. Some considerations were proposed about SMTCs structure-biological properties.

  1. B-N as a C-C substitute in aromatic systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bosdet, Michael J.D; Piers, Warren E


    ... electronic properties and chemistry. Since the pioneering work of Dewar some 50 years ago, the relationship between B-N and C-C and the wealth of parent all-carbon aromatics has captured the imagination of organic, inorganic, materials...

  2. Long-lived transient anion of c-C4F8O (United States)

    Kočišek, J.; Janečková, R.; Fedor, J.


    We report partial cross sections for electron attachment to c-C4F8O, a gas with promising technological applications in free-electron-rich environments. The dissociative electron attachment leads to a number of anionic fragments resulting from complex bond-breaking and bond-forming processes. However, the anion with the highest abundance is the non-dissociated (transient) parent anion which is formed around 0.9 eV electron energy. Its lifetime reaches tens of microseconds. We discuss the origin of this long lifetime, the anion's strong interactions with other molecules, and the consequences for electron-scavenging properties of c-C4F8O in denser environments, in particular for its use in mixtures with CO2 and N2.

  3. Quick Way to Port Existing C/C++ Chemoinformatics Toolkits to the Web Using Emscripten. (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Jin, Xi


    Emscripten is a special open source compiler that compiles C and C++ code into JavaScript. By utilizing this compiler, some typical C/C++ chemoinformatics toolkits and libraries are quickly ported to to web. The compiled JavaScript files have sizes similar to native programs, and from a series of constructed benchmarks, the performance of the compiled JavaScript codes is also close to that of the native codes and is better than the handwritten JavaScript codes. Therefore, we believe that Emscripten is a feasible and practical tool for reusing existing C/C++ codes on the web, and many other chemoinformatics or molecular calculation software tools can also be easily ported by Emscripten.

  4. Thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of phenolic polymers composites and C-C composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil MARINESCU


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde resin-based composites have been an inaugural step in obtaining and usingcomposite materials and they have grown rapidly because of their multiple uses, especially inelectrical and aeronautical field.Phenolic matrix composites represent a preliminary study to obtain mezophase carbon-carboncomposites for advanced materials as potential solutions for reentry shields of cosmic vehicles andlaunch subsystems, as elements of modern braking systems in aircraft or as potential solutions for thecomponents of the combustion chamber of rockets and also as hypersonic transport solutions for thefuture. Both phenolic matrix laminated composites and C-C mezophase matrix C-C composites wereobtained.This paper presents an evaluation of the mechanical and tribological behavior of the obtainedcomposites.

  5. Photoinduced C-C Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Inert Arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Wang


    Full Text Available Here we report a facile, efficient, and catalyst-free method to realize C-C cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and inert arenes under UV light irradiation. The aryl radical upon homolytic cleavage of C-Cl bond initiated the nucleophilic substitution reaction with inert arenes to give biaryl products. This mild reaction mode can also be applied to other synthetic reactions, such as the construction of C-N bonds and trifluoromethylated compounds.

  6. Determination of material properties for short fibre reinforced C/C-SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausherr J.-M.


    Full Text Available Determining the mechanical properties of short fibre reinforced CMC using standard sized coupons has always been a challenge due to a high statistical scattering of the measured values. Although the random orientation of short fibres results in a quasi-isotropic material behavior of 2D-structures with a sufficiently large volume, the small volume typical for test coupons usually results in a non-isotropic fibre orientation in the tested volume. This paper describes a method for manufacturing unidirectional oriented short fibre reinforced CMC materials and presents material properties of UD-C/C-SiC. After verifying the fibre orientation of the CMC using micro-computed tomography, coupons were extracted to determine the orthotropic material properties. These orthotropic material properties were then used to predict the properties of C/C-SiC with randomly distributed short fibres. To validate the method, micro-computed tomography is used to quantitatively determine the fibre orientation within coupons extracted from randomly distributed short fibre C/C-SiC. After mechanical three-point-bending tests, the measured stiffness and bending strength is compared with the predicted properties. Finally, the data are used to devise a method suited for reducing the inherent large spread of material properties associated with the measurement of CMC materials with randomly distributed short fibres.

  7. A C/C++ Build System Based On Maven for the LHC Controls System

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen Xuan, J; Dönszelmann, M


    The CERN accelerator controls system, mainly written in Java and C/C++, consists nowadays of 50 projects and 150 active developers. The controls group has decided to unify the development process and standards (e.g. project layout) using Apache Maven and Sonatype Nexus. Maven is the de-facto build tool for Java, it deals with versioning and dependency management, whereas Nexus is a repository manager. C/C++ developers were struggling to keep their dependencies on other CERN projects, as no versioning was applied, the libraries have to be compiled and available for several platforms and architectures, and finally there was no dependency management mechanism. This results in very complex Makefiles which were difficult to maintain. Even if Maven is primarily designed for Java, a plugin (Maven NAR) adapts the build process for native programming languages for different operating systems and platforms. However C/C++ developers were not keen to abandon their current Makefiles. Hence our approach was to combine the ...

  8. C/C-SiC Composites for Nozzle of Solid Propellant Ramjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lingling


    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced carbon and silicon carbide matrix composites for nozzle inner of solid propellant ramjet were prepared by using the hybrid process of "chemical vapor infiltration + precursor impregnation pyrolysis (CVI+PIP". The microstructure, flexural and anti-ablation properties of the C/C-SiC composites and hydraulic test and rocket motor hot firing test for nozzle inner of solid propellant ramjet were comprehensively investigated. The results show that when the flexural strength of the composite reachs 197 MPa, the fracture damage behavior of the composites presents typical toughness mode.Also the composites has excellent anti-ablative property, i.e., linear ablation rate is only 0.0063 mm·s-1 after 200 s ablation. The C/C-SiC component have excellent integral bearing performance with the hydraulic bursting pressure of 6.5 MPa, and the high temperature combination property of the C/C-SiC composite nozzle inner is verified through motor hot firing of solid propellant ramjet.

  9. C-C bond formation and cleavage in radical enzymes, a theoretical perspective. (United States)

    Himo, Fahmi


    Quantum chemical methods are today a viable tool in the study of enzyme catalysis. The development of new density functional techniques and the enormous advancement in computer power have made it possible to accurately describe active sites of enzymes. This review gives a brief account of the methods and models used in this field. Three specific enzymes are discussed: pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL), spore photoproduct lyase (SPL), and benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS). What these enzymes have in common is that they use radical chemistry to catalyze C-C bond formation or cleavage reactions.

  10. An Erbium-Based Bifuctional Heterogeneous Catalyst: A Cooperative Route Towards C-C Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oliverio


    Full Text Available Heterogeneous bifuctional catalysts are multifunctional synthetic catalysts enabling efficient organic transformations by exploiting two opposite functionalities without mutual destruction. In this paper we report the first Er(III-based metallorganic heterogeneous catalyst, synthesized by post-calcination MW-assisted grafting and modification of the natural aminoacid L-cysteine. The natural acid–base distance between sites was maintained to assure the cooperation. The applicability of this new bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst to C-C bond formation and the supposed mechanisms of action are discussed as well.

  11. Dielectron Production in C + C and p + p Collisions with Hades (United States)

    Pietraszko, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Durán, I.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P. J. R.; Friese, J.; Frhölich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhóuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Hadjivasiliou, Ch.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kugler, A.; Kühn, W.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, S.; Lopez, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marín, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Moriniere, E.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pérez, T.; Pleskac, R.; Pospísil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Senger, P.; Shileev, K.; Simon, R.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trȩbacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Wen, H.; Wiśniowski, M.; Wójcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.

    The High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer HADES1 has been constructed at the SIS accelerator (GSI Darmstadt) to investigate electron-positron pairs produced in proton, pion and heavy ion induced reactions. The main goal of these studies is to explore properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. The apparatus and the experimental results from C+C at 2.0 AGeV and 1.0 AGeV and p+p at 2.2 GeV compared with Monte-Carlo events from a generator based on known cross-sections and branching ratios are presented.

  12. Study of dielectron production in C+C collisions at 1A GeV (United States)

    Hades Collaboration; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Bortolotti, A.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marín, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pérez Cavalcanti, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Pleskac, R.; Pospísil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Simon, R. S.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Toia, A.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zhou, P.; Zumbruch, P.


    The emission of ee pairs from C+C collisions at an incident energy of 1 GeV per nucleon has been investigated. The measured production probabilities, spanning from the π-Dalitz to the ρ/ω invariant-mass region, display a strong excess above the cocktail of standard hadronic sources. The bombarding-energy dependence of this excess is found to scale like pion production, rather than like eta production. The data are in good agreement with results obtained in the former DLS experiment.

  13. Electron attachment, ionization and drift in c-C4F8 (United States)

    de Urquijo, J.; Basurto, E.


    The pulsed Townsend method has been used to measure the drift velocity ve and the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient (α-η)/N, (α and η are the ionization and attachment coefficients, respectively) in c-C4F8 over the density-normalized electric field strength E/N, 12 Td≤E/N≤43 Td and 330 Td≤E/N≤600 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V cm2), at pressures between 1 and 7.5 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa). For 12 Td≤E/N≤43 Td, the above parameters were found to be pressure independent, while for the range 330 Td≤E/N≤600 Td an inverse dependence of the above coefficients was found for gas pressures less than 2 Torr. Such dependence is believed to be due to the autodetachment of the originally formed, unstable parent negative ion c-C4F8-*. At low E/N, no previous data for ve or (α-η)/N were found for comparison with the present data. A critical field strength of E/Ncrit = 439.5 Td, for which α = η, was found to be in good agreement with previous data.

  14. A two-dimensional conjugated aromatic polymer via C-C coupling reaction (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Luo, Xin; Bao, Yang; Liu, Yan Peng; Ning, Guo-Hong; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim; Li, Linjun; Nai, Chang Tai; Hu, Zhi Gang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Bin; Quek, Su Ying; Loh, Kian Ping


    The fabrication of crystalline 2D conjugated polymers with well-defined repeating units and in-built porosity presents a significant challenge to synthetic chemists. Yet they present an appealing target because of their desirable physical and electronic properties. Here we report the preparation of a 2D conjugated aromatic polymer synthesized via C-C coupling reactions between tetrabromopolyaromatic monomers. Pre-arranged monomers in the bulk crystal undergo C-C coupling driven by endogenous solid-state polymerization to produce a crystalline polymer, which can be mechanically exfoliated into micrometre-sized lamellar sheets with a thickness of 1 nm. Isothermal gas-sorption measurements of the bulk material reveal a dominant pore size of ~0.6 nm, which indicates uniform open channels from the eclipsed stacking of the sheets. When employed as an organic anode in an ambient-temperature sodium cell, the material allows a fast charge/discharge of sodium ions, with impressive reversible capacity, rate capability and stability metrics.

  15. Tribological properties of C/C-SiC composites for brake discs (United States)

    Jang, G. H.; Cho, K. H.; Park, S. B.; Lee, W. G.; Hong, U. S.; Jang, H.


    This study examines the friction and wear of ceramic matrix composites designed for use in automotive brake discs. The composites are produced by reinforcing a SiC matrix with carbon fibers using a liquid silicon infiltration method. C/C-SiC composites with two different compositions are fabricated to examine the compositional effect on the tribological properties. The tribological properties are evaluated using a scale dynamometer with a low-steel type friction material. The results show that the coefficient of friction is determined by the composition of the composite, which affects the propensity of friction film formation on the disc surface. A stable friction film on the disc surface also improves the wear resistance by diminishing the abrasive action of the disc. On the other hand, the friction film formation on the disc is affected by the applied pressure, and stable films are obtained at high pressures. This trend is prominent with discs with high Si content. However, both C/C/-SiC composites show superior performance in terms of the friction force oscillation, which is closely related to brake-induced vibration.

  16. C-C Coupling on Single-Atom-Based Heterogeneous Catalyst. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zaicheng; Wang, Bin; Tang, Yu; Nguyen, Luan; Li, Yuting; Tao, Franklin Feng


    Compared to homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis allows for ready separation of products from the catalyst and thus reuse of the catalyst. C-C coupling is typically performed on a molecular catalyst which is mixed with reactants in liquid phase during catalysis. This homogeneous mixing at a molecular level in the same phase makes separation of the molecular catalyst extremely challenging and costly. Here we demonstrated that a TiO 2 -based nanoparticle catalyst anchoring singly dispersed Pd atoms (Pd 1 /TiO 2 ) is selective and highly active for more than 10 Sonogashira C-C coupling reactions (R≡CH + R'X → R≡R'; X = Br, I; R' = aryl or vinyl). The coupling between iodobenzene and phenylacetylene on Pd 1 /TiO 2 exhibits a turnover rate of 51.0 diphenylacetylene molecules per anchored Pd atom per minute at 60 °C, with a low apparent activation barrier of 28.9 kJ/mol and no cost of catalyst separation. DFT calculations suggest that the single Pd atom bonded to surface lattice oxygen atoms of TiO 2 acts as a site to dissociatively chemisorb iodobenzene to generate an intermediate phenyl, which then couples with phenylacetylenyl bound to a surface oxygen atom. This coupling of phenyl adsorbed on Pd 1 and phenylacetylenyl bound to O ad of TiO 2 forms the product molecule, diphenylacetylene.

  17. Would be the photon a composed particle? / Sobre a possibilidade da quantiza\\c{c}\\~ao dos fluxos de campo na radia\\c{c}\\~ao eletromagn\\'etica

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Celso de Araujo


    Here it is made a comparative analysis between the classical and the quantum expressions for the energy of electromagnetic radiation (ER). The comparison points to the possibility of the quantization of the magnetic and the electric field fluxes in the ER. ----- Apresenta-se uma an\\'alise comparativa entre as express\\~oes cl\\'assica e qu\\^antica para a energia da radia\\c{c}\\~ao eletromagn\\'etica (RE). A compara\\c{c}\\~ao nos aponta para a possibilidade de haver uma quantiza\\c{c}\\~ao dos fluxos dos campos magn\\'etico e el\\'etrico na RE.

  18. Architectural Visualization of C/C++ Source Code for Program Comprehension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T; Epperly, T W; Quinlan, D; Saebjornsen, A; Vuduc, R


    Structural and behavioral visualization of large-scale legacy systems to aid program comprehension is still a major challenge. The challenge is even greater when applications are implemented in flexible and expressive languages such as C and C++. In this paper, we consider visualization of static and dynamic aspects of large-scale scientific C/C++ applications. For our investigation, we reuse and integrate specialized analysis and visualization tools. Furthermore, we present a novel layout algorithm that permits a compressive architectural view of a large-scale software system. Our layout is unique in that it allows traditional program visualizations, i.e., graph structures, to be seen in relation to the application's file structure.

  19. The 3D Lima\\c{c}on: Properties and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kreismann, Jakob; Sinzinger, Stefan


    We perform electromagnetic wave simulations of fully three-dimensional optical Lima\\c{c}on-microcavities, one basis for their future applications in microlasers and photonic devices. The analysis of the three-dimensional modes and far-fields reveals an increase of the quality factors as compared to the two-dimensional case. The structure of the far-field in the third dimension shows pronounced maxima in the emission directionality inclined to the resonator plane which may be exploited for coupling the resonator modes to the environment. This triggers ideas for technical applications, like the suggested sensor that can detect small changes in the environment based on changes in the emission profile.

  20. Dilepton analysis in the HADES spectrometer for C+C at 2 A GeV (United States)

    Bielcik, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Coniglione, R.; Djeridi, R.; Dohrmann, F.; Durán, I.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; González-Daz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Jaskula, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kottel, R.; Kotulic-Bunta, J.; Krücken, R.; Kugler, A.; Kühn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lehnert, J.; Maiolino, C.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Novotny, J.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Pant, L. M.; Pechenov, V.; Pérez, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Pleskac, R.; Pospísil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Rabin, N.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Sánchez, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Smolyankin, V.; Smykov, L.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tlusty, P.; Toia, A.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zovinec, D.; Zumbruch, P.


    The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer (HADES) has become operational at GSI Darmstadt. The primary physics programme is to study in-medium changes of light vector mesons via their e+e- decays. The methods of dilepton signal reconstruction in the HADES spectrometer and preliminary dilepton spectra for C+C reactions at 2 A GeV are presented. In the signal reconstruction, particularly important is the reduction of the huge combinatorial background arising from e+e- combinations of leptons from gamma conversion in materials with other leptons in the collision. The purity of the dilepton signal is determined by using GEANT simulations with the full HADES geometry and a realistic detector response.

  1. C-C Coupling Reactions between Benzofurazan Derivatives and 1,3-Diaminobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Micheletti


    Full Text Available Aromatic substitution reactions between 1,3-diaminobenzene and chloronitrobenzofurazan derivatives have never been reported so far. The aim of the current study was to synthesize novel electron-donor and -acceptor architectures of interest in applied fields and to provide new insights on the nucleophilic behavior of 1,3-diaminobenzenes. The reaction of 1,3-dipiperidinyl-, 1,3-dimorpholinyl-, 1,3-dipyrrolidinyl-, or 1,3-dimethylamino-benzene with 7-chloro-4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan or with a series of chloro-nitrobenzofurazans has been carried out in mild conditions. The partners reactivity has been investigated by monitoring the reaction course through 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The reaction occurred in a regioselective way, providing in good yields the novel C-C coupling compounds. Indications on the reactivity behavior for the studied nucleophiles have been relieved.

  2. Analytical modeling of the steady state ablation of a 3D C/C composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, J.; Aspa, Y.; Vignoles, G.L. [Universite Bordeaux 1, Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux (LCTS), 33 - Pessac (France); Aspa, Y. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), 31 - Toulouse (France)


    Following an analysis of surface roughness features that develop on a 3D C/C composite during ablation, i.e. wall recession by oxidation and/or sublimation, a modeling strategy is set up in order to predict the composite behavior from that of its components. It relies on two changes of scale: (i) microscopic scale (fiber, matrix) to mesoscopic scale (bundle) and (ii) mesoscopic scale (bundle, matrix) to macroscopic scale (composite). The physical basis is a general model for receding surfaces under a gasification process coupled to mass transfer. At each scale, the 3D surface equation is analytically solved in steady state considering a 1-D mass transfer perpendicular to the overall surface. The models are validated by comparison to experimental data. (authors)

  3. Facile P-C/C-H Bond-Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Li, Haixia; Appel, Aaron M; Hall, Michael B; Bullock, R Morris


    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2 N2 ligand, in heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes under mild conditions, results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode. The structures of both the heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes and the resulting iminium formyl nickelate have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the mechanism of the P-C/C-H bond cleavage, which involves C-H bond cleavage, hydride rotation, Ni-C/P-H bond formation, and P-C bond cleavage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Continuous Casting of Single Crystal Ingots by the O.C.C. Process (United States)

    Ohno, A.


    To prevent the nucleation of crystals on the mold wall in the continuous casting of metals, a heated mold that maintained that temperature above the solidification temperature of the cast metal was used instead of the conventional cold mold. The cooling of the ingot was conducted outside of the mold. Heat was conducted axially along the ingot from the mold zone to the cooling zone. The principle of the O.C.C. (Ohno Continuous Casting) Process® was applied to the horizontal casting and vertical (upward) casting of wire and platelike ingots of Sn and Al. The ingots consisted of a completely unidirectionally solidified structure. It was possible to obtain a long single crystal ingot as a result of the growth competition of crystals.

  5. Overview of C/C-SiC Composite Development for the Orion Launch Abort System (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Valentine, Peter G.; Schofield, Elizabeth S.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Coston, James E.


    Past and present efforts by the authors to further understanding of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material used in the valve components of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) will be presented. The LAS is designed to quickly lift the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) away from its launch vehicle in emergency abort scenarios. The ACM is a solid rocket motor which utilizes eight throttleable nozzles to maintain proper orientation of the CEV during abort operations. Launch abort systems have not been available for use by NASA on manned launches since the last Apollo ]Saturn launch in 1975. The CMC material, carbon-carbon/silicon-carbide (C/C-SiC), is manufactured by Fiber Materials, Inc. and consists of a rigid 4-directional carbon-fiber tow weave reinforced with a mixed carbon plus SiC matrix. Several valve and full system (8-valve) static motor tests have been conducted by the motor vendor. The culmination of these tests was the successful flight test of the Orion LAS Pad Abort One (PA ]1) vehicle on May 6, 2010. Due to the fast pace of the LAS development program, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center assisted the LAS community by performing a series of material and component evaluations using fired hardware from valve and full ]system development motor tests, and from the PA-1 flight ACM motor. Information will be presented on the structure of the C/C-SiC material, as well as the efficacy of various non ]destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including but not limited to: radiography, computed tomography, nanofocus computed tomography, and X-ray transmission microscopy. Examinations of the microstructure of the material via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will also be discussed. The findings resulting from the subject effort are assisting the LAS Project in risk assessments and in possible modifications to the final ACM operational design.

  6. Mechanical and Chemical Characterization of a TiC/C System Synthesized Using a Focus Plasma Arc

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M; Hassan, M A; Akbari, Abolghasem


    Titanium carbide-graphite (TiC/C) composite was successfully synthesized from Ti and C starting elemental powders using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique in an ultra-high plasma inert medium in a single stage...

  7. Prediction of cutting forces in ball-end milling of 2.5D C/C composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chenwei


    Full Text Available Machining of carbon/carbon (C/C composite materials is difficult to carry out due to its high specific stiffness, brittleness, anisotropic, non-homogeneous and low thermal conductivity, which can result in tear, burr, poor surface quality and rapid wear of cutters. Accurate and fast prediction of cutting forces is important for milling C/C composite materials with high quality. This paper presents an alternative cutting force model involving the influences of the directions of fiber. Based on the calculated and experimental results, the cutting forces’ coefficients of 2.5D C/C composites are evaluated using multiple linear regression method. Verification experiment has been carried out through a group of orthogonal tests. Results indicate that the proposed model is reliable and can be used to predict the cutting forces in ball-end milling of 2.5D C/C composites.

  8. Direct conversion of cellulose using carbon monoxide and water on a Pt-Mo2C/C catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing


    CO and H2O were employed as the hydrogen source for cellulose conversion to polyols. Pt-Mo2C/C tandem catalyst with the Pt-Mo 2C domain responsible for H2 and/or H production and the Pt-C domain for cellulose conversion was fabricated. Considerable polyols were obtained over this tandem Pt-Mo2C/C catalyst. This journal is © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Two Kinds of Dual-matrix C/C Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Hao


    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of two kinds of dual-matrix C/C composites were studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and mechanical properties tests techniques respectively. PLM results indicate that the matrix carbon exhibits the smooth laminar structure of the pyrocarbon, the isotropic, mosaics and flow domains of the pitch carbon. The TEM results show the normal pitch carbon is the grape structure; the mesophase pitch carbon is the lamellar banded structure. Materials with multi-interface structure can improve the flexural strength and fracture toughness, the load-displacement curve shows the load drop is decreased for step type, the composites show a pseudo-plastic fracture characteristics. The flexural strengths of the material A and material B are 206.68MPa and 243.66MPa, the fracture toughness are 8.06MPa·m1/2 and 9.66MPa·m1/2, respectively. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of material B are both superior than that of material A.

  10. Relationships Between Metformin, Paraoxonase-1 and the Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2. (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Hernandez-Aguilera, Anna; Garcia-Heredia, Anabel; Cabre, Noemi; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Arenas, Meritxell; Joven, Jorge


    Metformin is a biguanide used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The main mechanism of action is to decrease the intestinal glucose absorption and the hepatic glucose production, however, it does not influence insulin secretion. Metformin also increases the affinity of the insulin receptor, reduces high insulin levels and improves insulin resistance. Additionally, it promotes weight loss. Metformin is a pleiotropic compound but acts, largely, by activating 5 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Data suggest that the therapeutic effects of this compound are mediated, at least in part, through an upregulation of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) synthesis. PON1 is a thiolactonase that degrades lipid peroxides, and downregulates the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) which is a pro-inflammatory chemokine that stimulates the migration of monocytes to areas of inflammation where they differentiate into macrophages. However, the prescription of metformin in patients with liver disease is controversial since, in some cases, this drug causes worsening of liver function. Patients with chronic liver disease have decreased hepatic PON1 activity. A study in mice deficient in PON1 showed that in this experimental model, metformin administration increased the severity of steatosis, increased CCL2 expression, did not activate AMPK, and increased the expression of the apoptosis marker caspase-9. These results suggest that PON1 is essential for the successful activation of AMPK in the liver, and for metformin to demonstrate its therapeutic function.

  11. Migrating C/C++ Software to Mobile Platforms in the ADM Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Martinez


    Full Text Available Software technology is constantly evolving and therefore the development of applications requires adapting software components and applications in order to be aligned to new paradigms such as Pervasive Computing, Cloud Computing and Internet of Things. In particular, many desktop software components need to be migrated to mobile technologies. This migration faces many challenges due to the proliferation of different mobile platforms. Developers usually make applications tailored for each type of device expending time and effort. As a result, new programming languages are emerging to integrate the native behaviors of the different platforms targeted in development projects. In this direction, the Haxe language allows writing mobile applications that target all major mobile platforms. Novel technical frameworks for information integration and tool interoperability such as Architecture-Driven Modernization (ADM proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG can help to manage a huge diversity of mobile technologies. The Architecture-Driven Modernization Task Force (ADMTF was formed to create specifications and promote industry consensus on the modernization of existing applications. In this work, we propose a migration process from C/C++ software to different mobile platforms that integrates ADM standards with Haxe. We exemplify the different steps of the process with a simple case study, the migration of “the Set of Mandelbrot” C++ application. The proposal was validated in Eclipse Modeling Framework considering that some of its tools and run-time environments are aligned with ADM standards.

  12. Effects of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 on microglial function. (United States)

    Akimoto, Nozomi; Ifuku, Masataka; Mori, Yuki; Noda, Mami


    Microglia, which constitute the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), are generally considered as the primary immune cells in the brain and spinal cord. Microglial cells respond to various factors which are produced following nerve injury of multiple aetiologies and contribute to the development of neuronal disease. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL-1), a well-characterized chemokine secreted by activated T cells, has been shown to play an important role in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and is also produced in various cell types in the CNS, especially in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, the role of CCL-1 in the CNS and the effects on microglia remains unclear. Here we showed the multiple effects of CCL-1 on microglia. We first showed that CCR-8, a specific receptor for CCL-1, was expressed on primary cultured microglia, as well as on astrocytes and neurons, and was upregulated in the presence of CCL-1. CCL-1 at concentration of 1 ng/ml induced chemotaxis, increased motility at a higher concentration (100 ng/ml), and increased proliferation and phagocytosis of cultured microglia. CCL-1 also activated microglia morphologically, promoted mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and IL-6, and increased the release of nitrite from microglia. These indicate that CCL-1 has a role as a mediator in neuron-glia interaction, which may contribute to the development of neurological diseases, especially in neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 9 Exacerbates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dysfunction. (United States)

    Xu, Zhengxi; Mei, Fanghua; Liu, Hanning; Sun, Cheng; Zheng, Zhe


    Maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), a subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor supergene family, has been highlighted as an immunologic regulator in the development and homing of immune cells and in immune-related diseases. Recently, CCR9 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases; however, the effects that CCR9 exerts in cardiac hypertrophy remain elusive. We observed significantly increased CCR9 protein levels in failing human hearts and in a mouse or cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model. In loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we found that pressure overload-induced hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by CCR9 deficiency in cardiac-specific CCR9 knockout mice, whereas CCR9 overexpression in cardiac-specific transgenic mice strikingly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy. The prohypertrophic effects of CCR9 were also tested in vitro, and a similar phenomenon was observed. Consequently, we identified a causal role for CCR9 in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we revealed a lack of difference in the expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases between groups, whereas the phosphorylation of AKT/protein kinase B and downstream effectors significantly decreased in CCR9 knockout mice and increased in CCR9 transgenic mice after aortic binding surgery. The prohypertrophic effects of CCR9 were not attributable to the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway but rather to the AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin-glycogen synthase kinase 3β signaling cascade. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eCharest-Morin


    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  15. Controllable Fabricating Dielectric-Dielectric SiC@C Core-Shell Nanowires for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation. (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhijiang


    Heterostructured dielectric-dielectric nanowires of SiC core and carbon shell (SiC@C) with high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption were synthesized by combining an interfacial in situ polymer encapsulation and carbonization process. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previous reported methods to prepare carbon shell that both carbon shell and free carbon particles are formed simultaneously. In our developed approach, the core of SiC nanowires are first positively charged. Then the negative resorcinol-formaldehyde polymers as the carbon source are anchored on SiC nanowires under the attraction of electrostatic force, which well suppresses the nucleation of free carbon particles. The thickness of the carbon shell could be modulated from 4 to 20 nm by simply adjusting the moral ratio of resorcinol to SiC nanowires. The resulting SiC@C core-shell nanostructures without free carbon particles offer synergism among the SiC nanowires and the carbon shells, generating multiple dipolar polarization, surfaced polarization, and associated relaxations, which endow SiC@C hybrid nanowires with a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -50 dB at the frequency of 12 GHz and an effective absorption bandwidth of 8 GHz with RL value under -10 dB at the optimized state. Our results demonstrate that SiC@C hybrid nanowires are promising candidates for electromagnetic wave absorption applications.

  16. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan


    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Synthesis and systematic evaluation of symmetric sulfonated centrally C-C bonded cyanine near-infrared dyes for protein labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, Van Der Steffen; Kuil, Joeri; Valentijn, A.R.P.M.; Leeuwen, Van Fijs W.B.


    The most commonly used near-infrared cyanine dyes contain an aryl ether that is not fully stable towards nucleophiles. Replacement of the aryl ether by a more stable carbon-carbon bond can improve the stability. In this work we have synthesized a series of four negatively-charged symmetrical C-C

  18. Computer Simulation of the E.C.C.S. Buckling Curve using a Monte-Carlo Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, J.; Vos, H.


    The application of a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the distribution function of the maximum load of a hinged column with imperfections is discussed. Buckling tests carried out by the E.C.C.S. on IPE 160 sections have been simulated. Information concerning the column variables is

  19. [Detection of HBV DNA by sensitive techniques and definition of chronic VHB infection by pre-C-C mutants]. (United States)

    Lebarbier, C; Williams, V; Garandeau, C; Bellaiche, G; Deny, P; Maisonneuve, L; Gordien, E


    Our purpose is to assess the question of the definition of hepatitis B virus pre-C-C mutant-chronic infection, according to the level of the viral load at the era of very sensitive techniques of quantification of HBV DNA.

  20. Page 1 Chromones—IV - 35 acetic acid (10.0 c.c.) and nitric acid (d ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methylchromone (I, R = R1 = Me) at 0° : 5-Methoxy-2-methyl-8-nitrochromone (III, R = R1 = Me). 5-Methoxy-2-methylchromone (1-0 g.) was cooled externally to 0°, and a cooled mixture of concentrated Sulphuric acid (5.0 c.c.) and nitric acid (d. 1.42 ...

  1. Interaction between lattice dislocations and grain boundaries in f.c.c. and ordered compounds : a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pestman, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Vitek, V.; Schapink, F.W.


    The interaction of 1/2<110> screw- and 60° dislocations with symmetric [110] tilt boundaries was investigated by atomistic simulations using many-body potentials representing a pure f.c.c. metal and ordered intermetallic compounds. The calculations were performed with and without an applied shear

  2. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures (United States)

    Šály, V.; Perný, M.; Janíček, F.; Huran, J.; Mikolášek, M.; Packa, J.


    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements.

  3. The mechanism of hydrocarbon oxygenate reforming: C-C bond scission, carbon formation, and noble-metal-free oxide catalysts. (United States)

    Lykhach, Yaroslava; Neitzel, Armin; Ševčíková, Klára; Johánek, Viktor; Tsud, Nataliya; Skála, Tomáš; Prince, Kevin C; Matolín, Vladimír; Libuda, Jörg


    Towards a molecular understanding of the mechanism behind catalytic reforming of bioderived hydrocarbon oxygenates, we explore the C-C bond scission of C2 model compounds (acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on ceria model catalysts of different complexity, with and without platinum. Synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the reaction pathway depends very specifically on both the reactant molecule and the catalyst surface. Whereas C-C bond scission on Pt sites and on oxygen vacancies involves intermittent surface carbon species, the reaction occurs without any carbon formation and deposition for ethylene glycol on CeO2(111). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Impact of Intragranular Substructure Parameters on the Forming Limit Diagrams of Single-Phase B.C.C. Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Franz


    Full Text Available An advanced elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystalline model, accounting for intragranular microstructure development and evolution, is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion and applied to the numerical investigation of the impact of microstructural patterns on ductility of single-phase steels. The proposed multiscale model, taking into account essential microstructural aspects, such as initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, and softening mechanisms, allows us to emphasize the relationship between intragranular microstructure of B.C.C. steels and their ductility. A qualitative study in terms of forming limit diagrams for various dislocation networks, during monotonic loading tests, is conducted in order to analyze the impact of intragranular substructure parameters on the formability of single-phase B.C.C. steels.

  5. Interferon alpha and Tat involvement in the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and C-C chemokine decline in AIDS. (United States)

    Zagury, D; Lachgar, A; Chams, V; Fall, L S; Bernard, J; Zagury, J F; Bizzini, B; Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Rappaport, J; Feldman, M; Burny, A; Gallo, R C


    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) not only directly kills infected CD4(+) T cells but also induces immunosuppression of uninfected T cells. Two immunosuppressive proteins, interferon alpha (IFNalpha) and extracellular Tat, mediate this process because specific antibodies against these proteins prevent generation of suppressor cells in HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Furthermore, the production of C-C chemokines in response to immune cell activation, initially enhanced by IFNalpha and Tat, ultimately is inhibited by these proteins in parallel with their induction of immunosuppression. The clinical corollary is the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and the decline in C-C chemokine release found at advanced stages of HIV-1 infection paralleling rising levels of IFNalpha and extracellular Tat. We, therefore, suggest that IFNalpha and Tat may be critical targets for anti-AIDS strategies.

  6. Microstructure of C/C composites prepared by chemical vapor infiltration method with vaporized kerosene as a precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail:; Qian Junmin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jin Zhihao [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiao Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    The microstructures of two types of C/C composites prepared from different carbon felts by a rapid densification method, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration with vaporized kerosene as a precursor, at 1080-1120 deg. C for 6 h were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman micro-spectrometry techniques. The experimental results show that the fibers in the two composites are both surrounded by ring-shaped pyrocarbons with rough laminar texture, but the thickness, the surface morphology of the pyrocarbons and the graphitizability of the composites depend much on the configurations of carbon felts. The C/C composite fabricated from a higher porosity carbon felt possesses larger thickness and rougher surface of pyrocarbon, and has a lower graphitizability after heat treatment at 2300 deg. C for 2 h.

  7. Chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acids: privileged Brønsted acid organocatalysts for C-C bond formation reactions. (United States)

    Zamfir, Alexandru; Schenker, Sebastian; Freund, Matthias; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B


    BINOL-derived phosphoric acids have emerged during the last five years as powerful chiral Brønsted acid catalysts in many enantioselective processes. The most successful transformations carried out with chiral BINOL phosphates include C-C bond formation reactions. The recent advances have been reviewed in this article with a focus being placed on hydrocyanations, aldol-type, Mannich, Friedel-Crafts, aza-ene-type, Diels-Alder, as well as cascade and multi-component reactions.

  8. Effects of Preform Density on Structure and Property of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Gaseous Silicon Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yu


    Full Text Available The 3-D needled C/C preforms with different densities deposited by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI method were used to fabricate C/C-SiC composites by gaseous silicon infiltration (GSI. The porosity and CVI C thickness of the preforms were studied, and the effects of preform density on the mechanical and thermal properties of C/C-SiC composites were analyzed. The results show that with the increase of preform density, the preform porosity decreases and the CVI C thickness increases from several hundred nanometers to several microns. For the C/C-SiC composites, as the preform density increases, the residual C content increases while the density and residual Si content decreases. The SiC content first keeps at a high level of about 40% (volume fraction, which then quickly reduces. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties increase to the highest values when the preform density is 1.085g/cm3, with the flexure strength up to 308.31MP and fracture toughness up to 11.36MPa·m1/2, which then decrease as the preform density further increases. The thermal conductivity and CTE of the composites, however, decrease with the increase of preform density. It is found that when the preform porosity is too high, sufficient infiltration channels lead to more residual Si, and thinner CVI C thickness results in the severe corrosion of the reinforcing fibers by Si and lower mechanical properties. When the preform porosity is relatively low, the contents of Si and SiC quickly reduce since the infiltration channels are rapidly blocked, resulting in the formation of large closed pores and not high mechanical properties.

  9. Formation of a 1D-polymeric chain of Hg building blocks through C-C coupling under ambient conditions. (United States)

    Mobin, Shaikh M; Mishra, Veenu; Ram, Priti; Birla, Anil; Mathur, Pradeep


    A novel C-C coupled 1D-polymeric chain (1) is obtained by reaction of HgCl2 and hmp-H (2-(2-hydroxymethyl pyridine)) (1 : 1) in MeOH at ambient temperature. However, a new class of μ-oxo and μ-chloro bridged polymers (2) has been obtained by altering the metal : ligand ratio to 1 : 2.

  10. The use of ultrasmall iron(0) nanoparticles as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C bonds. (United States)

    Kelsen, Vinciane; Wendt, Bianca; Werkmeister, Svenja; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias; Chaudret, Bruno


    The performance of well-defined ultrasmall iron(0) nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C and C=X bonds is reported. Monodisperse iron nanoparticles of about 2 nm size are synthesized by the decomposition of {Fe(N[Si(CH3)3]2)2}2 under dihydrogen. They are found to be active for the hydrogenation of various alkenes and alkynes under mild conditions and weakly active for C=O bond hydrogenation.

  11. A method of quantitative characterization for the component of C/C composites based on the PLM video (United States)

    Li, Y. X.; Qi, L. H.; Song, Y. S.; Li, H. J.


    PLM video is used for studying the microstructure of C/C composites, because it contains the structure and motion information at the same time. It means that PLM video could provide more comprehensive microstructure features of C/C composites, and then the microstructure could be quantitatively characterized by image processing. However, several unavoidable displacements still exist in the PLM video, which could occur during the process of image acquisition. Therefore, an image registration method was put forward to correct the displacements by the phase correlation, and further to achieve the quantitative characterization of component combined with image fusion and threshold segmentation based on the PLM video of C/C composites. Specifically, PLM video was decomposed to a frame sequence firstly. Then a series of processes was carried out on this basis, including selecting the frame as equal interval, segmenting the static and dynamic regions and correcting the relative displacements between the adjacent frames. Meanwhile, the result of image registration was verified through image fusion, and it indicates that the proposed method could eliminate the displacements effectively. Finally, some operations of image processing were used to segment the components and calculate their fractions, thus the quantitative calculation was achieved successfully.

  12. Finite Element Modeling of 3D Orthogonal Woven C/C Composite Based on Micro-Computed Tomography Experiment (United States)

    Shigang, Ai; Xiaolei, Zhu; Yiqi, Mao; Yongmao, Pei; Daining, Fang


    Two-dimensional images of C/C 3D orthogonal woven composite were captured by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). The μCT data reveal comprehensive meso-geometrical information about the carbon fiber tows, carbon matrix, and void defects etc. The fibers tows are characterized consisting of the cancroids of a tow, the area and aspect ratio of its cross-section. A statistical analysis of the volume fraction and positioning of the void defects in the 3D orthogonal woven architecture is performed based on 2-D micro tomography images. The tabulated statistics are sufficient to generate the virtual specimen, which shares the same statistical characteristics of the C/C composite and the void defects are included. Three-point bending experiment and simulation are carried out and the results show that the finite element model including the void defects gives more accurate results. The finite element model will give some highlights to the numerical simulation approach of the C/C textile composite under thermal, mechanical and oxygen coupled service environment. And the numerical techniques for modelling such kind materials with woven architecture and void defects are recommended.

  13. SnTe-TiC-C composites as high-performance anodes for Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Son, Seung Yeon; Hur, Jaehyun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Son, Hyung Bin; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Il Tae


    Intermetallic SnTe composites dispersed in a conductive TiC/C hybrid matrix are synthesized by high-energy ball milling (HEBM). The electrochemical performances of the composites as potential anodes for Li-ion batteries are evaluated. The structural and morphological characteristics of the SnTe-TiC-C composites with various TiC contents are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which reveal that SnTe and TiC are uniformly dispersed in a carbon matrix. The electrochemical performance is significantly improved by introducing TiC to the SnTe-C composite; higher TiC contents result in better performances. Among the prepared composites, the SnTe-TiC (30%)-C and SnTe-TiC (40%)-C electrodes exhibit the best electrochemical performance, showing the reversible capacities of, respectively, 652 mAh cm-3 and 588 mAh cm-3 after 400 cycles and high rate capabilities with the capacity retentions of 75.4% for SnTe-TiC (30%)-C and 82.2% for SnTe-TiC (40%)-C at 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the Li storage reaction mechanisms of Te or Sn in the SnTe-TiC-C electrodes are confirmed by ex situ XRD.

  14. Thermal fatigue behavior of C/C composites modified by SiC-MoSi{sub 2}-CrSi{sub 2} coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fu Qiangang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Li Hejun; Li Kezhi [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)


    Highlights: > The low-density C/C composites were modified by SiC-MoSi{sub 2}-CrSi{sub 2} multiphase coating by pack cementation. > The thermal fatigue behavior of the modified C/C composites was studied after undergoing thermal cycling for 20 times under the different environments. > The decrease of the flexural strength of the modified C/C composites during thermal cycle in air was primarily attributed to the partial oxidation of the modified C/C samples. - Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were modified by SiC-MoSi{sub 2}-CrSi{sub 2} multiphase coating by pack cementation, and their thermal fatigue behavior under thermal cycling in Ar and air environments was investigated. The modified C/C composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of tests show that, after 20-time thermal cycles between 1773 K and room temperature in Ar environment, the flexural strength of modified C/C samples decreased lightly and the percentage of remaining strength was 94.92%. While, after thermal cycling between 1773 K and room temperature in air for 20 times, the weight loss of modified C/C samples was 5.1%, and the flexural strength of the modified C/C samples reduced obviously and the percentage of remaining strength was only 75.22%. The fracture mode of modified C/C samples changed from a brittle behavior to a pseudo-plastic one as the service environment transformed from Ar to air. The decrease of the flexural strength during thermal cycle in air was primarily attributed to the partial oxidation of modified C/C samples.

  15. Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in 1 2Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible Spectrophotometry (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a), b (chl b), c + c 1 2 (chl c + c ) and pheopigments of chlorophyll a (pheo a) 1 2 found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Chlorophyllide a is determined as chl a. Visible wavelength spectrophotomet...

  16. Thermal conductivity of 2D C-C composites with pyrolytic and glass-like carbon matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Mikociak, D. [Dept. of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Konsztowicz, K.J. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, and IT, University of Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Blazewicz, S., E-mail: [Dept. of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland)


    This study examines the relationship of thermal properties of C-C composites with structural and microstructural features resulting from specific processing steps. Samples were made with the same type of fibres, but using two distinct different methods of matrix formation: liquid impregnation with phenolic resin and the P-CVI technique. In both cases, thermal treatment after densification had decisive effect on increase of composite coefficient of thermal conductivity, due to crystallization of carbon matrix material and thus increase of its own thermal conductivity. Higher values of thermal conductivity were obtained using the pyrolytic carbon matrix processing.

  17. Numerical modelling of micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal: Influence of strain gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Demiral, Murat


    A micro-machining process becomes increasingly important with the continuous miniaturization of components used in various fields from military to civilian applications. To characterise underlying micromechanics, a 3D finite-element model of orthogonal micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal copper was developed. The model was implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine VUMAT. Strain-gradient crystal-plasticity and conventional crystal-plasticity theories were used to demonstrate the influence of pre-existing and evolved strain gradients on the cutting process for different combinations of crystal orientations and cutting directions. Crown Copyright © 2014.

  18. A discrete event simulation model for evaluating the performances of an m/g/c/c state dependent queuing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzelan Khalid

    Full Text Available M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products. However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed.

  19. The C-C Chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and Their Receptor CCR4 in CNS Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheu


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It affects more than two million people worldwide, mainly young adults, and may lead to progressive neurological disability. Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine disease model induced by active immunization with myelin proteins or transfer of encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells that recapitulates clinical and neuropathological features of MS. Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions orchestrate leukocyte trafficking and influence multiple pathophysiological cellular processes, including antigen presentation and cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs. The C-C class chemokines 17 (CCL17 and 22 (CCL22 and their C-C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 have been shown to play an important role in homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Here, we provide an overview of the involvement of CCR4 and its ligands in CNS autoimmunity. We review key clinical studies of MS together with experimental studies in animals that have demonstrated functional roles of CCR4, CCL17, and CCL22 in EAE pathogenesis. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of newly developed CCR4 antagonists and a humanized anti-CCR4 antibody for treatment of MS.

  20. The role of the steps in the cleavage of the C-C bond during ethanol oxidation on platinum electrodes. (United States)

    Colmati, Flavio; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Berná, Antonio; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M


    Ethanol oxidation has been studied on stepped platinum single crystal electrodes in acid media using electrochemical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The electrodes used belong to two different series of stepped surfaces: those having (111) terraces with (100) monoatomic steps and those with (111) terraces with (110) monoatomic steps. The behaviors of the two series of stepped surfaces for the oxidation of ethanol are very different. On the one hand, the presence of (100) steps on the (111) terraces provides no significant enhancement of the activity of the surfaces. On the other hand, (110) steps have a double effect on the ethanol oxidation reaction. At potentials below 0.7 V, the step catalyzes the C-C bond cleavage and also the oxidation of the adsorbed CO species formed. At higher potentials, the step is not only able to break the C-C bond, but also to catalyze the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and acetaldehyde. The highest catalytic activity from voltammetry for ethanol oxidation was obtained with the Pt(554) electrode.

  1. First observation of the isospin violating decay $J/\\psi\\rightarrow \\Lambda\\bar{\\Sigma}^{0}+c.c.$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, X F Tang I; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X


    Using a sample of $(225.2\\pm 2.8)\\times 10^6$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector, we present results of a study of $J/\\psi\\rightarrow \\gamma\\Lambda\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and report the first observation of the isospin violating decay $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{\\Sigma}^{0}+c.c.$, in which $\\bar{\\Sigma}^{0}$ decays to $\\gamma \\bar{\\Lambda}$. The measured branching fractions are $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\bar{\\Lambda}\\Sigma^{0}$) = $(1.46\\pm0.11\\pm0.12) \\times10^{-5}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}}$) = $(1.37\\pm0.12\\pm0.11) \\times10^{-5}$. We search for $\\Lambda(1520) \\rightarrow \\gamma \\Lambda$ decay, and find no evident signal, and an upper limit for the product branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{\\Lambda}(1520)+c.c.)\\times \\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda(1520)\\rightarrow\\gamma\\Lambda)<4.1 \\times10^{-6}$ is set at the 90% confidence level. We also report the observation of $\\eta_{c}\\rightarrow\\Lambda\\bar{\\Lambda}$ in $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta_{c}$...

  2. Vibrationally Excited c-C_3H_2 Re-Visited New Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Calculations (United States)

    Gupta, Harshal; Westerfield, J. H.; Baraban, Joshua H.; Changala, Bryan; Thorwirth, Sven; Stanton, John F.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Gottlieb, Carl A.; McCarthy, Michael C.


    Cyclopropenylidene, c-C_3H_2, is one of the more abundant organic molecules in the interstellar medium, as evidenced from astronomical detection of its single ^{13}C and both its singly- and doubly-deuterated isotopic species. For this reason, vibrational satellites are of considerable astronomical interest, and were the primary motivation for the earlier laboratory work by Mollaaghababa and co-workers [1]. The recent detection of intense unidentified lines near 18 GHz in a hydrocarbon discharge by FT microwave spectroscopy has spurred a renewed search for the vibrational satellite transitions of c-C_3H_2. Several strong lines have been definitively assigned to the v_6 progression on the basis of follow-up measurements at 3 mm, double resonance and millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy, and new theoretical calculations using a rovibrational VMP2 method [2] and a high-quality ab initio potential energy surface. The treatment was applied to several excited states as well as the ground state, and included deperturbation of Coriolis interactions. [1] R. Mollaaghababa, C.A. Gottlieb, J. M. Vrtilek, and P. Thaddeus, J. Chem. Phys., 99, 890-896 (1992). [2] P. B. Changala and J. H. Baraban. J. Chem. Phys., 145, 174106 (2016).

  3. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms in reproductive failures: Experience from an RSA and RIF study on a Polish population. (United States)

    Nowak, Izabela; Bylińska, Aleksandra; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Malinowski, Andrzej; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Radwan, Paweł; Radwan, Michał; Barcz, Ewa; Płoski, Rafał; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Banasik, Małgorzata; Sobczyński, Maciej; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr


    Almost 1600 individuals from the Polish population were recruited to this study. Among them 319 were fertile couples, 289 were recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) couples, and 131 were in the group of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MTHFR c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms' association with RSA and RIF. We used PCR-RFLP with HinfI (677 C>T) and MboII (1298 A>C) digestion. We observed a protective effect of the female AC genotype (OR = 0.64, p = 0.01) and the C allele (AC+CC genotypes; OR = 0.65, p = 0.009) against RSA. Moreover, 1298 AA/677 CT women were more frequent in RSA (31.14%) and RIF (25.20%) groups in comparison to fertile women (22.88%), although this difference was significant only in the case of RSA (p = 0.022, OR = 1.52). Male combined genotype analysis revealed no association with reproductive failure of their partners. Nevertheless, the female/male combination AA/AC of the 1298 polymorphism was more frequent in RSA couples (p = 0.049, OR = 1.49). However, the significant results became insignificant after Bonferroni correction. In addition, analysis of haplotypes showed significantly higher frequency of the C/C haplotype (1298 C/677 C) in the female control group than in the female RSA group (p = 0.03, OR = 0.77). Moreover, the association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level in plasma of RSA and RIF women and MTHFR polymorphisms was investigated but did not reveal significant differences. In conclusion, for clinical practice, it is better to check the homocysteine level in plasma and, if the Hcy level is increased, to recommend patients to take folic acid supplements rather than undergo screening of MTHFR for 1298 A>C and 677 C>T polymorphisms.

  4. Mechanical and Chemical Characterization of a TiC/C System Synthesized Using a Focus Plasma Arc.

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    Reza Mahmoodian

    Full Text Available Titanium carbide-graphite (TiC/C composite was successfully synthesized from Ti and C starting elemental powders using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique in an ultra-high plasma inert medium in a single stage. The TiC was exposed to a high-temperature inert medium to allow recrystallization. The product was then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rietveld refinement, nanoindentation, and micro-hardness to determine the product's properties. The recorded micro-hardness of the product was 3660 HV, which is a 14% enhancement and makes is comparable to TiC materials.

  5. Mechanical and Chemical Characterization of a TiC/C System Synthesized Using a Focus Plasma Arc. (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M; Hassan, M A; Akbari, Abolghasem


    Titanium carbide-graphite (TiC/C) composite was successfully synthesized from Ti and C starting elemental powders using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique in an ultra-high plasma inert medium in a single stage. The TiC was exposed to a high-temperature inert medium to allow recrystallization. The product was then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, nanoindentation, and micro-hardness to determine the product's properties. The recorded micro-hardness of the product was 3660 HV, which is a 14% enhancement and makes is comparable to TiC materials.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of coal tar pitch-based 2D-C/C composites with a filler addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollon, G.; Siron, O.; Takahashi, J.; Yamauchi, H.; Maeda, K.; Kosaka, K. [University of Bordeaux 1, Pessac (France)


    In order to improve the flexural and the inter-laminar shear strength of coal tar pitch-based 2D-C/C composites, fillers (carbon blacks and colloidal graphite) were introduced between the UD layers before the first infiltration of pitch. Matrix parts made of the filler/pitch-based cokes showed fine mosaic microtextures. They were found at the interface between the layers. Whereas the tensile strength is not affected, the flexural strength and the ILSS were significantly increased by the addition of fillers. The original structure of the inter-layer matrix parts and the decrease of the number of flaws were found to be responsible for the improvement of the shear strength of the 0/90 degrees UD layers.

  7. libstable: Fast, Parallel, and High-Precision Computation of α-Stable Distributions in R, C/C++, and MATLAB

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    Javier Royuela-del-Val


    Full Text Available α-stable distributions are a family of well-known probability distributions. However, the lack of closed analytical expressions hinders their application. Currently, several tools have been developed to numerically evaluate their density and distribution functions or to estimate their parameters, but available solutions either do not reach sufficient precision on their evaluations or are excessively slow for practical purposes. Moreover, they do not take full advantage of the parallel processing capabilities of current multi-core machines. Other solutions work only on a subset of the α-stable parameter space. In this paper we present an R package and a C/C++ library with a MATLAB front-end that permit parallelized, fast and high precision evaluation of density, distribution and quantile functions, as well as random variable generation and parameter estimation of α-stable distributions in their whole parameter space. The described library can be easily integrated into third party developments.

  8. Furanose C-C-linked γ-lactones: a combined ESI FTICR MS and semi-empirical calculations study. (United States)

    Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Xavier, Nuno M; Rauter, Amélia P; Florêncio, M Helena


    Sugars that incorporate the unsaturated carbonyl motif have become important synthetic targets not only as a result of their potential biological properties but also as precursors in the synthesis of many bioactive products. Moreover, little is known about the influence of the γ-lactone moiety in the fragmentation pattern of furanose rings. Therefore, two α,β-unsaturated γ-lactones (butenolides) and two β-hydroxy γ-lactones, C-C linked to a furanose ring were studied using electrospray ionization FTICR mass spectrometry. The behaviour of the protonated and sodiated forms of the compounds under study has been compared considering their structural features. Fragmentation mechanisms were established and ion structures were proposed taking into account the MS(2) and MS(3) experiments, accurate mass measurements and semi-empirical calculations. These inexpensive methods proved to be a valuable resource for proposing protonation sites and for the establishment of fragmentation pathways. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The obesity and inflammatory marker haptoglobin attracts monocytes via interaction with chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2

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    Lisi Simonetta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic low inflammatory state. In the obesity condition the white adipose tissue (WAT is massively infiltrated with monocytes/macrophages, and the nature of the signals recruiting these inflammatory cells has yet to be fully elucidated. Haptoglobin (Hp is an inflammatory marker and its expression is induced in the WAT of obese subjects. In an effort to elucidate the biological significance of Hp presence in the WAT and of its upregulation in obesity we formulated the hypothesis that Hp may serve as a macrophage chemoattractant. Results We demonstrated by chemotaxis assay that Hp is able to attract chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2-transfected pre-B lymphocytes and monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Hp-mediated migration of monocytes is impaired by CCR2-specific inhibition or previous cell exposure to monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1 (also known as CCR2 ligand or chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2. Downstream effects of Hp/CCR2 interaction were also investigated: flow cytometry proved that monocytes treated with Hp show reduced CCR2 expression on their surface; Hp interaction induces calcium release that is reduced upon pretreatment with CCR2 antagonist; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, a signal transducer activated by CCR2, is phosphorylated following Hp treatment and this phosphorylation is reduced when cells are pretreated with a specific CCR2 inhibitor. Consistently, blocking the ERK1/2 pathway with U0126, the selective inhibitor of the ERK upstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP-ERK kinase (MEK, results in a dramatic reduction (by almost 100% of the capability of Hp to induce monocyte migration. Conclusions Our data show that Hp is a novel monocyte chemoattractant and that its chemotactic potential is mediated, at least in part. by its interaction with CCR2.

  10. Selective C-C and C-H bond activation/cleavage of pinene derivatives: synthesis of enantiopure cyclohexenone scaffolds and mechanistic insights. (United States)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Weber, Manuel; Sarpong, Richmond


    The continued development of transition-metal-mediated C-C bond activation/cleavage methods would provide even more opportunities to implement novel synthetic strategies. We have explored the Rh(I)-catalyzed C-C activation of cyclobutanols resident in hydroxylated derivatives of pinene, which proceed in a complementary manner to the C-C bond cleavage that we have observed with many traditional electrophilic reagents. Mechanistic and computational studies have provided insight into the role of C-H bond activation in the stereochemical outcome of the Rh-catalyzed C-C bond activation process. Using this new approach, functionalized cyclohexenones that form the cores of natural products, including the spiroindicumides and phomactin A, have been accessed.

  11. Van Der Waals heterogeneous layer-layer carbon nanostructures involving π···H-C-C-H···π···H-C-C-H stacking based on graphene and graphane sheets. (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Zheng, Hong; Nagase, Shigeru; Zhao, Sheng-Dun; Liu, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Xiang


    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings, such as π···π stacking, CH···π are very essential for supramolecular carbon nanostructures. Graphite is a typical homogenous carbon matter based on π···π stacking of graphene sheets. Even in systems not involving aromatic groups, the stability of diamondoid dimer and layer-layer graphane dimer originates from C - H···H - C noncovalent interaction. In this article, the structures and properties of novel heterogeneous layer-layer carbon-nanostructures involving π···H-C-C-H···π···H-C-C-H stacking based on [n]-graphane and [n]-graphene and their derivatives are theoretically investigated for n = 16-54 using dispersion corrected density functional theory B3LYP-D3 method. Energy decomposition analysis shows that dispersion interaction is the most important for the stabilization of both double- and multi-layer-layer [n]-graphane@graphene. Binding energy between graphane and graphene sheets shows that there is a distinct additive nature of CH···π interaction. For comparison and simplicity, the concept of H-H bond energy equivalent number of carbon atoms (noted as NHEQ), is used to describe the strength of these noncovalent interactions. The NHEQ of the graphene dimers, graphane dimers, and double-layered graphane@graphene are 103, 143, and 110, indicating that the strength of C-H···π interaction is close to that of π···π and much stronger than that of C-H···H-C in large size systems. Additionally, frontier molecular orbital, electron density difference and visualized noncovalent interaction regions are discussed for deeply understanding the nature of the C-H···π stacking interaction in construction of heterogeneous layer-layer graphane@graphene structures. We hope that the present study would be helpful for creations of new functional supramolecular materials based on graphane and graphene carbon nano-structures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  12. Synthesis of SiC decorated carbonaceous nanorods and its hierarchical composites Si@SiC@C for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chundong [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, Industrial Innovation Program, CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Yang, Yonggang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Wenjun, E-mail: [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)


    SiC- based nanomaterials possess superior electric, thermal and mechanical properties. However, due to the tricky synthesis process, which needs to be carried out under high temperature with multi-step reaction procedures, the further application is dramatically limited. Herein, a simple as well as a controllable approach is proposed for synthesis of SiC- based nanostructures under low temperature. Phenyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane was chosen as the starting material to react with magnesium at 650 °C, following which SiC@C nanocomposites were finally obtained, and it maintains the original bent rod-like architecture of polysilsesquioxanes. The possible formation process for the nanocomposites can proposed as well. The electrochemical behaviour of nanocomposites was accessed, verifying that the synthesized SiC@C nanocomposites deliver good electrochemical performance. Moreover, SiC@C also shows to be a promising scaffold in supporting Si thin film electrode in achieving stable cycling performance in lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • SiC@C bent nanorods were synthesized with a magnesium reaction approach. • Carbon nanorod spines studded with ultrafine β-SiC nanocrystallines was realized. • The synthesized SiC@C keeps the original rod-like structure of polysilsesquioxanes. • The possible formation process for the nanocomposites was analysed and proposed. • Si@SiC@C nanocomposites reveal good electrochemical performance in LIBs.

  13. Investigation of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (ccr4 gene polymorphism in patients with Gestational Trophoblastic diseases (GTD

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    S Naeimi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD consists of a spectrum of disorders that are characterized by an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue, following an abnormal fertilization. CCR4 is one chemo-attractant receptors preferentially expressed on Th2 cells, and therefore, is likely to participate in the recruitment of antigen-specific Th2 cells to sites of allergen exposure. Variations in CCR4 have been reported. In this study we intended to investigate the relationship between polymorphism of this particular gene at the site of 1014 C/T and GTD. Materials & Methods: In the present study, the polymorphisms of the CCR4 gene at the sites of 1014 C/T was investigated in 100 patients at in 2010 with proved GTD and 120 age-sex matched healthy individuals. Polymorphysm of CC chemokine 4 were investigated in these two groups by PCR-RFLP.These two groups were compared in respect their genotypes and alleles. Results: Frequency of genotype TT, CT, CC patients were 34%, 62% and 4% while the frequency of the control group, were 46.7%, 35.8% and 17.5% respectively. A significant difference was seen in genotype prevalence of 1014 C/T in ccr4 gene in the two mentioned groups (P0.05(. Conclusion: Regarding the relationship between The C-C chemokine receptor type 4 and gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD, it might be possible to use this gene as a prognostic marker in identifying the susceptible patients.

  14. Trifunctional fluorescent unnatural nucleoside: Label free detection of T-T/C-C base mismatches, abasic site and bulge DNA. (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Talukdar, Sangita


    The detection and targeting of both the mismatched and abasic DNA is highly important which would ultimately help in designing new diagnostics and chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, sensing and targeting the bulge sequence with a fluorescent probe would be useful to study the role of bulges in nucleic acid function or could have significant therapeutic potential. Thus, detection of specific bulges by small fluorescent molecules is an attractive research area since the past several years. Many attempts have been made to prepare such compounds. We report herein a label free strategy for the detection of pyrimidine base mismatches (T/T and C/C), sensing of abasic site, and pyrimidine base bulge DNA using an unnatural tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside ( TPy B Do ) as a bare fluorescent probe. The H-bonding/hydrophobic force mediated interactions allow the sensing of all three deformed DNA via an enhancement of fluorescence signal using our simple "Just-Mix and Read" strategy. The binding of the probe to all the three deformed DNA duplexes is accompanied by an increase in the thermal melting stability of the deformed DNAs. That the probe binds efficiently to the minor groove near the deformed site was evident from spectroscopic studies. All the spectral evidences open up a multitude of possibilities for using our probe, tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside, as an efficient fluorescent light-up bio-probe for label free DNA detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. C-C motif ligand 5 promotes migration of prostate cancer cells in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment. (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Izumi, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Kaoru; Maolake, Aerken; Natsagdorj, Ariunbold; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iwamoto, Hiroaki; Kadomoto, Suguru; Makino, Tomoyuki; Naito, Renato; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Wufuer, Guzailinuer; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Mizokami, Atsushi


    Chemokines and their receptors have key roles in cancer progression. The present study investigated chemokine activity in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment. Growth and migration of human prostate cancer cells were assayed in cocultures with bone stromal cells. The migration of LNCaP cells significantly increased when co-cultured with bone stromal cells isolated from prostate cancer bone metastases. Cytokine array analysis of conditioned medium from bone stromal cell cultures identified CCL5 as a concentration-dependent promoter of LNCaP cell migration. The migration of LNCaP cells was suppressed when C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) neutralizing antibody was added to cocultures with bone stromal cells. Knockdown of androgen receptor with small interfering RNA increased the migration of LNCaP cells compared with control cells, and CCL5 did not promote the migration of androgen receptor knockdown LNCaP. Elevated CCL5 secretion in bone stromal cells from metastatic lesions induced prostate cancer cell migration by a mechanism consistent with CCL5 activity upstream of androgen receptor signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Differential susceptibility of BALB/c, C57BL/6N, and CF1 mice to photoperiod changes

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    Luísa K. Pilz


    Full Text Available Objective:Circadian disturbances common to modern lifestyles have been associated with mood disorders. Animal models that mimic such rhythm disturbances are useful in translational research to explore factors contributing to depressive disorders. This study aimed to verify the susceptibility of BALB/c, C57BL/6N, and CF1 mice to photoperiod changes.Methods:Thermochron iButtons implanted in the mouse abdomen were used to characterize temperature rhythms. Mice were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark (LD cycle for 15 days, followed by a 10:10 h LD cycle for 10 days. Cosinor analysis, Rayleigh z test, periodograms, and Fourier analysis were used to analyze rhythm parameters. Paired Student's t test was used to compare temperature amplitude, period, and power of the first harmonic between normal and shortened cycles.Results:The shortened LD cycle significantly changed temperature acrophases and rhythm amplitude in all mouse strains, but only BALB/c showed altered period.Conclusion:These findings suggest that BALB/c, the preferred strain for stress-induced models of depression, should also be favored for exploring the relationship between circadian rhythms and mood. Temperature rhythm proved to be a useful parameter for characterizing rhythm disruption in mice. Although disruption of temperature rhythm has been successfully documented in untethered mice, an evaluation of desynchronization of other rhythms is warranted.

  17. Association of TNF -1031 C/C as a potential protection marker for leprosy development in Amazonas state patients, Brazil. (United States)

    Silva, G A V; Ramasawmy, R; Boechat, A L; Morais, A C; Carvalho, B K S; Sousa, K B A; Souza, V C; Cunha, M G S; Barletta-Naveca, R H; Santos, M P; Naveca, F G


    Polymorphisms present in the TNF promoter region has shown to influence the gene transcription. Leprosy displays different clinical manifestations according to the immune responses of the individual infected with Mycobacterium leprae. In this study, we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -238 G/A (rs361525), -308 G/A (rs1800629), -857 C/T (rs1799724), -863 A/C (rs1800630) and -1031 T/C (rs1799964) in the promoter region of the TNF to see whether these SNPs influence host-susceptibility to leprosy and the different clinical manifestation. Nucleotide sequencing was performed with DNA samples from 108 leprosy patients and 253 control subjects. An association between -1031 C/C genotype and protection from leprosy was observed when leprosy patients were compared to controls (OR 0.11; 95% CI=0.01-0.82; p=0.012). The -857 C/T genotype may be associated with susceptibility to leprosy (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.09-3.00; p=0.028). Similar genotype and allele frequencies for the SNPs -308 G/A and -238 G/A were observed between leprosy patients and control subjects. Altogether, TNF polymorphisms in the promoter region may be predictive of leprosy outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C Species in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Sa, Young Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Joo, Sang Hoon


    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N/C) have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). While Fe-Nx sites have been widely considered as active species for Fe-N/C catalysts, very recently, iron and/or iron carbide encased with carbon shells (Fe-Fe3C@C) has been suggested as a new active site for the ORR. However, most of synthetic routes to Fe-N/C catalysts involve high-temperature pyrolysis, which unavoidably yield both Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C species, hampering the identification of exclusive role of each species. Herein, in order to establish the respective roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C sites we rationally designed model catalysts via the phase conversion reactions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The resulting catalysts selectively contained Fe-Nx, Fe-Fe3C@C, and N-doped carbon (C-Nx) sites. It was revealed that Fe-Nx sites dominantly catalyze ORR via 4-electron (4 e(-)) pathway, exerting a major role for high ORR activity, whereas Fe-Fe3C@C sites mainly promote 2 e(-) reduction of oxygen followed by 2 e(-) peroxide reduction, playing an auxiliary role.

  19. Competitive C-C and C-H bond scission in the ethanol oxidation reaction on Cu(100) and the effect of an alkaline environment. (United States)

    Wu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Minhua; Jiang, Haoxi; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Chen, Yifei; Wang, Lichang


    Direct ethanol fuel cell technology is impeded by inefficient, yet expensive anode catalysts. As such, research on effective and cheap anode catalysts towards complete ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is greatly needed. Herein, we report the investigations of the competitive C-C and C-H bond scissions in the EOR involving CH3CO, CH2CO, and CHCO species on Cu(100) using density functional theory and transition state theory calculations. The easiest C-C bond cleavage was found in CH2CO while the most difficult C-H bond cleavage was also found in CH2CO, both with an activation energy of 1.02 eV. The feasible C-C bond scission may take place in CH2CO with a rate constant ratio of the C-C to the C-H bond scission at 100 °C of 0.32. Furthermore, in an alkaline environment, the C-H bond scission activation barrier is considerably lowered but the C-C bond cleavage activation barrier is slightly increased for both CH3CO and CH2CO species. The reaction of CH3CO species on Cu(100) under alkaline conditions produces mainly acetic acid with a barrier of 0.49 eV and a rate constant of 4.93 × 105 s-1 at 100 °C.

  20. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach

  1. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20, a potential biomarker for Graves' disease, is regulated by osteopontin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Li

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Graves' disease (GD is a common autoimmune disease involving the thyroid gland. The altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GD. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20 is important for interleukin-17 (IL-17 signal activation and a potent chemoattractant for Th17 cells. Meanwhile, Osteopontin (OPN, a broadly expressed pleiotropic cytokine, has been implicated in GD through inducing Th1-involved response to enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but little is known about the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 and IL-17 signaling. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to explore the possibility of CCL20 level as a biomarker for GD, as well as investigate the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 production. METHODS: Fifty untreated GD patients, fifteen euthyroid GD patients, twelve TRAb-negative GD patients and thirty-five healthy control donors were recruited. OPN, CCL20 and other clinical GD diagnosis parameters were measured. CD4+T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using antibody-coated magnetic beads. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine CCL20 expression level. RESULTS: We found that the plasma CCL20 level was enhanced in GD patients and decreased in euthyroid and TRAb-negative GD patients. In addition, CCL20 level correlated with GD clinical diagnostic parameters and plasma OPN level. Moreover, we demonstrated that recombinant OPN and plasma from untreated GD patients increased the expression of CCL20 in CD4+T cells, which could be blocked by OPN antibody. Furthermore, we found that the effect of OPN on CCL20 expression was mediated by β3 integrin receptor, IL-17, NF-κB and MAPK pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that CCL20 might serve as a biomarker for GD and suggested the possible role of OPN in induction of CCL20 expression.

  2. Electrochemical Polymerization of Iron(III) Polypyridyl Complexes through C-C Coupling of Redox Non-innocent Phenolato Ligands. (United States)

    Unjaroen, Duenpen; Swart, Marcel; Browne, Wesley R


    Phenolato moieties impart redox flexibility to metal complexes due their accessible (oxidative) redox chemistry and have been proposed as functional ligand moieties in redox non-innocent ligand based transition metal catalysis. Here, the electro- and spectroelectrochemistry of phenolato based μ-oxo-diiron(III) complexes [(L 1 )Fe(μ-O)Fe(L 1 )] 2+ (1) and [(L 2 )Fe(μ-O)Fe(L 2 )] 2+ (2), where L 1 = 2-(((di(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)phenol and L 2 = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-(((di(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)phenol, is described. The electrochemical oxidation of 1 in dichloromethane results in aryl C-C coupling of phenoxyl radical ligand moieties to form tetra nuclear complexes, which undergo subsequent oxidation to form iron(III) phenolato based polymers (poly-1). The coupling is blocked by placing tert-butyl groups at para and ortho positions of phenol units (i.e., 2). Poly-1 shows two fully reversible redox processes in monomer free solution. Assignment of species observed during the electrochemical and chemical {(NH 4 ) 2 [Ce IV (NO 3 ) 6 ]} oxidation of 1 in acetonitrile is made by comparison with the UV-vis-NIR absorption and resonance micro-Raman spectroelectrochemistry of poly-1, and by DFT calculations, which confirms that oxidative coupling occurs in acetonitrile also. However, in contrast to that observed in dichloromethane, in acetonitrile, the oligomers formed are degraded in terms of a loss of the Fe(III)-O-Fe(III) bridge by protonation. The oxidative redox behavior of 1 and 2 is, therefore, dominated by the formation and reactivity of Fe(III) bound phenoxyl radicals, which considerably holds implications in regard to the design of phenolato based complexes for oxidation catalysis.

  3. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes. (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y


    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p milk at different weeks postpartum stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  4. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 in sera of patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Guan


    Full Text Available Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, commonly known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases characterized by monocytic infiltration. However, limited data have been reported on MCP-1 in type 1 diabetes (T1D and the findings are inconclusive and inconsistent.In this study, MCP-1 was measured in the sera from 2,472 T1D patients and 2,654 healthy controls using a Luminex assay. The rs1024611 SNP in the promoter region of MCP-1 was genotyped for a subset of subjects (1764 T1D patients and 1323 controls using the TaqMan-assay.Subject age, sex or genotypes of MCP-1 rs1024611SNP did not have a major impact on serum MCP-1 levels in either healthy controls or patients. While hemoglobin A1c levels did not have a major influence on serum MCP-1 levels, the mean serum MCP-1 levels are significantly higher in patients with multiple complications (mean = 242 ng/ml compared to patients without any complications (mean = 201 ng/ml (p = 3.5×10(-6. Furthermore, mean serum MCP-1 is higher in controls (mean = 261 ng/ml than T1D patients (mean = 208 ng/ml (p99(th percentile of patients or 955 ng/ml of serum MCP-1 is significantly lower in the T1D group compared to the control group (odds ratio = 0.11, p<10(-33.MCP-1 may have a dual role in T1D and its complications. While very high levels of serum MCP-1 may be protective against the development of T1D, complications are associated with higher serum MCP-1 levels within the T1D group.

  5. Aliphatic C-C Bond Cleavage in α-Hydroxy Ketones by a Dioxygen-Derived Nucleophilic Iron-Oxygen Oxidant. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shrabanti; Rahaman, Rubina; Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan K


    A nucleophilic iron-oxygen oxidant, formed in situ in the reaction between an iron(II)-benzilate complex and O2 , oxidatively cleaves the aliphatic C-C bonds of α-hydroxy ketones. In the cleavage reaction, α-hydroxy ketones without any α-C-H bond afford a 1:1 mixture of carboxylic acid and ketone. Isotope labeling studies established that one of the oxygen atoms from dioxygen is incorporated into the carboxylic acid product. Furthermore, the iron(II) complex cleaves an aliphatic C-C bond of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone affording androstenedione and acetic acid. The O2 -dependent aliphatic C-C bond cleavage of α-hydroxy ketones containing no α-C-H bond bears similarity to the lyase activity of the heme enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparison of Multiscale Method of Cells-Based Models for Predicting Elastic Properties of Filament Wound C/C-SiC (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Fassin, Marek; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Reese, Stefanie; Simon, Jaan-Willem


    Three different multiscale models, based on the method of cells (generalized and high fidelity) micromechanics models were developed and used to predict the elastic properties of C/C-SiC composites. In particular, the following multiscale modeling strategies were employed: Concurrent multiscale modeling of all phases using the generalized method of cells, synergistic (two-way coupling in space) multiscale modeling with the generalized method of cells, and hierarchical (one-way coupling in space) multiscale modeling with the high fidelity generalized method of cells. The three models are validated against data from a hierarchical multiscale finite element model in the literature for a repeating unit cell of C/C-SiC. Furthermore, the multiscale models are used in conjunction with classical lamination theory to predict the stiffness of C/C-SiC plates manufactured via a wet filament winding and liquid silicon infiltration process recently developed by the German Aerospace Institute.

  7. Measurement of low-mass e + e - pair production in 1 and 2 A GeV C-C collision with HADES (United States)

    Sudol, M.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Bielcik, J.; Blanco, A.; Bortolotti, A.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Coniglione, R.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Durán, I.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krása, A.; Křížek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Maiolino, C.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marín, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pérez Cavalcanti, T.; Piattelli, P.; Pietraszko, J.; Pospíšil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Sapienza, P.; Schmah, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Simon, R.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlustý, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zhou, P.; Zumbruch, P.


    HADES is a secondary generation experiment operated at GSI Darmstadt with the main goal to study dielectron production in proton, pion and heavy ion induced reactions. The first part of the HADES mission is to reinvestigate the puzzling pair excess measured by the DLS collaboration in C + C and Ca + Ca collisions at 1 A GeV. For this purpose dedicated measurements with the C + C system at 1 and 2 A GeV were performed. The pair excess above a cocktail of free hadronic decays has been extracted and compared to the one measured by DLS. Furthermore, the excess is confronted with predictions of various model calculations.

  8. Liderazgo de una empresa familiar que influye en el clima laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C


    Rodríguez Valenzuela, Darwin Fausto


    El presente trabajo detalla el estudio del liderazgo y su influencia en el clima organizacional de los trabajadores de la empresa familiar Sedemi S.C.C., con la fin de proponer opciones de mejora, que coadyuven al directorio de la empresa, para fomentar un ambiente laboral agradable y motivador para sus empleados, y de esta manera incrementar su desempeño laboral. La investigación se realizó en la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C. La población objetivo está conformada por los empleados administrativos y ...

  9. Mechanical performance of Hi-Nicalon/CVI-SiC composites with multilayer SiC/C interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, H.G.; Carter, R.H.; Curtin, W.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics


    The mechanical properties and interfacial characteristics of new SiC/SiC ceramic composites, composed of Hi-Nicalon fibers in a CVI-SiC matrix and having a variety of multilayer SiC/C coatings between the fibers and the matrix, are studied in detail to elucidate the roles of the coatings and fibers. Axial tension tests and unload/reload hysteresis loop measurements are performed to determine mechanical performance. All materials exhibit the strong and tough behavior characteristic of good ceramic composites, with all multilayer variants performing quite similarly. SEM microscopy demonstrates that matrix cracks penetrate through the multilayers and debond at the fiber/inner-coating interface. Analysis of the hysteretic behavior leads to values for interfacial sliding resistance {tau} {approx} 11 ksi and interfacial toughness {Gamma}{sub i} {approx} 2 J/m{sup 2} that are nearly independent of multilayer structure, and are similar to values obtained for standard pyrolitic carbon interfaces. These results all indicate debonding at the fiber surface for all coating structures, which provides a common roughness, {tau}, and {Gamma}{sub i}. Analysis of fiber fracture mirrors provides an estimate of the in-situ strength of the fibers and demonstrates the high strength retention of the Hi-Nicalon fibers. The in-situ fiber strengths are combined with the measured pullout lengths to obtain an independent determination of {tau} = 8.5 ksi that agrees well with the value found from the hysteretic behavior. Predictions of composite strength using the derived fiber strengths agree well with the measured value although the predicted failure strain is too large. This study demonstrates that Hi-Nicalon fiber/CVI-SiC composites perform well for a wide range of multilayer interface structures and that the interfaces present relatively high values of {tau} and {Gamma}{sub i}, both of which are beneficial to strength and toughness. The small carbon layer thicknesses in these multilayer

  10. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y


    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were

  11. Lack of Association of C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 Delta 32 Deletion Status with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus Nephritis, and Disease Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Henk A.; Gross, Sacha; van der Steege, Gerrit; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Berden, Jo H. M.; de Sevaux, Ruud; Derksen, Ronald H. W. M.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Berger, Stefan P.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc


    Objective. C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in inflammation. A 32 base-pair (Delta 32) deletion in the CCR5 gene leads to a nonfunctional receptor. This deletion has been reported to have a protective effect on the development and progression of several autoimmune diseases. We

  12. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M


    .... Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS...

  13. Factors That Control C-C Cleavage versus C-H Bond Hydroxylation in Copper-Catalyzed Oxidations of Ketones with O2. (United States)

    Tsang, Althea S-K; Kapat, Ajoy; Schoenebeck, Franziska


    The Cu-catalyzed oxidation of ketones with O2 has recently been extensively utilized to cleave the α-C-C bond. This report examines the selective aerobic hydroxylation of tertiary α-C-H bonds in ketones without C-C cleavage. We set out to understand the underlying mechanisms of these two possible reactivity modes. Using experimental, in situ IR spectroscopic, and computational studies, we investigated several mechanisms. Our data suggest that both C-C cleavage and C-H hydroxylation pathways proceed via a common key intermediate, i.e., an α-peroxo ketone. The fate of this peroxide dictates the ultimate product selectivity. Specifically, we uncovered the role of hppH [=1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine] to act not only as a base in the transformation but also as a reductant of the peroxide to the corresponding α-hydroxy ketone. This reduction may also be accomplished through exogenous phosphine additives, therefore allowing the tuning of reduction efficiency toward higher driving forces, if required (e.g., for more-activated substrates). The likely competitive pathway is the cleavage of peroxide to the α-oxy radical (likely catalyzed by Cu), which is computationally predicted to spontaneously trigger C-C bond cleavage. Increasing the susceptibility of this deperoxidation step via (i) the removal of reductant (use of different base, e.g., DBU) or the modulation of (ii) the substitution pattern toward greater activation (substrate control) and (iii) the nature of Cu catalyst (counterion and solvent dependence) will favor the C-C cleavage product.

  14. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D.


    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  15. Esercizio dell’attività di impresa in forma societaria e disciplina di cui all’art. 230-bis c.c.: sull’asserita incompatibilità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Balestra


    Full Text Available Le Sezioni Unite (Cass., sez un., 6 novembre 2014, n. 23676 Rel. Bernabai già segnalata in questa Rivista hanno risolto il conflitto, profilatosi innanzi alla Sezione lavoro agli inizi del nuovo millennio, in ordine alla portata applicativa dell’art. 230-bis c.c., essendo state chiamate a stabilire se la fattispecie compendiata dalla norma in questione presupponga necessariamente un imprenditore persona fisica – elemento per vero non enunciato esplicitamente dalla disposizione, ma ricavabile dal comma 3 dell’art. 230-bis c.c. ove v’è il riferimento a un vincolo (di coniugio, parentela o affinità configurabile solo tra persone fisiche – o se, invece, sia prospettabile anche quando l’attività di impresa venga svolta in forma societaria.

  16. Search for eta and eta ' -> pi(+)e(-)(v)over-bar(e) + c.c. decays in J/psi -> phi eta and phi eta '

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, M.L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J.P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Friedel, P.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guler, N. G.; Guo, A.Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X.T.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Y.P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J.S.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y.T.; Liao, G.R.; Liao, X. T.; Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, Cheng; Liu, C.X.; Liu, F.H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X.L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C.L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F.E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C.; Morales, K. Moriya; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J.W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Sazak, H. S.; Schaefer, B. D.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W.M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J.F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y.J.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Sun, Z.T.; Tang, C.J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I. U.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.Q.; Wang, D.; Wang, D.Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J.B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L.H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S.X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y. X.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, Q.J.; Xu, Q.N.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zengin, B. Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, R.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S.J.; Zhao, T.C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X.R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.H.; Zhu, Stuart; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.M.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.


    Using a sample of 225.3 million J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider in 2009, searches for the decays of eta and eta' -> pi(+)e(-)(v) over bar (e) + c.c. in J/psi -> phi eta and phi eta' are performed. The phi signals, which are reconstructed in K+K- final

  17. QM/MM study of the C-C coupling reaction mechanism of CYP121, an essential Cytochrome p450 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis


    Dumas, Victoria Gisel; Defelipe, Lucas Alfredo; Petruk, Ariel Alcides; Turjanski, Adrian; Marti, Marcelo Adrian


    Among 20 p450s of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt), CYP121 has received an outstanding interest, not only due to its essentiality for bacterial viability but also because it catalyzes an unusual carbon-carbon coupling reaction. Based on the structure of the substrate bound enzyme, several reaction mechanisms were proposed involving first Tyr radical formation, second Tyr radical formation, and C?C coupling. Key and unknown features, being the nature of the species that generate the first and s...

  18. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation/C-C and C-O Bond Formation Reaction Cascade: Direct Synthesis of Coumestans. (United States)

    Neog, Kashmiri; Borah, Ashwini; Gogoi, Pranjal


    A palladium catalyzed cascade reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarins and in situ generated arynes has been developed for the direct synthesis of coumestans. This cascade strategy proceeds via C-H bond activation/C-O and C-C bond formations in a single reaction vessel. This methodology affords moderate to good yields of coumestans and is tolerant of a variety of functional groups including halide. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of natural product flemichapparin C.

  19. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in C-C and C-SiC Composites to Copper-Clad-Molybdenum System (United States)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.


    Carbon/carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices, and C/SiC composites reinforced with T-300 carbon fibers in a CVI SiC matrix were joined to Cu-clad Mo using two Ag-Cu braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward delamination in resin-derived C/C composite. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the C/C joints indicated sharp gradients at the interface, and a higher hardness in Ticusil than in Cusil-ABA. For the C/SiC composite to Cu-clad-Mo joints, the effect of composite surface preparation revealed that ground samples did not crack whereas unground samples cracked. Calculated strain energy in brazed joints in both systems is comparable to the strain energy in a number of other ceramic/metal systems. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that such joined systems may be promising for thermal management applications.

  20. Improvement of MS (multiple sclerosis) CAD (computer aided diagnosis) performance using C/C++ and computing engine in the graphical processing unit (GPU) (United States)

    Suh, Joohyung; Ma, Kevin; Le, Anh


    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease which is caused by damaged myelin around axons of the brain and spinal cord. Currently, MR Imaging is used for diagnosis, but it is very highly variable and time-consuming since the lesion detection and estimation of lesion volume are performed manually. For this reason, we developed a CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis) system which would assist segmentation of MS to facilitate physician's diagnosis. The MS CAD system utilizes K-NN (k-nearest neighbor) algorithm to detect and segment the lesion volume in an area based on the voxel. The prototype MS CAD system was developed under the MATLAB environment. Currently, the MS CAD system consumes a huge amount of time to process data. In this paper we will present the development of a second version of MS CAD system which has been converted into C/C++ in order to take advantage of the GPU (Graphical Processing Unit) which will provide parallel computation. With the realization of C/C++ and utilizing the GPU, we expect to cut running time drastically. The paper investigates the conversion from MATLAB to C/C++ and the utilization of a high-end GPU for parallel computing of data to improve algorithm performance of MS CAD.

  1. Sn-MoS2 -C@C Microspheres as a Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life. (United States)

    Zheng, Fenghua; Pan, Qichang; Yang, Chenghao; Xiong, Xunhui; Ou, Xing; Hu, Renzong; Chen, Yu; Liu, Meilin


    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been regarded as a prime candidate for large-scale energy storage, and developing high performance anode materials is one of the main challenges for advanced SIBs. Novel structured Sn-MoS2 -C@C microspheres, in which Sn nanoparticles are evenly embedded in MoS2 nanosheets and a thin carbon film is homogenously engineered over the microspheres, have been fabricated by the hydrothermal method. The Sn-MoS2 -C@C microspheres demonstrate an excellent Na-storage performance as an anode of SIBs and deliver a high reversible charge capacity (580.3 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 Ag(-1) ) and rate capacity (580.3, 373, 326, 285.2, and 181.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 Ag(-1) , respectively). A high charge specific capacity of 245 mAh g(-1) can still be achieved after 2750 cycles at 2 Ag(-1) , indicating an outstanding cycling performance. The high capacity and long-term stability make Sn-MoS2 -C@C composite a very promising anode material for SIBs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. C-C cross-coupling reactions of O6-alkyl-2-haloinosine derivatives and a one-pot cross-coupling/O6-deprotection procedure. (United States)

    Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Pottabathini, Narender; Garlapati, Ramesh; Chaudhary, Avinash B; Patro, Balaram; Lakshman, Mahesh K


    Reaction conditions for the CC cross-coupling of O(6)-alkyl-2-bromo- and 2-chloroinosine derivatives with aryl-, hetaryl-, and alkylboronic acids were studied. Optimization experiments with silyl-protected 2-bromo-O(6)-methylinosine led to the identification of [PdCl(2)(dcpf)]/K(3)PO(4) in 1,4-dioxane as the best conditions for these reactions (dcpf=1,1'-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene). Attempted O(6)-demethylation, as well as the replacement of the C-6 methoxy group by amines, was unsuccessful, which led to the consideration of Pd-cleavable groups such that C-C cross-coupling and O(6)-deprotection could be accomplished in a single step. Thus, inosine 2-chloro-O(6)-allylinosine was chosen as the substrate and, after re-evaluation of the cross-coupling conditions with 2-chloro-O(6)-methylinosine as a model substrate, one-step C-C cross-coupling/deprotection reactions were performed with the O(6)-allyl analogue. These reactions are the first such examples of a one-pot procedure for the modification and deprotection of purine nucleosides under C-C cross-coupling conditions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Robust electrodes based on coaxial TiC/C-MnO2 core/shell nanofiber arrays with excellent cycling stability for high-performance supercapacitors. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Li, Limin; Gao, Biao; Wu, Guosong; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K


    A coaxial electrode structure composed of manganese oxide-decorated TiC/C core/shell nanofiber arrays is produced hydrothermally in a KMnO4 solution. The pristine TiC/C core/shell structure prepared on the Ti alloy substrate provides the self-sacrificing carbon shell and highly conductive TiC core, thus greatly simplifying the fabrication process without requiring an additional reduction source and conductive additive. The as-prepared electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 645 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 1 A g(-1) attributable to the highly conductive TiC/C and amorphous MnO2 shell with fast ion diffusion. In the charging/discharging cycling test, the as-prepared electrode shows high stability and 99% capacity retention after 5000 cycles. Although the thermal treatment conducted on the as-prepared electrode decreases the initial capacitance, the electrode undergoes capacitance recovery through structural transformation from the crystalline cluster to layered birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets as a result of dissolution and further electrodeposition in the cycling. 96.5% of the initial capacitance is retained after 1000 cycles at high charging/discharging current density of 25 A g(-1). This study demonstrates a novel scaffold to construct MnO2 based SCs with high specific capacitance as well as excellent mechanical and cycling stability boding well for future design of high-performance MnO2-based SCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nondissociative low-energy electron attachment to SF6, C6F6, C10F8, and c-C7F14: Negative ion lifetimes (United States)

    Suess, L.; Parthasarathy, R.; Dunning, F. B.


    The lifetimes of long-lived parent anions formed by nondissociative electron attachment to SF6, C6F6, C10F8, and c-C7F14 are investigated. The ions are created via electron transfer in collisions with K(np) Rydberg atoms and their lifetimes determined by observing their decay using a Penning ion trap. The measured lifetimes vary widely from target to target and range from ˜10 μs for C6F6- to ˜10 ms for SF6-. The present results are compared with values obtained in earlier free-electron studies.

  5. Lewis acid mediated tandem reaction of propargylic alcohols to tetrazoles involving C-O- and C-C-bond cleavage reactions and a C-N-bond formation. (United States)

    Song, Xian-Rong; Han, Ya-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Qiu, Zi-Hang; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Peng-Fei; Liang, Yong-Min


    A novel and direct synthesis of 1-aryl-5-arylvinyl-tetrazoles from easily prepared propargylic alcohols and TMSN3 is developed in the presence of TMSCl under mild conditions (TMS = trimethylsilyl). The process involves an allenylazide intermediate, followed by a C-C-bond cleavage and C-N-bond formation to afford the desired products. Moreover, this method offers a good functional-group applicability and can be scaled-up to grams (yield up to 85 %). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Catalytic diastereoselective tandem conjugate addition-elimination reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman C adducts by C-C bond cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo


    Through the cleavage of the C-C bond, the first catalytic tandem conjugate addition-elimination reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman C adducts has been presented. Various S N2′-like C-, S-, and P-allylic compounds could be obtained with exclusive E configuration in good to excellent yields. The Michael product could also be easily prepared by tuning the β-C-substituent group of the α-methylene ester under the same reaction conditions. Calculated relative energies of various transition states by DFT methods strongly support the observed chemoselectivity and diastereoselectivity. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stereoselective Synthesis of the C1-C9 and C11-C25 Fragments of Amphidinolides C, C2, C3, and F. (United States)

    Akwaboah, Daniel C; Wu, Dimao; Forsyth, Craig J


    An efficient synthesis of the C1-C9 and the C11-C25 fragments of amphidinolides C, C2, C3, and F from a common intermediate is reported. The construction of the C1-C9 fragment involves an intramolecular hetero-Michael cyclization to form the 3,5-disubstituted trans-tetrahydrofuran moiety. The approach to prepare the C11-C25 fragment utilizes a highly stereoselective aerobic cobalt-catalyzed alkenol cyclization and a chelated Mukaiyama aldol reaction to form the C13-C14 bond and to concomitantly install the C13 hydroxyl group.

  8. Self assembly of dialkoxo bridged dinuclear Fe(III) complex of pyridoxal Schiff base with C-C bond formation - structure, spectral and magnetic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Murašková, V.; Szabó, N.; Pižl, M.; Hoskovcová, I.; Dušek, Michal; Huber, Š.; Sedmidubský, D.


    Roč. 461, May (2017), s. 111-119 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : iron (III) dinuclear complex * dialkoxo bridged pyridoxal Schiff base * C-C bond * crystal structure * magnetic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  9. Double-Diels-Alder Approach to Maoecrystal V. Unexpected C-C Bond-Forming Fragmentations of the [2.2.2]-Bicyclic Core. (United States)

    Smith, Brandon R; Njardarson, Jon T


    Synthetic studies toward maoecrystal V are reported. An oxidative dearomatization/Diels-Alder cascade to assemble the natural product carbocyclic core in one step is proposed. A facile electrocyclization is shown to suppress the intramolecular allene Diels-Alder pathway. This obstacle is alleviated via a stepwise approach with an allene equivalent to access the key cyclopentadiene-fused [2.2.2]-bicyclic core. Upon treatment with Lewis acid, the proposed intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is cleanly and unexpectedly diverted either via C-C bond-forming fragmentation to the spiro-indene product (when R = OMe) or via elimination (when R = H).

  10. The new C-C bond formation in the reaction of o-amidophenolate indium(III) complex with alkyl iodides. (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Meshcheryakova, Irina N; Fukin, Georgy K; Shavyrin, Andrei S; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A


    The reaction of bis(4,6-di-tert-butyl-N-(2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl)-o-amidophenolato)indium(III) anion with alkyl iodides is reported. This process includes oxidative addition of two RI (R = Me, Et) molecules to the non-transition metal complex and results in an alkyl transfer to ring carbon atoms with the formation of two new C-C bonds. The interaction proceeds at mild conditions and gives new indium(III) derivatives containing iminocyclohexa-1,4-dienolate type ligands.

  11. On equivariant embedding of Hilbert C C C modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equivariant unitary map T ∈ L(E1,E2). We call a (G − A) module of the form (A ⊗ H,αg ⊗ γg). (where H is a Hilbert space) a trivial G − A module. We say that (E,β) is embeddable if there is an equivariant isometry from E to A⊗H for some Hilbert space H ...

  12. CYP719B1 is salutaridine synthase, the C-C phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. (United States)

    Gesell, Andreas; Rolf, Megan; Ziegler, Jörg; Díaz Chávez, María Luisa; Huang, Fong-Chin; Kutchan, Toni M


    Morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a C-C phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. The C-C phenol-coupling reaction along the biosynthetic pathway to morphine in opium poppy is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenase salutaridine synthase. We report herein on the identification of salutaridine synthase as a member of the CYP719 family of cytochromes P450 during a screen of recombinant cytochromes P450 of opium poppy functionally expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. Recombinant CYP719B1 is a highly stereo- and regioselective enzyme; of forty-one compounds tested as potential substrates, only (R)-reticuline and (R)-norreticuline resulted in formation of a product (salutaridine and norsalutaridine, respectively). To date, CYP719s have been characterized catalyzing only the formation of a methylenedioxy bridge in berberine biosynthesis (canadine synthase, CYP719A1) and in benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis (stylopine synthase, CYP719A14). Previously identified phenol-coupling enzymes of plant alkaloid biosynthesis belong only to the CYP80 family of cytochromes. CYP719B1 therefore is the prototype for a new family of plant cytochromes P450 that catalyze formation of a phenol-couple.

  13. A Novel Strategy for Biomass Upgrade: Cascade Approach to the Synthesis of Useful Compounds via C-C Bond Formation Using Biomass-Derived Sugars as Carbon Nucleophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Yamaguchi


    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biomass-derived sugars have attracted increasing attention in recent years as an alternative carbon source. Although significant advances have been reported in the development of catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates into key chemicals (e.g., degradation approaches based on the dehydration of hydroxyl groups or cleavage of C-C bonds via retro-aldol reactions, only a limited range of products can be obtained through such processes. Thus, the development of a novel and efficient strategy targeted towards the preparation of a range of compounds from biomass-derived sugars is required. We herein describe the highly-selective cascade syntheses of a range of useful compounds using biomass-derived sugars as carbon nucleophiles. We focus on the upgrade of C2 and C3 oxygenates generated from glucose to yield useful compounds via C-C bond formation. The establishment of this novel synthetic methodology to generate valuable chemical products from monosaccharides and their decomposed oxygenated materials renders carbohydrates a potential alternative carbon resource to fossil fuels.

  14. A Novel Strategy for Biomass Upgrade: Cascade Approach to the Synthesis of Useful Compounds via C-C Bond Formation Using Biomass-Derived Sugars as Carbon Nucleophiles. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sho; Baba, Toshihide


    Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biomass-derived sugars have attracted increasing attention in recent years as an alternative carbon source. Although significant advances have been reported in the development of catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates into key chemicals (e.g., degradation approaches based on the dehydration of hydroxyl groups or cleavage of C-C bonds via retro-aldol reactions), only a limited range of products can be obtained through such processes. Thus, the development of a novel and efficient strategy targeted towards the preparation of a range of compounds from biomass-derived sugars is required. We herein describe the highly-selective cascade syntheses of a range of useful compounds using biomass-derived sugars as carbon nucleophiles. We focus on the upgrade of C2 and C3 oxygenates generated from glucose to yield useful compounds via C-C bond formation. The establishment of this novel synthetic methodology to generate valuable chemical products from monosaccharides and their decomposed oxygenated materials renders carbohydrates a potential alternative carbon resource to fossil fuels.

  15. 14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E; Bench, G


    Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.

  16. A rapid fabrication of C/C composites by a thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration method with vaporized kerosene as a precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail:; Qian Junmin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiao Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jin Zhihao [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    A thermal gradient, atmospheric pressure chemical vapor infiltration method with simultaneous vaporized kerosene as a precursor for rapid fabrication of C/C composites was studied. By this method, carbon felts (bulk density {approx}0.2 g cm{sup -3}) were densified to C/C composites with density of 1.67 and 1.71 g cm{sup -3} when prepared at 1050 and 1150 deg. C for 6 h, respectively. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the composites have a strong ability to graphitize and the higher deposition temperature leads to the increased graphitization degree. Polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscope images reveal that fibers of the composites prepared for 6 h are surrounded by ring-shaped pyrocarbon matrix with a thickness of {approx}20 {mu}m, and that the matrix is delaminated to 4-6 layer-like regions. The deposition process is analyzed by dividing the reactor into four regions associated with specific functions and the reasons for the rapid fabrication are proposed as the short convection and diffusion path for the precursor and the existing of thermal gradient across the preform.

  17. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para’ C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eKilgore


    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para’, para-ortho’, or ortho-para’ regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para’ C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR-noroxomaritidine from 4’-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho’ phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1 % of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4’-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  18. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids. (United States)

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M


    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  19. Study of {lambda} hyperon production in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam energy with the HADES spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaki, K.


    The HADES spectrometer is a high resolution detector installed at the SIS/GSI, Darmstadt. It was primarily designed for studying dielectron decay channels of vector mesons. However, its high accuracy capabilities make it an attractive tool for investigating other rare probes at these beam energies, like strange baryons. Development and investigation of Multiwire Drift Chambers for high spatial resolution have been provided. One of the early experimental runs of HADES was analyzed and the {lambda} hyperon signal was successfully reconstructed for the first time in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam kinetic energy. The total {lambda} production cross section is contrasted with expectations from simulations and compared with measurements of the {lambda} yield in heavier systems at the same energy. In addition, the result is considered in the context of strangeness balance and the relative strangeness content of the reaction products is determined. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito (Star apple) and their applications as efficient catalyst for C-C coupling and reduction reactions (United States)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Tantayanon, Supawan; Bag, Braja Gopal


    A simple green chemical method for the one-step synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) has been described by reducing palladium (II) chloride with the leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito in aqueous medium. The synthesis of the palladium nanoparticles completed within 2-3 h at room temperature, whereas on heat treatment (70-80 °C), the synthesis of colloidal PdNPs completed almost instantly. The stabilized PdNPs have been characterized in detail by spectroscopic, electron microscopic and light scattering measurements. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions under aerobic and phosphine-free conditions in aqueous medium. In addition, the synthesized PdNPs have also been utilized as a catalyst for a very efficient sodium borohydride reduction of 3- and 4-nitrophenols. The synthesized PdNPs can retain their catalytic activity for several months.

  1. A Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis of CF2 and CF Radical Densities in a c-C4F8 Plasma (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Rauf, Shahid; Hash, D. B.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.


    A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is used to build a plasma chemistry model for octacyclofluorobutane (c-C4F8) which is commonly used in dielectric etch. Experimental data are used both quantitatively and quantitatively to analyze the gas phase and gas surface reactions for neutral radical chemistry. The sensitivity data of the resulting model identifies a few critical gas phase and surface aided reactions that account for most of the uncertainty in the CF2 and CF radical densities. Electron impact dissociation of small radicals (CF2 and CF) and their surface recombination reactions are found to be the rate-limiting steps in the neutral radical chemistry. The relative rates for these electron impact dissociation and surface recombination reactions are also suggested. The resulting mechanism is able to explain the measurements of CF2 and CF densities available in the literature and also their hollow spatial density profiles.

  2. Los aspectos ideológicos-pedagógicos del proyecto del «Instituto Secundario C. C. Vigil» (1970-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Prados


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan los aspectos ideológico-pedagógicos del proyecto político-pedagógico del Instituto Secundario C. C. Vigil. Tal proyecto formó parte del complejo institucional de lo que fuera la Biblioteca Constancio C. Vigil (1959-1977, emblemática entidad de la ciudad de Rosario que llevó adelante un proyecto cultural, social, pedagógico y mutual en uno de sus barrios populares: el barrio Tablada. Esta entidad fue víctima del terrorismo de Estado y, específicamente, de la política educativa procesista (Kaufmann, 2006 desplegada durante la última dictadura cívico-militar (1976-1983 sufriendo una intervención militar en el año 1977 que puso fin a toda su labor.

  3. Tailored synthesis of various nanomaterials by using a graphene-oxide-based gel as a nanoreactor and nanohybrid-catalyzed C-C bond formation. (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam


    New graphene oxide (GO)-based hydrogels that contain vitamin B2/B12 and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) have been synthesized in water (at neutral pH value). These gel-based soft materials have been used to synthesize various metal nanoparticles, including Au, Ag, and Pd nanoparticles, as well as nanoparticle-containing reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based nanohybrid systems. This result indicates that GO-based gels can be used as versatile reactors for the synthesis of different nanomaterials and hybrid systems on the nanoscale. Moreover, the RGO-based nanohybrid hydrogel with Pd nanoparticles was used as an efficient catalyst for C-C bond-formation reactions with good yields and showed high recyclability in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A review of the irradiation evolution of dispersed oxide nanoparticles in the b.c.c. Fe-Cr system: Current understanding and future directions (United States)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Swenson, Matthew J.; Yano, Kayla H.


    Thus far, a number of studies have investigated the irradiation evolution of oxide nanoparticles in b.c.c. Fe-Cr based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. But given the inconsistent experimental conditions, results have been widely variable and inconclusive. Crystal structure and chemistry changes differ from experiment to experiment, and the total nanoparticle volume fraction has been observed to both increase and decrease. Furthermore, there has not yet been a comprehensive review of the archival literature. In this paper, we summarize the existing studies on nanoparticle irradiation evolution. We note significant observations with respect to oxide nanoparticle crystallinity, composition, size, and number density. We discuss four possible contributing mechanisms for nanoparticle evolution: ballistic dissolution, Ostwald ripening, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, and homogeneous nucleation. Finally, we propose future directions to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of irradiation effects on oxide nanoparticles in ODS alloys.

  5. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 deficiency exacerbates alcoholic fatty liver disease through pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines-induced hepatic inflammation. (United States)

    Park, Ju Ho; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Mork Soon; Jung, Young Suk; Hong, Jin Tae


    Chemokines and chemokine receptors implicated with alcoholic liver disease. Studies have shown that inflammation and oxidative stress induce fat molecules aggregation in liver. We evaluated the relationship between alcoholic fatty liver disease and C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and impact of inflammation and oxidative stress in fat molecule deposition. Lieber-DeCarli diet containing ethanol or isocaloric control diets were fed to wild-type and CCR5 knockout mice for 10 days and gavaged with a single dose of ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin at 11th day. Cytokine, chemokine, and reactive oxygen species levels were measured in liver tissues to study the role of CCR5 in alcoholic fatty liver disease. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 knockout mice exacerbated ethanol-induced liver injury. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in CCR5 knockout mice than wild-type mice, and CCR5 knockout mice showed more severe lipid accumulation in liver tissue than wild-type mice after ethanol feeding. Increased expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 result in exacerbation of hepatitis in CCR5 knockout mice after ethanol feeding. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species was more severe in CCR5 knockout mice, and increasing level of fatty acid import and decreasing level of lipid degradation resulted in lipid accumulation in ethanol-fed CCR5 knockout mice. Deficiency of CCR5 exacerbates alcoholic fatty liver disease by hepatic inflammation induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and oxidative stress. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. New Concept of the Biosynthesis of 4-Alkyl-L-proline Precursors of Lincomycin, Hormaomycin and Pyrrolobenzodiazepines: Could a γ-Glutamyltransferase Cleave the C-C Bond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eJiraskova


    Full Text Available Structurally different and functionally diverse natural compounds – antitumour agents pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines, bacterial hormone hormaomycin and lincosamide antibiotic lincomycin – share a common building unit, 4-alkyl-L-proline derivative (APD. APDs arise from L-tyrosine through a special biosynthetic pathway. Its generally accepted scheme, however, did not comply with current state of knowledge. Based on gene inactivation experiments and in vitro functional tests with recombinant enzymes, we designed a new APD biosynthetic scheme for the model of lincomycin biosynthesis. In the new scheme at least one characteristic in each of five final biosynthetic steps has been changed: the order of reactions, assignment of enzymes and/or reaction mechanisms. First, we demonstrate that LmbW methylates a different substrate than previously assumed. Second, we propose a unique reaction mechanism for the next step, in which a putative γ-glutamyltransferase LmbA indirectly cleaves off the oxalyl residue by transient attachment of glutamate to LmbW product. This unprecedented mechanism would represent the first example of the C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by a γ-glutamyltransferase, i.e., an enzyme that appears unsuitable for such activity. Finally, the inactivation experiments show that LmbX is an isomerase indicating that it transforms its substrate into a compound suitable for reduction by LmbY, thereby facilitating its subsequent complete conversion to APD 4-propyl-L-proline. Elucidation of the APD biosynthesis has long time resisted mainly due to the apparent absence of relevant C-C bond cleaving enzymatic activity. Our proposal aims to unblock this situation not only for lincomycin biosynthesis, but generally for all above mentioned groups of bioactive natural products with biotechnological potential.

  7. The diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432 variant impairs glucose-stimulated insulin response in 5,722 non-diabetic Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, N; Overvad, M; Sparsø, T


    A genome-wide association study in the Japanese population reported two genome-wide significant loci associated with type 2 diabetes of which the VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B locus was replicated in Europeans. We looked for potential associations between the diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432...

  8. One-Dimensional Stacking of Bifunctional Dithia- and Diselenadiazolyl Radicals : Preparation and Structural and Electronic Properties of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, M.P.; Douglass, D.C.; Fleming, R.M.; Glarum, S.H.; Haddon, R.C.; Marsh, P.; Oakley, R.T.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Trucks, G.W.; Tycko, R.; Waszczak, J.V.; Young, K.M.; Zimmerman, N.M.; Cordes, A.W.


    The preparation and solid-state characterization of the 1,3-phenylene-bridged bis(dithiadiazolyl) and bis(diselenadiazolyl) diradicals 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se) are reported. The isomorphous crystals of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] so obtained are tetragonal, space group I41/a. Stacks of

  9. C-C and C-N Couplings Following Hydride Addition on Isocyanide Cyclopolyenyl Dimolybdenum Complexes to Give Tethered Aldimine and Aminocarbene Derivatives. (United States)

    Alvarez, Belén; Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; García-Vivó, Daniel; Ruiz, Miguel A


    Reaction of [Mo2 Cp2 (μ-κ(1) :κ(1) ,η(6) -PMes*)(CO)2 ] with S or Se followed by protonation with [H(OEt2 )2 ](BAr'4 ) gave the cationic derivatives [Mo2 Cp2 {μ-κ(2)P,E :κ(1)P ,η(5) -EP(C6 H3 tBu3 )}(CNR)(CO)2 ](BAr'4 ) (E=S; R=tBu, iPr, Ph, 4-C6 H4 OMe, Xyl; or E=Se; R=tBu; Ar'=3,5-C6 H3 (CF3 )2 ). Reaction of the latter with K[BHsBu3 ] yielded the aldimine complexes [Mo2 Cp2 {μ-κ(2)P,E :κ(2)P,N ,η(4) -SP(C6 H3 tBu3 (CHNR))}(CO)2 ] and their aminocarbene isomers [Mo2 Cp2 {μ-κ(2)P,E :κ(2)P,C ,η(4) -SP(C6 H3 tBu3 (NRCH))}(CO)2 ] (R ≠ Xyl), following C-C and C-N couplings, respectively. Monitoring of these reactions revealed that the initial H(-) attack takes place at a Cp ligand to give cyclopentadiene intermediates [Mo2 Cp{μ-κ(2)P,S :κ(1)P ,η(5) -SP(C6 H3 tBu3 )}(η(4) -C5 H6 )(CNR)(CO)2 ], which then undergo C-H oxidative addition to give the hydride isomers [Mo2 Cp2 {μ-κ(2)P,S :κ(1)P ,η(3) -SP(C6 H3 tBu3 )}(H)(CNR)(CO)2 ]. In turn, the latter rearrange to give the aldimine and aminocarbene complexes. DFT calculations revealed that the hydride intermediates first undergo migratory insertion of the isocyanide ligand into the Mo-H bond to give unobservable formimidoyl intermediates, which then evolve either by nucleophilic attack of the N atom on the C6 ring (C-N coupling) or by migratory insertion of the formimidoyl ligand into the C6 ring (C-C coupling). Our data suggest that increasing the size of the substituent R at the isocyanide ligand destabilizes the aldimine isomer to a greater extent, thus favoring formation of the aminocarbene complex. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Measurement of low-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in 2 AGeV C-C collisions with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudol, Malgorzata


    The search for a modification of hadron properties inside nuclear matter at normal and/or high temperature and density is one of the most interesting issues of modern nuclear physics. Dilepton experiments, give insight into the properties of strong interaction and the nature of hadron mass generation. One of these research tools is the HADES spectrometer. HADES is a high acceptance dilepton spectrometer installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of HADES is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in pion- and proton-induced reactions, as well as in heavy-ion collisions. The goal is to investigate the properties of the vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and of other hadrons reconstructed from e{sup +}e{sup -} decay pairs. Dileptons are penetrating probes allowing to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, the measurement of such dilepton pairs is difficult because of a very large background from other processes in which leptons are created. This thesis presents the analysis of the data provided by the first physics run with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in C+C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon have been collected with sufficient statistics. This experiment is of particular importance since it allows to address the puzzling pair excess measured by the former DLS experiment at a beam energy 1.04 AGeV. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents the physics case which is addressed in the work. In the second chapter the HADES spectrometer is introduced with the characteristic of specific detectors which are part of the spectrometer. Chapter three focusses on the issue of charged-particle identification. The fourth chapter discusses the reconstruction of the di-electron spectra in C+C collisions. In this part of the thesis a comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  11. Long live vinylidene! A new view of the H(2)C=C: --> HC triple bond CH rearrangement from ab initio molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Hayes, R L; Fattal, E; Govind, N; Carter, E A


    We present complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the preparation of the metastable species vinylidene, and its subsequent, highly exothermic isomerization to acetylene, via electron removal from vinylidene anion (D(2)C=C(-) --> D(2)C=C: --> DC triple bond CD). After equilibrating vinylidene anion-d(2) at either 600 +/- 300 K (slightly below the isomerization barrier) or 1440 K +/- 720 K (just above the isomerization barrier), we remove an electron to form a vibrationally excited singlet vinylidene-d(2) and follow its dynamical evolution for 1.0 ps. Remarkably, we find that none of the vinylidenes equilibrated at 600 K and only 20% of the vinylidenes equilibrated at 1440 K isomerized, suggesting average lifetimes >1 ps for vibrationally excited vinylidene-d(2). Since the anion and neutral vinylidene are structurally similar, and yet extremely different geometrically from the isomerization transition state (TS), neutral vinylidene is not formed near the TS so that it must live until it has sufficient instantaneous kinetic energy in the correct vibrational mode(s). The origin of the delay is explained via both orbital rearrangement and intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) effects. Unique signatures of the isomerization dynamics are revealed in the anharmonic vibrational frequencies extracted from the AIMD, which should be observable by ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy and in fact are consistent with currently available experimental spectra. Most interestingly, of those trajectories that did isomerize, every one of them violated conventional transition-state theory by recrossing back to vinylidene multiple times, against conventional notions that expect highly exothermic reactions to be irreversible. The dynamical motion responsible for the multiple barrier recrossings involves strong mode-coupling between the vinylidene CD(2) rock and a local acetylene DCC bend mode that has been

  12. The Atypical Receptor CCRL2 (C-C Chemokine Receptor-Like 2) Does Not Act As a Decoy Receptor in Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Mazzotti, Chiara; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Bosisio, Daniela; Del Prete, Annalisa; Tiberio, Laura; Thelen, Marcus; Sozzani, Silvano


    C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a non-signaling seven-transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor related to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) family. ACKRs bind chemokines but do not activate G protein-dependent signaling or cell functions. ACKRs were shown to regulate immune functions in vivo by their ability to scavenge chemokines from the local environment. This study was performed to investigate whether CCRL2 shares two of the main characteristics of ACKRs, namely the ability to internalize and scavenge the ligands. Cell membrane analysis of CCRL2-transfected cells revealed a weak, constitutive, ligand-independent internalization, and recycling of CCRL2, with a kinetics that was slower than those observed with ACKR3, a prototypic ACKR, or other chemotactic signaling receptors [i.e., chemokine-like receptor 1 and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2]. Intracellularly, CCRL2 colocalized with early endosome antigen 1-positive and Rab5-positive vesicles and with recycling compartments mainly characterized by Rab11-positive vesicles. CCRL2-transfected cells and activated mouse blood endothelial cells, that endogenously express CCRL2, were used to investigate the scavenging ability of CCRL2. These experiments confirmed the ability of CCRL2 to bind chemerin, the only recognized ligand, but excluded the ability of CCRL2 to perform scavenging. Collectively, these results identify unique functional properties for this member of the non-signaling 7-TMD receptor family.

  13. Potential Hazards Relating to Pyrolysis of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} in Selected Gaseous Diffusion Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D.


    As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes in under way. One issue concerning a primary candidate, c-C4F8, is the possibility that it might produce the highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in high temperature environments. This study was commissioned to determine the likelihood and severity of decomposition under two specific high temperature thermal environments, namely the use of a flame test for the presence of coolant vapors and welding in the presence of coolant vapors. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate available data to provide information that will allow the technical and industrial hygiene staff at the GDPs to perform appropriate safety evaluations and to determine the need for field testing or experimental work. The scope of this study included a literature search and an evaluation of the information developed therefrom. Part of that evaluation consists of chemical kinetics modeling of coolant decomposition in the two operational environments. The general conclusions are that PFIB formation is unlikely in either situation but that it cannot be ruled out completely under extreme conditions. The presence of oxygen, moisture, and combustion products will tend to lead to formation of oxidation products (COF2, CO, CO2, and HF) rather than PFIB.

  14. 4-alkyl-L-(Dehydro)proline biosynthesis in actinobacteria involves N-terminal nucleophile-hydrolase activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase homolog for C-C bond cleavage (United States)

    Zhong, Guannan; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Wen


    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs), ubiquitous in glutathione metabolism for γ-glutamyl transfer/hydrolysis, are N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase fold proteins that share an autoproteolytic process for self-activation. γ-GT homologues are widely present in Gram-positive actinobacteria where their Ntn-hydrolase activities, however, are not involved in glutathione metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that the formation of 4-Alkyl-L-(dehydro)proline (ALDP) residues, the non-proteinogenic α-amino acids that serve as vital components of many bioactive metabolites found in actinobacteria, involves unprecedented Ntn-hydrolase activity of γ-GT homologue for C-C bond cleavage. The related enzymes share a key Thr residue, which acts as an internal nucleophile for protein hydrolysis and then as a newly released N-terminal nucleophile for carboxylate side-chain processing likely through the generation of an oxalyl-Thr enzyme intermediate. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the biosynthesis of various ALDP residues/associated natural products, highlight the versatile functions of Ntn-hydrolase fold proteins, and particularly generate interest in thus far less-appreciated γ-GT homologues in actinobacteria.

  15. An iron-catalysed C-C bond-forming spirocyclization cascade providing sustainable access to new 3D heterocyclic frameworks (United States)

    Adams, Kirsty; Ball, Anthony K.; Birkett, James; Brown, Lee; Chappell, Ben; Gill, Duncan M.; Lo, P. K. Tony; Patmore, Nathan J.; Rice, Craig. R.; Ryan, James; Raubo, Piotr; Sweeney, Joseph B.


    Heterocyclic architectures offer powerful creative possibilities to a range of chemistry end-users. This is particularly true of heterocycles containing a high proportion of sp3-carbon atoms, which confer precise spatial definition upon chemical probes, drug substances, chiral monomers and the like. Nonetheless, simple catalytic routes to new heterocyclic cores are infrequently reported, and methods making use of biomass-accessible starting materials are also rare. Here, we demonstrate a new method allowing rapid entry to spirocyclic bis-heterocycles, in which inexpensive iron(III) catalysts mediate a highly stereoselective C-C bond-forming cyclization cascade reaction using (2-halo)aryl ethers and amines constructed using feedstock chemicals readily available from plant sources. Fe(acac)3 mediates the deiodinative cyclization of (2-halo)aryloxy furfuranyl ethers, followed by capture of the intermediate metal species by Grignard reagents, to deliver spirocycles containing two asymmetric centres. The reactions offer potential entry to key structural motifs present in bioactive natural products.

  16. An iron-catalysed C-C bond-forming spirocyclization cascade providing sustainable access to new 3D heterocyclic frameworks. (United States)

    Adams, Kirsty; Ball, Anthony K; Birkett, James; Brown, Lee; Chappell, Ben; Gill, Duncan M; Lo, P K Tony; Patmore, Nathan J; Rice, Craig R; Ryan, James; Raubo, Piotr; Sweeney, Joseph B


    Heterocyclic architectures offer powerful creative possibilities to a range of chemistry end-users. This is particularly true of heterocycles containing a high proportion of sp 3 -carbon atoms, which confer precise spatial definition upon chemical probes, drug substances, chiral monomers and the like. Nonetheless, simple catalytic routes to new heterocyclic cores are infrequently reported, and methods making use of biomass-accessible starting materials are also rare. Here, we demonstrate a new method allowing rapid entry to spirocyclic bis-heterocycles, in which inexpensive iron(III) catalysts mediate a highly stereoselective C-C bond-forming cyclization cascade reaction using (2-halo)aryl ethers and amines constructed using feedstock chemicals readily available from plant sources. Fe(acac) 3 mediates the deiodinative cyclization of (2-halo)aryloxy furfuranyl ethers, followed by capture of the intermediate metal species by Grignard reagents, to deliver spirocycles containing two asymmetric centres. The reactions offer potential entry to key structural motifs present in bioactive natural products.

  17. An Electron-Poor C64 Nanographene by Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade C-C Bond Formation: One-Pot Synthesis and Single-Crystal Structure Analysis. (United States)

    Seifert, Sabine; Shoyama, Kazutaka; Schmidt, David; Würthner, Frank


    Herein, we report the one-pot synthesis of an electron-poor nanographene containing dicarboximide groups at the corners. We efficiently combined palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and dehydrohalogenation to synthesize an extended two-dimensional π-scaffold of defined size in a single chemical operation starting from N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dibromo-1,8-naphthalimide and a tetrasubstituted pyrene boronic acid ester as readily accessible starting materials. The reaction of these precursors under the conditions commonly used for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling afforded a C64 nanographene through the formation of ten C-C bonds in a one-pot process. Single-crystal X-ray analysis unequivocally confirmed the structure of this unique extended aromatic molecule with a planar geometry. The optical and electrochemical properties of this largest ever synthesized planar electron-poor nanographene skeleton were also analyzed. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Tribological Characteristics of C/C-SiC-Cu Composite and Al/SiC Composite Materials under Various Contact Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung-Kook; Shin, Dong-Gap; Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Byeong-Choon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    The surface temperature of disc brakes varies during braking, which can affect the friction and wear behavior of braking systems. In order to develop an efficient braking system, the friction and wear behaviors of brake materials need to be clearly understood. In this work, the friction and wear behavior of the C/C-SiC-Cu composite and the Al/SiC composite, which are used in disc braking systems, were investigated. Both the surface temperature and contact pressure were studied. A pin-on-reciprocating tribotester was used for this purpose, in order to control temperature and load. Results showed that the friction varied significantly with temperature and sliding distance. It was found that a transfer layer of compacted wear debris formed on the wear track of the two materials. These layers caused the surface roughness of the wear track to increase. The outcome of this work is expected to serve as a basis for the development of braking systems under various operating conditions.

  19. Laser photolysis studies of ω-bond dissociation in aromatic carbonyls with a C-C triple bond stimulated by triplet sensitization. (United States)

    Yamaji, Minoru; Horimoto, Ami; Marciniak, Bronislaw


    We have prepared three types of carbonyl compounds, benzoylethynylmethyl phenyl sulfide (2@SPh), (p-benzoyl)phenylethynylmethyl phenyl sulfide (3@SPh) and p-(benzoylethynyl)benzyl phenyl sulfide (4@SPh) with benzoyl and phenylthiylmethyl groups, which are interconnected with a C-C triple bond and a phenyl ring. Laser flash photolysis of 3@SPh and 4@SPh in acetonitrile provided the transient absorption spectra of the corresponding triplet states where no chemical reactions were recognized. Upon laser flash photolysis of 2@SPh, the absorption band due to the phenylthiyl radical (PTR) was obtained, indicating that the C-S bond cleaved in the excited state. Triplet sensitization of these carbonyl compounds using acetone and xanthone was conducted using laser photolysis techniques. The formation of triplet 3@SPh was seen in the transient absorption, whereas the PTR formation was observed for 2@SPh and 4@SPh, indicating that the triplet states were reactive for the C-S bond dissociation. The C-S bond dissociation mechanism for 4@SPh upon triplet sensitization is discussed in comparison with those for 2@SPh and 3@SPh.

  20. Ubiquitous Transgenic Overexpression of C-C Chemokine Ligand 2: A Model to Assess the Combined Effect of High Energy Intake and Continuous Low-Grade Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rodríguez-Gallego


    Full Text Available Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study.

  1. Carbocyclic C-C Bond Formation: Intramolecular Radical Ring Closure to Yield Diastereomerically Pure (7'S-Me- or 7'R-Me-) Carba-LNA Nucleotide Analogs. (United States)

    Plashkevych, Oleksandr; Upadhayaya, Ram Shankar; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti


    In light of the impressive gene-silencing properties of carba-LNA modified oligo DNA and RNA, both in antisense RNA and siRNA approaches, which have been confirmed as proof-of-concept for biochemical applications in post-transcriptional gene silencing, we envision the true potential of carba-LNA modifications to be revealed soon. Herein we provide detailed protocols for synthesis of carba-LNA-A, -G, -5-Me C, and -T nucleosides on a medium/large scale (gram scale), as well as important guidelines for incorporation of these modified carba-LNAs into DNA or RNA oligonucleotides. Creation of a stereoselective C-C bond during the 5-exo radical intramolecular cyclization involves trapping of a C2' radical intermediate intramolecularly by the vicinal double bond of a C4'-tethered ─CH2 -CH═CH2 group. All diastereomers of substituted carba-LNAs are now available in pure form. The present procedure allows carba-LNA to be commercialized for medicinal or biotechnological purposes. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Acetaldehyde partial oxidation on the Au(111) model catalyst surface: C-C bond activation and formation of methyl acetate as an oxidative coupling product (United States)

    Karatok, Mustafa; Vovk, Evgeny I.; Shah, Asad A.; Turksoy, Abdurrahman; Ozensoy, Emrah


    Partial oxidation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) on the oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst was investigated via Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) techniques, where ozone (O3) was utilized as the oxygen delivery agent providing atomic oxygen to the reacting surface. We show that for low exposures of O3 and small surface oxygen coverages, two partial oxidation products namely, methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) can be generated without the formation of significant quantities of carbon dioxide. The formation of methyl acetate as the oxidative coupling reaction product implies that oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst surface can activate C-C bonds. In addition to the generation of these products; indications of the polymerization of acetaldehyde on the gold surface were also observed as an additional reaction route competing with the partial and total oxidation pathways. The interplay between the partial oxidation, total oxidation and polymerization pathways reveals the complex catalytic chemistry associated with the interaction between the acetaldehyde and atomic oxygen on catalytic gold surfaces.

  3. The most common mutation of KRT9, c.C487T (p.R163W), in epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma in two large Chinese pedigrees. (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Ke, Hai-Ping; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Lu, Jia-Jun; Du, Zheng-Fang; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Xian-Ning


    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is generally associated with dominant-negative mutations of the Keratin 9 gene (KRT9), and rarely with the Keratin 1 gene (KRT1). To date, a myriad of mutations has been reported with a high frequency of codon 163 mutations within the first exon of KRT9 in different populations. Notably, a distinct phenotypic heterogeneity, digital mutilation, was found recently in a 58-year-old female Japanese EPPK patient with p.R163W. Here, we report the most common mutation, c.C487T (p.R163W) of KRT9, in two large EPPK pedigrees from southeast China. The arginine residue in peptide position 163 remains almost constant in at least 47 intermediate filament proteins ranging from snail to human. A substitution in arginine alters both the charge and shape of the 1A rod domain and disrupts the function of the helix initiation motif of keratins, finally compromising the integrity of filaments and weakening their stability in the epidermis of palms and soles. We summarize the clinical symptoms of EPPK in Chinese and show that knuckle pads are associated with KRT9 mutations. We suggest that the frequency of p.R163W in Chinese EPPK patients (31.03%) is consistent with that in the general population (29.33%), and that codon 163 is truly a hotspot mutational site of KRT9. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reduction of unsaturated compounds under interstellar conditions: chemoselective reduction of C≡C and C=C bonds over C=O functional group (United States)

    Jonusas, Mindaugas; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Krim, Lahouari


    The knowledge of the H-addition reactions on unsaturated organic molecules bearing a triple or a double carbon-carbon bond such as propargyl or allyl alcohols and a CO functional group such as propynal, propenal or propanal may play an important role in the understanding of the chemical complexity of the interstellar medium. Why different aldehydes like methanal, ethanal, propynal and propanal are present in dense molecular clouds while the only alcohol detected in those cold regions is methanol? In addition, ethanol has only been detected in hot molecular cores. Are those saturated and unsaturated aldehyde and alcohol species chemically linked in molecular clouds through solid phase H-addition surface reactions or are they formed through different chemical routes? To answer such questions, we have investigated a hydrogenation study of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols at 10 K. We prove through this experimental study that while pure unsaturated alcohol ices bombarded by H atoms lead to the formation of the corresponding fully or partially saturated alcohols, surface H-addition reactions on unsaturated aldehyde ices exclusively lead to the formation of fully saturated aldehyde. Such results show that in addition to a chemoselective reduction of C≡C and C=C bonds over the C=O group, there is no link between aldehydes and their corresponding alcohols in reactions involving H atoms in dense molecular clouds. Consequently, this could be one of the reasons why some aldehydes such as propanal are abundant in dense molecular clouds in contrast to the non-detection of alcohol species larger than methanol.

  5. Increased C-C Chemokine Receptor 2 Gene Expression in Monocytes of Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients and under Intermittent Hypoxia (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Shih-Wei; Chang, Ying-Ling; Liao, Hsiang-Ruei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chao, I-Ju; Lin, Yuling; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.


    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. The chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium in the early atherosclerosis is important. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes. Methods Peripheral blood was sampled from 54 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). The effect of intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of CCR2 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and monocytes. The mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Transwell filter migration assay and cell adhesion assay were performed to study the chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes. Results Monocytic CCR2 gene expression was found to be increased in severe OSA patients and higher levels were detected after sleep. Intermittent hypoxia increased the CCR2 expression in THP-1 monocytic cells even in the presence of TNF-α and CRP. Intermittent hypoxia also promoted the MCP-1-mediated chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Furthermore, inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of monocytic CCR2 expression by intermittent hypoxia. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of CCR2 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. Monocytic CCR2 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia which contributes to the chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes. PMID:25411969

  6. Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 5 −2459 Genotype in Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Race-Specific Influence on Virologic Success (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K.; Blood Zikursh, Melinda J.; Benish, Rebekah L.; Lederman, Michael M.; Salata, Robert A.; Gripshover, Barbara; McComsey, Grace A.; Lisgaris, Michelle V.; Fulton, Scott; Subauste, Carlos S.; Jurevic, Richard J.; Guillemette, Chantal; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Rodriguez, Benigno


    Background. In patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), antiretroviral drug–metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene polymorphisms, as well as chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms, may influence response to treatment. Methods. In a North American, treated, adherent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive cohort (self-identified whites, n = 175; blacks, n = 218), we investigated whether CYP2B6 (516G>T, 983T>C), UGT2B7 (IVS1+985A>G, 802C>T), MDR1 3435C>T, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) 190G>A, and CCR5 (−2459G>A, Δ32) polymorphisms influenced the time to achieve virologic success (TVLS). Results. No difference in TVLS was observed between races. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, only 516G>T (log-rank P = .045 for comparison of GG, GT, and TT and P = .02 GG + GT vs TT) and −2459G>A (log-rank P = .04 for GG, GA, and AA and P = .02 for GG + GA vs AA) genotypes were significantly associated with TVLS in black patients but not in white patients. However, in the Cox proportional hazards model that included age, sex, baseline CD4+ T cell count, and baseline viral load, no significant association was observed between 516G>T and TVLS, whereas the association between −2459G>A and TVLS remained significant even after including CCR2 190G>A as well as all the drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter genotypes. Conclusions. These findings suggest that CCR5 −2459G>A genotype had a strong, race-specific influence on TVLS in this cohort. Understanding the possible mechanisms underlying this influence requires further studies. PMID:21673041

  7. HT-XRD study of synthetic ferrian magnesian spodumene: the effect of site dimension on the P21/c-->C2/c phase transition (United States)

    Cámara, F.; Iezzi, G.; Oberti, R.

    Ferrian magnesian spodumene was synthesized in the MLFSH system at P=0.4 GPa, T=700 °C, fO2=NNO+2.3. The space group at room T is P21/c [a=9.638(3) Å, b=8.709(2) Å, c=5.258(2) Å, β=109.83(3)∘, V=415.2 Å3]. The structure is topologically equivalent to that of ferrian spodumene, LiFeSi2O6, and has two symmetrically independent tetrahedral chains, A and B, and two independent octahedral sites, M1 and M2. The crystal-chemical composition was determined combining EMP, SIMS and single-crystal XRD analysis, yielding M2(Li0.85Mg0.09Fe2+0.06) M1(Fe3+0.85Mg0.15)Si2O6. Li is ordered at the M2 site and Fe3+ is ordered at the M1 site, whereas Mg (and Fe2+) distribute over both octahedral sites. Structure refinements done at different temperatures (25, 70, 95, 125, 150 and 200 °C) allowed characterization of a reversible displacive P21/c-->C2/c transition at 106 °C. Previous HT-XRD studies of Li-clinopyroxenes had shown that the transition temperature is inversely related to the size of the M1 cation. For the crystal of this work, the aggregate ionic radius at M1 is longer than that of ferrian spodumene, for which the transition temperature is -44 °C. The higher transition temperature observed can only be explained on the basis of the shorter aggregate radius at the M2 site (due to the presence of Mg substituting after Li), in keeping with the results obtained for ferromagnesian P21/c pyroxenes. The effects of all the chemical substitutions must be considered when modelling transition temperatures and thermodynamic behaviour in clinopyroxenes.

  8. Reacciones de creación de enlaces C-N y C-C catalizadas por Pd: Síntesis de NH-1, 2, 3-triazoles y olefinas sustituidas


    Escribano Santamaría, María


    En esta Tesis Doctoral se aborda el estudio de nuevas aplicaciones sintéticas de las reacciones de acoplamiento cruzado catalizadas por paladio. La memoria consta de dos capítulos, que hacen referencia a la creación de enlaces C-N y C-C, respectivamente: "Reacciones de formación de enlaces C-N: acoplamiento cruzado de azida de sodio con haloalquenos. Síntesis de NH-1,2,3-triazoles" y "Reacciones de formación de enlaces C-C catalizadas por paladio a partir de N-tosilhidrazonas". Este último...

  9. Projeto da reologia de concretos refratários zero-cimento no sistema Al2O3-SiC-C Rheological design of zero-cement refractory castables in the Al2O3-SiC-C system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Concretos refratários no sistema Al2O3-SiC-C vêm sendo utilizados principalmente no revestimento de canais de corrida de altos-fornos. A associação dessas matérias-primas tem elevado o desempenho dos concretos refratários frente às severas condições de trabalho, devido ao aumento da resistência ao choque térmico e ao ataque por escória e metal fundido. Apesar disso, o nível de conhecimento científico sobre a dispersão das partículas desse sistema multifásico é limitado. Neste trabalho, suspensões representativas da matriz de concretos refratários zero-cimento no sistema Al2O3-SiC-C foram preparadas para a avaliação da eficiência de aditivos na dispersão simultânea de diferentes matérias-primas, bem como para a análise do comportamento reológico da matriz em função do pH e teor de aditivo. Os ácidos poliacrílico e cítrico e um surfactante não iônico foram usados como dispersantes. Os valores de viscosidade aparente e tensão de escoamento obtidos foram usados para construir mapas de estabilidade da matriz. Medidas de pH e fluidez de concretos preparados com diferentes teores de aditivo mostraram que as condições iniciais de pH não foram correspondentes à região ótima de dispersão estabelecida pelos mapas de estabilidade. O uso de altos teores de ácido cítrico, bem como, o deslocamento do pH do concreto na direção da região ótima de dispersão foram eficientes para otimizar a sua fluidez.Refractory castables in the Al2O3-SiC-C system have been used mainly as linings for blast furnace runners. The association of these raw materials has enabled the development of high quality refractory castables due to improvements on their resistance to thermal shock, slag and metal corrosion. Nevertheless, the scientific knowledge regarding particle dispersion in this system is quite limited. In this work, representative suspensions of the matrix of Al2O3-SiC-C refractory castables were prepared in order to evaluate

  10. Laccase-catalyzed C-S and C-C coupling for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfides and 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfide dimers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W


    Full Text Available ChemCatChem June 2013/ Vol 5 Issue 6 Laccase-catalyzed C-S and C-C coupling for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfides and 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfide dimers Dr. Kevin W. Wellington1,*, Dr. Gregory E. R. Gordon1, Lindelani A. Ndlovu1...

  11. A new strategy to construct a C=C-CF3 subunit via CuBr-catalyzed domino reaction of homopropargyl amines: an efficient synthesis of trifluoromethyl containing building blocks 4-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-pyrroliums. (United States)

    Ge, Guang-Cun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Chang-Hua; Wan, Shi-Li; Dai, Li-Xin; Hou, Xue-Long


    A new strategy for the construction of a C=C-CF3 subunit has been developed via CuBr-catalyzed domino cyclization-trifluoromethylation of homopropargyl amines with Umemoto's reagent. 4-Trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-pyrroliums were produced in high yields. The usefulness of these products has been demonstrated by the transformation of them into various other trifluoromethylated molecules.

  12. Modular functionalized polyphosphines for supported materials: previously unobserved (31)P-NMR «through-space» ABCD spin systems and heterogeneous palladium-catalysed C-C and C-H arylation. (United States)

    Beaupérin, Matthieu; Smaliy, Radomyr; Cattey, Hélène; Meunier, Philippe; Ou, Jun; Toy, Patrick H; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille


    The modular design of polyphosphines, diversely functionalized for facile immobilization on virtually any kind of support, is reported. Previously unobserved ABCD (31)P NMR spin-spin systems evidence the control exercised on the polyphosphines conformation. We illustrate the catalytic performance at low Pd loading of the recyclable immobilized polyphosphines in C-C bond formation reactions.

  13. Indole-3-carbinol and 3’, 3’-diindolylmethane modulate androgen effect up-regulation on C-C chemokine ligand 2 and monocyte attraction to prostate cancer cells (United States)

    Inflammation has a role in prostate tumorigenesis. Recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the tumor site is mediated by C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) through binding to its receptor CCR2. We hypothesized that androgen could modulate CCL2 expression in hormone-responsive prostate cancer cells, and ...

  14. Geologic cross section C-C' through the Appalachian basin from Erie County, north-central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge province, Bedford County, south-central Pennsylvania (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D.; Hope, Rebecca S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lentz, Erika E.


    Geologic cross section C-C' is the third in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section C-C' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from north-central Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in south-central Pennsylvania, a distance of approximately 260 miles (mi). This cross section is a companion to cross sections E-E' and D-D' that are located about 50 to 125 mi and 25 to 50 mi, respectively, to the southwest. Cross section C-C' contains much information that is useful for evaluating energy resources in the Appalachian basin. Although specific petroleum systems are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on what is shown on the cross section. Cross section C-C' also provides a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section, although the cross section lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank). In addition, cross section C-C' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  15. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.


    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Diphenyldiacetylene complexes of molybdenum(IV) and tungsten(IV). Crystal structures of PPh/sub 4/(WCl/sub 5/(Ph-C triple bond C-C triple bond C-Ph)) x CCl/sub 4/ and PPh/sub 4/(WCl/sub 5/(Ph-C triple bond C-C(Br)=C(Br)-Ph)) x CCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, K.; Weller, F.; Dehnicke, K. (Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Chemie)


    Syntheses and i.r. spectra of the following diphenyldiacetylene complexes are reported: (MoCl/sub 4/(Ph-C triple bond C-C triple bond C-Ph))/sub 2/ (1), (WCl/sub 4/(Ph-C triple bond C-C triple bond C-Ph))/sub 2/ (2), PPh/sub 4/(WCl/sub 5/(Ph-C triple bond C-C triple bond C-Ph)) x CCl/sub 4/ (3). 1 is formed in the reaction of MoCl/sub 5/ with excess diphenylacetylene. 2 is prepared from WCl/sub 6/ and excess diphenylacetylene with additional C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ as a reducing agent. Reaction of 2 with PPh/sub 4/Cl in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ solution in the presence of CCl/sub 4/ yields 3. The complexes contain one of the acetylene functions bonded in a metallacyclopropene ring; the metal atoms are seven-coordinated. 2 reacts with bromine to form the dibromide (WCl/sub 4/(Ph-C triple bond C-C(Br)=C(Br)-Ph/sub 2/))/sub 2/ (4). In CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ solution and in presence of CCl/sub 4/ 4 is turned into the ionic complex PPh/sub 4/(WCl/sub 5/(Ph-C triple bond C-C(Br)=C(Br)-Ph)) x CCl/sub 4/ (5) by PPh/sub 4/Cl. The complexes 3 and 5 are characterized by structural analyses on the basis of X-ray diffraction data. 3 crystallizes monoclinic in the space group P2/sub 1//n with four formula units per unit cell (2623 observed, independent reflexions, R = 5.4%). 5 crystallizes in the same space group, set P2/sub 1//c, the unit cell containing four formula units (2537 observed, independent reflexions, R = 5.4%).

  17. Actualizing of calibration curves of {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca, {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory for the determination of the post mortal interval of elephants and consequences of the radiation protection of non-human species; Aktualisierung von Kalibierkurven von {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca und {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in Elefantenelfenbein zum Zwecke der Alterbestimmung und die Konsequenzen fuer den Strahlenschutz nicht-menschlicher Arten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schupfner, R. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). ZRN-URA Lab.


    The determination of the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca and {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th applying combined radionuclide analyses methods has been proved to be a suitable tool for the purpose of an unambiguous age determination of elephant ivory [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Analysing representative and independently dated samples (N = 28) of ivory the curves fitting the post mortal interval (PMI) versus the activity concentration of the radionuclides mentioned above produced the data base enabling a more unambiguous age determination. Data from these studies origin [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13] in analyses of ivory samples which were available up to the 2012. During the last five years there was a gap in information of the future trend of {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca. Up to this study it was not possible to assess whether the future level of {sup 14}C/C as well as {sup 90}Sr/Ca can analytically be distinguished from the level before 1954. At about 1954 the activity concentration of radionuclides from the atmospheric nuclear explosion, as {sup 14}C and {sup 90}Sr, increased in ivory significantly. This study aims in closing this information gap. The results of analyses of {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca, {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory with PMI values ranging from 1 to 5 years are presented and interpreted. These data enable an actualization of the calibration curves of PMI versus specific activities. This is necessary for a better understanding of the effect of blindness of {sup 14}C/C dating and its prevention. On the base of all available results form independent dated ivory sample available up to 2015 a suitable analytical procedure is suggested which aims in a more precise and reliable age determination of elephant tusks. Results of determining of radionuclides {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca and {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory are shown from before 1950 to 2015. These results are discussed with respect the purposes of dating as well

  18. An easy access to α-aryl substituted γ-ketophosphonates: Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones with α-hydroxyphosphonates and tandem regioselective C-C bond cleavage. (United States)

    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravarty, Manab; Sahoo, Manoj K


    A range of α-aryl substituted γ-ketophosphonates is synthesised by Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones and easily accessible, inexpensive benzylic α-hydroxyphosphonates in an operationally simple method under solvent-free conditions without exclusion of air/moisture. A regioselective C-C bond cleavage for 1,3-diketones in a tandem fashion has also been demonstrated. Synthesis of a γ-ketophosphonate with phenol functionality at the α-position (structural analogue of raspberry ketone, a natural product) has also been presented.

  19. $K^{\\ast}(892)^0$ and $\\bar{K}^{\\ast}(892)^0$ production in central Pb+Pb, Si+Si, C+C and inelastic p+p collisions at 158$A$~GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gazdzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mackowiak, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, S.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.


    Production of the $K^{\\ast}(892)^0$ and $\\bar{K}^{\\ast}(892)^0$ resonances was studied via their $K^+ \\pi^-$ and $K^- \\pi^+$ decay modes in central Pb+Pb, Si+Si, C+C and inelastic p+p collisions at 158\\agev ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 17.3 GeV) with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS. Transverse momentum and rapidity distributions were measured and total yields were estimated. The yield of $K^{\\ast}$ exceeds that of $\\bar{K}^{\\ast}$ by about a factor of two in nucleus-nucleus reactions. The total yield ratios $/$ and $/$ are strongly suppressed in central Pb+Pb compared to p+p, C+C and Si+Si collisions in agreement with the expected attenuation of these short-lived resonance states in the hadronic phase of the expanding fireball. The UrQMD model, although incorporating such a scenario, does not provide a quantitative description of the experimental results. The statistical hadron gas model assuming the same freeze-out parameters for stable hadrons and resonances overestimates the $/$ ratios in central Pb+Pb collisions ...

  20. Effect of locally delivered tetracycline hydrochloride as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on Hba1c, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Dodwad


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the levels of HbA1c, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by treating the pockets using collagen impregnated sustained release resorbable tetracycline fiber (periodontal plus AB fiber following scaling and root planing (SRP. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly distributed into two groups receiving either SRP and tetracycline fiber or SRP alone. Patients were evaluated clinically with gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, and relative attachment level, and bio-chemically with HbA1c, C Reactive Protein, and lipid profile at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: Significant reduction in all the clinical parameters was seen in the tetracycline group compared to the control group. Bio-chemical analysis also revealed similar results except for cholesterol and High density lipoprotein who did not show any significant reduction. Conclusion: Locally delivered tetracycline as a better treatment modality compared to SRP alone.

  1. A theoretical study on the aromaticity of benzene and related derivatives incorporating a C-C C-C fragment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez-Sanz, Goar; Trujillo, Cristina; Rozas, I.; Elguero, J.


    Roč. 69, č. 35 (2013), s. 7333-7344 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dehydroannulenes * aromaticity * NICS * chemical shifts * benzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  2. Cosmologia e Representa\\c{c}\\~ao

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Byrro


    This work presents a brief and non-technical description of the main results and concepts of the modern scientific cosmology, viewing it from an epistemological perspective which allows a dialog with other modes of thinking like e.g. history, philosophy, sociology and religion. This epistemological viewpoint is based on the philosophical theses advanced by Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) which states that scientific theories are nothing more than representations, or images, of nature (arXiv:physics/0701308v1). By being representations one cannot know how nature really is because the intrinsic and indispensable properties that characterize nature are unreachable by science. In other words, the true essences that constitute nature are unknowable. Therefore, all answers proposed by science are partial, simplified and replaceable. Another way of putting forward this viewpoint is to state that all scientific truths are provisional, a result which naturally leads to the conclusion that the same set of phenomena, or sc...

  3. Structure and related corrosion behaviour in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of b.c.c. 304L films prepared by ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idiri, M.; Boubeker, B. [Faculte des Science, Casablanca (Morocco). Lab. de Controle et d' Analyse des Materiaux; Sabot, R. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux en Milieux Agressifs, Universite de La Rochelle, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue Marillac, 17042, La Rochelle (France); Goudeau, P. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, Universite de Poitiers, UMR 6630 du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, SP2MI, Bd 3, Teleport 2, B.P; 179, 86960, Futuroscope (France); Dinhut, J.-F.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.-L. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux en Milieux Agressifs, Universite de La Rochelle, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue Marillac, 17042, La Rochelle (France)


    The corrosion behaviour in a non-deaered 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution of 304L stainless steel (SS) in bulk and thin film state was investigated. In the first step, we elaborated based cubic-centred 304L stainless steel thin films onto Si and f.c.c. 304L SS bulk substrates by using a sputter deposition method. Then, the structure and residual macrostress state of the films were studied by X-ray diffraction. It was found that films are in a highly compressive state ({approx}3 GPa). Finally, corrosion tests revealed an improvement in corrosion resistance of the films with respect to the bulk 304L stainless steel. (orig.)

  4. Comportamiento mecánico y estudio in situ de la evolución del daño en el grafito y en un compuesto C/C a 77 y a 300 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar, A.


    Full Text Available The mechanical properties at 77 K and at 300 K were determined in two polycristalline graphites with different microstructures and in a C/C composite. The flexure strength and the fracture toughness were evaluated and the micromechanic failure was studied in situ with a long distance microscope. The results obtained showed that the mechanical properties of these carbon materials are not affected by the cryogenic temperatures. The porosity is the main responsible of the mechanical failure in the graphites while in the composite, the matrix/yarn interface deflect the crack nucleated in the mattrix, presenting the best mechanical behavior.

    En este trabajo se han evaluado las propiedades mecánicas a 77 y a 300 K de dos grafitos policristalinos con microestructuras muy diferentes y de un compuesto C/C. Se realizaron ensayos de flexión en tres puntos y de tenacidad, y en éstos últimos se midió in situ la iniciación y la evolución del daño en el fondo de la entalla con un microscopio de larga distancia focal. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las temperaturas criogénicas no afectan el comportamiento mecánico de los compuestos de carbono estudiados. Además, la porosidad presente en los grafitos es el mecanismo de rotura dominante mientras que en el material compuesto, la intercara débil entre matriz y haz de fibras detiene y desvía las grietas nucleadas en la matriz, presentando el mejor comportamiento mecánico.

  5. The principles and in vivo performance of the Edinburgh pivoted aerofoil-disc prosthetic heart valve. (United States)

    Macleod, N; Turina, M; Wade, J D; Wheatley, D J


    Prototypes of the Edinburgh prosthetic heart valve, known from previous experiments in vitro to promote exceptionally smooth and undisturbed forward flow, have been shown here in canine experiments to possess hemodynamic characteristics not inferior to those of the Bjork-Shiley valve (a present standard of excellence). In addition, we report a low incidence of valve thrombus deposition among calves in which this prototype valve, fabricated from the conventional materials, Delrin and stainless steel, has been implanted in the tricuspid site for up to 100 days without use of anticoagulants. This suggests that the design of the valve is such as to render it of low thrombogenicity. The new valve is designed for fabrication throughout in vitreous or pyro-coated carbon, materials of very high inherent athrombogenicity. It appears from the results discussed here that the developed form of the prosthesis, composed wholly of these athrombogenic materials, is likely to have both acceptable hemodynamic characteristics and an exceptionally low tendency to form thrombus. The introduction of such valves promises to be very advantageous and the results given here appear to warrant their development as the next stage of this program.

  6. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a jellyfish valve for practical use. (United States)

    Imachi, K; Mabuchi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Imanishi, K; Yonezawa, T; Maeda, K; Suzukawa, M; Kouno, A; Ono, T


    A practical model (Model-1) of a jellyfish valve was developed, which was composed of a valve seat and a flexible membrane. The valve seat has 12 spokes to hold the membrane, and is made of solution-cast polyurethane coated with segmented polyurethane or Cardiothane. The flexible membrane is 200 microns thick, and made of segmented polyurethane or Cardiothane by a casting method. The valves were built into a sac type blood pump. In mock circulation tests, this jellyfish valve revealed performance superior to Bjork-Shiley (B-S) valves. No stagnation point was observed in the flow visualization study, and durability testing is ongoing beyond 7.5 months. The valves were used in animal artificial heart experiments for up to 112 days with good performance. No thrombi were formed on the valve membrane or around the spokes. Although a ring thrombus was observed behind the valve, it would be prevented by perfect adhesion of the valve seat to the blood pump. The plasma free hemoglobin level was less than 2 mg/dl during these experiments. These results suggest that a jellyfish valve (Model-1) is useful in ventricular assist devices, and in short-term bridge use of a total artificial heart.

  8. A preliminary study on the expression and clinical value of platelet-derived growth factor BB, hypoxia inducible factor-1α and C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 in peripheral blood during the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Jinglan; Hu, Qiaohong; Lu, Kefeng; Hou, Chunjie


    Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) plays an important role in the development of GD (Graves' disease). However, it is still unknown whether PDGF-BB is expressed in peripheral blood and whether the expression of PDGF-BB contributes to GD. We aim to study the expression of PDGF-BB, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)-2 in peripheral blood of patients with GD and explore its effect and potential mechanism in pathogenesis. 41 patients with GD (GD group) and forty-five healthy people (control group) were chosen. The concentration of PDGF-BB and HIF-1α in peripheral blood specimens were detected and compared between the two groups. The expression of CCR2 in macrophages in the peripheral blood specimens were examined using FCM (Flow Cytometry). Both PDGF-BB and HIF-1α were expressed in human peripheral blood from the two groups. Compared with specimens from healthy people, there were statistically increased concentrations of PDGF-BB and HIF-1α in the GD group (P BB through HIF-1α signal, and the high expression of PDGF-BB may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD.

  9. A new face of phenalenyl-based radicals in the transition metal-free C-H arylation of heteroarenes at room temperature: trapping the radical initiatorviaC-C σ-bond formation. (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasimuddin; P, Sreejyothi; Vijaykumar, Gonela; Jose, Anex; Raj, Manthan; Mandal, Swadhin K


    The radical-mediated transition metal-free approach for the direct C-H bond functionalization of arenes is considered as a cost effective alternative to transition metal-based catalysis. An organic ligand-based radical plays a key role by generating an aryl radical which undergoes a subsequent functionalization process. The design principle of the present study takes advantage of a relatively stable odd alternant hydrocarbon-based phenalenyl (PLY) radical. In this study, the first transition metal-free catalyzed direct C-H arylation of a variety of heteroarenes such as azoles, furan, thiophene and pyridine at room temperature has been reported using a phenalenyl-based radical without employing any photoactivation step. This protocol has been successfully applied to the gram scale synthesis of core moieties of bioactive molecules. The phenalenyl-based radical initiator has been characterized crystallographically by trapping it via the formation of a C-C σ-bond between the phenalenyl radical and solvent-based radical species.

  10. Study of the effect of switching speed of the a-SiC/c-Si(p)-based, thyristor-like, ultra-high-speed switches, using two-dimensional simulation techniques (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Evangelos I.; Georgoulas, Nikolaos


    A parametric study for a series of technological and geometrical parameters affecting rise time of Al/a-SiC/c-Si(p)/c-Si(n+)/Al thyristor-like switches, is presented here for the first time, using two-dimensional simulation techniques. By varying anode current values in simulation procedure we achieved very good agreement between simulation and experimental results for the rising time characteristics of the switch. A series of factors affecting the rising time of the switches are studied here. Two factors among all others studied here, exerting most significant influence, of more than one order of magnitude on the rising time, are a-SiC and c-Si(p) region widths, validating our earlier presented model for device operation. The above widths can be easily varied on device manufacture procedure. We also successfully simulated the rising time characteristics of our earlier presented simulated improved switch, with forward breakover voltage {V}{BF}=11 {{V}} and forward voltage drop {V}{{F}}=9.5 {{V}} at the ON state, exhibiting an ultra low rise time value of less than 10 ps, which in conjunction with its high anode current density values of 12 A/mm2 and also cheap and easy fabrication techniques, makes this switch appropriate for ESD protection as well as RF MEMS and NEMS applications.

  11. A semi-homodesmotic approach for estimating ring strain energies (RSEs) of highly substituted cyclopropanes that minimizes use of acyclic references and cancels steric interactions: RSEs for c-C3R6 that make sense. (United States)

    De Lio, Ashley M; Durfey, Bridget L; Gille, Austin L; Gilbert, Thomas M


    Estimation of ring strain energies (RSEs) of substituted cyclopropanes c-C(3)H(x)R(6-x) (R = F, Cl, Me; x = 0, 2, 4) using homodesmotic reaction methods has been plagued by implausible results. Prior work suggests that this stems from poorly canceled interactions between substituents on the acyclic reference molecules. We report a semi-homodesmotic approach that minimizes use of acyclic references, focusing instead on canceling substituent interactions. The method requires employing homodesmotic group equivalent reactions only for disubstituted cyclopropanes and relies solely on absolute energy calculations for more substituted rings. This provides RSEs consistent with chemical intuition regardless of the degree of substitution. We find that RSEs increase with substitution regardless of the electronic nature of R, although the increase is more dramatic when R is electron-withdrawing. The RSEs determined are consistent with QTAIM data, which show that progressive substitution always increases critical path angles. Overall, the semi-homodesmotic approach is simpler than hyperhomodesmotic reaction methods, and gives more trustworthy results.

  12. Nonaqueous and halide-free route to crystalline BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanoparticles via a mechanism involving C-C bond formation. (United States)

    Niederberger, Markus; Garnweitner, Georg; Pinna, Nicola; Antonietti, Markus


    A novel nonaqueous route for the preparation of nanocrystalline BaTiO(3), SrTiO(3), and (Ba,Sr)TiO(3) has been developed. In a simple one-pot reaction process, the elemental alkaline earth metals are directly dissolved in benzyl alcohol at slightly elevated temperatures. After the addition of Ti(O(i)Pr)(4), the reaction mixture is heated to 200 degrees C, resulting in the formation of a white precipitate. XRD measurements prove the exclusive presence of the perovskite phase without any other crystalline byproducts such as BaCO(3) or TiO(2). TEM investigations reveal that the BaTiO(3) nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape with diameters ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The SrTiO(3) particles display less uniform particle shapes, and the size varies between 5 and 10 nm. Lattice fringes observed in HRTEM measurements further prove the high crystallinity of the nanoparticles. Surprisingly, GC-MS analysis of the reaction solution after hydrothermal treatment shows that hardly any ether formation occurs during the BaTiO(3) synthesis. Instead, the presence of 4-phenyl-2-butanol in stoichiometric amounts gives evidence that the formation mechanism proceeds mainly via a novel pathway involving C-C bond formation between benzyl alcohol and the isopropanolate ligand.

  13. Effect of repeated alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent on messenger RNA levels for interleukin-1β, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and interleukin 10 in the developing rat brain after injection of lipopolysaccharide. (United States)

    Topper, Lauren A; Valenzuela, C Fernando


    Microglia undergo maturation during the third trimester of human development (equivalent to the first 1-2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents), during which these cells may be particularly sensitive to insult. Alcohol exposure during this period can activate the neuroimmune system, an effect that may contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated whether repeated alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent in rats has a priming effect on the neuroimmune response to injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pups were exposed to alcohol in vapor chambers for 4 h daily from postnatal day (PD)2 to PD16 (peak blood alcohol concentrations ∼150 mg/dL). On PD17, rats were injected with either saline or LPS (50 μg/kg) and the frontal cortex, cerebellar vermis, and dentate gyrus were collected 2 h later. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the pro-inflammatory agents interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2), as well as levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), were measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. LPS consistently increased IL-1β and CCL2 mRNA levels in the dentate gyrus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum of both male and female rats. Furthermore, the LPS-induced increase of IL-1β mRNA levels was significantly blunted in the frontal cortex of alcohol-exposed female rats. Conversely, LPS only minimally affected IL-10 mRNA expression and there were no significant differences between air- and alcohol-exposed rats. Taken together with the literature regarding the effect of third-trimester alcohol exposure on the neuroimmune system, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to lower levels is less disruptive to the neuroimmune system than binge-like exposure to high doses of alcohol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular basis of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency caused by 3 newly identified missense mutations (c.187T>C, c.469G>C and c.740T>C) and a tabulation of known mutations. (United States)

    Chiarelli, Laurent R; Morera, Simone M; Galizzi, Alessandro; Fermo, Elisa; Zanella, Alberto; Valentini, Giovanna


    Hereditary pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency is the most frequent enzymopathy of red blood cell nucleotide metabolism that causes hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. The disease is usually characterized by mild-to-moderate hemolytic anemia, reticulocytosis and hyperbilirubinemia. To date, diagnosis ultimately depends upon demonstration of a reduced level of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase type-I (P5'N-1) activity in red cells and detection of mutations in the P5'N-1 gene. To unravel the causes of the P5'N deficiency and to obtain data for a definitive diagnosis three newly described missense mutations (c.187T>C, c.469G>C and c.740T>C) identified in patients with hemolytic anemia have been characterized at protein level. The mutant enzymes (C63R, G157R and I247T) were obtained as recombinant forms and purified to homogeneity. The enzymes were altered, although to a different extent, in both thermal stability and catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiency of all mutants was reduced especially towards UMP (up to more than 200 times), owing to the increased Km values (approximately, 10-25 times higher). The G157R enzyme was severely heat unstable and lost half of its activity after about 23 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. At higher temperature C63R and I247T mutants as well were less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Therefore, although the mutations targeted different regions of the P5'N-1 structure, they produced similar effects on the molecular properties of the enzyme. Thus, all affected amino acids are functionally and structurally important for preserving the enzyme activity during the red cell life span.

  15. Human axonal survival of motor neuron (a-SMN) protein stimulates axon growth, cell motility, C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) production. (United States)

    Locatelli, Denise; Terao, Mineko; Fratelli, Maddalena; Zanetti, Adriana; Kurosaki, Mami; Lupi, Monica; Barzago, Maria Monica; Uggetti, Andrea; Capra, Silvia; D'Errico, Paolo; Battaglia, Giorgio S; Garattini, Enrico


    Spinal muscular atrophy is a fatal genetic disease of motoneurons due to loss of full-length survival of motor neuron protein, the main product of the disease gene SMN1. Axonal SMN (a-SMN) is an alternatively spliced isoform of SMN1, generated by retention of intron 3. To study a-SMN function, we generated cellular clones for the expression of the protein in mouse motoneuron-like NSC34 cells. The model was instrumental in providing evidence that a-SMN decreases cell growth and plays an important role in the processes of axon growth and cellular motility. In our conditions, low levels of a-SMN expression were sufficient to trigger the observed biological effects, which were not modified by further increasing the amounts of the expressed protein. Differential transcriptome analysis led to the identification of novel a-SMN-regulated factors, i.e. the transcripts coding for the two chemokines, C-C motif ligands 2 and 7 (CCL2 and CCL7), as well as the neuronal and myotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1). a-SMN-dependent induction of CCL2 and IGF1 mRNAs resulted in increased intracellular levels and secretion of the respective protein products. Induction of CCL2 contributes to the a-SMN effects, mediating part of the action on axon growth and random cell motility, as indicated by chemokine knockdown and re-addition studies. Our results shed new light on a-SMN function and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The data provide a rational framework to understand the role of a-SMN deficiency in the etiopathogenesis of spinal muscular atrophy.

  16. C-C motif chemokine 22 ligand (CCL22) concentrations in sera of gastric cancer patients are related to peritoneal metastasis and predict recurrence within one year after radical gastrectomy. (United States)

    Wei, Yuzhe; Wang, Tie; Song, Hongjiang; Tian, Lining; Lyu, Gongwei; Zhao, Lei; Xue, Yingwei


    Gastric cancer is a common cancer with a poor prognosis. Chemokines play important roles in the tumor microenvironments to support tumor growth and metastasis. The effects of C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22) in gastric cancer remain unclear. Between January 1, 2014 and April 31, 2014, a total of 298 gastric cancer patients were recruited to this study. Circulating concentrations of CCL22 were measured in gastric cancer patients before surgery, at discharged and during follow-up visits. The expression of CCL22 in gastric cancer tumor beds was measured by immunohistochemistry. The proportion of CD3 + CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in tumor sites was assessed by flow cytometry. Gastric cancer patients had higher serum CCL22 levels compared to healthy controls (P gastric cancer tumor beds were the source of serum CCL22, as gastric cancer patients had an increased proportion of strong expression of CCL22 (P Gastric cancer tissue harbored a higher percentage of regulatory T cells compared to normal tumor-free stomach margins (P Gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis showed increased levels of circulating CCL22 before surgery compared to metastasis-free patients (P Gastric cancer patients with the recurrence within the first year after surgery had elevated serum CCL22 concentrations at different time points compared to those of recurrence-free patients (P gastric cancer development presumably by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironments. CCL22 levels in sera have a predictive value for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis and the early recurrence. Therefore, CCL22 may be a therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Animation: The C.C.C.'s Socio-Cultural Development Project (United States)

    Price, Clarence


    Integration into a society made for and by men, in which all his activities are meaningful, is animation's ultimate goal. "Animation", the title of the Council for Cultural Cooperation's socio-cultural development project, is described along with the policy necessary to implement it. This includes the role of the animateur, who would…

  18. Enveloping σ-C C C-algebra of a smooth Frechet algebra crossed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... enveloping -*-algebra R E ( S ( R , A ∞ , ) ) of the smooth Schwartz crossed product R S ( R , A ∞ , ) of the Frechet algebra A ∞ of C ∞ -elements of is isomorphic to the -*-crossed product R C ∗ ( R , E ( A ) , ) of the enveloping -*-algebra () of by the induced action. When is a hermitian Q -algebra, ...

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells Overexpressing Interleukin-8 Receptors A/B and/or C-C Chemokine Receptors 2/5 Inhibit Vascular Injury Response. (United States)

    Giordano, Samantha; Zhao, Xiangmin; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Litovsky, Silvio H; Hage, Fadi G; Townes, Tim M; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Wu, Li-Chen; Oparil, Suzanne; Xing, Dongqi


    Recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages to the site of vascular injury is mediated by binding of chemoattractants to interleukin (IL) 8 receptors RA and RB (IL8RA/B) C-C chemokine receptors (CCR) 2 and 5 expressed on neutrophil and monocyte/macrophage membranes. Endothelial cells (ECs) derived from rat-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPS) were transduced with adenovirus containing cDNA of IL8RA/B and/or CCR2/5. We hypothesized that RiPS-ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B (RiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs), CCR2/5 (RiPS-CCR2/5-ECs), or both receptors (RiPS-IL8RA/B+CCR2/5-ECs) will inhibit inflammatory responses and neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent balloon injury of the right carotid artery and intravenous infusion of (a) saline vehicle, (b) control RiPS-Null-ECs (ECs transduced with empty virus), (c) RiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs, (d) RiPS-CCR2/5-ECs, or (e) RiPS-IL8RA/B+CCR2/5-ECs. Inflammatory mediator expression and leukocyte infiltration were measured in injured and uninjured arteries at 24 hours postinjury by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Neointima formation was assessed at 14 days postinjury. RiPS-ECs expressing the IL8RA/B or CCR2/5 homing device targeted the injured arteries and decreased injury-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and neointima formation. Transfused RiPS-ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B and/or CCR2/5 prevented inflammatory responses and neointima formation after vascular injury. Targeted delivery of iPS-ECs with a homing device to inflammatory mediators in injured arteries provides a novel strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1168-1177. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  20. Senior Senator from Florida and Chairman, Senate Committee on Space, Aeronautics and Related Sciences W. Nelson, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting, 16 March 2008.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Senior Senator from Florida and Chairman, Senate Committee on Space, Aeronautics and Related Sciences W. Nelson, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting, 16 March 2008.

  1. 17th April 2008 - W. W. Tichenor, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    17th April 2008 - W. W. Tichenor, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting.

  2. Synthesis, structure and reductive dechlorination of the C-centred phosphorus(III) beta-diketiminate PCl(Ph)L [L = C[C(Me)NC6H3Pri2(-2),6][C(Me)NHC6H3Pri2(-2),6 (United States)

    Hitchcock, Peter B; Lappert, Michael F; Nycz, Jacek E


    Treatment of the beta-diketimine HL with successively LiBun and PCl2Ph gave the first C-centered monodentate beta-diketiminate PCl(Ph)L 1; with C8K 1 underwent reductive dechlorination yielding 2, a novel N-PIII-PIII-C=C heterocycle.

  3. Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trionfetti, C.; Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Han J G E; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.


    Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as feedstock for commercial fuels and chemicals. However, direct conversion of lower alkanes for such purposes is a challenging problem. A discussion covers the oxidative conversion of light alkanes in the presence of cold plasma in a

  4. Alkane Activation at Ambient Temperatures: Unusual Selectivities, C-C, C-H Bond Scission versus C-C Bond Coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trionfetti, C.; Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer


    Activating bonds: A cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge in a microreactor converts alkanes (C1–C3) at atmospheric pressure. Large amounts of products with higher molecular weight than the starting hydrocarbons are observed showing that C-H activation at lower T favourably leads to

  5. C-H and C-C activation of n -butane with zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 containing N-donor ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)ZrH2], [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)2ZrH], and[(≡SiN=)(≡SiX-)ZrH] (X = -NH-, -O-). A DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad


    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to elucidate the mechanism of n-butane hydrogenolysis (into propane, ethane, and methane) on well-defined zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 coordinated to the surface via N-donor surface pincer ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-)ZrH2] (A), [(≡SiNH-)2ZrH2] (B), [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-) 2ZrH] (C), [(≡SiNH-)2(≡SiO-)ZrH] (D), [(≡SiN=)(≡Si-O-)ZrH] (E), and [(≡SiN=)(≡SiNH-)ZrH] (F). The roles of these hydrides have been investigated in C-H/C-C bond activation and cleavage. The dihydride A linked via a chelating [N,O] surface ligand was found to be more active than B, linked to the chelating [N,N] surface ligand. Moreover, the dihydride zirconium complexes are also more active than their corresponding monohydrides C-F. The C-C cleavage step occurs preferentially via β-alkyl transfer, which is the rate-limiting step in the alkane hydrogenolysis. The energetics of the comparative pathways over the potential energy surface diagram (PES) reveals the hydrogenolysis of n-butane into propane and ethane. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Practical Verification & Safeguard Tools for C/C++ (United States)


    vérification disponibles. Finalement, lorsque pertinent, de bonnes pratiques ont été déduites de nos expérimentations avec ces outils. DRDC...des meilleurs outils de vérification disponibles. Finalement, lorsque c’était pertinent, de bonnes pratiques ont été déduites de nos expériences...1. ORIGINATOR (the name and address of the organization preparing the document. Organizations for whom the document was prepared , e.g. Centre

  7. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaraz-Calderon S.


    Full Text Available Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  8. Search for C+ C clustering in Mg ground state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 4, 2017 ... tem, requires simplified models which can describe their gross properties. One such model is the α-cluster model. The α-cluster model is one of the earliest models to describe the nucleus in terms of clusters. Numerous experiments have been performed to iden- tify α-clusters in light and medium mass ...

  9. 179-IJBCS-Article-Dr C C Onyenekwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    5 Department of Immunology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, PMB. 5001 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. 7 VCT Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University ... reduced anti-BCG titre in HIV and malaria co- infected or HIV infected subjects (Onyenekwe et al., 2008b). However, could this.

  10. Direct-dynamics VTST study of hydrogen or deuterium abstraction and C-C bond formation or dissociation in the reactions of CH3 + CH4, CH3 + CD4, CH3D + CD3, CH3CH3 + H, and CH3CD3 + D (United States)

    Ramazani, Shapour


    Direct-dynamics variational transition-state theory calculations are studied at the MPWB1K/6-311++G(d,p) level for the four parts of reactions. The first part is hydrogen or deuterium abstraction in the reactions of CH3 + CH4, CH3 + CD4, and CH3D + CH3. The second part involves C-C bond formation in these reactions. The third one is the reactions of CH3CH3 + H and CH3CD3 + D to form of H2, HD, and D2. The last one is the dissociation of C-C bonds in the last group of reactions. The ground-state vibrational adiabatic potential is plotted for all channels. We have carried out direct-dynamics calculations of the rate constants, including multidimensional tunneling in the temperature range T = 200-2200 K. The results of CVT/μOMT rate constants were in good agreement with the experimental data which were available for some reactions. Small-curvature tunneling and Large-curvature tunneling with the LCG4 version were used to include the quantum effects in calculation of the rate constants. To try to find the region of formation and dissociation of bounds we have also reported the variations of harmonic vibrational frequencies along the reaction path. The thermally averaged transmission probability (P(E)exp (-ΔE/RT)) and representative tunneling energy at 298 K are reported for the reactions in which tunneling is important. We have calculated kinetic isotope effect which shows tunneling and vibrational contributions are noticeable to determine the rate constant. Nonlinear least-squares fitting is used to calculate rate constant expressions in the temperature range 200-2200 K. These expressions revealed that pre-exponential factor includes two parts; the first part is a constant number which is important at low temperatures while the second part is temperature dependent which is significant at high temperatures.

  11. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.


    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be global annually averaged lifetimes for the (E)- and (Z)-R-316c isomers were calculated using a 2-D atmospheric model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were calculated using the 2-D model to be 0.46 and 0.54, respectively. Infrared absorption spectra for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were measured at 296 K and used to estimate their

  12. Effect of the Co-C(C60(-)) bond formation on magnetic properties of the ionic complex {cryptand[2,2,2] x (Na+)} x {Co(II)TPP x (C60(-))} x (C6H4Cl2)2. (United States)

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Otsuka, Akihiro; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N


    A new ionic complex {cryptand[2,2,2] x (Na(+))} x {Co(II)TPP x (C(60)(-))} x (C(6)H(4)Cl(2))(2) has been obtained as single crystals by a diffusion technique. It involves coordination {Co(II)TPP x u(C(60)(-))} units and bulky {cryptand[2,2,2] x (Na(+))} cations. The Co-C(C(60)(-)) coordination bond is short (2.262(2) A at 100 K) which provides ordering in the C(60)(-) anions. This is the first ordered structure of {Co(II)TPP x (C(60)(-))}. The coordination bonds weaken upon heating to be 2.316(4) A at 250 K. As a result, the C(60)(-) anions begin to rotate at 250 K about the Co-C bond between two orientations. The complex is diamagnetic from 4 up to 320 K. The Co-C bonds dissociate above 320 K only to form unbound paramagnetic Co(II)TPP and C(60)(*-) species. The process is accompanied by the reversible increase in magnetic susceptibility of the complex and the appearance of a new broad EPR signal with g = 2.1187 and a linewidth of approximately 120 mT (350 K). The signal was attributed to both paramagnetic Co(II)TPP and C(60)(*-), which showed strong exchange interaction.

  13. Universal Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for C-C, C-O, C-N, N-O, N-N, and O-O Dissociation Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengguang


    It is shown that for all the essential bond forming and bond breaking reactions on metal surfaces, the reactivity of the metal surface correlates linearly with the reaction energy in a single universal relation. Such correlations provide an easy way of establishing trends in reactivity among the different transition metals.

  14. Dimensionalidade do espa\\c{c}o ou da extens\\~ao: nota sobre a contribui\\c{c}\\~ao do jovem Kant

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Francisco


    In this article, we present new comments to the article On Kant's First Insight Into The Problem of Space Dimensionality and Its Physical Foundations. In particular, we discuss how the space concept is designed in the first writing of Kant. In this work, dated 1747, the young Kant proposes to discuss how we can justify the three-dimensionality of space . Although he explicitly anticipates that this will demonstrate throughout the text, in fact, he merely relate the dimensionality of the extension to the law of gravitation. Anyway, this speculation went beyond Kant's Philosophy and had impact on the modern discussion about dimensionality of space. Indeed, from the point of view of physics, Kant's conjecture can be understood in the context of formulation of classical fields of Newtonian theory of gravitation. However, some philosophical points that led the young Kant did not succeed in proving the three-dimensional nature of space still deserve attention. This article is aimed to discuss them.

  15. A sensitivity study of the neutral-neutral reactions C + C3 and C + C5 in cold dense interstellar clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wakelam, Valentine; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Herbst, Eric; Talbi, Dahbia; Quan, Dongui; Caralp, Françoise


    .... Of these reactions, we concentrated on those between C and C3 and between C and C5, both for their effect on specific important species such as CO and for their general effect on large numbers of species...

  16. Double Valve Replacement (Mitral and Aortic for Rheumatic Heart Disease: A 20-year experience with 300 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mishra


    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatic heart disease still remains one of the leading causes of congestive heart failure and death owing to valvular pathologies, in developing countries. Valve replacement still remains the treatment of choice in such patients.The aim of this study wasto analyze the postoperative outcome of  double valve replacement (Mitral and Aortic in patients of rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Between 1988 and 2008, 300 patients of rheumatic heart disease underwent double (Mitral and Aortic valve replacement with Starr Edwards valve or St Jude mechanical valve prosthesis were implanted. These patients were studied retrospectively for preoperative data and postoperative outcome including causes of early and late deaths and the data was analyzed statistically. Results: The 30-day hospital death rate was 11.3% andlate death occurred in 11.6%. Anticoagulant regimen was followed to maintain the target pro-thrombin time at 1.5 times the control value. The actuarial survival (exclusive of hospital mortality was 92.4%, 84.6%, and 84.4%, per year at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively Conclusions: In view of the acknowledged advantageof superior durability, increased thromboresistance in our patient population, and its cost effectiveness the Starr-Edwards ball valve or St. Jude valve is the mechanical prosthesis of choice for advanced combined valvular disease. The low-intensity anticoagulant regimen has offered suffcient protection against thromboembolism as well as hemorrhage.

  17. Fiscal 1997 survey report / R and D of important region technology. R and D of technologies giving multi-functional characteristics to C/C composites (development of high-grade surface processing technology for engine members for methane fueled air craft. 1. control technology of micro structures of ultra-high temperature members); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). 1. chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of developing members most suitable for aircraft use engines with methane as fuel, the R and D were conducted of technology to reform surfaces and interfaces of materials. In the R and D, the paper took up carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites). In the surface control and reformation technology using the ion engineering method, etc., in the sealing processing of C/C composites, tried was the formation of a C/SiC/Si3N4 composite layer which was formed by Si3N4 much smaller in thermal expansion coefficient than SiC. Further, technologies on ion injection, thin film formation, giving of oxidation resistance/corrosion resistance, improving/giving of thermal shock resistance, etc. In the multi-functional coating formation technology such as high liability and corrosion resistance, the study was carried out of the dense composite functionally-gradient layer as thermal stress relaxation layer and the fiber reinforced layer by carbon fiber using pores. Besides, studies were made of technologies of the micro structure control combination, evaluation of ultra-high temperature resistant environmental characteristics, etc. 61 refs., 198 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of the rabbit C-C chemokine receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdouchi Chafiq


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Results Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1 with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1α or MIP-1β. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusion In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1.

  19. Ultralightweight Refractory-Lined C/C Ascent Engine Combustion Chambers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars sample return ascent vehicles require a velocity change exceeding 4 km/s within minutes of launch and higher propellant mass fractions than are offered by...

  20. Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary...

  1. The Story of S.U.C.C.E.S.S. A Model Workplace Literacy Program. (United States)

    Li, Anita K. S.; Marn, Stephanie

    Sheraton's Unified Commitment Concerning Employee's Self-Success (SUCCESS) Program is a workplace literacy partnership between ITT Sheraton Hotels in Hawaii and the University of Hawaii-Manoa, College of Education. The program provides workplace literacy skills training to employees of the four participating Sheraton Hotels in Hawaii. The SUCCESS…

  2. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells


    Charest-Morin, Xavier; P?pin, R?my; Gagn?-Henley, Ang?lique; Morissette, Guillaume; Lodge, Robert; Marceau, Fran?ois


    The C–C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by t...

  3. Unidirectional redox-stimulated movement around a C-C single bond. (United States)

    Tepper, Christina; Haberhauer, Gebhard


    A remarkable challenge for the design of molecular machines is the realization of a synchronized and unidirectional movement caused by an external stimulus. Such a movement can be achieved by a unidirectionally controlled change of the conformation or the configuration. Biphenol derivatives are one possibility to realize a redox-driven unidirectional molecular switch. For this reason, a 4,4'-biphenol derivative was fixed to a chiral cyclopeptidic scaffold and stimulated by chemical oxidants and reduction agents. The conformation of the switch was determined by DFT calculations by using B3LYP and the 6-31G* basis set. The switching process was observed by UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements. Several oxidation agents and various conditions were tested, among which (diacetoxy)iodobenzene (DAIB) in methanol proved to be the best. In this way it was possible to synthesize a redox-stimulated molecular switch with a movement that is part of a rotation around a biaryl binding axis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Functional materials - Study of process for CVD SiC/C composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Wang, Chae Chyun; Lee, Young Jin; Oh, Byung Jun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)


    The CVD SiC coating techniques are the one of high functional material manufactures that improve the thermal, wear, oxidization and infiltration resistance of the surface of raw materials and extend the life of material. Silicon carbide films have been grown onto graphite substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using MTS(CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}) as a source precursor and H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} as a diluent gas. The experiments for temperature and diluent gas addition changes were performed. The effect of temperature from 900 deg. C to 1350 deg. C and the alteration of diluent gas species on the growth rate and structure of deposits have been studied. The experimental results showed that the deposition rate increased with increasing deposition temperature irrespective of diluent gases and reactant depletion effect increased especially at H{sub 2} diluent gas ambient. As the diluent gas added, the growth rate decreased parabolically. For N{sub 2} addition, surface morphology of leaf-like structure appeared, and for H{sub 2}, faceted structure at 1350 deg. C. The observed features were involved by crystalline phase of {beta}-SiC and surface composition with different gas ambient. We also compared the experimental results of the effect of partial pressure on the growth rate with the results of theoretical approach based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. C/SiC composites were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI). In order to fabricate the more dense C/SiC composites, a novel process of the in-situ whisker growing and filling during ICVI was devised, which was manipulated by alternating dilute gas species. The denser C/SiC composites were successfully prepared by the novel process comparing with the conventional ICVI process. 64 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  5. Ordinary and partial differential equation routines in C, C++, Fortran, Java, Maple, and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, HJ


    This book provides a set of ODE/PDE integration routines in the six most widely used computer languages, enabling scientists and engineers to apply ODE/PDE analysis toward solving complex problems. This text concisely reviews integration algorithms and then analyzes the widely used Runge-Kutta method. It first presents a complete code before discussing its components in detail, focusing on integration concepts such as error monitoring and control. The format allows readers to understand the basics of ODE/PDE integration, and then calculate sample numerical solutions within the targeted program

  6. 40th anniversary: II I.E.T.c.c. General Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.


    Full Text Available Not availableEl consejo Técnico Administrativo del Instituto "Eduardo Torroja" de la Construcción y del Cemento decidió en su día celebrar, en la semana del 11 al 16 de noviembre de 1974, la Segunda Asamblea General del centro, coincidente con el 40 Aniversario del Instituto Técnico de la Construcción y Edificación, fundado en 1934. Este Instituto, andando el tiempo, se integró en el Patronato "Juan de la Cierva" de Investigación Científica y Técnica, primero como centro adherido al S.C.I.C. en 1940, y después como centro propio en 1946, uniéndose en 1949 al Instituto del Cemento, creado en 1947 en el seno de dicho Patronato, y dando lugar al Instituto actual, con las variaciones de nombre que la fusión de los dos Institutos primero, y el sentido fallecimiento de D. Eduardo Torroja después, determinaron.

  7. I ~:~c~;~,:~::::;·~:;r::~tr~·!:~··.:::~a~;::~:::~:e~_on_\\_t:_:_;_e__c_ _ __c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and suicidal behaviour. <,',,<. ~e~~~~s .... Ther~W~s a signifisaJtf d~l~yinfirst intercourse in co111pareci with 1997. for males, levels of condoJ:ll use were 2004thanin 1997, while for females levels of injectable contraceptive use were lower. There were significant increases in past month use of cigarettes for males ...

  8. Migrating C/C++ Software to Mobile Platforms in the ADM Context


    Liliana Martinez; Claudia Pereira; Liliana Favre


    Software technology is constantly evolving and therefore the development of applications requires adapting software components and applications in order to be aligned to new paradigms such as Pervasive Computing, Cloud Computing and Internet of Things. In particular, many desktop software components need to be migrated to mobile technologies. This migration faces many challenges due to the proliferation of different mobile platforms. Developers usually make applications tailored for each type...

  9. Page 1 92 C C Desai and A N Hanchinal (130) U an C Figure 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from the gel (tartaric acid). This is called 'syneresis which is one of the important properties of gels. Syneresis is also considered as an internal dehydration. It produces shrinking of the gel thereby changing its pore size. The formation of this type of crystals is believed to be due to lack of place to grow further. At the top of the ...

  10. Catalytic C-C Bond Cleavage for the Production of Chemicals from Lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jastrzebski, R.


    Lignin is a major component of lignocellulosic biomass and could be an important renewable feedstock in industry for the production of (aromatic) bulk and fine chemicals. To this end, the development of new catalytic processes is required; both to depolymerise the biopolymer into small aromatic

  11. High specific-strength C-Zr(O)C / C-ablator TPS for CEV Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I NASA SBIR Proposal seeks to demonstrate a new zero-erosion ablative thermal protection system (TPS) technology that is based upon an ultra-high...

  12. High-level GPU computing with jacket for MATLAB and C/C++ (United States)

    Pryor, Gallagher; Lucey, Brett; Maddipatla, Sandeep; McClanahan, Chris; Melonakos, John; Venugopalakrishnan, Vishwanath; Patel, Krunal; Yalamanchili, Pavan; Malcolm, James


    We describe a software platform for the rapid development of general purpose GPU (GPGPU) computing applications within the MATLAB computing environment, C, and C++: Jacket. Jacket provides thousands of GPU-tuned function syntaxes within MATLAB, C, and C++, including linear algebra, convolutions, reductions, and FFTs as well as signal, image, statistics, and graphics libraries. Additionally, Jacket includes a compiler that translates MATLAB and C++ code to CUDA PTX assembly and OpenGL shaders on demand at runtime. A facility is also included to compile a domain specific version of the MATLAB language to CUDA assembly at build time. Jacket includes the first parallel GPU FOR-loop construction and the first profiler for comparative analysis of CPU and GPU execution times. Jacket provides full GPU compute capability on CUDA hardware and limited, image processing focused compute on OpenGL/ES (2.0 and up) devices for mobile and embedded applications.

  13. C-Sim, un simulador de manejo de memoria de C/C++


    García Perez-Schofield, Baltasar; Ortín Soler, Francisco


    La materia de Programación es parte de la formación obligatoria para alcanzar el grado en Ingeniería Informática. En la Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Informática de la Universidad de Vigo, se ha apostado por una enseñanza más tradicional (imperative-first), de la programación: frente a la estrategia de empezar directamente con programación orientada a objetos, llamada objects first. Inicialmente se realiza una primera parte (la asignatura Programación I), en C++ (s...

  14. Amorphous SiC/c-ZnO-Based Quasi-Lamb Mode Sensor for Liquid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo


    Full Text Available The propagation of the quasi-Lamb modes along a-SiC/ZnO thin composite plates was modeled and analysed with the aim to design a sensor able to detect the changes in parameters of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. The modes propagation was modeled by numerically solving the system of coupled electro-mechanical field equations in three media. The mode shape, the power flow, the phase velocity, and the electroacoustic coupling efficiency (K2 of the modes were calculated, specifically addressing the design of enhanced-coupling, microwave frequency sensors for applications in probing the solid/liquid interface. Three modes were identified that have predominant longitudinal polarization, high phase velocity, and quite good K2: the fundamental quasi symmetric mode (qS0 and two higher order quasi-longitudinal modes (qL1 and qL2 with a dominantly longitudinal displacement component in one plate side. The velocity and attenuation of these modes were calculated for different liquid viscosities and added mass, and the gravimetric and viscosity sensitivities of both the phase velocity and attenuation were theoretically calculated. The present study highlights the feasibility of the a-SiC/ZnO acoustic waveguides for the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuit compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in a liquid environment.

  15. Theoretical Analysis of SAW Propagation in 3C-SiC/c-AlN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo


    Full Text Available The anisotropic materials as the acoustic wave propagating medium introduce the dependence of the phase velocity on the wave propagation direction, as opposed to the isotropic counterparts; in addition, the profile of the particle displacement components can be quite different, depending on the crystal type and propagation direction. The propagation of surface and bulk acoustic waves (SAWs and BAWs along the (001, (111 and (110 planes of cubic SiC crystals have been studied. For specific propagation directions in these planes, slight variations in the velocity of the elastic surface waves are found. It was observed that Rayleigh-type, generalized and pseudo-surface waves can propagate at specific directions, thus confirming how the anisotropic behavior of the bare SiC substrate modifies the existence and the field profile of the SAW that propagates at its free surface. Finally, the SAW propagation along AlN/SiC-based multilayered structures is studied for the three SiC planes, different AlN piezoelectric layer thicknesses and electrical boundary conditions.

  16. C1 polymerisation and related C-C bond forming ‘carbene insertion’ reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, E.; Jongerius, A.L.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.


    In this critical review we summarise the currently available ‘C1 polymerisation’ techniques as valuable alternatives for ‘C2 polymerisation’ in the preparation of saturated main-chain carbon-based polymers. C1 polymerisation involves the growth of polymers from monomers delivering only one

  17. Pd nanoclusters in C-C coupling reaction: proof of leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thathagar, Mehul B.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Rothenberg, Gadi


    A simple experiment based on exclusion of Pd nanoclusters was used to identify the true catalytic species in cluster-catalyzed Heck cross-couplings. A special reactor was used in which two compartments are separated by a nanoporous membrane that allows the passage of Pd atoms and ions but not of Pd

  18. Dynamically driven super C-C intensification of the tropical hydrological cycle (United States)

    Hakuba, Maria Z.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Kahn, Brian; Yue, Qing; Lebsock, Matthew D.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Rapp, Anita D.; Stubenrauch, Claudia


    Improving our understanding of the hydrological cycle and the way it responds to a warming world represents one of the greatest challenges in current climate research. We expect global mean precipitation to increase by about 2% per degree of surface warming, constrained by the atmospheric energy budget on the one hand and the availability of atmospheric water vapor (Clausius-Clapeyron) on the other. Regional changes in precipitation pattern and intensity are less well known and often described by the 'wet gets wetter and dry gets drier' paradigm. The currently wettest region of our planet is characterized by organized deep tropical convection over the equatorial oceans and referred to as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). To quantify potential changes of the tropical water cycle in a warmer climate, we have analyzed a great amount of independent observational datasets collected over multiple decades. With this we reveal a strong, positive feedback on tropical convection in the Pacific associated with the short-term climate variations of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This dynamical feedback is in addition to the established Bjerknes (positive) and surface heat flux (negative) feedbacks and is a result of coupled dynamical-radiative-convective processes that produce observed responses in precipitation and cloud amount far beyond those expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) response alone. We have indication that this dynamical feedback is driven by differential atmospheric heating rates in the convective regions (heating) and adjacent regions to the south, north and west (cooling) leading to inflow that feeds the convectively active zones. This evidence is supported by analysis of observed surface wind divergence and vertical motion from reanalysis. While super-CC responses to global warming have been examined with respect to local and short-term weather events, this study provides the first observational evidence of a much larger scale response on seasonal and longer time scales.

  19. Characterization of mechanically alloyed f.c.c. Ti–Mg–based powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N


    Full Text Available the reproducibility of the particle size 121distributions. 122The thermal behavior of the powders was determined in the range 123room temperature to 660 ?C in an argon atmosphere using a 124simultaneous thermal analyzer (Netzsch STA 449 F3 Jupiter). The 125...

  20. Low-oxidation state indium-catalyzed C-C bond formation. (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Kobayashi, Shu


    The development of innovative metal catalysis for selective bond formation is an important task in organic chemistry. The group 13 metal indium is appealing for catalysis because indium-based reagents are minimally toxic, selective, and tolerant toward various functional groups. Among elements in this group, the most stable oxidation state is typically +3, but in molecules with larger group 13 atoms, the chemistry of the +1 oxidation state is also important. The use of indium(III) compounds in organic synthesis has been well-established as Lewis acid catalysts including asymmetric versions thereof. In contrast, only sporadic examples of the use of indium(I) as a stoichiometric reagent have been reported: to the best of our knowledge, our investigations represent the first synthetic method that uses a catalytic amount of indium(I). Depending on the nature of the ligand or the counteranion to which it is coordinated, indium(I) can act as both a Lewis acid and a Lewis base because it has both vacant p orbitals and a lone pair of electrons. This potential ambiphilicity may offer unique reactivity and unusual selectivity in synthesis and may have significant implications for catalysis, particularly for dual catalytic processes. We envisioned that indium(I) could be employed as a metallic Lewis base catalyst to activate Lewis acidic boron-based pronucleophiles for selective bond formation with suitable electrophiles. Alternatively, indium(I) could serve as an ambiphilic catalyst that activates both reagents at a single center. In this Account, we describe the development of low-oxidation state indium catalysts for carbon-carbon bond formation between boron-based pronucleophiles and various electrophiles. We discovered that indium(I) iodide was an excellent catalyst for α-selective allylations of C(sp(2)) electrophiles such as ketones and hydrazones. Using a combination of this low-oxidation state indium compound and a chiral semicorrin ligand, we developed catalytic highly enantioselective allylation, crotylation, and α-chloroallylation reactions of hydrazones. These transformations proceeded with rare constitutional selectivities and remarkable diastereoselectivities. Furthermore, indium(I) triflate served as the most effective catalyst for allylations and propargylations of C(sp(3)) electrophiles such as O,O-acetals, N,O-aminals, and ethers, and we applied this methodology to carbohydrate chemistry. In addition, a catalyst system composed of indium(I) chloride and a chiral silver BINOL-phosphate facilitated the highly enantioselective allylation and allenylation of N,O-aminals. Overall, these discoveries demonstrate the versatility, efficiency, and sensitivity of low-oxidation state indium catalysts in organic synthesis.

  1. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YKL057C, YGR161C-C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available required for even distribution of NPCs around the nuclear envelope, involved in establishment of a normal nu..., required for even distribution of NPCs around the nuclear envelope, involved in establishment of a normal

  2. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reentry spacecraft and hypersonic cruisers of the future will require advanced lightweight thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of...

  3. High Specific-Strength C-Zr(O)C / C-Ablator TPS for CEV Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase I NASA SBIR, MATECH GSM (MG) has developed and evaluated the world's first ultra-high temperature (UHT) Zr-(O)-C ceramic fiber pre-form / organic...

  4. Literary Sources for the Early History of the D.C.C.M. | Williams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... includes both published and unpublished sources. Published sources include letters and articles published in missionary periodicals, books, pamphlets, and scholarly articles of recent. Unpublished sources include letters, diaries, masters theses, and other manuscript writings of the missionaries and their contemporaries.

  5. Theory of Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling in High-T_c c-Axis Josephson Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Takehito; Kato, Takeo; Tanaka, Yukio


    We study macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in c-axis twist Josephson junctions made of high-T_c superconductors in order to clarify the influence of the anisotropic order parameter symmetry (OPS) on MQT. The dependence of the MQT rate on the twist angle $\\gamma$ about the c-axis is calculated by using the functional integral and the bounce method. Due to the d-wave OPS, the $\\gamma$ dependence of standard deviation of the switching current distribution and the crossover temperature from thermal activation to MQT are found to be given by $\\cos2\\gamma$ and $\\sqrt{\\cos2\\gamma}$, respectively. We also show that a dissipative effect resulting from the nodal quasiparticle excitation on MQT is negligibly small, which is consistent with recent MQT experiments using Bi${}_2$Sr${}_2$CaCu${}_2$O${}_{8 + \\delta}$ intrinsic junctions. These results indicate that MQT in c-axis twist junctions becomes a useful experimental tool for testing the OPS of high-T_c materials at low temperature, and suggest high potential of suc...

  6. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Lined C/C Combustion Chambers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and DoD are seeking economical and high-performance bipropellant thrusters for various applications. These goals cannot be achieved using the silicided C103...

  7. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Lined C/C Combustion Chambers, Phase II Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and DoD are seeking high-performance, lightweight liquid rocket combustion chambers with future performance goals that cannot be achieved using state-of-the-art...

  8. Facile P-C/C-H Bond-Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Haixia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Appel, Aaron M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Michael B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bullock, R. Morris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2N2 ligand in heteroleptic [Ni(P2N2)(diphosphine)]2+ complexes results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode.

  9. Literary Sources for the Early History of the D.C.C.M. | Williams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Published sources include letters and articles published in missionary periodicals, books, pamphlets, and scholarly articles of recent. Unpublished sources include letters, diaries, masters theses, and other manuscript writings of the missionaries and their contemporaries. Key-words: United Christian Missionary Society ...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. C-C1-02: Data Extraction From Text, Step 1: Preparing Test for Machine Processing (United States)

    Carrell, David


    Background: Natural language processing (NLP) uses software to assist in the extraction of information from clinical text, a process usually performed entirely by chart abstractors. Before NLP can be applied the text in question must be prepared for machine processing. In research settings this pre- processing work often involves several successive and related tasks, requiring substantial amounts of time and attention from people representing various types of clinical, scientific and technical expertise. Appreciating the tasks and participants involved in pre-processing clinical text can make the work more manageable, efficient, and effective. Methods: The information presented here comes from case study analyses of three small-scale projects involving preparation of clinical text (pathology reports, radiology reports, and progress notes) for processing by the Cancer Text Information Extraction System. Supplementing these experiences is information from anecdotal conversations with natural language processing experts. Results: Ten separate pre-processing tasks were identified: obtaining source feeds, assessing completeness, de-duplication, universe description, cleaning and formatting, de-identification, database loading, sampling, preparation of the NLP system input feed, and quality assurance. Nine types of expertise or task participants required for preprocessing were identified: IRB representative, source-system manager, network/dbase administrator, programmer, statistician, investigator, informaticist, clinical domain expert, and manual chart abstractor. Conclusions: Pre-processing clinical text is an important phase and potentially challenging aspect of extracting information from clinical text using NLP. Because researchers require accurate information about the larger universe of documents or patients represented by the sampled and processed text, pre-processing can present numerous challenges, the solutions to which draw on many areas of expertise in a multi-step and sometimes iterative process.

  12. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype C/C1 in the Minangkabau ethnic group in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siburian Marlinang D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117 was C (72.6% followed by B (24.8% and co-infection with B and C (2.6%. The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively. From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among HBV carriers of Minangkabau ethnicity. The prevalence of pre-S, A1762T/G1764A, and T1753V mutations was higher among the Minangkabau compared to Indonesian HBV carriers in general.

  13. Asymmetric C-C Bond-Formation Reaction with Pd: How to Favor Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Catalysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, S.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Mallat, T.


    The enantioselective allylic alkylation of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate was studied to clarify the heterogeneous or homogeneous character of the Pd/Al2O3-(R)-BINAP catalyst system. A combined approach was applied: the catalytic tests were completed with in situ XANES measurements to follow...

  14. Unraveling the Fischer-Tropsch mechanism: a combined DFT and microkinetic investigation of C-C bond formation on Ru. (United States)

    Mirwald, Jens W; Inderwildi, Oliver R


    A combined modelling study on the Fischer-Tropsch Mechanism on Ru(0001). The DFT results presented herein approve the idea that the carbide mechanism is not the main reaction path in the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons on Ru{0001}. The direct reaction of a CH(x)(s) species with a CO(s) species is kinetically and thermochemically preferred over CO dissociation and the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide can be seen as the initiation reaction of the hydrocarbon polymerisation process. Moreover, this study shows that CO dissociation is favoured over desorption on Ru{0001}, while on the analogue Co facet desorption is clearly favoured. This study therefore is an important further confirmation on new thinking in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The fundamental insight gained in these studies will be of paramount importance for engineers optimising the FT process. Optimisation will not only lower the cost of FT fuels but simultaneously lower energy consumption and emissions.

  15. Di-electron measurements in C+C reactions at 2 GeVṡA with HADES (United States)

    Eberl, T.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Bałanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Bielcik, J.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Coniglione, R.; Djeridi, R.; Dohrmann, F.; Durán, I.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Jaskuła, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kotulic-Bunta, J.; Krücken, R.; Kugler, A.; Kühn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lehnert, J.; Maiolino, C.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Novotný, J.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Pant, L. M.; Pechenov, V.; Pérez, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Pleskač, R.; Pospíšil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Rabin, N.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Sánchez, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Smolyankin, V.; Smykov, L.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tlustý, P.; Toia, A.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Wiśniowski, M.; Wójcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Žovinec, D.; Zumbruch, P.


    The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer HADES has been recently commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It has been designed for systematic studies of hadron properties inside nuclear matter. We report first preliminary results on invariant masses e +e --pairs which were measured in 12C + 12C collisions at E=2 GeVṡA. The analysis methods are briefly outlined and a comparison with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations is shown.

  16. Helical Oligourea Foldamers as Powerful Hydrogen Bonding Catalysts for Enantioselective C-C Bond-Forming Reactions. (United States)

    Bécart, Diane; Diemer, Vincent; Salaün, Arnaud; Oiarbide, Mikel; Nelli, Yella Reddy; Kauffmann, Brice; Fischer, Lucile; Palomo, Claudio; Guichard, Gilles


    Substantial progress has been made toward the development of metal-free catalysts of enantioselective transformations, yet the discovery of organic catalysts effective at low catalyst loadings remains a major challenge. Here we report a novel synergistic catalyst combination system consisting of a peptide-inspired chiral helical (thio)urea oligomer and a simple tertiary amine that is able to promote the Michael reaction between enolizable carbonyl compounds and nitroolefins with excellent enantioselectivities at exceptionally low (1/10 000) chiral catalyst/substrate molar ratios. In addition to high selectivity, which correlates strongly with helix folding, the system we report here is also highly amenable to optimization, as each of its components can be fine-tuned separately to increase reaction rates and/or selectivities. The predictability of the foldamer secondary structure coupled to the high level of control over the primary sequence results in a system with significant potential for future catalyst design.

  17. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications, Phase II Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future reentry and hypersonic vehicles require advanced lightweight leading edge thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of...

  18. Crystallographic snapshots of tyrosine phenol-lyase show that substrate strain plays a role in C-C bond cleavage. (United States)

    Milić, Dalibor; Demidkina, Tatyana V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Phillips, Robert S; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Antson, Alfred A


    The key step in the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) is reversible cleavage of the Cβ-Cγ bond of L-tyrosine. Here, we present X-ray structures for two enzymatic states that form just before and after the cleavage of the carbon-carbon bond. As for most other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, the first state, a quinonoid intermediate, is central for the catalysis. We captured this relatively unstable intermediate in the crystalline state by introducing substitutions Y71F or F448H in Citrobacter freundii TPL and briefly soaking crystals of the mutant enzymes with a substrate 3-fluoro-L-tyrosine followed by flash-cooling. The X-ray structures, determined at ~2.0 Å resolution, reveal two quinonoid geometries: "relaxed" in the open and "tense" in the closed state of the active site. The "tense" state is characterized by changes in enzyme contacts made with the substrate's phenolic moiety, which result in significantly strained conformation at Cβ and Cγ positions. We also captured, at 2.25 Å resolution, the X-ray structure for the state just after the substrate's Cβ-Cγ bond cleavage by preparing the ternary complex between TPL, alanine quinonoid and pyridine N-oxide, which mimics the α-aminoacrylate intermediate with bound phenol. In this state, the enzyme-ligand contacts remain almost exactly the same as in the "tense" quinonoid, indicating that the strain induced by the closure of the active site facilitates elimination of phenol. Taken together, structural observations demonstrate that the enzyme serves not only to stabilize the transition state but also to destabilize the ground state.

  19. Active Metal Brazing and Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to C/C Composites for Heat Rejection System (United States)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Cerny, Jennifer


    Robust assembly and integration technologies are critically needed for the manufacturing of heat rejection system (HRS) components for current and future space exploration missions. Active metal brazing and adhesive bonding technologies are being assessed for the bonding of titanium to high conductivity Carbon-Carbon composite sub components in various shapes and sizes. Currently a number of different silver and copper based active metal brazes and adhesive compositions are being evaluated. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Several mechanical tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of different brazing and adhesive approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these mechanical tests along with the fractographic analysis will be discussed. In addition, advantages, technical issues and concerns in using different bonding approaches will also be presented.

  20. Small cycloalkane (CN)2C-C(CN)2 structures are highly directional non-covalent carbon-bond donors. (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Frontera, Antonio


    High-level calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP) disclosed that the σ-hole in between two C atoms of cycloalkane X2 CCX2 structures (X=F, CN) is increasingly exposed with decreasing ring size. The interacting energy of complexes of F(-) , HO(-) , N≡C(-) , and H2 CO with cyclopropane and cyclobutane X2 CCX2 derivatives was calculated. For X=F, these energies are small to positive, while for X=CN they are all negative, ranging from -6.8 to -42.3 kcal mol(-1) . These finding are corroborated by a thorough statistical survey of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). No clear evidence could be found in support of non-covalent carbon bonding between electron-rich atoms (El.R.) and F2 CCF2 structures. In marked contrast, El.R.⋅⋅⋅(CN)2 CC(CN)2 interactions are abundant and highly directional. Based on these findings, the hydrophobic electrophilic bowl formed by 1,1',2,2'-tetracyano cyclopropane or cyclobutane derivatives is proposed as a new and synthetically accessible supramolecular synthon. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dendrimer-encapsulated Pd nanoparticles as catalysts for C-C cross-couplings in flow microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardi, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    The inner walls of glass microreactors were functionalized with dendrimer-encapsulated Pd nanoparticles. The catalysts were efficient for the Heck–Cassar (copper-free Sonogashira) and Suzuki–Miyaura (SMC) cross-coupling reactions. For the Heck–Cassar reaction between iodobenzene and phenylacetylene,

  2. Study of Command and Control (C&C) Structures on the Employment of Collaborative Engagement Capability (CEC) on Land Systems (United States)


    Handbook of multicriteria analysis . Springer. (2010, September 7). USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN (CVN-72). Retrieved June 09, 2012, from NavSource...Simulation analysis on a land-based anti-air defense scenario provides insights on the employment of CEC on land combat systems. 14. SUBJECT... analysis on a land-based anti-air defense scenario provides insights on the employment of CEC on land combat systems. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  3. 76 FR 39254 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1... (United States)


    ... verifying sufficient drag torque and retorquing, or if the locknut does not have sufficient drag torque... reinstalling the locknut while determining the locknut drag torque. If the drag torque is a minimum of 2 in-lbs, retorquing the locknut to 23 in-lbs is required. If the drag torque is not at least 2 in-lbs, replacing the...

  4. Fran\\c{c}ois Rabelais očima české literární kritiky


    HEJDUKOVÁ, Zdeňka


    This thesis is focused on reception of the work of the French renaissance writer François Rabelais. The main objective of the thesis is to ascertain how his work was perceived by Czech and also European critics. François Rabelais entered the Czech literary context due to the translation of his work by a group of translators named Jihočeská Theléma. This thesis deals with the perception of his work by contemporary literary critics and ascertains whether the views of Czech and European critics ...

  5. Strain localization and the ephemeral development of C'-C-S shear structures in shear zones: a numerical modelling approach (United States)

    Finch, M.; Bons, P. D.; Gomez-Rivas, E.; Griera, A.; Llorens, M. G.; Ran, H.; Steinbach, F.


    Strain localisation is a dynamic process with variation in the location, size, type, and angle of shear structures as the shear zone develops. This complexity is not reflected in the final microstructure of naturally deformed rocks, instead we rely on deformation experiments and microstructural modelling to elucidate the development of the microstructure over time. Experimental work has demonstrated that shear zone structures are determined by the contrast in strength of the phases and the transition to an interconnected weak phase. Numerical modelling has the advantage of allowing greater control on all governing parameters and the starting microstructure, enabling further determination of the variables that control the development and nature of shear localisation. The development of C' planes or shear bands is of particular interest since they are still not well understood. To date, numerical modelling has not provided great insight on the evolution of these shear bands, perhaps because finite element modelling approaches can usually produce only modest strains and relatively simple simulations of crystal structure. However, with the development of a full-field crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) coupled to the Elle numerical modelling platform, simulation of microstructural deformation to high strains is now possible. Additionally, this approach takes into account mechanical anisotropy by assuming deformation by dislocation glide. Phase-specific slip-systems characterized by their critical resolved shear stresses provide more realistic simulations of crystal structures. We adopted this approach to investigate the development of shear bands in a 3-phase microstructure with mineral properties that approximate quartz, mica, and feldspar. Consistent with previous experimental work, we determined that the development of shear bands is dependent on the phase strength contrast, phase proportion, and the interconnectivity of weak phases. In contrast to previous findings, we determine the full range of conditions that lead to C' development and find these structures are often ephemeral and may rotate into parallelism with the shear direction over time. We will show movies that highlight the variation in shear localisation over time, which is not visible in in the final microstructure.

  6. Topographica: building and analyzing map-level simulations from Python, C/C++, MATLAB, NEST, or NEURON components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bednar


    Full Text Available Many neural regions are arranged into two-dimensional topographic maps, such as the retinotopic maps in mammalian visual cortex. Computational simulations have led to valuable insights about how cortical topography develops and functions, but further progress has been hindered by the lack of appropriate tools. It has been particularly difficult to bridge across levels of detail, because simulators are typically geared to a specific level, while interfacing between simulators has been a major technical challenge. In this paper, we show that the Python-based Topographica simulator makes it straightforward to build systems that cross levels of analysis, as well as providing a common framework for evaluating and comparing models implemented in other simulators. These results rely on the general-purpose abstractions around which Topographica is designed, along with the Python interfaces becoming available for many simulators. In particular, we present a detailed, general-purpose example of how to wrap an external spiking PyNN/NEST simulation as a Topographica component using only a dozen lines of Python code, making it possible to use any of the extensive input presentation, analysis, and plotting tools of Topographica. Additional examples show how to interface easily with models in other types of simulators. Researchers simulating topographic maps externally should consider using Topographica's analysis tools (such as preference map, receptive field, or tuning curve measurement to compare results consistently, and for connecting models at different levels. This seamless interoperability will help neuroscientists and computational scientists to work together to understand how neurons in topographic maps organize and operate.

  7. Causa Efficiens versus Causa Formalis: origens da discuss\\~ao moderna sobre a dimensionalidade do espa\\c{c}o

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Francisco


    Metascientific criteria used for explaining or constraining physical space dimensionality and their historical relationship to prevailing causal systems are discussed. The important contributions by Aristotle, Kant and Ehrenfest to the dimensionality of space problem are considered and shown to be grounded on different causal explanations: {\\it causa materialis} for Aristotle, {\\it causa efficiens} for young Kant and an ingenious combination of {\\it causa efficiens} and {\\it causa formalis} for Ehrenfest. The prominent and growing r\\^ole played by {\\it causa formalis} in modern physical approaches to this problem is emphasized.

  8. Phospholipase C cDNAs from sponge and hydra: antiquity of genes involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway. (United States)

    Koyanagi, M; Ono, K; Suga, H; Iwabe, N; Miyata, T


    To know whether or not the set of genes involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway already existed in the early evolution of animals, we carried out cloning of cDNAs encoding phospholipase Cs (PLCs) from Ephydatia fluviatilis (freshwater sponge) and Hydra magnipapillata strain 105 (hydra). We isolated two PLC cDNAs, PLC-betaS and PLC-gammaS, from sponge and three cDNAs, PLC-betaH1, PLC-betaH2, and PLC-deltaH, from hydra. From the domain organization and the divergence pattern in the PLC family tree, the sponge PLC-betaS and PLC-gammaS and the hydra PLC-deltaH are possibly homologous to the vertebrate PLC-beta, PLC-gamma and PLC-delta subtypes, respectively. A detailed phylogenetic analysis suggests that the hydra PLC-betaH1 and PLC-betaH2 are homologs of the vertebrate PLC-beta1/2/3/Drosophila PLC21 and the vertebrate PLC-beta4/Drosophila norpA, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the PLC family and the protein kinase C (PKC) family, together with that of the G protein alpha subunit (Galpha) family, revealed that the origin of the set of genes G(alpha)q, PLC, PKC involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway is very old, going back to dates before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest branching among extant animal phyla.

  9. Electrochemical Polymerization of Iron(III) Polypyridyl Complexes through C-C Coupling of Redox Non-innocent Phenolato Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unjaroen, Duenpen; Swart, Marcel; Browne, Wesley R


    Phenolato moieties impart redox flexibility to metal complexes due their accessible (oxidative) redox chemistry and have been proposed as functional ligand moieties in redox non-innocent ligand based transition metal catalysis. Here, the electro-and spectroelectrochemistry of phenolato based

  10. Hyperonenproduktion in C+C- und Si+Si-Kollisionen bei 158 GeV pro Nukleon

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid


    Ultrarelativistische Schwerionenstöße werden seit etwa 15 Jahren untersucht, um Kernmaterie unter extremen Bedingungen zu erforschen; in Kollisionen schwerer Atomkerne kann bei hohen Einschußenergien Kernmaterie stark komprimiert und aufgeheizt werden. Die Bedeutung dieser Experimente wird durch Berechnungen der Quanten-Chromo-Dynamik auf raumzeitlichen Gittern hervorgehoben, die bei ausreichend hoher Energiedichte eine Phase voraussagen, in der die Quarks nicht mehr in Hadronen gebunden sind, sondern zusammen mit den Gluonen ein partonisches System ausbilden. Ist das System hinreichend groß und equilibriert, wird es als Quark-Gluon-Plasma bezeichnet. Die als Signatur für das Überschreiten der Phasengrenze vorgeschlagene erhöhte Produktion Seltsamkeit tragender Teilchen wurde in der Gegenüberstellung von elementaren Proton+Proton-Interaktionen und Kern+Kern-Stößen experimentell über einen weiten Energiebereich bestätigt. Eine solche Überhöhung kann aber auch durch rein hadronische Phänomene her...

  11. Ensaio sobre o Auto-Aproveitamento: um relato de investidas naturais na participa\\c{c}\\~ao social

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Renato


    The use of digital traces of our social structures and activities is a reality for some companies and State instances. The exploitation by the individual and by Society is still incipient. This writing is a brief account of an immersion to advance this civil empowerment, beginning with experiments for collection and dissemination of information, and going through social structures streaming, resource recommendation via complex networks and natural language processing, linked data and ontological organizations of social and participatory structures. Keywords: complex networks, natural language processing, linked data, social participation, anthropological physics

  12. A Aplica\\c{c}\\~ao de uma Nova Metodologia de Ensino de F\\'isica: O Aprendizado Colaborativo

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, José Acácio; da Silva, Glauco S F; Tagliati, José Roberto; Remold, Julie


    In this paper, we describe the process and difficulties of implementing collaborative activities in an calculus-based introductory mechanics class in Brazil, a class is taught to undergraduate physics majors and pre-service physics teachers.

  13. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G. A. W.; Ludvigsen, M.; Jacobsen, C.


    with an affinity of approximately 3-7 nM with reticulocalbin as well as with calumenin. These interactions suggest functional participation of the CREC proteins in chaperone activity, cell proliferation and transformation, cellular aging, haemostasis and thrombosis as well as modulation of the complement system...... in fighting bacterial infection....

  14. Investigation of K{sup +} meson production in C+C collisions at 2 A GeV with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovsky, A.


    In this thesis the measurement of the double differential cross sections in K{sup +}V transverse momentum and rapidity in the reaction {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C{yields}K{sup +}+X at 2A GeV is described. (HSI)

  15. Bacteriochlorophyllide c C-82 and C-121 methyltransferases are essential for adaptation to low light in Chlorobaculum tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A


    (1), and the double mutant produced [8-ethyl, 12-methyl]-BChl c that lacked methylation at both the C-8(2) and C-12(1) positions. Compared to the wild type, the Qy absorption bands for BChl c in the mutant cells were narrower and blue shifted to various extents. All three mutants grew slower and had a lower cellular...... BChl c content than the wild type, an effect that was especially pronounced at low light intensities. These observations show that the C-8(2) and C-12(1) methylations of BChl c play important roles in the adaptation of C. tepidum to low light intensity. The data additionally suggest...

  16. Computational Study of Low-Temperature Catalytic C-C Bond Activation of Alkanes for Portable Power (United States)


    study of Rh/O2 complexes, such as spin singlet RhCl3(O2)2- and the spin doublet RhIII superoxide complex RhCl3(H2O)(O2)1-,which we consider would be...5 Figure 5. RhIII/O2 /iodine chemistry ...alcohol ionization ....................................................................................13 Figure 13. New oxidized Rh chemistry

  17. The Climatic Observatory of the Karst (O.C.C.), a scientific facility within an important tourist framework (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Micheletti, S.; Fabbo, R.


    The Climatic Observatory of the Karst, officially inaugurated on 2nd October, 2008, is born in the same place of the historical headquarter of the Borgo Grotta Gigante Meteorological Office, which was set up in 1966 and has been officially operating since 1st January, 1967. The meteorological facilities and the weather office are located on the premises of the visitor centre of "Grotta Gigante”, which is a very popular karstic cave of Trieste, visited each year by at least 70k people. The privileged position induced the promoters of this initiative to think about an integrated meteorological multilanguages system for the visitors. This system provides in real time weather forecasts and meteorological data and, at the same time, general tourist information as well. The synergic cooperation of various Scientific Organizations, which are involved in climatic research at the Borgo Grotta Gigante Climatic Observatory of the Karst, makes possible the realization of this project: "E.Boegan” Cave Commission of S.A.G. (the administrative body); ARPA-OSMER, the Friuli Venezia-Giulia Meteorological Observatory of the Regional Agency of the Environmental Protection, (which manages the automatic station, broadcasts and publishes data in real time and forecasts in the visitors waiting room); C.N.R.-I.S.M.A.R., the Marine Science Institute in Trieste of the National Research Council of Italy (which manages and maintains mechanical instruments, publishes data and carries out checks, files data and publishes reports); U.M.F.V.G., the Friuli Venezia Giulia Meteorological Union (which is involved in scientific dissemination activity and web sharing of information); the Environmental and Public Works Section and Water Service of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (water resources monitoring). Moreover one of the main characteristic of the Observatory, also because of didactic reasons, is to maintain the traditional mechanical-analogue part of data collection, carried out by observers, alongside the electronic sensors. This factor is essential for the continuity and the homogeneity of historical series and it distinguishes the observatory from a normal weather station. The data collected is published annually in the "Osservazioni meteoriche" magazine, a publication edited by CGEB as a supplement to the scientific journal "Atti e memorie", which is sent to various Public Authorities, Scientific Organizations, libraries and anyone who applies for it.

  18. Intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of non-activated C=C bonds catalysed by zeolites: an experimental and theoretical study. (United States)

    Pérez-Mayoral, Elena; Matos, Ines; Nachtigall, Petr; Položij, Miroslav; Fonseca, Isabel; Vitvarová-Procházková, Dana; Čejka, Jiří


    The high activity and selectivity of zeolites in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols is reported for the first time; the details of a reaction mechanism based on quantum chemical calculations are also provided. The high efficiency of zeolites MFI, BEA and FAU in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols (cis-decen-1-ol, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol and 2-allylphenol) to afford oxygen-containing heterocyclic rings is demonstrated. The best catalytic performance is found for zeolites with the optimum concentration of Brønsted acid sites (ca. 0.2 mmol g(-1)) and the minimum number of Lewis acid sites. It is proposed that the efficiency of the catalysts is reduced by the existence of the so-called dual site, at which a molecule of unsaturated alcohol can simultaneously interact with two acid sites (an OH group with one and the double bond with the other Brønsted site), which increases the interaction strength. The formation of such adsorption complexes leads to a decrease in the catalyst activity because of (i) an increase in the reaction barrier, (ii) an unfavourable conformation and (iii) diffusion limitations. A new procedure for the preparation of tetrahydrofurans and pyrans over zeolite catalysts provides important oxygen-containing heterocycles with numerous applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Catalytic promiscuity of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase : discovery and characterization of C-C bond-forming activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, Ellen


    Het verschijnsel katalytische promiscuïteit, waarin een enzym naast zijn natuurlijke activiteit een alternatieve reactie (of reacties) katalyseert, is een krachtig, recent opgekomen concept, dat erg relevant is voor het ontwerpen van nieuwe enzymen. Enzym promiscuïteit is een veelbelovende bron van

  20. The influence of surface stress on dislocation emission from sharp and blunt cracks in f.c.c. metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob


    is a consequence of the many-body nature of the interatomic interactions. The enhanced dislocation emission can cause an order-of-magnitude increase in the fracture toughness of certain materials, in which a sharp crack would propagate by cleavage. Collisions with already existing dislocations will blunt the crack......We use computer simulations to study the behaviour of atomically sharp and blunted cracks in various fee metals. The simulations use effective medium potentials which contain many-body interactions. We find that when using potentials representing platinum and gold a sharp crack is stable...... with respect to the emission of a dislocation from the crack tip, whereas for all other metals studied the sharp crack is unstable. This result cannot be explained by existing criteria for the intrinsic ductile/brittle behaviour of crack tips, but is probably caused by surface stresses. When the crack...

  1. Influence of viscosity and amine content on C==C conversion and color stability of experimental composites. (United States)

    Camargo, Fernanda Missio; Della Bona, Álvaro; Moraes, R R; Coutinho de Souza, C R; Schneider, Luis Felipe


    To investigate the influence of camphorquinone (CQ):amine ratio on the degree of CC conversion (DC) and color stability of experimental dental composites formulated with different co-monomer viscosities, indirectly determined by variations in the co-monomer ratios. Experimental composites were formulated in two different BisGMA:TEGDMA molar ratios (50:50 and 70:30). Viscosities were assessed with a viscometer. For each composite formulation, four different CQ:amine ratios were added: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4 mol%. Materials were loaded with 40 wt% of silanized glass particles. DC was determined by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy with attenuated reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the CIE L*a*b* color coordinates 24h after polymerization and after 2 months stored in water. Color changes (ΔE) were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's and Student-t tests (α=0.05). The 50:50 BisGMA:TEGDMA co-monomer showed lower viscosity than 70:30. DC was affected by CQ:amine ratio, and not by the co-monomer viscosity, but the interaction between these two factors was significant. a* and b* coordinates were dependent on CQ:amine or BisGMA:TEGDMA ratios, while L* was not. b* values were directly related to the amount of amine in the formulation, regardless of co-monomer viscosity. ΔE was dependent on the amount of amine, but not on the viscosity of the material. DC was influenced by the CQ:amine ratio. The influence of viscosity on DC was dependent on the CQ:amine ratio and exhibited distinguished behavior. a* and b* coordinates were affected by CQ:amine and BisGMA:TEGDMA ratios. The color change (ΔE) was affected by CQ:amine ratio, but not by viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of Command and Control (C&C) Structures on Integrating Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) into Manned Environments (United States)


    equipping every AUV with both DVL and sidescan. The reduced in number of sensors needed also increased the operational and logistics efficiencies since...features/may07_cs.html. Accessed Aug 29, 2012. 61 Winnefield, James A, and Frank Kendall. The Unmanned Systems Intergrated Roadmap FY2011–2036. Open

  3. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocton, Gr& #233; gory; Lukens, Wayne W.; Booth, Corwin H.; Rozenel, Sergio S.; Medling, Scott A.; Maron, Laurent; Andersen, Richard A.


    The electronic structure and associated magnetic properties of the 1,10-phenanthroline adducts of Cp*2Yb are dramatically different from those of the 2,2?-bipyridine adducts. The monomeric phenanthroline adducts are ground state triplets that are based upon trivalent Yb(III), f13, and (phen ) that are only weakly exchange coupled, which is in contrast to the bipyridine adducts whose ground states are multiconfigurational, open-shell singlets in which ytterbium is intermediate valent ( J. Am. Chem. Soc 2009, 131, 6480; J. Am. Chem. Soc 2010, 132, 17537). The origin of these different physical properties is traced to the number and symmetry of the LUMO and LUMO+1 of the heterocyclic diimine ligands. The bipy has only one 1 orbital of b1 symmetry of accessible energy, but phen has two orbitals of b1 and a2 symmetry that are energetically accessible. The carbon p-orbitals have different nodal properties and coefficients and their energies, and therefore their populations change depending on the position and number of methyl substitutions on the ring. A chemical ramification of the change in electronic structure is that Cp 2Yb(phen) is a dimer when crystallized from toluene solution, but a monomer when sublimed at 180190 C. When 3,8-Me2phenanthroline is used, the adduct Cp*2Yb(3,8-Me2phen) exists in the solution in a dimer monomer equilibrium in which G is near zero. The adducts with 3-Me, 4-Me, 5-Me, 3,8-Me2, and 5,6-Me2-phenanthroline are isolated and characterized by solid state X-ray crystallography, magnetic susceptibility and LIII-edge XANES spectroscopy as a function of temperature and variable-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher J S Termini


    .... But contrary to the popular public sentiment, some economists and political scientists have argued that interest group political investment is a necessary lubricant to the information transmission...

  5. Unravelling the Mechanism of Resonant Two-Photon Photodetachment of the Vinylidene Anion, H_2C=C^-, Using Velocity-Map Photoelectron Imaging (United States)

    Gerardi, H. K.; Breen, K. J.; Gardenier, G. H.; Guasco, T. L.; Laaser, J. E.; Weddle, G. H.; Johnson, M. A.


    Vinylidene, an isomer of acetylene and the simplest unsaturated carbene, has been studied extensively due to its role as a possible intermediate in a wide range of important chemical reactions. The neutral form of vinylidene is an extremely short-lived species and therefore information about its structure and potential energy surface may be gained through the study of its stable anionic form. Using velocity-map photoelectron imaging to investigate the behavior of the anion, we observe electron loss with excitation energies lower than the established electron adiabatic detachment energy (ADE). An in-depth analysis of the velocity-map images and corresponding photoelectron spectra taken at various energies within the C-H stretching region as well as at energies around the ADE provide plausible explanations for the observed behavior. The study also reveals interesting angular distributions specific to certain vibrational modes that are not trivial to understand at this point.

  6. Análisis y propuesta de mejoras para la eficiencia energética del edificio principal del Instituto c.c. Eduardo Torroja-CSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Consuegra, F.


    Full Text Available As part of the 80th anniversary of IETcc-CSIC, a proposal for the rehabilitation of the 1953 building is made. The analysis of the main building’s energy performance concludes that it is not energy efficient. Energy efficiency improvement measures based on European directives are proposed, It is recommended to incorporate them step by step, starting with passive measures to reduce energy needs. Afterwards active measures, such as improving the performance of facilities, are proposed, so that the least possible amount of final energy is used to meet the comfort standards. To complete the operation, the use of renewable energy sources is proposed to reduce the consumption of non-renewable primary energy. Energy and building rehabilitation improvement measures in the IETcc-CSIC should be demonstrators for other public buildings with heritage values.En el marco del 80 aniversario del IETcc-CSIC se elabora una propuesta para la rehabilitación del edificio construido en 1953. Partiendo del análisis del comportamiento energético del edificio principal, se concluye que este no es eficiente energéticamente. Se proponen mejoras para la eficiencia energética del edificio tomando en cuenta las directivas europeas. Se recomienda incorporar las mejoras de forma escalonada, comenzando por las medidas pasivas para reducir sus necesidades energéticas. A continuación se proponen medidas activas, como la mejora del rendimiento de las instalaciones, de manera que se emplee la menor cantidad posible de energía final para satisfacer el confort de los usuarios. Para completar la intervención se propone el uso de fuentes de generación de energías renovables en la parcela con el objetivo de reducir el consumo de energía primaria no renovable. Las acciones para la rehabilitación energética e integral del edificio del IETcc-CSIC, deben ser demostradoras para otros edificios públicos con valores patrimoniales.

  7. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.). (United States)

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas


    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and suppression of immune system during pregnancy).

  8. A novel type of catalysts for the asymmetric C-C bond formation based on chiral stereochemically inert cationic Co-III complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yu. N.; Larionov, V. A.; Mkrtchyan, A. F.; Khrustalev, V. N.; Nijland, A.; Saghyan, A. S.; Godovikov, I. A.; Peregudov, A. S.; Babievsky, K. K.; Ikonnikov, N. S.; Maleev, V. I.


    Schiff bases derived from (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and 1 eq. of salycylic (or substituted salycylic) aldehyde form stereochemically inert positively charged chiral octahedral Co (iii) complexes of Delta-configuration with the stereoselectivity approaching 100%. To evaluate the calatylic

  9. Evaluation of Chromane-Based Bryostatin Analogues Prepared via Hydrogen-Mediated C-C Bond Formation: Potency Does Not Confer Bryostatin-like Biology. (United States)

    Ketcham, John M; Volchkov, Ivan; Chen, Te-Yu; Blumberg, Peter M; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Krische, Michael J


    The synthesis and biological evaluation of chromane-containing bryostatin analogues WN-2-WN-7 and the previously reported salicylate-based analogue WN-8 are described. Analogues WN-2-WN-7 are prepared through convergent assembly of the chromane-containing fragment B-I with the "binding domain" fragment A-I or its C26-des-methyl congener, fragment A-II. The synthesis of fragment B-I features enantioselective double C-H allylation of 1,3-propanediol to form the C2-symmetric diol 3 and Heck cyclization of bromo-diene 5 to form the chromane core. The synthesis of salicylate WN-8 is accomplished through the union of fragments A-III and B-II. The highest binding affinities for PKCα are observed for the C26-des-methyl analogues WN-3 (Ki = 63.9 nM) and WN-7 (Ki = 63.1 nM). All analogues, WN-2-WN-8, inhibited growth of Toledo cells, with the most potent analogue being WN-7. This response, however, does not distinguish between phorbol ester-like and bryostatin-like behavior. In contrast, while many of the analogues contain a conserved C-ring in the binding domain and other features common to analogues with bryostatin-like properties, all analogues evaluated in the U937 proliferation and cell attachment assays displayed phorbol ester-like and/or toxic behavior, including WN-8, for which "bryostatin-like PKC modulatory activities" previously was suggested solely on the basis of PKC binding. These results underscore the importance of considering downstream biological effects, as tumor suppression cannot be inferred from potent PKC binding.

  10. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation : NHC-Cu-catalyzed alpha-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F.; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.


    An efficient and highly alpha-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common gamma-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear

  11. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation: NHC-Cu-catalyzed α-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    An efficient and highly α-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common γ-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear products with high levels of regioselectivity.

  12. C-C2-02: The High Five for Kids Study: An Intervention to Improve Primary Care to Prevent Childhood Obesity (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie; Gortmaker, Steven; Kleinman, Ken; Mitchell, Kathy; Price, Sarah; Prosser, Lisa; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew


    Background and Aims: The preschool age group is ripe for clinically-based obesity prevention interventions. Objective: To assess the extent to which a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention (Ix), compared with the usual care control condition (UC), resulted in a smaller age-associated increase in body mass index (BMI) and improvement in specified obesity-related behaviors over the first year of a planned 2-year intervention. Methods: High Five for Kids is a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 10 primary care pediatric offices in Massachusetts. We randomly assigned 5 practices to the Ix condition and 5 to UC. Eligible children were age 2.0 – 6.9 years at baseline with BMI > 95th percentile or 85th-<95th percentile if at least one parent was overweight. The major components of the intervention were restructuring primary care based on the Chronic Care Model, stage-based motivational counseling by nurse practitioners, and stage-matched educational modules targeting TV, fast food, and sugar sweetened beverages. We enrolled 486 participants of whom 459 (94%) had primary outcomes measured at 1 year. We used intention-to-treat analysis, adjusted for baseline socio-demographic characteristics and corrected for clustering. Results: Mean (SD) age of participants was 4.9 (1.2) years; 29% had an annual household income < $50K; 57% were white, 20% black, 16% Hispanic. Compared with UC, Ix participants had slightly smaller change in mean BMI from baseline to 1 year (−0.18 kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.44, 0.08). Ix participants decreased their TV viewing (−0.41 hrs/day; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.13) and fast food intake (−0.17 servings/week; 95% CI: −0.34, 0.00) more than UC, but there was no effect on sugar sweetened beverage intake (−0.20 servings/day; 95% CI: −0.51, 0.11). In post-hoc stratified analyses, the intervention had a greater effect on BMI change among participants living in households with incomes <$50K (−0.79 kg/m2; 95% CI: −1.45, −0.13) than in higher income households (0.01 kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.34, 0.36). Conclusions: After a 1-year intervention period, High Five for Kids was effective in reducing TV viewing and fast food intake but did not significantly reduce BMI.

  13. Construction of microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess: practical 2'-deoxyribonucleoside production involving a C-C coupling reaction with high energy substrates. (United States)

    Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Takafumi; Kawano, Takako; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Mie; Hibi, Makoto; Shima, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun


    Reproduction and sustainability are important for future society, and bioprocesses are one technology that can be used to realize these concepts. However, there is still limited variation in bioprocesses and there are several challenges, especially in the operation of energy-requiring bioprocesses. As an example of a microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess, we established a process that efficiently and enzymatically synthesizes 2'-deoxyribonucleoside from glucose, acetaldehyde, and a nucleobase. This method consists of the coupling reactions of the reversible nucleoside degradation pathway and energy generation through the yeast glycolytic pathway. Using E. coli that co-express deoxyriboaldolase and phosphopentomutase, a high amount of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside was produced with efficient energy transfer under phosphate-limiting reaction conditions. Keeping the nucleobase concentration low and the mixture at a low reaction temperature increased the yield of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside relative to the amount of added nucleobase, indicating that energy was efficiently generated from glucose via the yeast glycolytic pathway under these reaction conditions. Using a one-pot reaction in which small amounts of adenine, adenosine, and acetone-dried yeast were fed into the reaction, 75 mM of 2'-deoxyinosine, the deaminated product of 2'-deoxyadenosine, was produced from glucose (600 mM), acetaldehyde (250 mM), adenine (70 mM), and adenosine (20 mM) with a high yield relative to the total base moiety input (83%). Moreover, a variety of natural dNSs were further synthesized by introducing a base-exchange reaction into the process. A critical common issue in energy-requiring bioprocess is fine control of phosphate concentration. We tried to resolve this problem, and provide the convenient recipe for establishment of energy-requiring bioprocesses. It is anticipated that the commercial demand for dNSs, which are primary metabolites that accumulate at very low levels in the metabolic pool, will grow. The development of an efficient production method for these compounds will have a great impact in both fields of applied microbiology and industry and will also serve as a good example of a microbial platform for energy-requiring bioprocesses.

  14. Palladium nanoparticles immobilized on multifunctional ‎hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted magnetic nanoparticles as a ‎sustainable and efficient catalyst for C-C coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Amini


    Full Text Available This study offers an exclusive class of magnetic nanoparticles supported hyperbranched polyglycerol (MNP/HPG that was functionalized with citric acid (MNP/HPG-CA as a host immobilization of palladium nanoparticles. The MNP/HPG-CA/Pd catalyst was fully characterized using some different techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, x-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX, inductively coupled plasma (ICP and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The new catalytic system showed high activity for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling and Heck reaction under mild and green conditions. Besides, the MNP/HPG-CA/Pd was found to be a convenient catalyst for copper-free Sonogashira coupling reaction in water as a green solvent at room temperature. Moreover, the catalyst could be recovered easily and reused several times without significant loss of reactivity. Ease of preparation, oxygen insensitive, phosphine-free, air- and moisture-stable, and high reusability of this immobilized palladium catalyst are the noteworthy advantages of this catalytic system.

  15. Rediscovering Antiquity: Karl Weber and the Excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae, by C.C. Parslow. Cambridge University Press, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Snead


    Full Text Available Rediscovering Antiquity is an example of the genre of historical writing which seeks to recast the careers of little-known figures who have fallen into obscurity. This is typically intended to move them and their work into the proper "lineage," that is, the select group of ancestral figures from which modern practices are derived. Parslow is interested in the 18th century excavations of the Vesuvian cities, which, he argues, have been misunderstood by historians of archaeology. Indeed, common sources, such as Daniel (1981:55, describe the initial explorations of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae, sponsored by the Bourbon kings of Naples as "...treasure hunts and not serious excavations." While the Roman artifacts removed from the sites are credited with spurring interest in antiquity in Enlightenment Europe, modern scholars have until now devoted little attention to the means through which they were recovered.

  16. Synthesis and reactions of polymer-bound Ph3P=C=C=O: a quick route to tenuazonic acid and other optically pure 5-substituted tetramates. (United States)

    Schobert, Rainer; Jagusch, Carsten; Melanophy, Claire; Mullen, Gillian


    Polystyrene-bound cumulated ylide Ph3PCCO was prepared on a large scale in two steps. It reacts with Grignard compounds, amines and alcohols to give immobilized acyl, amide and ester ylides, respectively. Their Wittig reactions lead to alkenes free of phosphane oxide. Optically pure 5-substituted tetramates were obtained from reactions of resin-bound Ph3PCCO with alpha-ammonium esters in one step. The mycotoxin (-)-tenuazonic acid was accordingly prepared in just three steps.

  17. Integración de dispositivos físicos en un laboratorio remoto de control mediante diferentes plataformas: Labview, Matlab y C/C++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa-Castelló


    Full Text Available Resumen: Los laboratorios remotos de control posibilitan la realización de prácticas con equipos físicos reales que se encuentran ubicados en entornos remotos siendo accesibles por parte de los alumnos en cualquier instante de tiempo y desde cualquier lugar con conexión a Internet. En este artículo se presenta un conjunto de dispositivos físicos incorporados dentro de una esquema global de laboratorios remotos (AutomatL@bs que posibilitan la realización de prácticas a distancia con estos dispositivos. El rasgo principal común a estos dispositivos consiste en que posibilitan la actuación con sistemas físicos remotos para la realización de prácticas de control clásico con los mismos. Se prestará una especial atención a las diferentes posibilidades de comunicación entre la herramienta visual que dispone el usuario para su interconexión basada en Easy Java Simulations, y la conexión directa con los dispositivos físicos ubicados en los laboratorios remotos. Estos sistemas se han empleado para la realización de prácticas dentro del sistema AutomatL@bs desde el curso 1997/98. Palabras clave: Educación en Control, Laboratorio remoto, Laboratorio virtual, Control remoto, Control PID, Técnicas de Laboratorio

  18. Application of “Boomerang” Linear Polystyrene-Stabilized Pd Nanoparticles to a Series of C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ohtaka


    Full Text Available The application of a catch-and-release system for soluble Pd species between water (reaction medium and polystyrene (polymer support was examined in the Suzuki coupling reaction with 2-bromothiophene and the Heck reaction with styrene or bromobenzene. Although a slight increase in particle size was observed by TEM after re-stabilization of the Pd species on linear polystyrene, no agglomeration was observed.

  19. 76 FR 4423 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F... (United States)


    .... Indicators of tax law and administrative complexity, as reflected in the tax forms and instructions, are... Administrative Adjustment Request (AAR). 8275 X Disclosure Statement. 8275 R X Regulation Disclosure Statement... Individuals and Individuals With a Medical Condition. 8844 X Empowerment Zone and Renewal Community Employment...

  20. 76 FR 20453 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F... (United States)


    ... administrative complexity, as reflected in the tax forms and instructions, are incorporated into the model... Notice of Inconsistent Treatment or Administrative Adjustment Request (AAR). 8275 X Disclosure Statement... Empowerment Zone and Renewal Community Employment Credit. 8845 X Indian Employment Credit. 8846 X Credit for...

  1. All-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers in acyclic systems through the creation of several C-C bonds per chemical step. (United States)

    Marek, Ilan; Minko, Yury; Pasco, Morgane; Mejuch, Tom; Gilboa, Noga; Chechik, Helena; Das, Jaya P


    In the past few decades, it has become clear that asymmetric catalysis is one of the most powerful methods for the construction of carbon-carbon as well as carbon-heteroatom bonds in a stereoselective manner. However, when structural complexity increases (i.e., all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center), the difficulty in reaching the desired adducts through asymmetric catalytic reactions leads to a single carbon-carbon bond-forming event per chemical step between two components. Issues of efficiency and convergence should therefore be addressed to avoid extraneous chemical steps. In this Perspective, we present approaches that tackle the stimulating problem of efficiency while answering interesting synthetic challenges. Ideally, if one could create all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers via the creation of several new carbon-carbon bonds in an acyclic system and in a single-pot operation from simple precursors, it would certainly open new horizons toward solving the synthetic problems. Even more important for any further design, the presence of polyreactive intermediates in synthesis (bismetalated, carbenoid, and oxenoids species) becomes now an indispensable tool, as it creates consecutively the same number of carbon-carbon bonds as in a multi-step process, but in a single-pot operation.

  2. I36T↑T mutation in South African subtype C (C-SA) HIV-1 protease significantly alters protease-drug interactions. (United States)

    Maseko, Sibusiso B; Padayachee, Eden; Govender, Thavendran; Sayed, Yasien; Kruger, Gert; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lin, Johnson


    The efficacy of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibition therapies is often compromised by the emergence of mutations in the PR molecule that reduces the binding affinity of inhibitors while maintaining viable catalytic activity and affinity for natural substrates. In the present study, we used a recombinant HIV-1 C-SA PR and a recently reported variant for inhibition (Ki, IC50) and thermodynamic studies against nine clinically used inhibitors. This is the first time that binding free energies for C-SA PR and the mutant are reported. This variant PR harbours a mutation and insertion (I36T↑T) at position 36 of the C-SA HIV-1 PR, and did not show a significant difference in the catalytic effect of the HIV-1 PR. However, the nine clinically approved HIV PR drugs used in this study demonstrated weaker inhibition and lower binding affinities toward the variant when compared to the wild type HIV-1 PR. All the protease inhibitors (PIs), except Amprenavir and Ritonavir exhibited a significant decrease in binding affinity (pHIV-1 subtype C PR. This information has important clinical implications for thousands of patients in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. 75 FR 22179 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F... (United States)


    ... inclusion of Form 1040X has a significant positive impact on compliance burden estimates. The impact of... Retiree Credits. 1040 SCH R Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled. 1040 SCH SE Self-Employment Tax. 1040... Disabled Access Credit. 8828 Recapture of Federal Mortgage Subsidy. 8829 Expenses for Business Use of Your...

  4. Pd nanoparticles deposited on poly(lactic acid) grafted carbon nanotubes: synthesis, characterization and application in Heck C-C coupling reaction. (United States)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi


    Herein we described the synthesis of a novel f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst by covalent grafting of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and subsequent deposition of Pd nanoparticles. Prior to grafting of PLA, CNTs were oxidized with a mixture of HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4) and successively activated with thionyl chloride. The PLA grafted CNTs (f-CNTs) were then used as platform for in-situ deposition of Pd nanoparticles. The formation of f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst was analyzed by UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphologies of the nanocatalyst were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The f-CNTs stabilized Pd nanoparticles are found to be more effective in the promotion of Heck cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and n-butyl acrylate. The f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst was regenerated for three cycles of reaction without any significant loss in its activity.

  5. Possible association of 3' UTR +357 A>G, IVS11-nt 93 T>C, c.1311 C>T polymorphism with G6PD deficiency. (United States)

    Sirdah, Mahmoud M; Shubair, Mohammad E; Al-Kahlout, Mustafa S; Al-Tayeb, Jamal M; Prchal, Josef T; Reading, N Scott


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked inherited enzymopathic disorder affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. It has so far been linked to 217 distinct genetic variants in the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the G6PD gene, giving rise to a wide range of biochemical heterogeneity and clinical manifestations. Reports from different settings suggested the association of intronic and other mutations outside the reading frame of the G6PD gene with reduced enzyme activity and presenting clinical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate any association of other variations apart of the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries in the development of G6PD deficiency. Sixty-seven unrelated Palestinian children admitted to the pediatric hospital with hemolytic crises due to G6PD deficiency were studied. In our Palestinian cohort of 67 [59 males (M) and 8 females (F)] G6PD-deficient children, previously hospitalized for acute hemolytic anemia due to favism, molecular sequencing of the G6PD gene revealed four cases (3M and 1F) that did not have any of the variants known to cause G6PD deficiency, but the 3' UTR c.*+357A>G (rs1050757) polymorphism in association with IVS 11 (c.1365-13T>C; rs2071429), and c.1311C>T (rs2230037). We now provide an additional evidence form Palestinian G6PD-deficient subjects for a possible role of 3' UTR c.*+357 A>G, c.1365-13T>C, and/or c.1311C>T polymorphism for G6PD deficiency, suggesting that not only a single variation in the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries, but also a haplotype of G6PD should considered as a cause for G6PD deficiency.

  6. SNPs in candidate genes MX dynamin-like GTPase and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-5 are associated with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma progression in Latxa sheep. (United States)

    Larruskain, A; Esparza-Baquer, A; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Jugo, B M


    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is present in many sheep-rearing countries causing economic and welfare issues, as currently no efficient vaccines or treatments are available. Breed differences suggest a host genetic component may influence the pathogenesis of OPA, but so far few genes have been identified. In this work, a genetic association study was carried out in Latxa dairy sheep which were classified as cases/controls based on the presence/absence of OPA lung tumours. Candidate genes included cytokines and a receptor and innate immunity genes. After SNPs in the candidate genes were identified, the distribution of alleles in cases and controls was compared by means of logistic regression analyses at the allelic, genotypic and haplotypic levels. The association analysis showed that several candidate genes were significantly associated with resistance or susceptibility to OPA; two of the candidates, CCR5 and MX1, remained significantly associated with resistance and susceptibility respectively, even after Bonferroni correction. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Bipodal surface organometallic complexes with surface N-donor ligands and application to the catalytic cleavage of C-H and C-C bonds in n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa


    We present a new generation of "true vicinal" functions well-distributed on the inner surface of SBA15: [(Sî - Si-NH 2)(≡Si-OH)] (1) and [(≡Si-NH2)2] (2). From these amine-modified SBA15s, two new well-defined surface organometallic species [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)]Zr(CH2tBu) 2 (3) and [(≡Si-NH-)2]Zr(CH2tBu) 2 (4) have been obtained by reaction with Zr(CH2tBu) 4. The surfaces were characterized with 2D multiple-quantum 1H-1H NMR and infrared spectroscopies. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), mass balance, and elemental analysis unambiguously proved that Zr(CH2tBu)4 reacts with these vicinal amine-modified surfaces to give mainly bipodal bis(neopentyl)zirconium complexes (3) and (4), uniformly distributed in the channels of SBA15. (3) and (4) react with hydrogen to give the homologous hydrides (5) and (6). Hydrogenolysis of n-butane catalyzed by these hydrides was carried out at low temperature (100 C) and low pressure (1 atm). While (6) exhibits a bis(silylamido)zirconium bishydride, [(≡Si-NH-)2]Zr(H) 2 (6a) (60%), and a bis(silylamido)silyloxozirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-NH-)2(≡Si-O-)]ZrH (6b) (40%), (5) displays a new surface organometallic complex characterized by an 1H NMR signal at 14.46 ppm. The latter is assigned to a (silylimido)(silyloxo)zirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-Nî)(≡Si-O-)]ZrH (5b) (30%), coexistent with a (silylamido)(silyloxo)zirconium bishydride, [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)] Zr(H)2 (5a) (45%), and a silylamidobis(silyloxo)zirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)2]ZrH (5c) (25%). Surprisingly, nitrogen surface ligands possess catalytic properties already encountered with silicon oxide surfaces, but interestingly, catalyst (5) with chelating [N,O] shows better activity than (6) with chelating [N,N]. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. 77 FR 24561 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F... (United States)


    ... forecasting targets, and refinements to the estimation methodology. The incorporation of new taxpayer data to... Acquisitions and Dispositions of Its Stock. 5695 Residential Energy Credits. 5713 X International Boycott...

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    ... adjustments are from incorporation of new taxpayer data, updated forecasting targets, and refinements to the... of Foreign Corporation, and Acquisitions and Dispositions of Its Stock. 5695 Residential Energy...

  10. Post-synthetic modification of metal-organic framework thin films using click chemistry: the importance of strained C-C triple bonds. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengbang; Liu, Jinxuan; Arslan, Hasan K; Grosjean, Sylvain; Hagendorn, Tobias; Gliemann, Hartmut; Bräse, Stefan; Wöll, Christof


    In this work, we demonstrate that strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) yields virtually complete conversion in the context of the post-synthetic modification (PSM) of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We use surface-anchored MOF (SURMOF) thin films, [Zn2(N3-bdc)2(dabco)], grown on modified Au substrates using liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) as a model system to first show that, with standard click chemistry, presently, the most popular method for rendering additional functionality to MOFs via PSM, quantitative conversion yields, cannot be reached. In addition, it is virtually impossible to avoid contaminations of the product by the cytotoxic Cu(I) ions used as a catalyst, a substantial problem for applications in life sciences. Both problems could be overcome by SPAAC, where a metal catalyst is not needed. After optimization of reaction conditions, conversion yields of nearly 100% could be achieved. The consequences of these results for various applications of PSM-modified SURMOFs in the fields of membranes, optical coatings, catalysis, selective gas separation, and chemical sensing are briefly discussed.

  11. C,C Couplings in the Reactions of Unsaturated Group 4 Metal s-cis-Butadiene Complexes with 2,6-Xylyl Isocyanide


    Hessen, Bart; Blenkers, Joop; Teuben, Jan H.; Helgesson, Göran; Jagner, Susan


    A group of electronically unsaturated (14-electron) diene complexes of Hf and Ti has been reacted with 2,6-xylyl isocyanide. Cp*Hf(diene)Cl (diene = 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene; Cp* = η-C5Me5) reacts with 2 mol of isocyanide to form the unusual heterospiro complexes Cp*Hf(Cl)N(xy)CCH2C(Me)=C(R)CH=CHN(xy) (R = H, Me; xy = 2,6-xylyl) involving a 1,2-hydrogen shift and a ring closure after insertion of isocyanide into the Hf-diene bond. In Cp*Hf(2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene)...

  12. Quantum Chemical Study of the Enzymatic Repair of T(6-4)C/C(6-4)T UV-Photolesions by DNA Photolyases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, Shirin; Wirz, Lukas; Dreuw, Andreas


    Several strategies have evolved to repair one of the abundant UV radiation-induced damages caused to DNA, namely the mutagenic pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photolesions. DNA (6-4)-photolyases are enzymes repairing these lesions by a photoinitiated electron transfer. An important aspect of a possible

  13. Myocardial infarction-induced N-terminal fragment of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) impairs myofilament function in human myocardium. (United States)

    Witayavanitkul, Namthip; Ait Mou, Younss; Kuster, Diederik W D; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Sarkey, Jason; Govindan, Suresh; Chen, Xin; Ge, Ying; Rajan, Sudarsan; Wieczorek, David F; Irving, Thomas; Westfall, Margaret V; de Tombe, Pieter P; Sadayappan, Sakthivel


    Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with depressed cardiac contractile function and progression to heart failure. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C, a cardiac-specific myofilament protein, is proteolyzed post-MI in humans, which results in an N-terminal fragment, C0-C1f. The presence of C0-C1f in cultured cardiomyocytes results in decreased Ca(2+) transients and cell shortening, abnormalities sufficient for the induction of heart failure in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the association between C0-C1f and altered contractility in human cardiac myofilaments in vitro. To accomplish this, we generated recombinant human C0-C1f (hC0C1f) and incorporated it into permeabilized human left ventricular myocardium. Mechanical properties were studied at short (2 μm) and long (2.3 μm) sarcomere length (SL). Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere had the greatest effect at short, but not long, SL, decreasing maximal force and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Moreover, hC0C1f led to increased cooperative activation, cross-bridge cycling kinetics, and tension cost, with greater effects at short SL. We further established that the effects of hC0C1f occur through direct interaction with actin and α-tropomyosin. Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere is sufficient to induce depressed myofilament function and Ca(2+) sensitivity in otherwise healthy human donor myocardium. Decreased cardiac function post-MI may result, in part, from the ability of hC0C1f to bind actin and α-tropomyosin, suggesting that cleaved C0-C1f could act as a poison polypeptide and disrupt the interaction of native cardiac myosin-binding protein C with the thin filament.

  14. Clinical experience with metolazone-a new diuretic- in cases of edema and ascites due to hepatic cirrhosis, C.C.F.,, and malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth U


    Full Text Available Metolazone [2-methyl-3-(0-tolyl-6-sulpharnyl-7-chloro-1, 2, 3, 4-tetra hydro-4-quinazolinone] is recently introduced as a new orally acting diuretic. It is structurally related to sulfonamides and benzo-thiazidines. 41 male patients suffering from generalised edema due to various causes including 7 cases of congestive cardiac failure, 6 cases of malnutrition and 28 cases of hepatic cirrhosis were treated with metolazone given orally in a dose varying from 5 to 60 mg per day. The optimum effective dose was found to be 5 mg per day. 36 cases responded well with a loss of body weight ranging from 2.5 kg. to 12 kg. There was a significant increase in the urine volume and the urinary sodium, potassium and chloride excretion. Saluretic response was marked. Urinary sodium increased from 8-20 mEq/ day to 100 to 120 mEq in 24 hours. No serious side effects were observed during this study. Hypokalemia and hyponatremia occurred on increase of the dose. Occasionally leg cramps and abdominal distress were observed. Metolazone was found to be an effective orally active diuretic in a dose of 5 to 10 , mg/day.

  15. Identification and analysis of e{sup +}e{sup -}-pairs in C+C collisions at 1 AGeV; Identifikation und Analyse von e{sup +}e{sup -}-Paaren in C+C Stoessen bei 1 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, T.


    The object of this thesis is the analysis of the data that have be recorded with HADES for the system {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C at a beam energy of E=1 AGeV. Within this work a probabilistic algorithm for efficient e{sup +}/e{sup -} identification and hadron suppression has been developed and integrated into the HADES analysis software. The method has been tested with extensive simulations and achieves an identification efficiency above 95% for momenta below p=600 MeV/c. Hadronic background in the e{sup +}/e{sup -}-sample up to p=600 MeV/c is reduced to less than 2%. For larger momenta the contamination with charged pions remains below 5%, for protons at polar angles below 44 it does not exceed 14%. After combination of the identified e{sup +}/e{sup -}-trajectories into pairs und subtraction of the combinatorial background there remains a physics signal of 47687{+-}1528 e{sup +}e{sup -}-pairs, for which distributions of invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity are determined. The signal-to-background ratio S/B for pair masses between 80 und 450 MeV/c{sup 2} is between 0.2 und 1. By applying further cuts upon the pair-sample the background induced by leptons from conversion processes is reduced substantially. After all cuts 11000{+-}432 e{sup +}e{sup -}-pairs remain. For M{sub e{sup +}}{sub e{sup -}} > 200 MeV/c{sup 2} S/B rises exponentially from about 2 to values of up to 10. The systematic error of the analysis for pairs with masses below 150 MeV/c{sup 2} is determined to be 17.5%, for higher masses a value of 23% is found. For transverse momentum and rapidity one finds below (above) M{sub e{sup +}}{sub e{sup -}}=150 MeV/c{sup 2} systematic errors of 17.5% (21.4%) and 15.3% (33.5%) respectively. Together with e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities published by HADES for the system {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C at E=2 AGeV the excitation function of the excess-multiplicity is determined from the measurement results. (orig.)

  16. Exploring a DNA Sequence for the Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of a Silver(I)-Mediated C-C Base Pair in a DNA Duplex By (1)H NMR Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Dairaku, Takenori; Furuita, Kyoko; Sato, Hajime; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kojima, Chojiro; Ono, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki


    Recently, we discovered novel silver(I)-mediated cytosine-cytosine base pair (C-Ag(I)-C) in DNA duplexes. To understand the properties of these base pairs, we searched for a DNA sequence that can be used in NMR structure determination. After extensive sequence optimizations, a non-symmetric 15-base-paired DNA duplex with a single C-Ag(I)-C base pair flanked by 14 A-T base pairs was selected. In spite of its challenging length for NMR measurements (30 independent residues) with small sequence variation, we could assign most non-exchangeable protons (254 out of 270) and imino protons for structure determination.

  17. Improvement of E and P PETROBRAS maintenance program by an RCM tool; MCC Net: software de revisao de planos de manutencao com base M.C.C. Metodo qualitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydman, Bernardo; Okada, Ricardo Yoshinori [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao; Souza, Arleniro Oliveira de [PETROBRAS, AM (Brazil). Unidade de Exploracao e Producao da Bacia do Solimoes; Frazao, Nelson A. [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos


    The objective of this paper are remember some basic concepts necessaries to understanding the Reliability Centered Maintenance technique, presenting a report of the RCM applications already developed in the exploration and production segment at PETROBRAS, with some examples of results obtained, presents the premises that based the development of the denominated software MCCNet, developed by PETROBRAS E and P, tool for use of the technique of Reliability Centered Maintenance , for elaboration and/or revision of the preventive maintenance plans of equipment or systems, that it can be used for the study of any process type, and, still presenting the future vision for the subject of RCM in this company segment. (author)

  18. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ROOFTOP GREENERY SYSTEM AT THE TROPICAL CLIMATE OF MALAYSIA A case study of a 10 storied building R.C.C flat rooftop at UTM, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumana Rashid


    Full Text Available In tropical countries rooftop greenery is more sympathetic to the prevailing climate and provides comfortable indoor environment. This paper analyses the above hypothesis on a 10 storied residential apartments in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM. The analysis of actual performance of the rooftop greenery can provide the information on effectiveness of its application on contemporary houses for tropical climate in Malaysia. Empirical studies have been performed an internal and external roof surface, where temperature and air temperature were measured for a period of three days in two phases. The first phase of measurement was carried out when the rooftop was empty. After the rooftop greenery was built then the second phase of measurement was conducted. Expected findings of the research are that the green rooftop will tend to experience lower surface temperature than the original exposed roof surface. So this research work will provide an introduction or preliminary guide line for thermally responsive architecture on the basis of thermal performance of the rooftop greenery system. Temperature is the main criteria of human comfort. To provide an indoor comfortable environment through the greening of the rooftop of the building is more appropriate in the tropical climate of Malaysia.

  19. Protección contra la oxidación de materiales compuestos SiC(C/SiC mediante la combinación de recubrimientos de silicatos de itrio y sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, M.


    Full Text Available The factor which currently precludes the use of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC in high temperature structural applications is the oxidation of carbon fibres at temperatures greater than 450ºC (1. For this reason, it is necessary to develop coatings capable of protecting C/SiC components from oxidation for extended periods at 1600ºC. Conventional coatings consist of multilayers of different materials with complementary antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to develop a multilayer coating consisted by a bonding layer of SiC, a intermediate layer of yttrium silicates: Y2Si2O7 and Y2SiO5, and an external layer of SiO2. Different techniques have been used to prepare the layers: painting with policarbosilane solutions, slip-coating and sol-gel, respectively. The behaviour against oxidation of coated composite material has been evaluated, and the samples before and after oxidation has been characterised by SEM. The cracking of SiC coating leads to a very low oxidation resistance at low temperatures. Only when the substrate is protected by the trilayer coating the reduction of the oxidation rate is considerable, and the weight loss is reduced from 50% (with a SiC coating to 15%.

    El principal inconveniente para la utilización de los materiales compuestos C/SiC en aplicaciones estructurales de alta temperatura es la elevada velocidad de oxidación de la fibra de carbono por encima de 450°C (1. Por esta razón, es necesario el desarrollo de recubrimientos capaces de proteger de la oxidación a estos materiales durante periodos prolongados a temperaturas de hasta 1600°C. Habitualmente, los recubrimientos están formados por multicapas con características antioxidantes complementarias. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el desarrollo de un recubrimiento multicapa formado por una capa interior de SiC, una intermedia de silicatos de itrio: Y2Si2O7 y Y2SiO5, y una exterior de SiO2. En su procesamiento se han empleado diferentes técnicas: pulverizado con soluciones de policarbosilanos, inmersión en suspensiones coloidales y técnica solgel, respectivamente. Se ha analizado la influencia sobre la resistencia a la oxidación del material, y se ha realizado un estudio microestructural por MEB previo y posterior al ensayo de oxidación. Las presencia de fisuras en la capa interior de SiC origina una resistencia a la oxidación muy reducida a baja temperatura. Solamente cuando el substrato está protegido por la triple capa la reducción de la velocidad de oxidación es considerable y la pérdida de peso se reduce del 50%, cuando el substrato está protegido por la capa de SiC, al 15% con la triple capa.

  20. El Arbitraje Internacional en el marco de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (C.C.I “Panorama actual y principales tópicos” 10.5102/uri.v12i2.2959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Rivero Godoy


    Full Text Available El artículo a continuación pretende describir en forma general la temática del arbitraje como medio de solución de controversias, el cuál muestra un significativo crecimiento en el mundo. Por otro lado, el arbitraje internacional, y en especial el aplicado a los negocios o comercio internacional plantea varias dudas. En especial al derecho aplicable al fondo del asunto. En este sentido, no siempre es seguro la aplicación de reglas entendidas como obligatorias, ejemplo de ello son los principios de la UNIDROIT o de la lex mercatoria. A su vez, se detalla la actualidad de forma estadística sobre el desarrollo del arbitraje desde los últimos años y un panorama general desde sus inicios en el marco de la Corte Internacional de Arbitraje. Además, se describirán los tópicos más importantes cuando de arbitraje se habla como lo es la ejecución de los laudos, las medidas cautelares, el derecho de fondo, etc. Finalmente, habrán de mencionarse algunos aspectos ya señalados, pero extraídos de algunos casos de la Corte y que refieren a la aplicación del derecho de fondo. Asimismo, se hará referencia a aquellas cuestiones que podrían ser importantes cuando una de las partes (Estado o particulares suscribe una cláusula arbitral; y lo que ello significa.

  1. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ROOFTOP GREENERY SYSTEM AT THE TROPICAL CLIMATE OF MALAYSIA A case study of a 10 storied building R.C.C flat rooftop at UTM, Johor Bahru, Malaysia


    Rumana Rashid; Mohd. Hamdan Bin Ahmed


    In tropical countries rooftop greenery is more sympathetic to the prevailing climate and provides comfortable indoor environment. This paper analyses the above hypothesis on a 10 storied residential apartments in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The analysis of actual performance of the rooftop greenery can provide the information on effectiveness of its application on contemporary houses for tropical climate in Malaysia. Empirical studies have been performed an internal and external roof...

  2. Page 1 "C e:::::l0•..Cl e: -" s: (,) c: c. .•..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    film 'Fighter Pilots'. This final phase of this history of No 7 Squa- dron is marked with increased squadron acti- vity and success at competitions. The re- cords show that the members were always keen to attend courses and that the Squa- dron's esprit de corps remained high. Maj Robinson's spell as Officer Commanding.

  3. How do halogen bonds (S-O⋯I, N-O⋯I and C-O⋯I) and halogen-halogen contacts (C-I⋯I-C, C-F⋯F-C) subsist in crystal structures? A quantum chemical insight. (United States)

    Pandiyan, B Vijaya; Deepa, P; Kolandaivel, P


    Thirteen X-ray crystal structures containing various non-covalent interactions such as halogen bonds, halogen-halogen contacts and hydrogen bonds (I⋯N, I⋯F, I⋯I, F⋯F, I⋯H and F⋯H) were considered and investigated using the DFT-D3 method (B97D/def2-QZVP). The interaction energies were calculated at MO62X/def2-QZVP and MP2/aug-cc-pvDZ level of theories. The higher interaction and dispersion energies (2nd crystal) of -9.58 kcal mol -1 and -7.10 kcal mol -1 observed for 1,4-di-iodotetrafluorobenzene bis [bis (2-phenylethyl) sulfoxide] structure indicates the most stable geometrical arrangement in the crystal packing. The electrostatic potential values calculated for all crystal structures have a positive σ-hole, which aids understanding of the nature of σ-hole bonds. The significance of the existence of halogen bonds in crystal packing environments was authenticated by replacing iodine atoms by bromine and chlorine atoms. Nucleus independent chemical shift analysis reported on the resonance contribution to the interaction energies of halogen bonds and halogen-halogen contacts. Hirshfeld surface analysis and topological analysis (atoms in molecules) were carried out to analyze the occurrence and strength of all non-covalent interactions. These analyses revealed that halogen bond interactions were more dominant than hydrogen bonding interactions in these crystal structures. Graphical Abstract Molecluar structure of 1,4-Di-iodotetrafluorobenzene bis(thianthrene 5-oxide) moelcule and its corresponding molecular electrostatic potential map for the view of σ-hole.

  4. El Arbitraje Internacional en el marco de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional (C.C.I) “Panorama actual y principales tópicos” 10.5102/uri.v12i2.2959

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Manuel Rivero Godoy


    ... de solución de controversias, el cuál muestra un significativo crecimiento en el mundo. Por otro lado, el arbitraje internacional, y en especial el aplicado a los negocios o comercio internacional plantea varias dudas...

  5. Hacia el desarrollo sostenible: Líquidos Iónicos como catalizadores para la transposición de Beckmann y reacciones de formación de enlaces C-C




    La degradación ambiental se ha convertido en un importante problema al que deben enfrentarse la ciencia y la tecnología. Los temas tratados en este trabajo, pretenden aunar, con la introducción de los líquidos iónicos en distintos procesos, la preocupación por el medio ambiente y las inquietudes constantes del progreso. Es por esto que lo largo de esta tesis se han desarrollado nuevos sistemas catalíticos basados en líquidos iónicos, que seguidamente se han aplicado a procesos químicos de...

  6. Sperm quality assessment in mammals by flow cytometry In: T.R. Tiersch and C.C. Green (eds.) Cryopreservation in Aquatic Species, 2nd Edition. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA. (United States)

    The fertility of a semen sample can not be predicted whereas the potential for poor fertility can be estimated by evaluating as many physiologic and morphologic factors as possible (Amann and Hammerstedt, 2002). This rationale is based on the ideology that while a significant amount of information ...

  7. Theoretical and Structural Analysis of Long C-C Bonds in the Adducts of Polycyanoethylene and Anthracene Derivatives and Their Connection to the Reversibility of Diels-Alder Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Anna K. H.; Reutenauer, Philippe; Le Moignan, Marc; Ulrich, Sebastien; Boul, Peter J.; Harrowfield, Jack M.; Jarowski, Peter D.; Lehn, Jean-Marie


    X-ray structure determinations on four Diels-Alder adducts derived from the reactions of cyano- and ester-substituted alkenes with anthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene have shown the bonds formed in the adduction to be particularly long. Their lengths range from 1.58 to 1.62 angstrom, some of the

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of PHP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)], a monodentate chiral phosphine derived from intramolecular C-C coupling of tetramethylcyclopentadienyl groups: an evaluation of steric and electronic properties. (United States)

    Shin, J H; Bridgewater, B M; Churchill, D G; Parkin, G


    The chiral monodentate phosphine PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] is readily obtained by oxidation of the lithium complex Li(2)[PhP(C(5)Me(4))(2)] with I(2), which couples the two cyclopentadienyl groups to form a five-membered heterocyclic ring. The steric and electronic properties of PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] have been evaluated by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopic studies on a variety of derivatives, including Ph[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]PE (E = S, Se), Cp*MCl(4)[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph] (M = Mo, Ta), Ir[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph](2)(CO)Cl, and CpFe(CO)[PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)

  9. An unexpected ethyl transfer reaction between Et2Zn anddo(t-butyl)glyoxaldiimine (t-BuDAB).Studies of thepersistent [EtZn(t-BuDAB)] radical which is in equilibrium with its C-C coupled dimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klerks, J.M.; Vrieze, K.


    Whereas p-Tol{2}Zn reacts with t-BuN@?CHCH@?N-t-Bu (t-BuDAB) to give a stable 11 complex [p-Tol{2}Zn(t-BuDAB)], Et{2}Zn gives EtZnN(Et)(t-Bu)CH@?CHN-(t-Bu) via intramolecular ethyl transfer in the unstable Et{2}Zn(t-BuDAB) complex. In solution the stable persistent organozinc radical EtZn(t-BuDAB),

  10. Le respect par le C.G.R.A. et par le C.C.E. de l’autorité de chose jugée attaquée à un arrêt du C.C.E. ordonnant des mesures d’instruction complémentaires et les obligations du C.G.R.A. dans l’organisation d’une expertise psychologique


    Lys, Matthieu


    Dans l’arrêt commenté, le Conseil d’Etat ordonne la cassation d’un arrêt du Conseil du contentieux des étrangers pour méconnaissance de l’autorité de chose jugée attachée à un arrêt d’annulation du même Conseil rendu dans la même affaire, en insistant sur les obligations pensant sur le Commissariat Général aux Réfugiés et aux Apatrides dans l’organisation d’une expertise psychologique d’un demandeur d’asile.

  11. Retroca valvular Replacement of heart valves prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A Pomerantzeff


    Full Text Available A reoperação de próteses valvulares tem sido realizada, com freqüência cada vez maior, nos vários Serviços de cirurgia cardíaca. Os detalhes do tratamento, a indicação e a técnica operatória melhoraram os resultados. No período de janeiro de 1984 a junho de 1986, no Instituto do Coração, foram submetidos a retroca valvular 145 pacientes, num total de 157 próteses, e 4 trocas da bola de válvula de Starr-Edwards. Em posição mitral, 6 pacientes foram submetidos a terceira troca valvular, sem óbito imediato. A insuficiência valvular e a calcificação do tecido biológico de dura-máter foram as principais causas de indicação da reoperação. Quarenta e um pacientes apresentavam roturas e 19 pacientes, calcificação de bioprótese em posição mitral; em posição aórtica, 32 pacientes tinham rotura e 12, calcificação de bioprótese. Quanto à prótese implantada, foram utilizadas principalmente as biopróteses, sendo 63 porcinas e 35 de pericárdio bovino. A mortalidade imediata global foi de 8,3% (12 pacientes, sendo a principal causa de óbito o baixo débito cardíaco. As principais complicações imediats foram: baixo débito cardíaco, arritmias e sangramento. Noventa por cento dos pacientes encontravam-se em classe funcional (NYHA III e IV no pré-operatório, evoluindo para as classes funcionais I e II em 89% das trocas aórticas de 82% das trocas mitrais. A curva atuarial de sobrevida.em 5 semestres, foi, para a posição mitral, de 85,7% e, para a aórtica, de 91,3%. Os autores concluem que os cuidados de técnica, a proteção miocárdica e o tipo de prótese utilizada foram os responsáveis pelos resultados bastante satisfatórios.Replacement of valvular prosthesis is an increasingly frequent procedure in heart surgery. Better results are attained with the observation of correct indication and improved surgical technique. In the period of January 1984 to June 1986, 145 patients were submitted to prosthesis

  12. Lightning ball: experiments on creation and hypotheses (comment on 'Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls' by G S Paiva, J V Ferreira, C C Bastos, M V P dos Santos, A C Pavao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabanov, Gennadii D [B P Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region (Russian Federation)


    The problems addressed in this paper include estimating: the energy density of luminous silicon balls, the density range of a natural lightning ball, and whether and how the object created and described in the commented paper (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 218 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 (2) 209 (2010)]) corresponds to the natural phenomenon. (letters to the editors)

  13. LETTERS TO THE EDITORS: Lightning ball: experiments on creation and hypotheses(comment on "Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls" by G S Paiva, J V Ferreira, C C Bastos, M V P dos Santos, A C Pavão) (United States)

    Shabanov, Gennadii D.


    The problems addressed in this paper include estimating: the energy density of luminous silicon balls, the density range of a natural lightning ball, and whether and how the object created and described in the commented paper (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 218 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 (2) 209 (2010)]) corresponds to the natural phenomenon.

  14. Evaluation of uterine cervix cancer hypoxia by PET with {sup 18}F-F.E.T.N.I.M.. Relation with squamous cell carcinoma (S.C.C.) and osteopontin tumoral markers; Evaluation de l'hypoxie du cancer du col uterin par la TEP au {sup 18}F-FETNIM. Relation avec les marqueurs tumoraux SCC et osteopontine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, E.; Schlageter, M.H.; Groheux, D.; Vercellino, L.; Lussato, D.; Thoury, A.; Hennequin, V.; Hindie, E.; Barranger, E.; Moretti, J.L. [CHU Saint-Louis-Lariboisiere, universite Paris-7, IMDCT, 75 - Paris (France)


    Purpose: to evaluate the imaging feasibility of hypoxia of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by PET with {sup 18}F-F.E.T.N.I.M. (Iason). to compare the {sup 18}F-F.E.T.N.I.M. uptake to the metabolic uptake in {sup 18}F-F.D.G. and to study their relationship with the squamous cell carcinoma, tumoral marker and osteoponin, circulating tracer of hypoxia. Conclusions: the F.E.T.N.I.M. uptake by the tumor is always of lower level than the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. uptake. By using the ratio Tumor/Muscle, these preliminary results do not enlighten any correlation between the circulating hypoxia tracer and the tumor uptake of {sup 18}F-F.E.T.N.I.M.. (N.C.)

  15. Calibration control of PET cameras participating at the multi centers study F.N.C.L.C.C.-F.L.T. (P.H.R.C.01/0505); Controle de calibrage des cameras TEP participant a l'etude multicentrique FNCLCC-FLT (PHRC 01/0505)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, F.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [CHU d' Angers, (France); Ferrer, L. [bCRLCC R. Gauducheau, Nantes, (France); Touzery, C. [CRLCC G.-F. Leclerc, Dijon, (France); Martineau, A. [CHU de Saint-Louis, Assistance publique des Hopitaux de Paris, (France); Poinsignon, A. [CRLCC R.-Huguenin, Saint-Cloud, (France)


    The principal objective of the P.H.R.C. F.L.T. 01/0505 is to evaluate the response to the neo-adjuvant therapy of breast cancers by PET with {sup 18}F-fluoro thymidine (F.L.T.) imaging. The PET cameras of the participating centers were from different models, so the study includes an inter-sites protocol of calibration control whom we give here the first results. The conclusions are that no important deviation appeared on the PET cameras calibrations. these first very encouraging results confirm that the multi centers protocols allow to get data as reliable as if they were got on a single PET system. (N.C.)

  16. Degradation of mangrove tissues by arboreal termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) and their role in the mangrove C cycle (Puerto Rico): Chemical characterization and organic matter provenance using bulk δ13C, C/N, alkaline CuO oxidation-GC/MS, and solid-state 13C NMR (United States)

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Snape, Colin E.; Diaz, Miguel Castro; Khan, Nicole S.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Horton, Benjamin P.


    Arboreal termites are wood decaying organisms that play an important role in the first stages of C cycling in mangrove systems. The chemical composition of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa leaf, stem, and pneumatophore tissues as well as associated sediments was compared to that of nests of the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae. Nests gave δ13C values of -26.1 to -27.2‰ (±0.1) and C/N of 43.3 (±2.0) to 98.6 (±16.2) which were similar to all stem and pneumatophores but distinct from mangrove leaves or sediments. Organic matter processed by termites yielded lignin phenol concentrations (Λ, lambda) that were 2-4 times higher than stem or pneumatophores and 10-20 times higher than that of leaves or sediments, suggesting that the nests were more resistant to biodegradation than the mangrove vegetation source. 13C NMR revealed that polysaccharide content of mangrove tissues (50-69% C) was higher than that of the nests (46-51% C). Conversely, lignin accounted for 16.2-19.6% C of nest material, a threefold increase relative to living mangrove tissues; a similar increase in aromatic methoxyl content was also observed in the nests. Lipids (aliphatic and paraffinic moieties) were also important but rather variable chemical components of all three mangrove species, representing between 13.5 and 28.3% of the C content. Termite nests contained 3.14 Mg C ha-1 which represents approximately 2% of above ground C storage in mangroves, a value that is likely to increase upon burial due to their refractory chemical composition.

  17. C-C bond formation and related reactions at the CNC backbone in (smif)FeX (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl): dimerizations, 3 + 2 cyclization, and nucleophilic attack; transfer hydrogenations and alkyne trimerization (X = N(TMS)2, dpma = (di-(2-pyridyl-methyl)-amide)). (United States)

    Frazier, Brenda A; Williams, Valerie A; Wolczanski, Peter T; Bart, Suzanne C; Meyer, Karsten; Cundari, Thomas R; Lobkovsky, Emil B


    Molecular orbital analysis depicts the CNC(nb) backbone of the smif (1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) ligand as having singlet diradical and/or ionic character where electrophilic or nucleophilic attack is plausible. Reversible dimerization of (smif)Fe{N(SiMe3)2} (1) to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(3),κ(3)-N,py2-smif,smif) (2) may be construed as diradical coupling. A proton transfer within the backbone-methylated, and o-pyridine-methylated smif of putative ((b)Me2(o)Me2smif)FeN(SiMe3)2 (8) provides a route to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(4),κ(4)-N,py2,C-((b)Me,(b)CH2,(o)Me2(smif)H))2 (9). A 3 + 2 cyclization of ditolyl-acetylene occurs with 1, leading to the dimer [{2,5-di(pyridin-2-yl)-3,4-di-(p-tolyl-2,5-dihydropyrrol-1-ide)}FeN(SiMe3)2]2 (11), and the collateral discovery of alkyne cyclotrimerization led to a brief study that identified Fe(N(SiMe3)2(THF) as an effective catalyst. Nucleophilic attack by (smif)2Fe (13) on (t)BuNCO and (2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)NCO afforded (RNHCO-smif)2Fe (14a, R = (t)Bu; 14b, 2,6-(i)PrC6H3). Calculations suggested that (dpma)2Fe (15) would favorably lose dihydrogen to afford (smif)2Fe (13). H2-transfer to alkynes, olefins, imines, PhN═NPh, and ketones was explored, but only stoichiometric reactions were affected. Some physical properties of the compounds were examined, and X-ray structural studies on several dinuclear species were conducted.

  18. Los retos de la energía eólica marina en España: el papel de las C.C.A.A. y la ordenación de los espacios marinos ante la Directiva 2014/89/UE


    Díaz Lagares, Vicente


    El objeto de este artículo consiste en el estudio de la necesaria articulación y ordenación de los sectores, materias e intereses concurrentes en el proceso de implantación generalizada de la energía eólica off shore, con especial hincapié en el papel que deben desempeñar las Comunidades Autónomas, los obstáculos existentes y las posibles vías para superarlos, sin pretender, no obstante, hacer un análisis exhaustivo y pormenorizado del régimen jurídico, a todos los niveles normativos, de las ...

  19. Chemokine (C-C Motif Receptor 2 Mediates Dendritic Cell Recruitment to the Human Colon but Is Not Responsible for Differences Observed in Dendritic Cell Subsets, Phenotype, and Function Between the Proximal and Distal ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo


    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Most knowledge about gastrointestinal (GI-tract dendritic cells (DC relies on murine studies where CD103+ DC specialize in generating immune tolerance with the functionality of CD11b+/− subsets being unclear. Information about human GI-DC is scarce, especially regarding regional specifications. Here, we characterized human DC properties throughout the human colon. Methods: Paired proximal (right/ascending and distal (left/descending human colonic biopsies from 95 healthy subjects were taken; DC were assessed by flow cytometry and microbiota composition assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Colonic DC identified were myeloid (mDC, CD11c+CD123− and further divided based on CD103 and SIRPα (human analog of murine CD11b expression. CD103-SIRPα+ DC were the major population and with CD103+SIRPα+ DC were CD1c+ILT3+CCR2+ (although CCR2 was not expressed on all CD103+SIRPα+ DC. CD103+SIRPα- DC constituted a minor subset that were CD141+ILT3−CCR2−. Proximal colon samples had higher total DC counts and fewer CD103+SIRPα+ cells. Proximal colon DC were more mature than distal DC with higher stimulatory capacity for CD4+CD45RA+ T-cells. However, DC and DC-invoked T-cell expression of mucosal homing markers (β7, CCR9 was lower for proximal DC. CCR2 was expressed on circulating CD1c+, but not CD141+ mDC, and mediated DC recruitment by colonic culture supernatants in transwell assays. Proximal colon DC produced higher levels of cytokines. Mucosal microbiota profiling showed a lower microbiota load in the proximal colon, but with no differences in microbiota composition between compartments. Conclusions: Proximal colonic DC subsets differ from those in distal colon and are more mature. Targeted immunotherapy using DC in T-cell mediated GI tract inflammation may therefore need to reflect this immune compartmentalization. Keywords: CCR2, Dendritic Cells, Distal Colon, Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Proximal Colon, Microbiota

  20. Curing and Characterization of Siloxanecarbonate Polymers (United States)


    processing several batches is recommended. The NMR and IR spectra were identical with those of an authentic sample. IR - Figure 14; NMR - Figure 15 (See...C-------- 4-’ Cu C Cu C) - C C. C Cux 0 V - ------- -.-. - 0) - -- -. I - - ECu 0) 4-’ 0 4- E 4-. C) 0) 0. - - Z -- ± 0) LL C C -c

  1. PIV Flow Field Measurements of Hovering Rotors with Leading Edge Protuberances (United States)


    CP / ± . × μ dt M b R Nb /Nb dt dt dt μ μ f c c c c c c c c T P CT CP T CT A R P CP A R A R R V r...M F M F M F M CP CP CP CP CP CP C / T CP CT CP CP CP CP CP CP CP . CT / . CT / CT / . F M b b z/R c c vi vi/ V r . R r...T

  2. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...

  3. N,N-Dihexyl-4-[2-(4-nitro-phen-yl)vin-yl]aniline. (United States)

    Schollmeyer, Dieter; Detert, Heiner


    The title compound, C(26)H(36)N(2)O(2), was prepared by Horner olefination of p-dihexyl-amino-benzaldehyde and diethyl p-nitro-benzyl-phospho-nate. It crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both have similar geometries of the π-systems but the conformations of all hexyl chains are different. Whereas one hexyl chain of the first mol-ecule shows the typical all-anti conformation, the second is arranged in a gauche-anti-gauche-anti conformation with N-C-C-C, C-C-C-C, C-C-C-C and C-C-C-C torsion angles of -65.1 (4), 167.3 (3), 63.3 (4), and 179.4 (3)°. One of the hexyl chains in the other mol-ecule has an anti-anti-gauche-anti conformation [N-C-C-C, C-C-C-C, C-C-C-C and C-C-C-C torsion angles = 179.6 (3), -179.8 (3), -68.7 (5) and -178.8 (4)°], the other starts with an anti-gauche-gauche sequence. Molecules A and B are composed of five planar subunits. The angle sums around the N atoms are in the range 356 (2)-360.0 (2)°. Torsion angles between these segments do not exceed 4.9 (4)°, except for one of the alkyl chains each [molecule A = 26.2 (4)°; molecule B = -6.0 (4)°]. The high planarity of the molecules and the short aniline C-N bonds [1.385 (3) Å in molecule A and 1.378 (3) Å in molecule B] indicate a strong electronic coupling through the stilbene unit. One methylene group is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.72:0.28.

  4. The chemical bonds effect of Amaranthus hybridus L. and Dracaena Angustifolia on TiO2 as photo-sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar Cells (DSSC) (United States)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.


    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) consists of a working electrode, dye, electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The paper showed the effect of chemical bonds Dracaena Angustifolia (suji leaves) and Amaranthus Hybridus L. (spinach leaves) on TiO2 for application in DSSC. Dracaena Angustifolia (suji leaves) and Amaranthus Hybridus L. (spinach leaves) were extracted using acetone solvent as a dye containing chlorophyll, the absorbance spectrum of the dye and TiO2 were characterized using Uv-visible spectrophotometer 1601 PC, the chemical bonds contained in TiO2-dye was characterized using FT-IR spectrophotometer Shimadzu Prestige 21. The efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V Keithley 2602A. Absorbance characterization of dye Dracaena Angustifolia showed two peaks at the wavelength of 665,5 nm and 412 nm. The absorbance peaks of dye Amaranthus Hybridus L. at the wavelength of 664 nm and 412,5 nm. FT-IR characterization of TiO2 founded the functional groups C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. Dye Amaranthus Hybridus L. obtained functional groups C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C=O, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. Dye Dracaena Angustifolia obtained functional groups were identified as C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. DSSC efficiency with Amaranthus Hybridus L. and Dracaena Angustifolia dyes of 0,063% and 0,058% respectively

  5. Droplet Size and Liquid Water Characteristics of the USAAEFA (CH-47) Helicopter Spray System and Natural Clouds as Sampled by a JUH-1H Helicopter. (United States)


    637 46A Wes, WOOODNv ARoa AtlIadea C&,fonas 9 Doi lele c’e (23) 79,.190, ye.,.e6 521 CALIBRATION REPORT Date: 1129/I7Q Instrument: AN ASSP-00 Size...8217 0 00 0 0 C, 4D 0 cc0cC ,Q000cc0 0 0c0C0c 00 0C c cac cC cc. c c c c L) ~ q -7777777777 PON pn -I 1 ac- 0 00 I S000 C 0 0 0 C -OC 0 0 00 0 C. 0 J% 0...C C- 0 x C a. CC0 PON In U,0 c ca, IrCC0 " a7 cc I C 000 0 C. O C C 0 Q0Q0 04 C c C9t ’ a00 0 C C C~ i0’ £ C CC . .’ .I %%c L.USC C C7 4zc zC 0 0

  6. 29 CFR 782.8 - Special classes of carriers. (United States)


    ... Commission consistently maintained that transportation with a State of consumable goods (such as food, coal... Coal Co. v. Secretary of War, 69 I.C.C. 389; Bunker Coal from Alabama to Gulf Ports, 227 I.C.C. 485...

  7. Onondaga Lake, New York. Technical Annex (United States)


    4tce C. CCA- Z CCC 2.C- C cR cc - -O-C I - C A. aE a -0IL 6 zI CI a CU C~~ 5 ! C C 6. ~S U C~~~~ AL 4 0- A- CCC ~ ~ " CC C C U--~ ~~~~ CUCA aAA U U U C

  8. Studies of Biosilicification; The Role of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Model Compounds in Structure Control (United States)


    Minerals, March 2000, pp. 49. be key features to controlling biosilicification. 12 C. C. Harrison (now Perry), Phytochemistry , 1996, 41, 37. 13 C. C...Harrison, Phytochemistry , 1996, 41, 3742. 23 5. C. C. Perry and T. Keeling-Tucker, Colloid Polym. Sci., 2003, 281, 652-664; C. C. Perry and T. Keeling...being recovered after a period of 60 minutes further reaction). Figure 4 shows that prior to a stable particle being formed (Dave Belton PhD thesis

  9. Prediction of the 2004 national elections in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM


    Full Text Available 0 1 () () () () ( ) , ,...element element summation summation Omega Omega , (5) where Nv is the number of registered voters in district v. We now predicted the unknown result in an uncounted dis- trict v by means of: yt uv tvt uvt pvp cv p c c c C cv...

  10. Prototypes and Production Rules: A Knowledge Representation for Computer Consultations. (United States)


    SDSD SD4 C’ SD SD v SD at2 C’ SDUD a a .4 C’ SD C SD O C’ N SD .5 ’ a C SD SD 0 c SD C’ SD C’ .~ ~ SD SD SD C ~ .’ SD SD .4 - SD c C CC C’ SD 4 C’ DX C

  11. The species of the Chthonius heterodactylus group (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from the eastern Alps and the Carpathians. (United States)

    Gardini, Giulio


    The species of the subgenus Chthonius (Chthonius) C.L. Koch, 1843 displaying a sigmoid fixed chelal finger from the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians, assigned to the informal heterodactylus species-group, are revised and a key given for their identification. The following species are present in this area: Chthonius cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 (Italy, Romania, Slovenia), C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine), C. hungaricus Mahnert, 1981 (Hungary, Romania, Slovakia), C. lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (Italy), C. pusillus Beier, 1947 (Austria, Slovenia) and C. raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (Austria, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia). The following synonymies are proposed: Chthonius diophthalmus Daday, 1889, C. (C.) orthodactylus gracilis Beier, 1935, C. (C.) ksenemani Hadži, 1939 and C. (C.) leruthi Beier, 1939 are junior subjective synonyms of C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (n. syn.); C. (C.) pivai Gardini, 1991 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (n. syn.); C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939, C. (C.) brandmayri Callaini, 1986 and C. (C.) jalzici Ćurčić, 1988 are junior subjective synonyms of C. (C.) raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (n. syn.). Lectotypes are designated for C. cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 and C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939. Chthonius (C.) pusillus is newly recorded from Slovenia, C. (C.) hungaricus and Mundochthonius carpaticus Rafalski, 1948 are newly recorded from Romania, and the presence of C. (C.) cavernarum in Italy is confirmed.

  12. 40 CFR 52.2230 - Attainment dates for national standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attainment dates for national standards. 52.2230 Section 52.2230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Tennessee River Valley-Cumberland Mountains Intrastate c c c c b b b Middle Tennessee Intrastate: a. Benton...

  13. AcEST: DK948493 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C C + C+GFL Sbjct: 1249 RIPCLCGTPACKGFL 1263 >tr|A6S0T3|A6S0T3_BOTFB Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bot...NEELTYDYKFEREIGSTD 435 Query: 590 RLPCYCKSAECRGFL 634 R+PC C + C+GFL Sbjct: 436 RIPCLCGTPACKGFL 450 ...

  14. Consequences of non-uniformity in the stoichiometry of component fractions within one and two loops models of alpha-helical peptides (United States)

    Atoms in biomolecular structures like alpha helices contain an array of distances and angles which include abundant multiple patterns of redundancies. Thus all peptides backbones contain the three atom sequence N-C*C, whereas the repeating set of a four atom sequences (N-C*C-N, C*-C-N-C*, and C-N-C...

  15. Page 1 Coordinating model of the Ganga Basin 119 where E, is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where E, is class A pan evaporation, Risextraterrestrial radiation;C, C, C, C, and C. are coefficients of temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, sunshine percentage and elevation. These coefficients for node 40 are presented in table B.1. Cropping pattern. Evapotranspiration (consumptive use) of a crop is the product of ...

  16. Transient Heat Transfer in Coated Superconductors. (United States)


    account for tran- sient effects as pointed out by Iwasa. 23 To model these transient conditions the following form was used qFB = (200(TL - Tbath)’ Ŗ...QNB*FRACTNB+ QFB *FRACTFB FJ=QTB*AREA GOTO 900 C C C TRANSITION BOILING - OUT OF THE BOUNDARY LAYER C C OTHSS (THE STEADY STATE HEAT FLUX IN C...THE FLUID C PROPERTIES WILL DROP OUT IN THE RATIO. C QFB =QFBSS*(EFBSS/EBLPUA) IF(PATHTB.GT.1.)GOTO 420 FJ= QFB *AREA GOTO 900 C C C FILM BOILING - OUT OF

  17. The Wellbeing of Army Personnel in Dual-Military Marriages (United States)


    answered ’No’, please SKIP to question 7. 6. If you have children, how old are they (e.g., 2, 3 and 5)? We are interested in what you do in the military... breakfast daily? CJ CJ C) C) C) - - 17. How would you rate your overall health at the present time? Poor Somewhat Poor Decent Good Excellent C) C) C) C...relationship CJ CJ Ifyou answered ’Married’, please SKIP to question 30. Married CJ We are interested in military members’ experiences with and views

  18. A FORTRAN 77 Computer Program for Processing Raw CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) Data to ASCII FEB (Fast and East Binary) File Format. (United States)



  19. Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species. (United States)

    Skelley, Paul; Xu, Guang; Tang, William; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Thomas; Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh; Singh, Rita; Radha, P; Rich, Stephen


    The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.

  20. Advanced Imaging Tracker (United States)


    C-02 1 6 Effective Date of Contract: 23 June 1980 Contract Expiration Date: 31 Ja,)uary 1982 Short Title ot Work: Advanced imaring Tracker Program...VcTER CT (COO PRINTER CRT PLARACTER GREY-SCALE COLOR PLOT PLOT CRI DISPLAY RECONSTRUCI ION [I GL;Jk[ 1.’, 47 The simulated quad cell cutputs are stored...A. C ci,--.. j.oi.l -, V CCL. tic SC p Ci 4) Qi.4) Ct ) P C C CiC riL)JZ. -) C C cIt--cc 00 C C .- cC C COCCiCCO Cl Ci..- ccc ci-’ 0’Q *-..c----a a . C

  1. Crystal structure of (tert-butyl-carbamo-yl)(4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)methyl acetate. (United States)

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Tsuge, Akihiko; Yoja, Kenji


    In the title compound, C17H18ClNO5, which was synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-3-formyl-coumarin, acetic acid and tert-butyl isocyanide, the acetamido side chain is convoluted with ring-to-side chain C-C-C-C, C-C-C-N and C-C-N-C torsion angles of -123.30 (14), -135.73 (12) and 176.10 (12)°, respectively. In the crystal, N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present, which together with π-π coumarin-ring inter-actions [ring centroid separations = 3.4582 (8) and 3.6421 (9) Å], give rise to a layered structure lying parallel to (001).

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0183 sp|P61755|CCR5_LOPAT RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68269|CCR5_PAPAN Re...cName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName...: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68270|CCR5_PAPHA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Shor...t=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|Q71UI8|CCR5_CERAR

  3. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company. Part 5 (Z119-Z299) (United States)


    wa4 4 .4 -4 4 - 4 - 4 q V (n~~~ a )4 4 4 Z ~ #A meil0 a U. In Ci I NI 4 lI. aIq lamC -1. 1-Z. . C44-4 . -. -C 0 . . C C Ll w- ;: 2Z 2Z Z lagO ...IC I a- a a - r r - r v TOTa O T OT Ov m Isag. 4 4 4 - 4 - 4 -4 4 - -4 44 4 - 1C Cc C C C c C C0 C CC C I cW4. ..0. 4..... a.a4.%4.4 5.5 5.5 55 . 55

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0571 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0571 sp|P61755|CCR5_LOPAT RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68269|CCR5_PAPAN Re...cName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName...: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68270|CCR5_PAPHA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Shor...t=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|Q71UI8|CCR5_CERAR

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 sp|P61755|CCR5_LOPAT RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68269|CCR5_PAPAN Re...cName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName...: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|P68270|CCR5_PAPHA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Shor...t=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 sp|Q71UI8|CCR5_CERAR

  6. Selected Manpower Statistics, Fiscal Year 1983 (United States)


    Lu u)~~~~- C.- M~ C. 0z C. C , ~ C u Lu i LUUU)WL L LLuu..U)C) C c->-c Wl r> ýCa e-(V>-C)OL- Lu Lu u L L uL .~J~u..J2 <W.Z uC I- JCz ~ .J CD.Jo~..j C i- Jcz 4 C: I-C c4 o to U a%, W- , k -4 (𔃻 coCs-4 cr Li- C- o -0 D0’S 0’Smc r-W4 CV)V-4 to4 s 0’C) -4 f-r- 1 V ,-4 V-4 LfCCJ’ J r*- 4 (’. ivr

  7. Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements for Mexico Beach Inlet, Mexico Beach, Florida. (United States)


    crab (Clibanarius vittatus) A A A A Flat clawed hermit crab (Paguras...pollicaris) A A A A Blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) A A A A Ghost crab (Ocypode guadrato) C C C C Common fiddler crab (Uca pugilator) A A A A Brown shrimp (Panaeus axtecus) A A A A,, Pink shrimp (Panaeus duorarum) A A A A E-20 ...from Salt Creek, and probably to some extent from the Apalachicola River, influence productivity. Ghost crabs are abundant on the beach, while

  8. A Retrieval Error Analysis Technique for Passive Infrared Atmospheric Sounders (United States)


    with different noise levels to be completed quickly. Computations to create the A matrix generally took 1/2 to I h on the Silicon Graphics Indigo R4000... Kid , write( 10,304 )inmax,hmod 304 format(i5,a24) C c Record 3.5, 3.6 repeat for each layer C c Get water vapor in mixing ratio (jcharC*,1)=C) c H20

  9. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Sherwood Dam (MO 10202), Upper Mississippi - Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Warren County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    failure significantly increases the hazard to loss of life downstream PU SUBMITTED BY: Chief, Engineering Division Date .~ AP ,"j-7 APPROVED BY...nMv .EVA. 55 zom 20 p-p P-*~f c CCc cc cD C cc .0 c4 zc cr C C ’D4 acca &4 r c c C S 44 Is * . 0 cc * .cc . 4𔃾’’ g5 404 410,010-00 O 044,01010 1010

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1023 sp|P56492|CCR3_CERAE RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 emb|CAA74106.1| C-C chemokine receptor-3 [Chlorocebus aethiops] P56492 0.0 91% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1265 sp|Q95NC5|CCR5_HYLSY RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK43367.1|AF177884_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Symphalangus syndactylus] Q95NC5 1e-160 86% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 sp|P56492|CCR3_CERAE RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 emb|CAA74106.1| C-C chemokine receptor-3 [Chlorocebus aethiops] P56492 0.0 96% ...

  13. Validation of MODIS cloud mask and multilayer flag using CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud profiles and a cross-reference of their cloud classifications (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Fetzer, Eric J.; Wong, Sun; Kahn, Brian H.; Yue, Qing


    Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 cloud observations (MYD06) at 1 km are collocated with daytime CloudSat-Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) (C-C) cloud vertical structures (2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR). For 2007-2010, over 267 million C-C cloud profiles are used to (1) validate MODIS cloud mask and cloud multilayer flag and (2) cross-reference between C-C cloud types and MODIS cloud regimes defined by joint histograms of cloud top pressure (CTP) and cloud optical depth (τ). Globally, of total observations, C-C reports 27.1% clear and 72.9% cloudy, whereas MODIS reports 30.0% confidently clear and 58.7% confidently cloudy, with the rest 7.1% as probably clear and 4.2% as probably cloudy. Agreement between MODIS and C-C is 77.8%, with 20.9% showing both clear and 56.9% showing both cloudy. The 9.1% of observations are clear in MODIS but cloudy in C-C, indicating clouds missed by MODIS; 1.8% of observations are cloudy in MODIS but clear in C-C, likely due to aerosol/dust or surface snow layers misidentified by MODIS. C-C reports 47.4/25.5% single-layer/multilayer clouds, while MODIS reports 26.7/14.0%. For C-C single-layer clouds, 90% of tropical MODIS high (CTP 23) clouds are recognized as deep convective in C-C. Approximately 70% of MODIS low-level (CTP > 680 hPa) clouds are classified as stratocumulus in C-C regardless of region and optical thickness. No systematic relationship exists between MODIS middle-level (680 < CTP < 440 hPa) clouds and C-C cloud types, largely due to different definitions adopted.

  14. Surface Water Investigations in Afghanistan: A Summary of Activities from 1952 to 1969. Appendix 18: Compilation of Hydrologic Data, Helmand River Valley, Afghanistan Through September 1960 (United States)


    Noir ^ c~o*^t«> r~c~-c^c--o >oc»-c^c^c^ OJ|NNCMOJ cf?Jc?c?S? (9NNNN polosr-io»f^ oa>«NHri tHf-P-dO DOdhH «\\OO^O»ON...888888 4 <d <d 3 a) o) CQ to Q CQ 8 818 8 R 88 8 8 8 a) -J a) 4 <s វ«(«« 888 98 ir\\ t/% ir\\ trOu ^ CO flJ (0

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CUSC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CURC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  17. Additions and corrections to the systematics of mayfly species assigned to the genus Callibaetis Eaton 1881 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South America. (United States)

    Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Salles, Frederico Falcão; Hamada, Neusa


    Due to historical taxonomic impediments, species of Callibaetis Eaton are difficult to identify. Recent studies have attempted to resolve this problem, although many species still lack complete descriptions; nymphs of several species remain undetermined; and type specimens are lost or poorly known. Given these hindrances, the aim of this study is to review some of the type specimens of Callibaetis from South America. This review provides a series of taxonomic additions and corrections supported by improved morphological evaluations, illustrations and photographs of Callibaetis camposi Navás, C. (Abaetetuba) capixaba Cruz, Salles & Hamada, C. gregarius Navás, C. (C.) guttatus Navás, C. jaffueli Navás, C. (C.) jocosus Navás, C. nigrivenosus Banks, C. (A.) pollens Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) radiatus Navás, C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh), C. stictogaster Navás, C. (C.) viviparus Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) willineri Navás, and C. (C.) zonalis Navás. From among these species, C. stictogaster and C. jaffueli are revalidated; C. nigrivenosus and C. gregarius are designated as nomina dubia; C. (C.) fluminensis Cruz, Salles & Hamada is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) zonalis; and C. gloriosus Navás is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh). Lectotypes are designated for C. camposi, C. jaffueli, C. (C.) radiatus and C. stictogaster.

  18. Production of functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoates by genetically modified Methylobacterium extorquens strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Höfer, Philipp; Choi, Young J; Osborne, Michael J; Miguez, Carlos B; Vermette, Patrick; Groleau, Denis


    .... extorquens for producing functionalized PHAs containing C-C double bonds, thus, making them amenable to future chemical/biochemical modifications for high value applications. Our proprietary M...

  19. Bayesian analysis of light-front models and the nucleon's charmed sigma term (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald A.


    We present the results of a recent analysis to study the nucleon's charm sigma term, σc c ¯. We construct a minimal model in terms of light-front variables and constrain the range of possibilities using extant knowledge from deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) and Bayesian parameter estimation, ultimately computing σc c ¯ in an explicitly covariant manner. We find a close correlation between a possible nonperturbative component of the charm structure function, F2,IC c c ¯ , and σc c ¯. Independent of the prescription for the covariant relativistic quark-nucleon vertex, we determine σc c ¯ under several different scenarios for the magnitude of intrinsic charm in DIS, namely ⟨x ⟩c+c ¯=0.1 %, 0.35%, and 1%, obtaining for these σc c ¯=4 ±4 , 12 ±13 , and 32 ±34 MeV , respectively. These results imply the existence of a reciprocity between the intrinsic charm parton distribution function and σc c ¯ such that new information from either DIS or improved determinations of σc c ¯ could significantly impact constraints to the charm sector of the proton wave function.

  20. Behavioural and physiological responses of dogs entering re-homing kennels. (United States)

    Hiby, Elly F; Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S


    Behaviour and urinary cortisol/creatinine ratios (C/C) were monitored in twenty-six dogs, on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 following their admission to a rehoming kennel. Half had been relinquished from homes, and half were either strays or returns to the shelter. Drinking and grooming increased with time, while panting and paw-lifting decreased, but only drinking was linked with C/C; dogs observed drinking on the first day had significantly lower C/C than dogs not observed drinking. Mean molar C/C (40 x 10(-6)+/-16 x 10(-6)) tended to decrease with time in the strays and returns, and to increase in dogs relinquished from homes, although C/C on the first day was highly variable and not distinguishable between these two groups. This implies that these populations differed in their long-term, but possibly not their short-term, responses to kennelling. Dogs with rising C/C were more active on average than those with falling C/C, but the opposite trend was detected when making comparisons within-dog. The relationship between C/C and exercise is therefore complex and warrants further investigation before C/C can be considered as a reliable indicator of welfare in this species.

  1. Models for Ductile and Brittle Fracture for Two-Dimensional Wave Propagation Calculations (United States)


    o r —* M M recce c ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ >UJ UJU UJ IT— * r- * a i»- * ♦ — c * •> ^ « «V M M —fM - « fv. m *v o c e c C C c cc ♦ • • ♦ ♦ J...n ■* tr * «»c ir ir V U.’ U.’U. lu IT d* at UJU ’ Ui ki «*■ c « 9 « C - ^ c -• r* r — c — — fw (V (\\. rv 7CCCCCCCC c» ♦♦♦♦••♦ VUtU

  2. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of New Sonogashira-Modified Emivirine (MKC-442) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danel, Krzystof; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; La Colla, Paolo


    The MKC-442 analogue 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyluracil substituted with a (propargyloxo)methyl group at N(1) has previously been found highly active against HIV-1. The C C bond in the substituent at N(1) is here utilized in a series of chemical reactions in order to develop new agents...... with higher activity against HIV-1-resistant mutants. The syntheses involved Pd-catalyzed C,C-coupling reactions, addition of disulfides, and click chemistry on the terminal C C bond as well as addition of bromine to the so formed internal C C bonds. Sonogashira coupling were performed with silyl...

  3. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)


    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Optimal Control of Battlefield Information Flow (United States)


    the so-called Monge property for all 1 , 1ij rs is rjc c c c i r m j s n+ ≤ + ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ [37, 38]. 41 where ( )H t is the unit step...for all 1 , 1 .ij rs is rjc c c c i r m j s n+ ≤ + ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ (3.36) Lemma 3.7 ([18, 37]): a matrix C is Monge if and only if its elements

  5. Partial oxidation of n-hexadecane through decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in supercritical water

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Y.M.


    © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. This work reports the experimental analysis of partial oxidation of n-hexadecane under supercritical water conditions. A novel reactor flow system was developed which allows for total decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a separate reactor followed partial oxidation of n-hexadecane in a gasification reactor instead of having both reactions in one reactor. The kinetics of hydrothermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied in order to confirm its full conversion into water and oxygen under the desired partial oxidation conditions, and the kinetic data were found in a good agreement with previously reported literature. The gas yield and gasification efficiency were investigated under different operating parameters. Furthermore, the profile of C-C/C=C ratio was studied which showed the favourable conditions for maximising yields of n-alkanes via hydrogenation of their corresponding 1-alkenes. Enhanced hydrogenation of 1-alkenes was observed at higher O/C ratios and higher residence times, shown by the increase in the C-C/C=C ratio to more than unity, while increasing the temperature has shown much less effect on the C-C/C=C ratio at the current experimental conditions. In addition, GC-MS analysis of liquid samples revealed the formation of heavy oxygenated compounds which may suggest a new addition reaction to account for their formation under the current experimental conditions. Results show new promising routes for hydrogen production with in situ hydrogenation of heavy hydrocarbons in a supercritical water reactor.

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1APYC-9GAAC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  7. Dicty_cDB: VFE664 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VVNPIM SKLYQEGGMPQGGGMPGGTSNDSPKSSNNKVDELD*rnfseenisik*ixlkne*vsk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All...VVNPIM SKLYQEGGMPQGGGMPGGTSNDSPKSSNNKVDELD*rnfseenisik*ixlkne*vsk Frame C: c*nksky*iiky*KMSSIGIDLGTT

  8. Clinical Nursing Records Study (United States)


    effectiveness codes can be used for all controlled substances as well as PRN medications other than controlled substances, e.g., milk of magnesia...7C 270 7.,TAL 1 C,.. .C 1c((.C Uht [- IF MISSING UBSF’VATILNS 576 1-26 Table 27 CLINICAL NURSING RECORDS STUDY "OVERPRINTING THE NURSING DIAGNOSES ONTO

  9. A Platform for Developing Autonomy Technologies for Small Military Robots (United States)


    interchangeably with lidar ) and sonar sensors for obstacle detection, and a software development environment based on linked server modules. These...client programs implementing behavior. Player is written in C/C++ and provides C, C++, and Python client interfaces directly, while others have

  10. Hajhosseini et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    spermatozoa and reproductive tract fluids. Reprod Domest Anim; 46(3):527-33. 10. Kuo, C. F., Su, J. D., Chiu, C. H., Peng, C. C., Chang, C. H., Sung, T. Y., Huang, S. H., Lee, W. C., and Chyau, C. C. (2011). Anti-. Inflammatory Effects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract and Its Isolated Carnosic Acid from Rosmarinus ...

  11. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler G. Shollenbarger


    Conclusions: Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 sp|Q9TV49|CCR5_CERGA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK43381.1|AF177898_

  13. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.


    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  14. High Temperature Fixed-Point Blackbodies Based on Metal-Carbon Eutectics for Precision Measurements in Radiometry, Photometry and Radiation Thermometry (United States)

    Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Khromchenko, V. B.; Ogarev, S. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Pikalev, Yu. A.


    Re-C, TiC-C and ZrC-C metal-carbon eutectics cells were developed and investigated at VNIIOFI (Russia) for use as high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for precise measurements in radiometry, photometry and radiation thermometry. Two types of cells containing cavities with 4 mm and 10 mm diameters were designed that allow using them in radiance and irradiance modes, respectively. The melting temperatures of Re-C, TiC-C and ZrC-C were found to be 2747.5 K, 3033.8 and 3154.1 K respectively. The reproducibility of the Re-C fixed points was found to be 0.04 to 0.09 K, depending on the cell. The reproducibility of TiC-C and ZrC-C melting temperatures was 0.05 K and 0.09 K respectively. The pyrolitic-graphite blackbody BB3200pg was used as a furnace for heating eutectics. The new TiC-C and ZrC-C fixed-point cells with 16 mm cavity diameter and a new furnace BB3500MP are under development now.

  15. High oxygen ion conduction in sintered oxides of the $Bi_2O_3-Er_2O_3$ system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.J.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The phase diagram of the Bi2O3-Er2O3 system was investigated. A monophasic f c c structure was stabilized for samples containing 17.5–45.5 mol% Er2O3. Above and below this concentration range polyphasic regions appear. The f c c phase showed high oxygen ion conduction. The ionic transference number

  16. Main: 1RJJ [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neered: Yes Structural Genomics, Unknown Function G.Cornilescu, C.C.Cornilescu, Q.Zhao, R.O.Frederick, F.C.Peter...Cornilescu, C.C.Cornilescu, Q.Zhao, R.O.Frederick, F.C.Peterson, S.Thao, J.L.Markley Solution Structure Of A

  17. Suitability of conophor oil for the production of aklyd resins, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the oil showed the presence of C=C and C=O, while the Uv and IR examination of the resin revealed the presence of phthalic chain and C=O, C=C bonds. ... physical quality such as burshability and good drying time. The oil is a valuable raw material that could be used industrially in the production of essential materials.

  18. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation FY 1982. Supporting Data FY 1982, Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress January 1981 (Amended 30 March 1981) Volume I. (United States)


    W- 0 *0 - cUCa ~ - Ca. a eda’ a aQ a A.’a’a u a 0 4, a ’ai a ) ’ a to (o - aa "--A ’a ~ ~ ~ ~ A :,I43 .. ~ a ~ ’a ’ CL C 0 C~~a 0 am C C C. u- -4 -ts

  19. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.


    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  20. CCL3L gene copy number and survival in an HIV-1 infected Zimbabwean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Zinyama, Rutendo


    The C-C motif chemokine ligand 3-like (CCL3L) protein is a potent chemoattractant which by binding to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry. Copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L has been shown to be associated with HIV susceptibility and progre...

  1. Modeling acidic sites in zeolites and aluminosilicates by aluminosilsesquioxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, R; Harmsen, RJ; Abbenhuis, HCL; van Santen, RA; Meetsma, A; Thiele, SKH; Kranenburg, M


    Protolysis of alkylaluminum compounds with silsesquioxanes is an efficient procedure to synthesize both Lewis and Bronsted acidic aluminosilsesquioxanes. Treatment of AlEt3 with (c-C5H9)(7)Si7O9(OH)(3) and (c-C5H9)(7)Si7O9(OSiMe3)(OH)(2) gives the corresponding Lewis acidic aluminosilsesquioxanes,

  2. DHAP-dependent aldolases from (hyper)thermophiles: biochemistry and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcicchio, P.; Wolterink-van Loo, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Oost, van der J.


    Generating new carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds in an enantioselective way is one of the big challenges in organic synthesis. Aldolases are a natural tool for stereoselective C-C bond formation in a green and sustainable way. This review will focus on thermophilic aldolases in general and on

  3. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): C. boyi sp. nov., C. selandicus sp. nov. and C. kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas


    information Three species are described as new to science based on both morphological and molecular data: Culicoides (Culicoides) boyi sp. nov. (Denmark: Jutland), C. (C.) selandicus sp. nov. (Denmark: Zealand) and C. (C.) kalix sp. nov. (Sweden: Norrbotten). All are diagnosed morphologically as well...

  4. Page 1 414 Reza Gharavi and Venkat Anantharam C" e US,(w ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) + n, because if v e U-(n,c) + n we would have v e Fc (w) for some C'e UIS (w), imply- ing that C C C, a contradiction. However, in order to show that the component corresponding to v in Ai (n)Ai (n - 1). Ai (1)e, is strictly positive we need to argue ...

  5. Direct Mechanism of the First Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Process. (United States)

    Wu, Xinqiang; Xu, Shutao; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jindou; Li, Jinzhe; Yu, Bowen; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin


    In the past two decades, the reaction mechanism of C-C bond formation from either methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) in the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process has been a highly controversial issue. Described here is the first observation of a surface methyleneoxy analogue, originating from the surface-activated DME, by in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a species crucial to the first C-C bond formation in the MTH process. New insights into the first C-C bond formation were provided, thus suggesting DME/methanol activation and direct C-C bond formation by an interesting synergetic mechanism, involving C-H bond breakage and C-C bond coupling during the initial methanol reaction within the chemical environment of the zeolite catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A dense and strong bonding collagen film for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun, E-mail:; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Significantly enhancement of biocompatibility on C/C composites by preparing a collagen film. • The dense and continuous collagen film had a strong bonding strength with C/C composites after dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslink. • Numerous oxygen-containing functional groups formed on the surface of C/C composites without matrix damage. - Abstract: A strong bonding collagen film was successfully prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The surface conditions of the modified C/C composites were detected by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra. The roughness, optical morphology, bonding strength and biocompatibility of collagen films at different pH values were detected by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), universal test machine and cytology tests in vitro. After a 4-h modification in 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at 100 °C, the contact angle on the surface of C/C composites was decreased from 92.3° to 65.3°. Large quantities of hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups were formed on the surface of the modified C/C composites. Then a dense and continuous collagen film was prepared on the modified C/C substrate. Bonding strength between collagen film and C/C substrate was reached to 8 MPa level when the pH value of this collagen film was 2.5 after the preparing process. With 2-day dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslinking at 105 °C, the bonding strength was increased to 12 MPa level. At last, the results of in vitro cytological test showed that this collagen film made a great improvement on the biocompatibility on C/C composites.

  7. Improvement in toughness of carbon/carbon composites using multiple matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hailiang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, 710072 (China); Li Hejun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, 710072 (China); Lu Jinhua; Sun Can; Wang Yongjie; Yao Dongjia; Li Kezhi [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, 710072 (China); Wang Haipeng [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, 710072 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/C composites with multiple matrixes present mixed microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/C composites with multiple matrixes exhibit super mechanical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cracks may spread along multiple paths such as interface of different constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-path for extension of crack improves mechanical properties of C/C composites. - Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites with multiple matrixes were fabricated by impregnation/carbonization and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) using 2-dimensional (2D) carbon felts preform. In order to study the effects of microstructure on mechanical properties, C/C composites with single matrix of pitch based carbon were prepared for comparison. The mechanical properties were tested on CMT5304-30KN universal testing machine. Polarization microscope and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the microstructures and fracture surface of C/C composites. It was resulted that the flexural strength of C/C composites with multiple matrixes was improved by 83% compared with that of C/C composites with single matrix. Meanwhile, better toughness and pseudo-plastic fracture behaviors were also obtained with multiple matrixes. Multi-layer interfaces between different constituents were formed in the composites which supplied variety of extension paths for cracks. This microstructure character improved the mechanical properties of C/C composites, especially the toughness, as more energy could be dissipated during cracks spread along multiple paths, such as the interface of different components or among the matrixes.

  8. Experimental studies of e{sup +}e {sup -}{yields} some charmless processes containing K{sub S}{sup 0} at {radical}(s)=3.773 and 3.65 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J.Z.; Bai, Y.; Cai, X.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, H.X.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.B.; Chu, Y.P.; Deng, Z.Y.; Du, S.X.; Fang, J.; Fu, C.D.; Gao, C.S.; Gu, S.D.; Guo, Y.N.; He, K.L.; Heng, Y.K.; Hu, H.M.; Hu, T.; Huang, G.S.; Huang, Y.P.; Ji, X.B.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X.S.; Jin, D.P.; Jin, S.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Li, R.Y.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.L.; Li, X.N.; Liu, B.J.; Liu, C.X.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Z.A.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, H.L.; Ma, Q.M.; Malik, M.Q.A.; Mao, Z.P.; Mo, X.H.; Nie, J.; Ping, R.G.; Qi, N.D.; Qiu, J.F.; Rong, G.; Shan, L.Y.; Shang, L.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.S.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Tang, X.; Tong, G.L.; Wan, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.L.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, Y.F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, N.; Xia, X.M.; Xu, G.F.; Yang, H.X.; Yang, M.; Yuan, C.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B.X.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, H.Q.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, K.J.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, X.W.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z.A.; Zhuang, B.A.; Zou, B.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); An, L.; Gu, Y.T.; Liu, H.B.; Ruan, X.D. [Guangxi University, Nanning (China); Ban, Y.; Zhang, Z.X.; Zheng, H.Q. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Chen, H.F.; Yan, M.L.; Ye, Y.X.; Zhang, Z.P. [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, X.D.; Lu, G.R. [Henan Normal Univ., Xinxiang (China); Dai, Y.S. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Gao, Y.N.; Tian, J.P. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); He, M.; Huang, X.T.; Jiao, J.B.; Zhang, X.Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Li, X.Q.; Xu, Y.; Yu, C.X. [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China); Liang, Y.F.; Zhang, Y.Y. [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China); Liu, F.; Xu, X.P. [Huazhong Normal Univ., Wuhan (China); Liu, J.P. [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Liu, S.; Ma, F.C. [Liaoning Univ., Shenyang (China)] [and others


    We measure the observed cross sections for the charmless processes e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}K {sup -}K{sup +}{pi} {sup +}+ c.c., K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}+c.c., K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}+c.c., K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -} K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{eta}+c.c., K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}+c.c., K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}{rho}{sup +}+c.c. and K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}+c.c. We also extract upper limits on the branching fractions for {psi}(3770) decays into these final states at 90% C.L. Analyzed data samples correspond to 17.3 pb {sup -1} and 6.5 pb {sup -1} integrated luminosities registered, respectively, at {radical}(s)=3.773 and 3.65 GeV, with the BES-II detector at the BEPC collider. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Sardar S. [Southern Illinois University; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Fillip, Peter [Southern Illinois University


    Thermal properties of two directional (2D) pitch-based carbon fiber with charred resin and three directional (3D) PAN-based carbon fiber with CVI carbon matrix C/C composite were investigated for non-heat treated (NHT) and heat treated (HT) materials through the thickness (z-direction). Heat treatment was performed at 1800, 2100 and 2400 oC for 1-hr in inert argon atmosphere. Thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density were measured to calculate thermal conductivity. Thermal diffusivity and conductivity was the highest for 3D C/C heat treated at maximum temperature with non-heat treated one exhibiting the lowest one. Similarly, 2D C/C heat treated at maximum temperature exhibited the highest thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) images of HTT C/C show a progressive improvement in microstructure when compared to NHT C/C. However, HTT 2D and 3D C/C composites exhibited extensive shrinkage of charred resin and CVI carbon matrix, respectively, from fibers resulting in intra and inter-bundles cracking when compared to NHT one. Raman spectroscopy and XRD results of NHT and HTT C/C indicated increased ordering of structure. A progressive improvement in thermal properties was observed with increased heat treatment temperatures.

  10. SCC-DFTB Study on Structure, Electronic and Sensing Properties of Polypyrrole (United States)

    Marutaphan, A.; Wongchoosuk, C.


    Polypyrrole (PPy) have been considered as one of the most promising conducting polymers for gas sensor application because it can be efficiently operated at room temperature, light weight, thermal stability and ease of preparation. In this work, we have investigated the geometric and electronic structures of PPy based on B3LYP/3-21G*, B3LYP/6-31G* and SCC-DFTB methods. The effects of polymer chain length of PPy on structural and electronic properties including bond length, bond angle, torsion angle, the highest occupied orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and energy gap have been studied from the optimized PPy oligomers (n=1-10). The results show that the bond length, bond angle and torsion angle from SCC-DFTB method are C-N = 1.38 Å, N-H = 1.04 Å, C-C = 1.45 Å, N-C-C = 122 °, C-C-C = 131 °, N-C-C-C = 179 ° and C=C-C=C = 179 °, respectively. The HOMO and LUMO are in range of -5.49 to -4.23 eV and -0.078 to-1.92 eV, respectively. The energy gap decreases with increasing polymer chain length from 5.41 to 2.31 eV. Furthermore, sensing behavior of PPy for detection of toxic gases such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been studied and discussed in details.

  11. Manual for Estimating Cost of VOC Removal from Groundwater Contaminated with Jet Fuel (United States)


    TO: PAUL LUFT, DAVID HAND, AND DR. JOHN CRITTENDEN C FOR THEIR PREVIOUS WORK. C C VARIABLE DEFINITIONS C C BVF - BED VOID FRACTION C C - LIQUID PHASE...E N 61 W N"oc~f w ~ m Oyr I NoIa ’ qmt r ow01 N94 N04:U Ib 4 g n0% Co. N ON0 .b 00. 00 o 00 000000 N rI *ar 0. a% .x %D 0 % .. 0.-A.0-a0.%0 44.44

  12. 5-Meth-oxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E)-2-methyl-but-2-eno-yl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide). (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, L; Mohan Kumar, R; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Pichai, R; Narasimhan, S


    The title compound, C(26)H(24)O(5), was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the mol-ecule, the phenyl and 2-methyl-but-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C-C-C-C torsion angles = 81.4 (3) and -90.1 (2)°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C-H⋯O inter-actions into a double chain along [010].

  13. Making bispirin: synthesis, structure and activity against Helicobacter pylori of bismuth(III) acetylsalicylate. (United States)

    Andrews, Philip C; Blair, Victoria L; Ferrero, Richard L; Junk, Peter C; Kumar, Ish


    Reaction of Bi(O(t)Bu)3 with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid = aspH) in dry toluene results in the bismuth(III) complex, [Bi(O2C(C6H4)OAc)3]∞ 1 (O2C(C6H4)OAc = asp), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Helicobacter pylori ≥ 6.25 μg mL(-1), while the inclusion of a stoichiometric equivalent of KO(t)Bu leads to crystals of the bismuthate salt [KBi(O2C(C6H4)OAc)4]∞ 2.

  14. Computerized Buckling Analysis of Shells (United States)


    Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) June 1981 AF Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFSC) 13 NI•RfPA;ES Wright-Patterson Air Force BWse OH 45433...tures." The work was administered by Lt Col J. D. Morgan (AFOSR) and Dr N. S. Khot (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) The contract work was performed between October 1977 and... coco -1 C,, Cý C c -. - .-. C) r) 10 10) q~ C) - col C) -i H H H H H- ’.0 m0 CD q) q k.0 10 m ) 10 10 10 ;r ’IT No r CD mO t.0 W. N- 4 N 10 N N Nr O C C

  15. Push-pull alkenes: structure and p-electron distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Push-pull alkenes are substituted alkenes with one or two electron-donating substituents on one end of C=C double bond and with one or two electron-accepting substituents at the other end. Allowance for p-electron delocalization leads to the central C=C double bond becoming ever more polarized and with rising push-pull character, the p-bond order of this double bond is reduced and, conversely, the corresponding p-bond orders of the C–Don and C–Acc bonds are accordingly increased. This push-pull effect is of decisive influence on both the dynamic behavior and the chemical reactivity of this class of compounds and thus it is of considerable interest to both determine and to quantify the inherent push-pull effect. Previously, the barriers to rotation about the C=C, C–Don and/or C–Acc partial double bonds (DG±, as determined by dynamic NMR spectroscopy or the 13C chemical shift difference of the polarized C=C partial double bond (DdC=C were employed for this purpose. However, these parameters can have serious limitations, viz. the barriers can be immeasurable on the NMR timescale (either by being too high or too low; heavily-biased conformers are present, etc. or DdC=C behaves in a non-additive manner with respect to the combination of the four substituents. Hence, a general parameter to quantify the push-pull effect is not yet available. Ab initio MO calculations on a collection of compounds, together with NBO analysis, provided valuable information on the structure, bond energies, electron occupancies and bonding/antibonding interactions. In addition to DG±C=C (either experimentally determined or theoretically calculated and DdC=C, the bond length of the C=C partial double bond was also examined and it proved to be a reliable parameter to quantify the push-pull effect. Equally so, the quotient of the occupation numbers of the antibonding andbonding p orbitals of the central C=C partial double bond ( p*C=C/ pC=C could also be employed for

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1032 sp|Q9Z2I3|CCR3_CAVPO RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 gb|AAC80428.1| C-C chemokine receptor 3 [Cavia porcellus] Q9Z2I3 8e-32 52% ...

  17. Development of Novel Instrumentation to Characterize Aerosol Insets and Cloud Particles (United States)


    validating measurements from satellites , ich are the main tool used to evaluate global warming and in the development of global climate prediction...10 -J~~ _ 0- 03* C~4 w- 0I 03 03 =0c c a 1 .J 0 r.a cC) c Ew -.- _l -a 4500 c0- 4.. ý ) c 0C. -j U0.0 -c - 0 *0 4 cc C ~~~ EDO 0 3 COo -J ccoLu...studies of SVC using airborne, satellite carespcnde" to R P. Lawsn and ground-based lidar, there has been a relative dearth of in situ microphysical

  18. Ethylene polymerization with dimeric zirconium and hafnium silsesquioxane complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, R; Abbenhuis, H.C.L.; van Santen, R.A.; Meetsma, A.; Thiele, S.K.H.; van Tol, M.F.H.


    Treatment of the silanol (c-C5H9)(7)Si8O12(OH) with Cp " Ti(CH2Ph)(3) (Cp " = 1,3-C5H3(SiMe3)(2)) or TiCl4 selectively affords the mono(silsesquioxane) complexes Cp "[(c-C5H9)7Sis0l3ITi(CH2Ph)(2) (1) and [(c-C5H9)(7)Si8O13]TiCl3 (2), respectively, while with M(CH2Ph)(4) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) mixtures of

  19. Reference Manual, Background Materials for the CONUS Volumes, (United States)


    For gaseous material, such as certain iodine compounds, an activated charcoal filter must be used to collect the material by adsorption on the filter...adsorbed by special chemicals or activated charcoal . The filtration system is contained in cartridges that attach to the respirators. An air-supplying...z &L 9 z C V .. C)0- LoC . C C aJ 0- a 9- 4 Iu muw 0-aU 0- B-mu U o- ink C. I- 9- o - $- 0 U. U. V10 UI- J Cg r w-m Li 4A (A CA0 ( C, C 0 x Ci 6

  20. Evaluative Testing of the Bent Canyon Stage Station on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado (United States)


    Spanish maps of New Mexico, such as the "Jornada del Muerto" and the "Llanos sin Agua " (Miera y Pacheco 1778). Accommodations to these limitations also...0lot o 4;-oooU.,lo 81.]ZIZL l L~i.-51-9J. []I 7I1 ~LI’M LL’ M-,9-9 P CO ~~ ~ ~ IOIC WI OWL N-C C)C) C COCO O ~ COCO CO O~OCO O COCO 4~C COCO ~-N- - N N-O

  1. Report of Surface Collection and Testing at 18 Sites Near Abiquiu Reservoir, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    C CD C C3 4 I (4’ ) 󈧇 0l CD I3 W LA 03 L 0 0 o o w ’ 4) 10 0 v) C 5 5.5 0Ci wi Ci C C3 C3 CD w C 3 o) 0 -C 00 cc - - 0 ’ C- C 4- 00 a, c6 0 - coco ...BASE 18. AGUA FRIA-SUB-CONCAVE 38. PUEBLO-CONVEX BASE 19. CUNDIYO-BARBED 39. PUEBLO-ALIGNED EDGE 20. JEMEZ-SHORT BARB 40. PUEBLO-BARBED 21. SANTA CRUZ

  2. Solid-phase synthesis of 2{sup '}-O-methoxyethyl oligonucleotides using dimeric phosphoramidate blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gi Weon; Kang, Yong Han [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)


    This research focused on the method of using dimeric phosphoramidite blocks to synthesize oligonucleotides for development as oligonucleotide drugs. A 16-mer oligonucleotide with the randomly selected sequence of C*C*T*C*G*C *T*C*T*C*G*C*C* C*G*C was synthesized using CC, GC, and TC dimers, a combination of monomers and dimers, or only monomers as building blocks. Using dimer blocks in this synthetic method provided a significant decrease in critical impurities that had similar properties to the main product, which was confirmed by LC-MS and HPLC analysis.

  3. A Study in Drag Reduction of Close Formation Flight Accounting for Flight Control Trim Positions and Dissimilar Formations (United States)


    rewind(92) read(92,*) aoa,cl1,cl2,cd2,cm2,cy2,cll2, cln2 c c compute increments for sim table look-up c c dcy2=cy2-cy2s c...dcll2=cll2-cll2s c dcln2= cln2 - cln2s c c print output files c write(102,925) (delx-130.)/span,dely/span,(delz-202...span, 1 aoa,cl1,cl2,cd2,cm2,cy2,cll2, cln2 c rewind(15) c 1000 continue c 900 format(a80) 910 format(5(f9.2,1x

  4. Interactions of Six SNPs in ABCA1gene and Obesity in Low HDL-C Disease in Kazakh of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hong Yao


    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the interactions between six functional polymorphisms in ABCA1 and obesity in Kazakhs with low HDL-C levels. Methods: A total of 204 patients with low HDL-C and 207 health control subjects, which were randomly selected from among 5692 adult Kazakhs, were matched for age and sex. We genotyped ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs2515602, rs3890182, rs2275542, rs2230806, rs1800976, and rs4149313. Results: (1 The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2515602, rs2230806 and rs4149313 were different between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects, the genotypic frequency of rs2275542 was also different between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects (p < 0.05; (2 the level of HDL-C (rs2515602 and rs2275542 in normal HDL-C subjects were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05; the levels of TC, LDL-C (rs2515602, rs4149313; TG (rs2515602, rs1800976, rs4149313 in low HDL-C patients were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05; (3 interactions between the rs3890182, rs2275542, rs180096, and rs4149313 polymorphisms in ABCA1 gene and obesity may be associated with low HDL-C disease; (4 the C-C-C-A-A-G, T-C-C-A-A-A, T-C-C-A-A-G, C-C-C-A-A-A, C-T-G-G-A-A, and T-T-C-G-A-A haplotypes were significant between the subjects with normal HDL-C and low HDL-C level (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The differences in serum lipid levels between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects among Kazakhs might partly result from ABCA1 gene polymorphisms; ABCA1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease might partly result from interactions between ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and obesity; the C-C-C-A-A-G, T-C-C-A-A-A, and T-C-C-A-A-G haplotypes may serve as risk factors of low HDL-C disease among Kazakhs, the C-C-C-A-A-A, C-T-G-G-A-A, and T-T-C-G-A-A haplotypes may serve as protective factor of low HDL-C disease among Kazakhs.

  5. Historical Inflation Program. A Computer Program Generating Historical Inflation Indices for Army Aircraft. Revision. (United States)


    u:C C =Uu bUG C CUE C 2 - U SEC - 0~ I. C -U ’C -m C ’U -U UU = 4 C ’C C C - - - - - U £ a 0 a. A a a - a - -Ii - SW * *~.1 *. ;11111 St v w u U U ~t...0 0 .-01 1. a S Fn aga M U, a n I coc aCOO ococoaoaoc coo cocoa 00 ooococa cc, e. a ~ ~ ~ nL6 LA NN N N iLnnn 0 00nnnnnn0nnnnnnnn 4n & cmn a c o c eo

  6. Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations (United States)


    c C/)..C C) 0 () -(/) (!) !.... (!) .Q 0, !.... (!) ~Ŕ c- =<D ro-.....,e> :!:C O><( ro..c Cl)..c 0 () Lordosis Kyphosis endplate...decreases at a ll l eve l s except L1L2 when s i tting . Even anteri or/posteri or d i stri but i on o f l oad maintains whole lumbar lordosis as load...more forward. Data shown is mean ± STD. Figure 4. Cobb angle was measured in each position to assess lumbar lordosis . A.) Sagittal Cobb angle is

  7. Tau and Beta-Amyloid Deposition, Micro-Hemorrhage and Brain Function after Traumatic Brain Injury in War Veterans (United States)


    Rosenfeld, J.V., Doré, V., Lamb, F., Williams , R., Margison, L., Salvado, O., Masters , C.L., Villemagne, V.L., Rowe, C.C. Conference: The NHMRC... Williams , R., Margison, L., Salvado, O., Masters , C.L., Villemagne, V.L., Rowe, C.C. Conference: The Society of Nuclear Medicine conference Date...Rosenfeld, J.V., Doré, V., Lamb, F., Williams , R., Margison, L., Salvado, O., Masters , C.L., Villemagne, V.L., Rowe, C.C. Conference: The Australasian

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2360 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C-CKR-5) (CCR-5) (CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK43384.1|AF177901_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla gorilla...] gb|AAK43385.1|AF177902_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla graueri] gb|AAK43386.1|AF177903_1... C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla beringei] gb|AAB62553.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Gorilla gorilla] P56439 1e-161 78% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0846 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C-CKR-5) (CCR-5) (CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK43384.1|AF177901_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla gorilla...] gb|AAK43385.1|AF177902_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla graueri] gb|AAK43386.1|AF177903_1... C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla beringei] gb|AAB62553.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Gorilla gorilla] P56439 0.0 99% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C-CKR-5) (CCR-5) (CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK43384.1|AF177901_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla gorilla...] gb|AAK43385.1|AF177902_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla graueri] gb|AAK43386.1|AF177903_1... C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla beringei] gb|AAB62553.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Gorilla gorilla] P56439 1e-167 78% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-04-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C-CKR-5) (CCR-5) (CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK43384.1|AF177901_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla gorilla...] gb|AAK43385.1|AF177902_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla graueri] gb|AAK43386.1|AF177903_1... C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Gorilla gorilla beringei] gb|AAB62553.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Gorilla gorilla] P56439 0.0 99% ...

  12. 3-Lie bialgebras (Lb,Cd and (Lb,Ce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Ruipu


    Full Text Available Four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebras, and four-dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ are classified. It is proved that there exist three classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebra which are $(L, C_{c_i}$, $i=1, 2, 3$ (Lemma 3.1, and ten classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ (Theorem 3.2.

  13. gender and career choice differences on bakare vocational interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Psychology Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Nweke, C. C.. Department of ... Keywords: Career choice differences, Gender, BVII, Vocational counseling, Nigeria. Introduction ..... advertisement artists), political/ leadership careers (like ministers, ambassadors, CEOs) and communications ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFI637 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available **ylcnl**nfgw*nhfsirf*c*c *rfn*kiinc**ns*igcfkgwcircqks*mvf*y*lgkiisekr*wtihskdstsr*ff kl*nv**rrng*rasifklc*sicts...ekr*wtihskdstsr*ff kl*nv**rrng*rasifklc*sictsxqgflknkr**qikqiiiiknnnnksvn*k*qk* *********************ymin*yg

  15. Ettekäändeks "Romeo ja Julia" / Mai Murdmaa, Lloyd Sobel, Charles Cusick Smith ; interv. Kristiina Garancis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murdmaa, Mai, 1938-


    13. veebr. 1998 "Estonia" teatris esietendunud balleti "Romeo ja Julia" lavastusmeeskonna liikmed esietendunud tantsuetenduse teemadel. C. C. Smith oma vabaloomingust. L. Sobel oma tööprotsessist jm

  16. Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensors for Structural Performance Testing up to 3000 F Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development and performance evaluation of new carbon/carbon (C/C) and carbon/silicon-carbide (SiC) composite structural components has been hampered by the lack...

  17. Reduced Cost Composite Hot Structures with Oxidation Protection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, low cost high performance technologies are critical to the affordability of future space missions. Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have significant...

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting β-globin and CCR5 genes have substantial off-target activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Antico, Christopher J; Bao, Gang


    .... Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting the human hemoglobin β and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 genes have substantial off-target cleavage, especially within the hemoglobin δ...

  19. Protein Structural Change Data - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available local motions C.C. The correlation coefficient between the displacement vector predicted by the linear displacement The mean displacement of a component of motion calculated for the

  20. Identification of ADAM10 as a major source of HER2 ectodomain sheddase activity in HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timothy C. Burn; Cindy Marando; Maryanne Covington; Mark Stow; Jincong Zhuo; Peggy A. Scherle; Yanlong Li; Kenneth Abremski; Kamna Katiyar; Colin Zhang; Dawn Ellis; Qiyan Lin; Gregory Hollis; Milton Hillman; Richard Wynn; Ding-Quan Qian; Yun-Long Li; Vaqar Sharief; Phillip C.C. Liu; Chunhong He; Xiangdong Liu; Meizhong Xu; Costas Agrios; Eric Shi; Jodi Bradley; Steven Friedman; Mark Rupar; Robert Newton; Wenqing Yao; Gengjie Yang; Lingkai Weng; Reid Huber; David Burns; Brian Metcalf


    ALL AUTHORS: Phillip C.C. Liu, Xiangdong Liu, Yanlong Li, Maryanne Covington, Richard Wynn, Reid Huber, Milton Hillman, Gengjie Yang, Dawn Ellis, Cindy Marando, Kamna Katiyar, Jodi Bradley, Kenneth Abremski, Mark Stow, Mark...

  1. The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is a long- lived, slow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSMENT OF. ORANGE ROUGHY ..... that combined their effect through a Monte Carlo simulation ...... FRANCIS, R. I. C. C. 1992 — Use of risk analysis to assess fishery management ...

  2. Gigabit Per Second Data Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-core processor supports several operating systems including state of the art multiprocessing operating systems, such as Linux SMP, and use ANSI C/C++...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    . 5. Ihueze, C.C, Optimum Buckling Response. Model of GRP Composites, Ph.D THESIS,. UNN, 2005. 6. Wood, R, Car Bodywork in Glass. Reinforced Plastics, PENTECH. Press,. London: Plymouth, 1980. 7. Foye, J.F., Technical Report AFML ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06279-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Frame B: nkmpclyicgecgaeheikpkepvkckdcthrimykkrtdkmiqfear*kkekkrkkkkk knktksnqlkytktqqyt*kklkkn*kkkrkkkns...Query: 5 KMPCLYICGECGAEHEIKPKEPVKCKDCTHRIMYKKRTDKMIQFEAR 145 + P +YICGEC E+EIK ++P++C++C +RIMYKKRT +++ F+AR

  5. Non-Lubricated Diamond-Coated Bearings Reinforced by Carbon Fibers to Work in Lunar Dust Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop low cost diamond composite bearings utilizing our new high pressure technology for carbon fiber reinforced 3-D C/C composites and mixtures of...

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Academic Award (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Professor Michael J. Krische, developed selective C-C bond-forming hydrogenation without organometallic reagents, eliminating hazardous reagents and hazardous waste.

  7. The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 25, 1988 ... Syngnathidae. Syngnathus acus. Tetrarogidae. Coccotropsis gymnoderma. Serranidae. Acanthistius sebastoides. Epinephelus guaza. E. rivulatus. Haemulidae. Pomadasys olivaceum. No. C. C ...... hololepidotus and Atractoscion aequidens (Osteichthys: Sciaenidae) in waters of the south-eastern Cape, ...

  8. Allosteric mechanism of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana uses a rock and lock model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Nowicki, Matthew W; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D


    .... However, formation of the R-state in this way is only part of the mechanism; eight essential salt bridge locks that form across the C-C interface provide tetramer rigidity with a coupled 7-fold increase in rate...

  9. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  10. 75 FR 66187 - Review of Commodity, Boxcar, and TOFC/COFC Exemptions (United States)


    ... rail (and truck) operations provided in connection with intermodal (TOFC/COFC) services, under 49 CFR.... 2d 969 (1993); Exemption from Regulation--Rail Transp. Frozen Food, 367 I.C.C. 859 (1983); Liquid...

  11. F-111D, DT and E Evaluation of Environmental Control, Airframe, Flight Control, and Secondary Power Subsystems. Appendix 1 (United States)


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  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwobi-Okoye, C.C. Vol 4, No 3 (2009) - Articles Markov queue game with virtual reality strategies. Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 2 (2010) - Articles Game theoretic aspects of crowd renting. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-6343.

  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 1 (A & A Chemical Toilet Rentals-Benatec Associate). (United States)


    CO WHITE PLAINS NEW YORK 009170 9300 33 4 G 00137 6431 OLA1SH-3-500S86 B C Z 5 2 2 5925 000 B2 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 B J 1 G 26...J 1 I 142 C C A 1 2 2 9110 000 C9E FUELS SOLID 6 6 4 5 A 08 7 B J 1 I 26 C C A1 2 2 8925 000 2 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 6 4 5 A 09 78 J 1 J 35 C...C A 1 2 2 8925 000 S2 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 B J 1 J 44 C C A 1 2 2 8925 000 B2 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 B J

  14. Multimetallic catalysed radical oxidative C(sp(3))-H/C(sp)-H cross-coupling between unactivated alkanes and terminal alkynes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Shan; Wang, Pan; Li, Haoran; Lei, Aiwen


    .... According to the demand by atom-economic and sustainable chemistry, direct C(sp(3))-H functionalization through radical oxidative coupling represents an appealing strategy for C-C bond formations...

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diketone compounds. The reactions gave moderate to good yield of the corresponding 2-substituted benzimidazoles/benzothiazoles/benzoxazoles under mild conditions. This tandem process involved a C-C bond cleavage and C-N bond formation.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15187-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  17. A theory of longitudinally polarised piezocomposite rod based on Mindlin-Herrmann model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M


    Full Text Available , Foz do Igua?u, PR, Brazil ( ) ( ){ } ( ) 3 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 11 12 33 13 44 3 3 31 33 3 3 0 0 1 2 4 2 ( ) (0) 2 l l l D D D D D S s p p L K P W E dz V t Aw I c c c w c w A I c AD dz h dz h w l w lD... Copyright ? 2009 by ABCM January 04-08, 2010, Foz do Igua?u, PR, Brazil ( ) 2 2 33 132 2 2 2 44 11 12 13 31 32 2 2 0 2 2 2 D D D D D D p p w w A c A c A zt z w I c I A c c c A Ah D z lt z...

  18. A Summer Program in Mathematics and Computer Science for Academically Oriented Students. Held in Washington, DC on June 24-July 26, 1991 (United States)


    9 a b c +i a b c +4 a b c +5, a bca a a a a a a b c a a b c a a a a a a b c a b ba a a bbca e e e b bbb b b a bba c a a a cc a b c c a b ccc c c b 2...c +a) = f(c) + f(a) a a b c ;(a) -a +a ;(b) - c +a 2 2 S~c = t + 2 bbca f~c) + b b c a a=a c= c b=b c c a b /a +b) ;(a) +(b) ;(b+ b) ;(b)+ (b) ;(C+ b

  19. In Situ Densification Utilizing a Low-Viscosity Wetting Impregnant that Greating Reduces Processing Time to Produce Uniform Density Carbon-Carbon Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Wesley


    High-performance carbon-carbon (C-C) composites possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structural uses such as in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes...

  20. Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship (FAST-SF)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1934 Section: Animal Sciences. John, C C . YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Summer Research Fellowship Programme 2018 · Focus Area Science ...

  1. A direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) study on the repair reactions of stacked thymine dimer (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Hiroshi


    DNA repair reactions of the thymine dimer (T) 2 following the hole capture have been investigated by means of direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method in order to elucidate the mechanism of repair processes of thymine dimer interacting with a photo-enzyme. The thymine dimer has two C-C single bonds between thymine rings at neutral state expressed by (T dbnd T). After the hole capture of (T dbnd T), one of the C-C bonds was preferentially broken, while the structure of (T dbnd T) + was spontaneously changed to an intermediate having a C-C single bond expressed by (T-T) +. Time scale of the C-C bond breaking and formation of the intermediate was estimated to be 60-180 fs. The mechanism of repair reactions of the thymine dimer was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  2. Page 1 38 S. A. KAGAL AND OTHERS 2:5-Dimethoxyresorcinol was ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    r O. The reaction mixture was kept in an ice-chest for 48 hours. The chef & as decanted of and the red oily ketemine hydrochloride was. Sctice with dry ether. The oil was then refluxed for 5 hours with a ve g is. * - c.c. containing a few c.c. of conc. hydrochloric acid. The. * , ; ; y res. . . . . . is , is C tiss-is is cooled and the solid ...

  3. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0 (United States)


    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  4. Observation of a Neutral Structure near the D(D)over-bar* Mass Threshold in e(+)e(-) -> (D(D)over-bar*)(0)pi(0) at root s=4.226 and 4.257 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X.C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Tiemens, M.


    A neutral structure in the D (D) over bar* system around the D (D) over bar* mass threshold is observed with a statistical significance greater than 10 sigma in the processes e(+)e(-) -> D+D*(-)pi(0) + c.c. and e(+)e(-) -> D-0(D) over bar*(0)pi(0) + c.c. at root s = 4.226 and 4.257 GeV in the BESIII

  5. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck. (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni


    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  6. Spectrophotometric and Thermal Studies of the Reaction of Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristic of the I3. – ion with C2v symmetry. .... Figure 2 Photometric titration curve for the [Ni(acac)2]-I2 system in chloroform at 361 nm. .... the absorptivity, g, and the oscillator strength, f, of the iodine complex in each solvent. The modified 1:1 Benesi-Hildebrand equation,27. C C. A. K. C. C a. 0 d. 0 a. 0 d. 0. 1. 1. = +. +.

  7. Forest River Basin, North Dakota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control and Related Purposes. Phase I. (United States)


    8217.01 C *~~~~ O v.J . i o ~- ~ ~ o~tr 00 ,.- -JI i D 01Z C) ~~I C)t la C C % )%C Jc0 - co + co~~ L4I 0+ 0 . C0 of0 .’ IntJ i 0 .- LA- *5* CE’ -’’ ILA

  8. Development and Evaluation of Carbon-Carbon Threaded Fasteners for High Temperature Applications


    Juhi Kushwaha; V. Pawan Kumar; K.H. Sinnur


    Carbon-Carbon (C-C) threaded fasteners have been developed for joining C-C composites experiencing temperature above 1500 ˚C. The fasteners were fabricated from spun yarn graphitized carbon fabric through resin route and from needle punched carbon felt through pitch route techniques. The preforms were processed with multiple cycles of impregnation, carbonisation, and graphitisation up to densities of 1.78 gcm-3 and 1.90 gcm-3. Densification process cycles were repeated to obtain compos...

  9. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a=XXXXccuh, /XXX. x C.C.S. mi.) and a; * C.C.S. m.(5). From (4) and (5) it is an easy matter to show that the values ofc. and C. which give the lowest valuesfortheeande, respectively, and therefore the best approximation to the total energy,. EsXe+Xe,. p p satisfy. , 21 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research, ...

  10. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXI. Synthesis and characterization of tetranuclear Me2N- and Me2NCH2-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion compounds (Vi2Cu4X2) containing bridging propenyl ligands. Isolation of a thermally stable mixed diarylpropenyl/arylcopper compound (Vi2Cu4Ar2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.


    Thermally stable 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds (ViCu{2}X){n} (Vi = (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)(C{6}H{4}Me-4), X = Br (n = 2) or OTf2OTf = trifluoromethanesulphonate = triflate. and Vi = (2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)(C{6}H{4}Me-4), X = Br (n = 2)) have been prepared by reaction of

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1263 sp|Q2Y2P0|CCR1_MACFA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 1; Short=C-C CKR-1; Short...=CC-CKR-1; Short=CCR-1; Short=CCR1; AltName: CD_antigen=CD191 gb|AAY56400.1| CC chemokine receptor 1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q2Y2P0 1e-179 88% ...

  12. Page 1 43O K. Venkateswara Rao and others Nierenstein's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the substance, 304-5; does not dissolve in acetone and gives a yellow colour with cold alkali; m.p. of acetate 214-17. Tectochrysin.--A Solution of chrysin (13 g) in anhydrous acetone. (100 c.c.) was refluxed with dimethyl sulphate (0.55 c.c.) and anhydrous potassium carbonate (5 g) for 6 hours. After distilling off the solvent ...

  13. Dual Inhibition And Monitoring Of Beta-amyloid Fibrillation By A Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex. (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Yuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; He, Bingyong; Liu, Li-Juan; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung


    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of the novel cyclometallated luminescent Ir(III) complex 1 bearing the C^C^C ligand as a probe and inhibitor of Aβ fibrillation. We envisage that this kinetically-inert Ir(III) complex may be potentially developed as a dual-purpose probe and inhibitor of Aβ aggregation for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -o-toluidinomethylenecamphor in Ethyl Alcohol. 27, 66. [a] = + X-0T/7; A6– 0 - 4215. E) extro Lºevo. Line A Calc. [a]. Concentra- Obs. [a] : Obs. [a] Concentra- tion = 0 G-C * o'—c = of tion g./100 c.c. g./100 c.c.. 0-4032 g. 177.32 + 0.3° Hgs, so + ...

  15. Study on Locally Confined Deposition of Si Nanocrystals in High-Aspect-Ratio Si Nano-Pillar Array for Nano-Electronic and Nano-Photonic Applications (United States)


    Crouse, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 76, pp. 49-51, 2000. 15. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu , H. C. Kuo, and S. C...54, pp. 657, 1938. 26. J. R. Yeargan and H. L. taylor, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 39, pp. 5600-, 1968. 27. Q. Y. Ye, R. Tsu , and E. H. Nicollian, Phys

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Evidence for a Nodal Energy Gap in MgB2 (United States)


    SOUND SOUND C C v v      (7) where 1,1 3, 3,C C are the elastic constants in the standard notation (dimensionality 3 ,i jC     = E...where aa is the lattice constant in the x̂ direction. In that Brillouin zone cylinder, the  Fermi- surface sheet extends over about half the

  17. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.


    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2197 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2197 sp|O97665|CCR8_MACMU RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 8; Short=C-C CKR-8; Short...=CC-CKR-8; Short=CCR-8; AltName: CD_antigen=CDw198 gb|AAC72403.1| chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] O97665 1e-96 76% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1349 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1349 sp|O97665|CCR8_MACMU RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 8; Short=C-C CKR-8; Short...=CC-CKR-8; Short=CCR-8; AltName: CD_antigen=CDw198 gb|AAC72403.1| chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] O97665 1e-131 63% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0609 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0609 sp|O97665|CCR8_MACMU RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 8; Short=C-C CKR-8; Short...=CC-CKR-8; Short=CCR-8; AltName: CD_antigen=CDw198 gb|AAC72403.1| chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] O97665 1e-166 81% ...